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MODULE 1 Meaning and significance of Research in Management, Different Approaches to research Scientific method and non scientific Methods,

, Types of research Historical studies, case studies, survey and experimental studies, criteria for good research, the manager and researcher relationship. Meaning & Definition of research Research means search for facts answers to questions and solutions to the problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. OR Research is an art of scientific investigation. It is also a systematic design, collection, analysis and the reporting the findings and solutions for the marketing problem of a company. Research is required because of the following reasons: To identify and find solutions to the problem. To help making decisions To find alternate strategies To develop new concepts

Business Research In general, business research refers to any type of researching done when starting or running any kind of business. For example, starting any type of business requires research into the target customer and the competition to create a business plan. Conducting business market research in existing businesses is helpful in keeping in touch with consumer demand. Small business research begins with researching an idea and a name and continues with research based on customer demand and other businesses offering similar products or services. All business research is done to learn information that could make the company more successful. Research methodology Research methodology refers to the analysis of principles of methods, rules and techniques. It involves the systematic study of methods which are applied to analyse a specific project or study. In order to make the research organized and to increase its reliability different methodologies are adopted. Research methodology involves the collection of theories, concepts or ideas, comparative studies to different approaches and individual methods which are conduced when a research work is performed.

Objectives of Research Promotes better decision making. Research is the basis for innovation. Research identifies the problem area. Research helps in forecasting, which is very useful for managers. Research helps in formulation of policies and strategies. Research helps in optimal utilization of resources. Research helps in evaluating marketing plans. Research helps in identifying marketing opportunities and constraints. Characteristics of Research It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. It adopts scientific method. It is objective and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. Significance of research Research is the fountain of knowledge for the sake of knowledge and an important source of providing guidelines for solving different business, governmental and social problems. It is a sort of formal training which enables one to understand the new developments in ones field in a better way. 1. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.

2 Research is treated as an aid to economic policy, which has gained added importance, both for government and business. 3. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system.

4. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. 5. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems. In addition to what has been stated above, the significance of research can also be understood keeping in view the following points: a) To those students who are to write a masters or Ph.D. thesis, research may mean careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure. b) To professionals in research methodology, research may mean a source of livelihood. c) To philosophers and thinkers, research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights. d) To literary men and women, research may mean the development of new styles and creative work. e) To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the generalizations of new theories. The search for facts may be made through either Arbitrary ( or Unscientific Method) Scientific Method Arbitrary (or Unscientific Method) It is a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. It is subjective the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination. It is a vague and inaccurate. Eg: it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat; a big snake swallows sun or moon causing solar or lunar eclipse. Scientific Method This is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method. It is objective precise and arrives at conclusion on the basis of verifiable evidences. Therefore, search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by unscientific

method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. Hence research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. Logical and systematic techniques, aims to: Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts. Analyse their sequence, interrelationships and causal explanations, Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. Research & Scientific Method Research is a scientific endeavour. It involves scientific method. The scientific method is a

systematic step by step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning. Scientific method is a means for gaining knowledge of the universe. It does not belong to any particular body of knowledge; it is universal. It does not refer to a field of specific subject of matter, but rather to a procedure or mode of investigation. Types of Research: Pure Research: It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. It is also known as basic or fundamentals of research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either a discovery of new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation to applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solutions. Eg: Einsteins theory of relativity, Newtons contributions, Galileos contributions etc... Applied Research: It is carried on to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action. It is the problem oriented and action oriented. It seeks an immediate and practical result. Through the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory. It can put theory to the test and it may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. Example:

Marketing research carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post purchase experience of customers.

To develop a new market for a product.

Exploratory Research: It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill- structured and much less focused on pre determined objective. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researchers familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies First level is the discovery of the significant variables in the situation. Second level is the discovery of relationships between variables.

Pilot Survey or Pilot Study: It is a small trial survey undertaken before the main survey. It gives a measure of efficiency of the questionnaire. It reduces the inconveniences and loss of information. It helps in introducing necessary changes. Descriptive Study: It is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program.

Diagnostic Study; It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening, and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem; its through formulation, clear cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for

collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. Experimental Research: It is designed to asses the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. Analytical Study: It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data. Hence it is also known as Statistical Method. It aims at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting the relationships. Historical Research: It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past. It is descriptive in nature. It is a difficult tasks; it must often depend upon inference and logical analysis or recorded data and indirect evidences rather than upon direct observation. The main objective of this study is to derive explanation and generalization from the past trends in order to understand the present and anticipate the future. Example: Investors in the share market study the past records or prices of shares which he/she intends to buy. Studying the share price of the particular company enables the investor to take decision whether to invest or not. CBI officers study the past records or the history of the criminals and terrorists in order to arrive at some conclusions. Survey Study: It is a fact finding study. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time. Its purpose is to provide information, explain phenomena, to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications. Research Approaches: There are two main approaches to research, they are

Quantitative approach Qualitative approach The quantitative approach involves the collection of quantitative data, which are put to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid manner. This approach further includes experimental, inferential, and simulation approaches to research. Meanwhile the qualitative approach uses the method of subjective assessment of opinions, behaviour and attitudes. Research in a situation is a function of the researchers impressions and insights. The results generated by this type of research are either in non quantitative form. Usually, this approach uses techniques like depth interviews, focus group interviews, and projective techniques. Case Study: It is a method of exploring and analysing the life of a social unit or entity, be it a person, a family, an institution or a community. The aim of case study method is to locate or identify the factors that account for the behaviour patterns of a given unit, and its relationship with the environment. The case data are always gathered with a view to attracting the natural history of the social unit, and its relationship with social factors and forces operative. The case study serves the purpose similar to the clue-providing function of expert opinion. It is most appropriate when one is trying to find clues and ideas for further research. Criteria for Good Research: Whatever may be the types of research works and studies, one thing that is important is that they all meet on the common ground of scientific method employed by them. One expects scientific research to satisfy the following criteria: (1) The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. (2) The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. (3) The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objectives as possible. (4) The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings. (5) The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully.

(6) Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis. (7) Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity. The Manager and Researcher Relationship: One of our key findings was that Researchers personnel are more likely to be creative when they have favourable relationships with their manager. Why? Because this relationship confers non-material benefits that enhance researcher creativity. Excellent relationships with managers typically yield greater autonomy for scientists and engineers. They reported more freedom to try out new ideas, undertake non-routine tasks, and even work on personal projects. They also were permitted to exchange non-proprietary information with colleagues outside the company which, in turn, fostered innovation. Successful researchers reported greater managerial support, in the form of emotional and administrative assistance, particularly for unconventional and risky projects. When they faced technical obstacles, these employees also saw their managers as more motivating and encouraging, quicker to act on paperwork and financial requests, and less likely to penalize failure. Again, we found a strong correlation between relationship quality, managerial support, and process and product innovation. Researchers personnel with excellent relationships were more committed to the organization; they reported more inner drive, higher work satisfaction, better attitudes towards innovation, and more willingness to engage in activities that would help the organization. This higher level of motivation and involvement also translated into greater creative output. Since good relationships make it physically, emotionally, and politically easier for scientists and engineers to be creative, project leaders and staff must be compatible. Researchers personnel in poorer relationships were less likely to take risks, engage in unconventional thought, and garner resources necessary to the creative process. In fact, project leaders could do little to motivate scientists and engineers who did not see their managers as allies.