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Cell Mediated Immunity Involves T Lymphocytes T lymphocytes respond to :1) Body cells that have been invaded by a ___________________________

e.g. a bacterium or virus (P) 2) Cancer cells 3) Transplanted material, which is _____________________________different. T lymphocytes have _____________________________________which combine with non-self or foreign antigens that are attached to a body cell, so this type of response is called cell-mediated immunity. The receptors on each T cell respond to a single antigen i.e. it is ________________________________. It follows that there are a vast number of different types of T cell, each one responding to a ___________________________antigen. There are therefore millions of different T Lymphocytes. There are 3 main types of T lymphocyte a) _________________________ T cell b) _________________________ T cell c) _________________________ T cell

How do T lymphocytes respond to infection by a pathogen? (1) __________________________________ invade body cells or are engulfed and digested by phagocytes (e.g. a monocyte). (2) The phagocyte becomes an antigen presenting cell by presenting ______________________________ from the pathogen on its cell-surface membrane. (3) Receptors on specific helper T cells bind with the antigen on the antigen presenting cell. The receptors are _______________________________ in shape to the antigen. (4) This activates T cells specific to this antigen to divide rapidly by mitosis and form a ________________________. (5) The cloned T cells develop into: a _______________________ T cells which kill infected cells. They use perforin to breakdown the cell membrane of infected cells (6) causing lysis (7). b _______________________ T cells which stimulate B cells to divide (8). Helper T cells also stimulate phagocytes to engulf pathogens by phagocytosis c ________________________ T cells that enable a rapid response to future by the same pathogen (9).

Humoral Immunity Involves B Lymphocytes Humoral immunity involves B Lymphocytes producing antibodies in response to antigens on an invading pathogen. Antibodies are soluble proteins that circulate in the blood and tissue fluid of the body attacking antigens on invading pathogens. Humoral immunity gets it name from the Latin name for body fluids - humor. There are millions of different types of B Lymphocyte. When stimulated, each type is capable of producing a different antibody that responds to one specific antigen. When an antigen, e.g. a protein on the surface of a pathogen, enters the blood or tissue fluid, there will be one type of B Lymphocyte that has an antibody on its surface with a shape that exactly fits the antigen, i.e. they are complementary. The antibody will attach to this complementary antigen. A typical pathogen has many different antigen proteins on its surface. Some pathogens (e.g. cholera bacterium) also produce toxins. Each toxin molecule also act as an antigen. Therefore in an infection, many different B Lymphocytes, each responding to a specific antigen, are stimulated to make clones each producing a single specific antibody. How do B lymphocytes respond to infection by a pathogen? A) The surface antigens of the invading ____________________________ attach to specific fixed antibodies on the surface of B Lymphocytes. The antigens are taken up by B Lymphocytes. B) The B Lymphocytes process the antigens and _______________________________them on their surfaces. C) Activated helper T cells attach to the processed antigens on the B cells thereby __________________________ them. D) The B Lymphocytes are now stimulated to divide by _____________________________ to give a clone of specialised B Lymphocytes called plasma cells. Some memory B cells are also produced. E) The cloned plasma cells produce antibodies that are________________________________________ to the antigens on the pathogens surface. F) The antibodies attach to ________________________________ on the invading pathogen and help to destroy them. This is the primary immune response. G) The ___________________ B cells circulate in the blood for many years and will respond to future infections by the same pathogen by dividing quickly and developing into plasma cells that produce antibodies. This is the ___________________________ _________________________ _______________________. It is both more rapid and of greater intensity than the primary immune response. It ensures that a new infection is combated before it can cause any harm It is often symptomless and individuals are often totally unaware that they have ever been infected.