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Chapter 1 The Scope and Challenge of International Marketing CHAPTER OBJECTIVE

  • 1. To understand broad picture of the global environment within which business operates today and

into the future.

  • 2. To understand how the internationalization of business and markets influence all functions of

business including marketing.

  • 3. To understand how the internationalization or globalization of markets affects future manager

regardless of where they work in business.

  • 4. To understand the scope of the international marketing task.

  • 5. To understand self-reference criterion & problems of it.

  • 6. Stages of becoming international and the international marketing concepts used in international

marketing management.

  • 7. Importance of becoming globally aware.

Important Points

  • 1. An increasingly larger share of corporate profits are generated by international operations

  • 2. Till last decade competition for the company comes from the local market only, now it is not so. It

comes from all the country

Global Perspective: Recent Events

  • 1. Information technology boom

  • 2. Enron scandals

  • 3. September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon

  • 4. Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

  • 5. International conflict among China, Taiwan, and the United States

  • 6. 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia

  • 7. Global terrorism, e.g., Indonesia, Israel, India, and Morocco

  • 8. Transcending these events, international commerce continued

Global Business Trends

  • 1. The rapid growth of the World Trade Organization and regional free trade areas, e.g., NAFTA, the

European Union, SAARC

  • 2. General acceptance of the free market system among developing countries in Latin America, Asia,

and Eastern Europe

  • 3. Impact of the Internet and other global media on the dissolution of national borders, and


Increasing globalization of markets

5. Increasing globalization of markets
  • 6. Firms face competition on all fronts

  • 7. Changing ownership structure (TATA CORUS) ,

  • 8. Saturation of Demand in certain big market eg. USA, UK & emergence of it in certain market

(China, India)

  • 9. Technology & Excess surplus

    • 10. Global peace & Dependence (No world war- 3)


―Process of planning and executing the conception pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organization goals‖

International Marketing: A Definition

―International marketing is defined as the performance of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and direct the flow of a company‘s goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit.‖

Marketing concepts, processes, and principles are universally applicable all over the world

The Difference

More than one nation, Competition, Legal constraints, Govt. Control, Ecological factors, Consumer traditions, or any uncontrollable elements.

Reasons for Internationalisation

Growth Access to new markets

Access to resources

Survival Against competitors with lower costs (due to increased access to resources)

Leveraging Key Success Factors Abroad

Follow Customers Abroad

Pursuing Diversification

Taking Advantage of Different Growth Rates of Economies

Exploiting Product Life Cycle Differences

Internationalising for Defensive Reasons

The Importance of Int’l Marketing

For US-based companies, 75% of sales potential is outside the US.

About 90% of Coca-Cola‘s operating income and 73 % of total revenue is generated outside the

US. For Japanese companies, 85% of potential is outside Japan. For German and EU companies, 94% of potential is outside Germany.

The effects of uncontrollable and controllable both in the domestic and foreign environments

  • - International marketers deals with at least two uncontrollable Elements

    • 1. Domestic

    • 2. International


As the number of international market increases: uncontrollable layer increases


Controllable elements



Domestic Uncontrollable elements

: Political & Legal, Competition, Economy, Culture &



Foreign Uncontrollable elements

: Political & Legal, Competition, Economy, Culture, Technology,

structure of distribution, Geography & infrastructure

Environmental Adaptation Needed


Differences are in the uncontrollable environment of international marketing

Firms must adapt to uncontrollable environment of international marketing by adjusting the marketing mix (product, price, promotion, and distribution)


Self-Reference Criterion (SRC) and Ethnocentrism: Major Obstacles

SRC is an unconscious reference to one‘s own cultural values, experiences, and knowledge as a basis for decisions

Ethnocentrism refers to the notion that one‘s own culture or company knows best how to do things

Both the SRC and ethnocentrism impede the ability to assess a foreign market in its true light Reactions to meanings, values, symbols, and behavior relevant to our own culture are different from those of foreign

Relying on one‘s SRC could produce an unsuccessful marketing program

Avoiding the Self Reference Criterion

To avoid SRC following steps should be followed


Define the business problem or goal in home-country cultural traits, habits, or norms


Define the business problem or goal in foreign-country cultural traits, habits, or norms. Make no

value judgments


Isolate the SRC Influence in the problem and examine it carefully to see how it complicates the



Redefine the problem without the SRC influence and solve for the optimum business goal situation*

Developing a Global Awareness

To be globally aware is to have

  • 1. Tolerant of Cultural Differences, and

  • 2. Knowledgeable of: (a) Culture, (b) History, (c) World Market Potential, (d) Global Economic,

Social and Political Trends

Stages of International Marketing Involvement

In general, firms go through five different phases in going international:

  • 1. The first phase includes those domestic firms which have no foreign business activity except those

sales made to foreign customers who come directly to the firm.

  • 2. The second phase includes domestic firms which have temporary surpluses which are sold abroad.

Therefore, sales are made on an availability basis with little or no intention for continuing market


  • 3. The third phase includes the domestic firms that have permanent productive capacity which is

utilized to produce goods which are sold on a continuing basis in foreign markets.

  • 4. The fourth phase includes the international company that produces a product for the world market.

Conditions that have led to the development of global markets

According to the Professor Levitt and others who suggest that there is a global market for goods, this phenomenon has resulted from new communications technology, travel and other factors which have led to the markets of the world being more aware of different products and processes.

As a result of this awareness, there are segments in each market who have had similar experiences and thus have common needs.

These common needs are described as a demand for high quality, reasonably priced, standardized products.

There is a strong feeling that within each country‘s market there is a growing segment that has been

exposed to ideas from around the world and thus have had their tastes and perceived needs affected. There is a strong feeling that world markets are being driven toward a converging commonality of taste and needs leading toward global markets.

Difference between a global company and a multinational company

Global company assumes there are segments across countries which have the same needs and wants and designs a standardized, high quality, reasonably priced product for those segments and markets it as if

there are no differences among the country markets‖

Multinational company operates in a number of countries and adjusts its products and marketing practices for each market. The multinational company has a specific marketing plan and adapts products for each country market. The philosophy for the multinational company is that there are cultural differences among countries that require specific adaptations for those markets‖

Difference between three international marketing concepts. Companies can be described by one of three orientations to international marketing management:

  • 1. Domestic Market Expansion Concept: (Ethnocentric) The domestic company that seeks sales extension of its domestic products into foreign


markets illustrates this orientation to international marketing. It views its international operations as secondary to and an extension of its domestic operations.


The primary motive is to dispose of excess domestic production. Domestic business is its priority and

foreign sales are seen as a profitable extension of domestic operations. While foreign markets may be vigorously pursued, the orientation remains basically domestic.


The firm‘s orientation is to market to foreign customers in the same mannerthe company markets

to domestic customers. It seeks markets where demand is similar to the home market and its domestic product will be acceptable.

This Domestic Market Expansion Strategy can be very profitable. Large and small exporting companies approach international marketing from this perspective.


  • 2. Multi-Domestic Market Concept: (Polycentric)

A company guided by this concept has a strong sense that country markets are vastly different (and they may be, depending on the product) and that market success requires an almost independent program for each country.



Firms with this orientation market on a country-by-country basis withseparate marketing strategies

for each country. Subsidiaries operate independently of one another in establishing marketing objectives and plans.


The domestic market and each of the country markets have separate marketing mixes with little interaction among them. Products are adapted for each market with minimum coordination with other country markets, advertising campaigns are localized as are the pricing and distribution decisions.

A company with this concept does not look for similarity among elements of the marketing mix that might respond to standardization.


Control is typically decentralized to reflect the belief that the uniqueness of each market requires local marketing input and control.


  • 3. Global Marketing Concept

A company guided by this new orientation or philosophy is generally referred to as a global company, its marketing activity is global marketing, and its market coverage is the world.



A company employing a Global Marketing Strategy strives for efficiencies of scale by developing a

standardized product, of dependable quality, to be sold at a reasonable price to a global market (that is,

the same country market set throughout the world).-Regiocentric & Geocentric. ·

With this orientation a company attempts to standardize as much of the company effort as is practical on a world-wide basis


Some decisions are viewed as applicable worldwide, while others require consideration of local

influences. The world as a whole is viewed as the market and the firm develops a global marketing


Three factors necessary to achieve global awareness.


Objectivity; objective in assessing opportunities, evaluating potential, and responding to problems.

Too often mistakes are made because companies are swept away with generalities and make investments only later to find out that their commitment or abilities were not sufficient to succeed,


Tolerance toward cultural differences: tolerance is understanding cultural differences and accepting

and working with others whose behavior may be different from yours,


Knowledgeable; knowledgeable about cultures, history, world market potentials, and global

economy and social trends is critical for a person to be culturally aware. To be successfully in international business and globally aware, a person needs to keep abreast of the enormous changes

occurring throughout the world.

Global orientation

―A global orientation means operating as if all the country markets in a company‘s scope of operations

(including domestic market) are approachable as a single global market and to standardize the marketing mix where culturally feasible andcost effective or to adapt the marketing mix where culturally required and cost effective‖.

Driving Forces in INT’ Market

Regional economic agreement Market need & Wants Technology Transportation & Communication Product development Cost Product quality World economic trend

Restraining Forces

Management myopia Organizational culture

National controls

Int‘l World Order Fight against Int‘l terrorism

The Dynamic Environment of International Trade

The teaching objectives of this chapter is to understand

  • 1. The basis for the reestablishment of world trade following World War II


The effects of protectionism on world trade

3. The effects of protectionism on world trade
  • 4. The seven types of trade barriers

  • 5. The provisions of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act

  • 6. The importance of GATT and the World Trade Organization

  • 7. The emergence of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group




explosion of trade and emergence of the global economy


Intensification of global competition


More emerging markets


Developments in technology allow communications with global consumers and movement of

goods The 20 th to the 21 st Century · First World War Worldwide economic depression Second world war Cold war and divide between communist-socialist-capitalist approach to economic development The Marshall Plan for rebuilding Europe





World Trade and U.S. Multinationals

  • 1. Rapid growth of underdeveloped countries and new global marketing opportunities

  • 2. Rising living standards have created marketing opportunities for U.S. firms

  • 3. Resistance over domination of U.S. multinationals

  • 4. Expropriation and domestication of U.S. investments in Latin America

  • 5. In the Europe, U.S. multinationals were controlled tightly by protectionism laws

World Trade and U.S. Multinationals

  • 1. Resurgence of competition from all over the world challenged the supremacy of American industry

  • 2. Newly industrialized countries (NICs) such as Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong experienced rapid industrialization

  • 3. Economic power evenly distributed with growth of MNCs from other countries (see Exhibit 2-2)

  • 4. Establishment of the WTO

  • 5. Integration of European Union countries

  • 6. Creation of NAFTA, AFTA, and APEC

21st Century: The First Decade and Beyond

With exception of China, slower economic growth in U.S. and other countries is currently evident. · Faster growth rates expected in developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and Russia. ·


More trade expected in emerging markets, regional trade areas, and the established markets in Europe, Japan, and U.S.

Companies need to be more efficient, improve productivity, expand global reach, and respond quickly.



Greater growth in international sales expected by smaller firms.

Globalization of the U.S. economy

America‘s involvement in the global economy has passed through two distinct periods:

A development era: during which the United States sought industrial self-sufficiency in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,


A free-trade: in the early and middle twentieth century during which open trade was linked with prosperity.


Now America has entered a third, more dangerous era: an age of global economic interdependence. The United States has shifted from relative economic self-sufficiency to global interdependence.


Differentiate among the current account, balance of trade, and balance of payments BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

―When countries trade, financial transactions among businesses/consumers of different nations occur,

Products and services are exported and imported, monetary gifts are exchanged, investments are made, cash payments are made and cash receipts received, and vacation and foreign travel occurs. In short, over

a period of time, there is a constant flow of money into and out of a country. The system of accounts that

records a nation‘s international financial transactions is called its balance of payments.‖

Main points of the definition:

  • 1. When countries trade there are financial transactions among businesses or consumers of different


  • 2. Money constantly flows into and out of a country

  • 3. The system of accounts that records a nation‘s international financial transactions is called its

balance of payments (BP)

  • 4. It records all financial transactions between a country‘s firms, and residents, and the rest of the

world usually over a year

  • 5. The BP is maintained on a double-entry bookkeeping system

“The BP is the difference between receipts and payments”

BP Receipts

Merchandise export sales.

Money spent by foreign tourists.

Transportation. Payments of dividends and interest from FDI abroad. New foreign investments in the U.S.

BP Payments

Costs of goods imported. Spending by U.S. tourists overseas. New overseas investments. Cost of foreign military and economic aid.

The BP includes three accounts:


current accounta record of all merchandise exports, imports, and services plus unilateral transfers

of funds;


capital accounta record of direct investment, portfolio investment, and short-term capital

movements to and from countries;


The official reserves accounta record of exports and imports of gold, increases or decreases in

foreign exchange, and increases or decreases in liabilities to foreign central banks;


The current account is important because it includes all international trade and service accounts, i.e., accounts for the value of all merchandise and services imported and exported and all receipts and payment from investments. The balance of trade reflected in the current account is the single most important factor in any economy.


The relationship between merchandise imports and exports is referred to as the balance of merchandise trade or trade balance. If a country exports more goods than it imports, it is said to have a favorable balance of trade; if it imports more goods than it exports, it is said to have an unfavorable balance of trade. Usually a country that has a negative balance of trade also has a negative balance of payments. Both the balance of trade and the balance of payments do not have to be negative; at times a country may have a favorable balance of trade and a negative balance of payments or vice versa.

EG. This was the case for the United States during the Korean and Vietnam Wars when there was a favorable balance of trade but a negative balance of payments. The imbalance was caused by heavy foreign aid assistance by the United States to other countries and the high cost of conducting the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

In only three years since 1970 has the United States had a favorable balance of trade. This means that for each year there was an unfavorable balance, the United States imported goods with a higher dollar value than the goods it exported. These imbalances resulted primarily from heavy U.S. demand for foreign petroleum, foreign cars, industrial machinery, and other merchandise. Such imbalances have drastic effects on balance of trade, balance of payments, and therefore, the value of local currency in the world marketplace.

The balance of payments always balance even though the balance of trade does not:

The balance of payments must always balance because the record is maintained on a double-entry bookkeeping system. In the balance of payments, debits must off-set the credits. The balance of trade

doesn‘t have to be in balance. Exports can exceed imports or vice versa or they can be in balance.

Method through which a nation can overcome an unfavorable balance of trade.

A country can overcome an unfavorable balance of trade by increasing exports or decreasing imports. Temporary aid may also result from infusions of capital, loans, or foreign aid.

Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate

  • 1. If a country‘s expenditures consistently exceed its income, its standard of living falls

  • 2. Its exchange rate vis-à-vis foreign monies declines

  • 3. When foreign currencies can be traded for more dollars, U.S. products are less expensive for foreign customers and exports increase

  • 4. Simultaneously foreign products are more expensive for U.S. buyers and the demand for imported goods is reduced

Role of price as a free market regulator

As a free market regulator, price serves as a primary variable in regulating supply and demand and aids in resource allocation. Prices that are too low deplete product supply, and prices that are too high stop consumer purchases.

―Theoretically, the market is an automatic, competitive, self-regulating mechanism which provides for the maximum consumer welfare and which best regulates the use of the factors of production.‖

-Productivity and market demand are the determinants of the standard of living differentials throughout the world as determined by the market if (theoretically) free competition exists. However, many variables pollute this ―best of all possible worlds‖ model. Government interference, cartels and other monopolistic practices, and market barriers all corrupt this market (free) system.

Protectionism: Logic and Illogic

Countries use protectionist measures to shield a country‘s markets from intrusion by foreign competition and imports.

Arguments for Protectionism include:


Infant industry theoretically this argument has a considerable degree of validity. However,

practically, the argument is carried too far. How do you determine which particular potential industries would develop a comparative advantage and be able to withstand foreign competition? When protection is a mistake, it is difficult to remove the protection. Unless there is a definite timetable, the incentive to develop increasing efficiency is weakened. This argument for tariffs has validity if it is used very carefully and controlled closely.


Protection of the home market this argument asserts that low costs of production in other

countries pauperizes American labor, and foreign goods would flood the American markets. For example, American producers would be forced to lower wage rates approximating foreign wage rates. This argument is invalid because low money wages do not necessarily mean low wage costs per unit of output. The latter is a function of two elementsmoney wage rates and the productivity of labor. Therefore, since

free trade raised productivity rather than lower it, the above argument is invalid.


Keep money at home this fallacious reasoning is based on the mercantilist identity of money and

wealth. A higher volume of money makes no direct contribution to the real income and wealth of a

country. If a country is experiencing monetary problems, central bank and fiscal policies are much more potent weapons of monetary control than is manipulation of trade balance. Therefore, this argument is invalid.


Capital accumulation a country indeed does increase capital accumulation by imposing tariffs,

but this gain is at the expense of other countries and retaliation soon follows which in the end leaves

everybody losing, including the original tariff imposer. Therefore, this argument is invalid.


Standard of living and real wage this argument is parallel to number (4), except that the

imposition of tariffs eventually leads to a lower national income and wage level due to retaliation. This argument is self-defeating and invalid.


Conservation of natural resources tariffs tend to cause extreme dependence on national resources

and, therefore, our economy actually depletes its resources more quickly than if free trade existed and other countries bought our resources. Instead of conservation, there is depletion of natural resources; therefore, this argument is invalid.


Industrialization of low wage nation quite pertinent to underdeveloped countries. However,

many times the foreign competition isn‘t the problem, but the paucity of capital and technical knowledge

are problems. The danger of tariffs for this argument lies in the fact that the wrong kind of industries will be created. The types of industries which the underdeveloped areas can economically create and maintain

are generally those which don‘t require protection on any large scale because they are based on natural

advantages. Again, this argument is valid if it is used very carefully and closely controlled.


Maintain employment and reduce unemployment this argument becomes useless upon

retaliation of other countries. The problem compounds itself. Also, if countries don‘t retaliate, there is still

a gross inefficient allocation of resources in the tariff-setting country. Alternative policies are available which would relieve unemployment at home while encouraging greater employment abroad and a larger volume of international trade. Therefore, this argument isinvalid.


National defense in particular instances there may be merit to this argument, but it

becomes invalid if applied indiscriminately. We must trade to get the proper resources and conserve ours. (See #6). If the economy weakens, the military strength weakens. ―National Security depends upon many factors, not the least of which is a community of economically healthy nations devoted to living in harmony and tied together by mutually beneficial trade.[1]

(10) Increase business size with fully employed resources, aggregate domestic production can‘t be expanded by protective tariffs; expansion in one area of the economy must be at the expense of reduced output in other fields. Tariffs tend to draw resources away from previous employments into protected industries; hence, an inefficient allocation of resources. Also some of these reallocated resources are likely to be drawn away from production of export goods. Domestic expansion would be at the expense of the export market. Therefore, this argument is invalid.

(11) Retaliation and bargaining retaliation doesn‘t recover the losses that are suffered due to foreign tariffs. Retaliation further reduces the volume of trade. Bargaining as a reciprocal tool; i.e., tariffs are raised and then offered to be lowered if the other countries will lower theirs. If the reciprocal agreement isn‘t reached, then the tariffs usually remain. These arguments are sometimes a front for other reasons for erecting tariffs. Therefore, most of the time, this argument isinvalid.

In general, protectionism contributes to industrial inefficiency and makes a nation uncompetitive

Protectionism is implemented through the imposition of trade barriers, which include tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers

The Impact of Tariff (Tax) Barriers

Tariff Barriers tend to Increase:

  • 1. Inflationary pressures

  • 2. Special interests‘ privileges

  • 3. Government control and political considerations in economic matters

  • 4. The number of tariffs they beget via reciprocity

Tariff Barriers tend to Weaken:

  • 1. Balance-of-payments positions

  • 2. Supply-and-demand patterns

  • 3. International relations (they can start trade wars)

Tariff Barriers tend to Restrict:

  • 1. Manufacturer‘ supply sources

  • 2. Choices available to consumers

  • 3. Competition

Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers

(1) Specific Limitations on Trade:

  • 1. Quotas

  • 2. Import Licensing requirements

  • 3. Proportion restrictions of foreign to domestic goods (local content requirements)

  • 4. Minimum import price limits

  • 5. Embargoes

(2) Customs and Administrative Entry Procedures:

  • 1. Valuation systems

  • 2. Antidumping practices

  • 3. Tariff classifications

  • 4. Documentation requirements

  • 5. Fees

(3) Standards:

  • 1. Standard disparities

  • 2. Intergovernmental acceptances of testing methods and standards

(4) Government Participation in Trade:

  • 1. Government procurement policies

  • 2. Export subsidies

  • 3. Countervailing duties

  • 4. Domestic assistance programs

(5) Charges on imports:

  • 1. Prior import deposit subsidies

  • 2. Administrative fees

  • 3. Special supplementary duties

  • 4. Import credit discriminations

  • 5. Variable levies

  • 6. Border taxes

(6) Others:

  • 1. Voluntary export restraints

  • 2. Orderly marketing agreements

Monetary Barriers

In addition to the Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers, monetary barriers are also used by countries

Three types of monetary barriers include:

  • 1. Blocked currency: Blockage is accomplished by refusing to allow importers to exchange its national currency for the sellers‘ currency.

  • 2. Differential exchange rates: It encourages the importation of goods the government deems desirable and discourages importation of goods the government does not want by adjusting the exchange rate. The exchange rate for importation of a desirable product is favorable and vice-versa

  • 3. Government approval: In countries where there is a severe shortage of foreign exchange, an exchange permit to import foreign goods is required from the government

The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (OTCA) 1988

  • 1. Many countries are allowed to trade freely with the United States but do not grant equal access to U.S. products in their countries.

  • 2. To ease trade restrictions, the OTCA focused on correcting perceived injustice in trade practices.

  • 3. It dealt with trade deficits, protectionism, and the overall fairness of trading partners.

The bill covers three areas for improving U.S. trade:

  • 1. market access,

  • 2. export expansion, and

  • 3. import relief

Market Access

There has been growing concern that U.S. business does not have the same access to foreign markets that foreign business has to U.S. markets. There are many barriers restricting or prohibiting goods from entering a foreign market:unnecessarily restrictive technical standards, compulsory distribution systems, customs barriers, tariffs, quotas, and restrictive licensing requirements are just a few.

The Act gives the President authority to deal with countries where specific barriers unfairly keep U.S. products from entering those countries’ markets. If a country violates a trade agreement, the President can retaliate by restricting the country’s products in U.S. markets.

Two other issues addressed under the market access section of the law are Government procurement procedures and market access to telecommunications markets.

  • 1. Foreign government procurement procedures must not discriminate against U.S. firms; if they do,

the President has the authority to impose a ban on U.S. Government procurement of goods and services

from that country.

  • 2. Deregulation and the divestiture of American Telephone and Telegraph assured foreign

telecommunications suppliers full access to the American market. By contrast, U.S. companies enjoy limited access to the major foreign telecommunications markets, most notably in Europe. The 1988 Act clearly indicates that the United States regards telecommunications market access a top priority of U.S.

trade policy and, when negotiation fails to open foreign markets, the government will take retaliatory action.

Export Expansion

In addition to making foreign markets more accessible to U.S. goods, the 1988 Act reflects on awareness that some problems with U.S. export competitiveness stemmed from obstacle for trade imposed by U.S. regulations and export disincentives.

Export controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), and export promotion were specifically addressed.

The new regulations make it easier and speed up the process for obtaining export licenses for products on the export control list.

Much of the ambiguity in the FCPA was removed by clarifying the legality of most types of payments. In

addition, the act reaffirmed the government‘s role in the promotion of export trade in general, agricultural

trade in particular, and the continued financial assistance to small businesses engaged in exporting.

Import Relief

Export trade is a two way street; that is, we must be prepared to compete with imports in the home market if we force foreign markets to open to exports. The Act provides a menu of remedies for U.S. businesses adversely affected by imports; it recognizes that foreign penetration of U.S. markets can cause serious competitive pressure, loss of market share and, occasionally, severe injury.

Measures dealing with antidumping, countervailing duty and intellectual property protection laws are designed to redress competitive advantages obtained by foreign companies through unfair trade practices. The Act also provides temporary relief from competition to firms injured by fairly traded imports.

Difference between Tokyo Round of GATT & the Uruguay Round

The Tokyo Round considered nontariff barriers as having become one of the major obstacle to international trade. Earlier rounds of negotiations by GATT members had been successful in reducing


tariffs but nontariff barriers are considered to be insidious protectionist devices and the Tokyo Round focused on the reduction of nontariff barriers. The Tokyo Round made a good start at addressing a number of nontariff barriers that have become


more serious in recent years. Despite the success of these past rounds, high tariffs have not disappeared

entirely and nontariff barriers are still widely used.

There are also areas that, until now, GATT has not addressed such as services, intellectual property rights, and investment. Specifically, GATT negotiations in this round are to address key areas of


importance in international trade which are not now under the scope of GATT rules. ·

For example, GATT rules do not apply to the international trade of services which represent an increasing percentage of international trade flows. Similarly, GATT rules have little influence over government investment policies affecting international trade or on policies concerning the protection of intellectual property rights such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Agricultural trade is another area where GATT rules either do not apply or are not effective.

Finally, the dispute settlement mechanism is seen to be increasingly ineffective at resolving conflicts among GATT members.


The impact of GATS, TRIMS, AND TRIPS on global trade.

An important objective of the United States in the Uruguay Round was to reduce or eliminate barriers to international trade in services. While there is still much progress to be made before free trade in services will exist throughout the world.

General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS):

  • 1. It is the first multilateral, legally enforceable agreement covering trade and investment in services


  • 2. It provides a legal basis for future negotiations aimed at eliminating barriersthat discriminate

against foreign services trade and deny them market access.

  • 3. Specific market-opening concessions from a wide range of individual countries were achieved and

provision was made for continued negotiations to further liberalize telecommunications and financial


Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)

  • 1. It established the basic principle that investment restrictions can be major trade barriers and

therefore are included, for the first time, under GATT procedures.

  • 2. An initial set of specific practices were prohibited including: local content requirements specifying

that some amount of the value of the investor‘s production must be purchased from local sources or

produced locally; trade balancing requirements specifying that an investor must export an amount equivalent to some proportion of imports or condition the amount of imports permitted on export levels; and, foreign exchange balancing requirements limiting the importation of products used in local production by restricting its access to foreign exchange to an amount related to its exchange inflow.

  • 3. As a result of TRIMs, restrictions which prohibit foreign firms from opening their own wholesale

or retail distribution channels can be challenged. And so can investment restrictions that require foreign- owned manufacturers to buy most of their components from high-cost local suppliers and that affiliates of foreign multinationals maintain a trade surplus in Brazil‘s favor by exporting more than they sell within.

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs):


The TRIPs agreement establishes substantially higher standards of protection for a full range of

intellectual property rights (patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, industrial designs, and semiconductor chip mask works) than are embodied in current international agreements and it provides for the effective enforcement of those standards both internally and at the border.

Evolution of world trade & the formulation of the WTO.

Since the inception of GATT, there have been eight ―rounds‖ of intergovernmental tariff negotiations.

The most recently completed was the Uruguay round which built on the success of the Tokyo Round, the most comprehensive and far-reaching round undertaken by GATT up to that time.

The Tokyo Round resulted in tariff cuts and set new international rules for subsidies and countervailing measures, anti-dumping, government procurement, technical barriers to trade (standards), customs valuation, and import licensing. While the Tokyo Round addressed non-tariff barriers, there were some areas not covered by that round which continued to impede free trade. In addition to market access, there were issues of trade in services, agriculture, and textiles; intellectual property rights; and investment and capital flows.

The Uruguay Round was begun in 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay and finally concluded in 1994. By 1995, 80 GATT members including the United States, the European Union (and it member states) Japan, and Canada had accepted the agreement.

Perhaps the most notable achievement of the Uruguay Round was the creation of a new institution as a successor to the GATT, the World Trade Organization (WTO). At the signing of the Uruguay Round trade agreement, U.S. representatives pushed for an enormous expansion of the definition of trade issues. The result was the creation of the World Trade Organization that encompasses the current GATT structure and extends it to new areas not adequately covered in the past.


The WTO is an institutionnot an agreement as was GATT. It will set the rules governing trade

between its 117 members, provide a panel of experts to hear and rule on trade disputes between members and, unlike GATT, issue binding decisions.

It will require for the first time, the full participation of all members in all aspects of the current GATT and the Uruguay Round agreements and, through its enhanced stature and scope, provide a


permanent, comprehensive forum to address the trade issues of the 21st century global market. ·

Trade disputes will be heard by a panel of experts. A panel of experts, selected by the WTO, will hear both sides and issue a decision; the winning side will be authorized to strike back with trade

sanctions if the losing country does not change its practices. While the WTO has no actual means of enforcement, international pressure to comply with WTO


decisions from other member countries is expected to force compliance. The WTO ensures that member countries agree to the obligations of all the agreements, countries, including developing countries (the fastest growing markets of the world) will undertake obligations to open their markets and to be bound by the rules of the multilateral trading system.

The Japanese keiretsu system makes it more difficult for foreign firms to enter the Japanese market. Groups of companies with no formal legal ties are joined together in a variety of ways into broad and vertical inter-company relationships. Each company within the keiretsu favors buying products from other firms in the same family. Thus, Mitsubishi Electric buys only Mitsubishi for its automobile fleet, and so on.

GATT trade rounds Year Place/name Subjects covered Countries


















Geneva (Dillon Round)




Geneva (Kennedy Round)

Tariffs and anti-dumping measures



Geneva (Tokyo Round) Tariffs, non-tariff measures, ―framework‖ agreements



Geneva (Uruguay Round)

Tariffs, non-tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO, etc



International Marketing Environment

There are a number of steps that need to be taken before you decide to enter international markets. The first step involves an analysis of the international marketing environment through a PEST/STEP analysis. Let's briefly look at some factors that make up a PEST analysis:

Political factors


The political stability of the nation. Is it a democracy, communist, or dictatorial regime?

Monetary regulations. Will the seller be paid in a currency that they value or will payments only be accepted in the host nation currency?

Economical Factors


Consumer wealth and expenditure within the country.

National interests and inflation rate.

Are quotas imposed on your product.

Are there import tariffs imposed.

Does the government offer subsidies to national players that make it difficult for you to compete?

History and GeographyThe Foundations of Culture Learning Objectives

  • 1. The Importance of History and Geography in the Understanding of International Markets

  • 2. History and Contemporary Behavior

  • 3. History is Subjective


Geography and Global Markets

5. Geography and Global Markets
  • 6. Products and Marketing

  • 7. Dynamics of Global Population Trends

  • 8. Trade Routes and Industrialization

Understanding the geography and history of a country can help a marketer have a better appreciation for many of the characteristics of its culture. A culture of a people evolves in response to the environment which it confronts.

The geography of a country, its topography, climate, physical position relative to other countries affect a culture‘s evolution including its marketing and distribution systems.

It is important for a marketer to understand that geography plays an important role in the economy of a country and its marketing system.


―History helps define a nation‘s ―mission,‖ how it perceives its neighbors, how it sees its place in the world, and how it sees itself.‖

Importance of History


The history of a country is important in understanding many aspects of a culture.


One cannot fully understand how businesspeople negotiate, how they conduct business, their

attitudes toward foreign investment, the legal system, and other aspects of the market/business system without a historical perspective. A historical perspective helps prepare an international marketer for many of the cultural differences


that often cause misunderstandings and in many cases, mistakes. While a marketer may not be able to

change a person‘s attitude or behavior, if you have an historical perspective of why they react as they do,

you can gain insights that can possibly make it easier to adapt your strategies for a successful outcome. Attitudes about the role of government and business Relations between Managers and Subordinates Sources of Management Authority Attitudes toward Foreign Corporations History and Contemporary Behavior

―To understand, explain, and appreciate a people‘s image of itself and the attitudes and unconscious fears that reflected in its view of foreign cultures, it is necessary to study the culture as it is now as well as to understand the culture as it wasthat is, a country‘s history‖

Loyalty to family, to country, to company, and to social groups and the strong drive to cooperate, to work together for a common cause, permeate many facets of Japanese behavior and have historical roots that date back thousands of years.

Understanding of history: - Helps an international marketer


To understand, explain, and appreciate a people‘s image of itself and the fundamental attitudes and

unconscious fears that are often reflected in its view of foreign cultures, it is necessary to study the culture

as it is now as well as to understand culture as it was, that is, a country‘s history.

  • 2. An awareness of the history of a country is particularly effective forunderstanding attitudes about

the role of government and business, the relations between managers and the managed, the sources of management authority, and attitudes toward foreign MNC‘s.

  • 3. History is what helps define a nation‘s ―mission,‖ how it perceives its neighbors, and how it sees its

place in the world.

  • 4. To understand a country‘s attitudes, prejudices, and fears it is necessary to look beyond the surface

or current events to the inner refinement of the country‘s entire past for clues.

Geography and International Marketing

―Geography is a study of the physical characteristics of a particular region of the earth. Involved in this study are climate, topography, and population. The interaction of the physical characteristics is one of the principal determinants of a country‘s customs, products, industries, needs, and methods of satisfying those needs‖.


Marketing is concerned with satisfying the needs of people. International marketing seeks out the

whole world as its marketplace. Therefore, for an international marketer to know how to satisfy the needs of the international market, he must be familiar enough with geography to know what the various causal

factors of the people‘s needs are.


International marketer must know that various climates and topographies do exist and that they

are vital in shaping the marketing plans that an international marketer must make. As an example, a producer selling machinery in the tropics would have to realize that special protection is needed to keep a machine running properly in hot and humid climates.


Study of geography is important in the evaluation of markets

Need to be knowledgeable about the effects of geographic diversity on the economic profiles of various nations


Climate and topography are examined as facets of the broader and more important elements of geography



Knowledge about geography, the climate and physical terrain when appraising a market

Influences marketing from product adaptation to more profound influences on the development of marketing systems



Climatic features affect uses and functions of products and equipment

Geography, Nature, and Economic Growth


Linkage exists between geographic location and economic growth


Association between landlocked countries and level of economic development


Countries with unfriendly climates associated with economic stagnation

Countries that suffer the most from major calamities are among the poorest in the world, which influences ability to market products


Social Responsibility & Environmental Management

Firms required to be socially responsible especially in foreign markets Firms should comply regulations against environmental pollution and disposal of hazardous waste Economic development and protection for the environment can coexist Sustainable development guides many governments and multinational companies today Global environment


Many view the problem as a global issue rather than a national one. One report on the global

environment stressed

. . .

―it is quite clear that a number of critical problems—the threat to the ozone

layer, the greenhouse effect, the loss of biodiversity, and ocean pollutioncannot be addressed by nations

in isolation.‖


Companies looking to build manufacturing plants in countries with more liberal pollution

regulations than they have at home are finding that regulations everywhere are becoming stricter. Many Asian governments are drafting new regulations and strictly enforcing existing ones. A strong motivator for Asia and the rest of the world is the realization that pollution is on the verge of getting completely out of control.


Neither Western Europe nor the rest of the industrialized world are free ofenvironmental damage;

rivers are polluted and the atmosphere in many major urban areas is far from clean. The very process of controlling industrial wastes leads to another and perhaps equally critical issue: the disposal of hazardous waste, a by-product of pollution control. Estimates of hazardous wastes collected annually exceed 300 million tons; the critical question is disposal that does not move the problem elsewhere.


The business community is responding positively to the notion that thefocus must be on the global

environment rather than ―the quality of the air, land, and water in our own backyards.‖ An International Chamber of Commerce Industry Forum on the environment reflected a shift in company attitudes toward environmental issues away from a reactive and largely defensive stance to a proactive and constructive

approach. Some disbeliever may dismiss such statements as ―window dressing‖ and they could be, but the

beginning of change is awareness. Responsibility for cleaning up the environment does not rest solely with governments, businesses, or activist groups. Each citizen has social and moral responsibility to include environmental protection among his/her highest goals.

Sustainable Development: Key Propositions

There is a crucial and potentially positive link between economic development and the environment

The costs of inappropriate economic policies on the environment are very high

Addressing environmental problems requires that poverty be reduced

Economic growth must be guided by prices that incorporate environmental values

Since environment problems pay no respect to borders, global and regional collaboration is sometimes needed to complement national and regional regions

Natural Resources

Importance of natural resources especially to manufacturing of products

Supply of natural resources not endless

Human labor provides the preponderance of energy in many countries

Importance of oil and gas in world energy consumption

Global Population Trends

Important to know about current population trends because people constitute markets for various categories of goods

Necessary to know about:

(1) rural/urban population shifts (2) rates of growth (3) age levels, and (4) population control (5) rural-urban migration of world population (6) population decline and aging (7) worker shortage and immigration

The world population pattern trend is shifting from rural to urban areas: Implications for international marketer

  • 1. World market is becoming more unified in location. Thus, it is becoming easier to reach a larger

segment of the market by just marketing in the urban population centers.

  • 2. The types of products marketed will also change with this population shift. For example, food might

become a more important product in international marketing with few people raising their own.

  • 3. These shifts will result in greater industrialization in countries with presently low levels of

industrialization. This again implies marketing changes that might affect the world marketer, increased sales of capital goods.

  • 4. In summary, people living in cities have different needs than those living in the country. Thus, the

shift from country to city means that the world marketer has a different market to serve with different


Basis of world trade.

  • 1. Differences in skills : The basis for world trade is the differences between countries. One of these

differences is the difference between people. Different heritages have resulted in the development of certain unique skills in the people of a country.

  • 2. Differences in economies: Another difference is the one of differing stages of economic

development existing in the world today. Some countries are highly developed and industrialized. These nations, such as the United States and France, might be trading in luxuries, whereas an underdeveloped nation, such as Kenya, might be forced to trade only in essential capital goods.

  • 3. Differences in national resources: A third difference in countries serving as a basis for world trade is

the availability of natural resources. Great Britain, poor in mineral resources, imports petroleum, where West Germany, rich in mineral resources but not food, imports large amounts of fruits and vegetables.

World Trade Routes and Communication Links

Knowledge about trade routes over land, sea, and air important in making marketing decisions The majority of world trade is among the most industrialized and industrializing countries of Europe, North America, and Asia

Need to be aware about communication linksthe underpinning of all commerce

Impact of the Internet revolution especially for global marketing of products

―World trade routes bind the world together‖. This statement means that the world trade routes serve as avenues of minimizing differences between countries. Without these routes, countries would stand alone each different from the rest in resources, economy, and people. The trade routes allow both people and products to flow, making more of a unified, balanced world. The physical imbalances overcome, also smooth, cultural and economic differences through the exchange of ideas as well as products.

Impact of telegraph, telephone, television, satellites, computer, and the Internet on international business

An underpinning of all commerce is effective communications, knowledge of where goods and services exist and where they are needed and the ability to communicate instantaneously across vast distances. Facilitating the expansion of trade have been continuous improvements in electronic communications.

First came the telegraph, then the telephone, television, satellites, the computer and the Internet. Each revolution in electronic technology has had a profound effect on human conditions, economic growth and the manner in which commerce functions.

As each ―new‖ communications technology has had its impact, new business models have been spawned

and some existing businesses re-invented to adapt to the new technology while other businesses have failed to respond and thus ceased to exist.

The Internet revolution will be no different; it too affects human conditions, economic growth, and the manner in which commerce operates. As we will discuss in subsequent chapters, the Internet has already begun to shape how international business is managed. However, as the Internet permeates the fabric of

the world‘s cultures, the biggest changes are yet to come!

Interpretation of Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine

Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine were accepted basis for U.S. foreign policy during much of the 19th and 20th centuries.

―Manifest Destiny, in its broadest interpretation, meant that Americans were a chosen people ordained by God to create a model society‖.

More specifically, it referred to the desires of American expansionists in the 1840s to extend the U.S.

boundaries from the Atlantic to the Pacific; the idea of ―Manifest Destiny‖ was used to justify U.S.

annexation of Texas, Oregon, New Mexico, and California; and later, U.S. involvement in Cuba, Alaska, Hawaii and the Philippines.

The Monroe Doctrine, a cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy, was enunciated by President James Monroe in a public statement proclaiming three basis:


no further European colonization in the New World,


abstention of the U.S. from European political affairs,


and nonintervention of European governments in the governments of the Western Hemisphere.

History and Geography: The Foundations

of Culture
of Culture

What Should You Learn?

The importance of history and geography in the understanding of international markets

The effects of history on a country‘s culture

How culture interprets events through its own eyes

How the United States moved west and how this more affected attitudes

The effect of geographic diversity on economic profiles of a country

Why markets need to be responsive to geography of a country

Economic effects of controlling population growth versus aging population

Communications are an integral part of international commerce

The importance of culture to an international marketer

The origins and elements of culture

The impact of cultural borrowing

The strategy of planned change and its consequences

History Perspective in Global Business

 History helps define a nation‘s mission - How it perceives its neighbors - How it

History helps define a nation‘s mission

- How it perceives its neighbors

- How it perceives itself

- Its place in the world

Insights into history are important for understanding current attitudes

It is necessary to study culture as it is now as well as to understand culture as it was - A country‘s history

Historically, loyalty and service, a sense of responsibility, and respect for discipline, training, and artistry were stressed to maintain stability and order

A historical perspective gives the foreigner a basis on which to begin developing cultural sensitivity and a better understanding of contemporary Japanese behavior

Geography and Global Markets

 History helps define a nation‘s mission - How it perceives its neighbors - How it
 Geography

an element of the uncontrollable environment that confronts every marketer

- Affects a society‘s culture and economy


- Physical makeup limits a nation‘s ability to supply its people‘s needs


Geography, Nature and Economic Growth

 Geography – an element of the uncontrollable environment that confronts every marketer - Affects a
  As countries prosper, natural barriers are overcome Environmental issues - Disruption of ecosystems -
As countries prosper, natural barriers are overcome
Environmental issues
Disruption of ecosystems
Relocation of people
Inadequate hazardous waste management
Industrial pollution
World Trade Routes :-
Progression of trade routesOverland
Sea routes
Air routes
The Internet
Trade routes bind world together, minimizing:
Natural barriers
Lack of resources
Fundamental differences between and economies
  • - Causing economic and social imbalances

Communication Links

1. Telegraph 2. Telephone 3. Television 4. Satellites 5. Computer 6. Internet

A prospective international marketer should be reasonably familiar with the world, its climate, and topographic differences

Geographic hurdles must be recognized as having a direct effect on marketing and the related activities of communications and distribution

Without a historical understanding of a culture, the attitudes within the marketplace may not be fully understood

The study of history and geography is needed to provide the marketer with an understanding of why a country has developed as it has rather than as a guide for adapting marketing plans

Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets

Global Perspective Equities and eBay

Culture Gets in the Way


Culture deals with a group‘s design for living

The successful marketer clearly must be a student of culture

Markets are the result of the three-way interaction of a marketer‘s

  • - Economic conditions


- Efforts


- All other elements of culture

The use of something new is the beginning of cultural change

  • - The marketer becomes a change agent

Culture’s Pervasive Impact  Culture affects every part of our lives, every day, from birth to

Culture’s Pervasive Impact

Culture affects every part of our lives, every day, from birth to death, and everything in between

- Japan the year of the Fire Horse


As countries move from agricultural to industrial to services economies‘ birthrates decline

Consequences of consumption

- Tobacco
- Tobacco

Culture not only affects consumption, it also affects production

Stomach cancer in Japan

Culture’s Pervasive Impact  Culture affects every part of our lives, every day, from birth to

Definitions and Origins of Culture

Traditional definition of culture

- Culture is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are
- Culture is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes
that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to
Humans make adaptations to changing environments through innovation
Individuals learn culture from social institutions
- Socialization (growing up)
- Acculturation (adjusting to a new culture)
- Application (decisions about consumption and production)
Definitions and Origins of Culture  Traditional definition of culture - Culture is the sum of

We All Love Flowers Why?

  • 1. Geography

  • 2. History

  • 3. Technology and economics

  • 4. Social institutions

  • 5. Cultural values

  • 6. Aesthetics as symbols

History, the Political Economy and Technology

 History
  • - Impact of specific events can be seen reflected in technology, social


institutions, cultural values, and even consumer behavior


- Tobacco was the original source of the Virginia colony‘s economic survival in

the 1600s


Political Economy

3 (Three) approaches to governance competed for world dominance (1) Fascism (2) Communism (3) Democracy/free enterprise
3 (Three) approaches to governance competed for world dominance
(1) Fascism
(2) Communism
(3) Democracy/free enterprise
- Jet aircraft, air conditioning, televisions, computers, Internet, etc.
- None more important than the birth control pill.
 History - Impact of specific events can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural

Social Institutions :-

1. Family
  • - Nepotism

  • - Role of extended family

  • - Favoritism of boys in some cultures

1. Religion
  • - First institution infants are exposed to outside the home- Impact of values systems

    • - Misunderstanding of beliefs

1. School
  • - Affects all aspects of the culture,from economic development to consumer


  • - No country has been successful economically with less than 50% literacy

1. The media
The media
  • - Media time has replaced family time

  • - TV

  • - Internet

  • - Influences the thinking and behaviors of adult citizens

  • - Propaganda

  • - Passage, promulgation, promotion, and enforce of laws

  • 1. Corporations - Most innovations are introduced to societies by companies

- Spread through media - Change agents
- Spread through media
- Change agents

Elements of Culture

 Cultural values
Cultural values
- Individualism/Collectivism Index - Power Distance Index - Uncertainty Avoidance Index - Cultural Values and Consumer
Individualism/Collectivism Index
Power Distance Index
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Cultural Values and Consumer Behavior
- Linguistic distance

- Aesthetics as symbols


- Insensitivity to aesthetic values can offend, create a negative impression, and in

general, render marketing efforts ineffective or even damaging

 Beliefs
  • - To make light of superstitions in other cultures can be an expensive mistake

Thought processes

  • - Difference in perception - Focus vs. big-picture

- Aesthetics as symbols - Insensitivity to aesthetic values can offend, create a negative impression, and
Cultural Change
Cultural Change

Dynamic in nature it is a living process

Paradoxical because culture is conservative and resists change

  • - Changes caused by war or natural disasters.

  • - Society seeking ways to solve problems created by changes in environment.

  • - Culture is the means used in adjusting to the environmental and historical components of human existence.

Cultural Borrowing  Effort to learn from others‘ cultural ways in the quest for better solutions
Cultural Borrowing
Effort to learn from others‘ cultural ways in the quest for better solutions to a society‘s particular
- Imitating diversity of other makes cultures unique
- Contact can make cultures grow closer or further apart

Habits, foods, and customs are adapted to fit each society‘s needs

Cultural Dynamics in Assessing Global Markets Learning Objectives

  • 1. The importance of culture to an international marketer

  • 2. The origins and elements of culture

  • 3. The impact of cultural borrowing

  • 4. The strategy of planned change and its consequences

What is Culture

―Culture refers to ―the human-made part of human environmentthe sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society‖


Culture is the integrated sum total of learned behavioral traits that are shared by member of society.

Culture Ways of living, built up by a group of human beings, that are transmitted from one generation to another

Culture is acted out in social institutions

Culture has both conscious and unconscious values, ideas and attitudes


Culture is both material and nonmaterial

Culture’s Pervasive Impact

Culture influences every part of our lives

Cultures impact on birth rates in Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore

Birthrates have implications for sellers of diapers, toys, schools, and colleges

Consumption of different types of food influence is culture: Chocolate by Swiss, seafood by

Japanese preference, beef by British, wines by France and Italy Even diseases are influenced by culture: stomach cancer in Japan, and lung cancer in Spain

Origins of Culture

Culture is the sum of the ―values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation‖

Culture has been conceptualized as:

  • 1. ―Software of the mind‖ culture is a guide for humans on how to think and behave; it is a problem- solving tool (Hofstede)

  • 2. An invisible barrier… a completely different way of organizing life, of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself‖ (Hall)

  • 3. A ―thicket‖ (U.S. Ambassador Hodgson)

Origins of Culture: Geography

  • 1. Geography, which includes climate, topography, flora, fauna, and microbiology, influences our social institutions

  • 2. Two researchers suggest that geography influences everything from history to present-day cultural values

  • 3. First, Jared Diamond states that historically innovations spread faster east-to-west than north-to- south

  • 4. Second, Philip Parker reports strong correlations between the latitude (climate) and the per capita GDP of countries

Origins of Culture: History

  • 1. The impact of specific events in history can be seen reflected in technology, social institutions, cultural values, and even consumer behavior

For e.g., American trade policy depended on tobacco being the original source of the Virginia colony‘s

economic survival in the 1600s

  • 2. The military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003 bred new cola brands, Mecca Cola, Muslim Up,

and Arab Cola

Origins of Culture: The Political Economy

  • 1. For most of the 20th Century three approaches to governance competed for world dominance: fascism, communism, and democracy/free enterprise

  • 2. Necessary to appreciate the influence of the political economy on social institutions and cultural values and ways of thinking

Origins of Culture: Technology


Technological innovations also impact institutions and cultural


Jet aircraft, air conditioning, televisions, computers, and the internet have all influenced culture

Arguably the greatest impact is the pill that has allowed women to have careers and freed men to spend more time with kids


Origins of Culture: Social Institutions

Social institutions including family, religion, school, the media, government, and corporations all affect culture

The family, social classes, group behavior, age groups, and how societies define decency and civility are interpreted differently within every culture

(1) Family behavior varies across the world, e.g., extended families living together to Dad washing dishes

(2) Religious value systems differ across the world, e.g., Muslims not allowed to eat pork to Hindus not allowed to consume beef

(3) School andeducation, and literacy rates affect culture and economic growth (4) Media (magazines, TV, the Internet) influences culture and behavior

(5) Government policies influence thethinking and behaviors citizens of adult citizens, e.g., the French government offers new ―birth bonuses‖ of $800 given to women as an incentive to increase family size

(6) Corporations influence culture via the products they market, e.g., MTV Elements of Culture

International marketers must design products, distribution systems, and promotional programs with due consideration to culture, which was defined as including five elements:

  • 1. Cultural values

  • 2. Rituals

  • 3. Symbols

  • 4. Beliefs, and

  • 5. Thought processes


Differences in cultural values, which is found to exist among countries, affects consumer behavior

Value - enduring belief or feeling that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct


Hofstede, who studied over 90,000 people in 66 countries, found that the cultures differed along four primary dimensions:


  • (a) Individualism/Collective Index (IDV), which focuses on self-orientation

The Individualism/Collective Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one‘s self- interest

High IDV cultures reflect an ―I‖ mentality and tend to reward and accept individual initiative Low IDV cultures reflect a ―we‖ mentality and generally subjugate the individual to the group Collectivism pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups, which protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty

  • (b) Power Distance Index (PDI), which focuses on authority orientation

The Power Distance Index measures power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system

Cultures with high PDI scores tend to be hierarchical and value power and social status

High PDI cultures the those who hold power are entitled to privileges

Cultures with low PDI scores value equality and reflect egalitarian views


Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), which focuses on risk orientation;

The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measures the tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity among

members of a society

High UAI cultures are highly intolerant of ambiguity, experience anxiety and stress, accord a high level of authority to rules as a means of avoiding risk

Low UAI cultures are associated with a low level of anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance and dissent, and a willingness to take risks


Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS), which focuses on assertiveness and achievement

  • - MasculinityMen assertive, competitive and concerned with material success and Women nurturing and welfare

  • - Femininitysocial role of men and women overlap with neither gender exhibit overly ambitious or competitive behavior i.e. Japan and Austria.

    • 2. Elements of Culture: Rituals, and Symbols

Rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are learned and repeated vary from country to country, e.g., extended lunch hours in Spain and Greece

Language as Symbols: the ―languages‖ of time, space, things, friendships, and agreements

French attempting to preserve the purity of their language

In Canada, language has been the focus of political disputes including secession

Differences in language vocabulary varies widely

Aesthetics as Symbols: the arts, folklore, music, drama, and dance of a culture influences marketing

Fractured Translations

English Translations made by Japanese firm that were added to labels to increase prestige for their products being sold in China

  • 3. Elements of Culture: Beliefs and Thought Processes

Beliefs, which stem from religious training, vary from culture to culture

Eg : The western aversion to the number 13 or refusing to walk under a ladder

Japanese concern about Year of the Fire Horse

The Chinese practice of Feng Shui in designing buildings Belief - an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds to be true about the world

Thought processes also vary across cultures: eg: ―Asian and Western‖ thinking

In summary, marketers must consider larger cultural consequences of marketing actions

Factual versus Interpretive Cultural Knowledge

There are two kinds of knowledge about cultures both of which are necessary

Factual knowledge is usually obvious and must be learned, e.g., different meanings of colors, and different tastes; it deals with a facts about a culture

Interpretive knowledge is the ability to understand and appreciate the nuances of different cultural traits and patterns, e.g., the meaning of time, and attitudes toward people

Interpretive knowledge requires a degree of insight It is dependent on past experience for interpretation It

is prone to misinterpretation if one‘s SRC is used

Cultural Change and Cultural Borrowing

International marketers should appreciate how cultures change and accept or reject new ideas How cultures change, e.g., war (changes in Japan after World War II) or by natural disaster Hofstede has shown that consumers‘ acceptance of innovations varies across cultures – innovation was associated with higher individualism (IDV), and lower power distance (PDI) and uncertainty avoidance (UAI)

International marketers should be aware the extent to which cultures borrow ideas and learn from other cultures

Helps in the marketing of products from one culture to a different culture

Resistance to Change

Cultures change gradually with resistance to changes. The resistance varies inversely with the interest a society has in the change. Culture doesn‘t resist change if the product is a status-valued imported item, a fashion item, or is given the advantage of inferior feelings about local products. Marketers can expect resistance to their products, with greater resistance to those products with the greatest deviation from the cultural norm or status quo.

Examples of cultures that resist change:

  • 1. Working women in Masculine societies like Saudi Arabia

  • 2. Acceptance of genetically modified foods (or ―Frankenfood‖) in Europe

Planned and Unplanned Cultural Change

Cultures that are resistant to change represent a major hurdle in marketing products

Cultural change can be accomplished by:

First, determine which cultural factors conflict with an innovation, thus creating resistance to its acceptance

Second, change those factors from obstacles to acceptance into stimulants for change

Third, marketers can cause change by introducing an idea or product and deliberately setting about to overcome resistance and to cause change that accelerates the rate of acceptance

Firms can use a strategy of planned change by deliberately changing those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals, e.g., introducing western foods and baseball into Japan

Three cultural change strategies

There are three strategies.

  • (a) Culturally congruent strategy: The culturally congruent strategy involves marketing products similar

to ones already on the market in a manner as congruent as possible with existing cultural norms, thereby minimizing resistance.

  • (b) Strategy of unplanned change: A strategy of planned change means deliberately setting out to change

those aspects of a culture most likely to offer resistance to predetermined marketing goals.

  • (c) Strategy of planned change. The strategy of unplanned change consists of introducing an innovation

and then waiting for an eventful cultural change that will permit the culture to accept the innovation.

The essence of unplanned change lies in the fact that the marketer does nothing to accelerate or help to bring about the necessary change where the marketer deliberately sets about to overcome resistance and to cause change that will accelerate the rate of adoption of his product or innovation.

Importance / Marketing Implications of culture


A successful marketer must be a student of culture. Culture is pervasive in all marketing activities

1. A successful marketer must be a student of culture. Culture is pervasive in all marketing

in pricing, promotion, channels of distribution, product, packaging, and styling

  • 2. Understanding culture can determine success or failure in international marketing

  • 3. Universal aspects of the cultural environment represent opportunities to standardize elements of a

marketing program

  • 4. The importance of ―cultural empathy‖ to the foreign marketer is that being culturally sensitive

allows him or her to objectively see, evaluate, and appreciate another culture. A marketer can obtain cultural empathy by studying the culture and living with it. The latter is not always possible, and it may be expedient to hire natives who speak your tongue and their own. This procedure will often give you the

intuition which is necessary for success.

  • 5. Markets are the result of the triune interaction of a marketer‘s efforts, economic conditions, and all

other elements of the culture.‖: This statement emphasizes the point that markets evolve out of the

interrelationship of three major factors. They are a marketer‘s efforts, economic conditions and all the other elements of the culture. Marketers are constantly in the process of adjusting their efforts to cultural demands of the market, but they are also agents of change whenever the product or idea being marketed is innovative. Whatever the degree of acceptance and whatever level of culture, the use of something new is the beginning of cultural change and the marketer becomes a change agent. This statement is important because it emphasizes the fact that the marketer is not a passive influence in a culture and that, while the marketer attempts to react to cultural demands, in so doing the marketer also influences cultural change.

  • 6. Resistance to cultural change will affect new product introduction in the respect that the greatest

resistance will confront products which are farthest from the status quo, but this resistance can be lowered

by gaining public interest. Lowering resistance in this situation means shortening the duration of the resistance. Domestic marketing is subject to the same resistance to change. Examples of this resistance in the domestic market are the introduction of contact lenses and using motorcycles as an acceptable means of recreation.

  • 7. Understanding troublesome problems caused by language in foreign market: differences in tongues,

the idiomatic interpretations mean something different

  • 8. Improved communications have contributed to a convergence of tastes and preferences in a number

of product categories

High Context

Information resides in context

Emphasis on background, basic values

Less emphasis on legal paperwork

Focus on personal reputation

Saudi Arabia, Japan

Low Context Messages are explicit and specific Words carry all information Reliance on legal paperwork

Focus on non-personal documentation of credibility


Switzerland, US, Germany

  • 9. Marketer as a change agent

Whether or not the marketer is aware of it, he assumes the role of a change agent when he introduces into another culture new ideas or new products requiring some form of change in behavior for acceptance and use of the new idea or product. The international marketer must concern himself with the impact of his actions upon the new culture.

Cultural Factors of various countries

  • 1. Never touch the head of a Thai or pass an object over it

The head is considered sacred in Thailand.

  • 2. Avoid using triangular shapes in Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan. It is considered a negative shape.

  • 3. The number 7 is considered bad luck in Kenya, good luck in the Czech Republic and has a magical

connotation in Benin.

  • 4. The number 10 is bad luck in Korea.

  • 5. The number 4 means death in Japan.

  • 6. Red represents witchcraft and death in many African countries.

  • 7. Red is a positive color in Denmark.

Cultural analysis for a potential market: Steps to be followed

  • a. Material Culture

    • 1. Technology – the techniques and ―know-how‖ of producing material goods.

    • 2. Economics the employment of capabilities and the results.

      • b. Social Institutions

        • 1. Social organizations family life, status, age.

        • 2. Education literacy and intelligence and how informed the public is.

        • 3. Political structures control over business.

          • c. Man and the Universe

            • 1. Belief systems how do these affect product and promotional acceptance?

              • d. Aesthetics

                • 1. Graphic and plastic arts degree of modernization.

                • 2. Folklore superstition, tradition, etc.

Innovations: functional or dysfunctional.

The consequences of diffusion of an innovation may be functional or dysfunctional depending on whether the effects of the social system are desirable.

A dysfunctional innovation is one where the effects within the social system are undesirable.

A functional innovation is one where the effects within the social system are desirable (ie. there would be no dysfunctional consequences).

Eg. The introduction of condensed milk to the diet of babies in underdeveloped countries where protein deficiency is a health problem. On the surface it would appear that the consequences of the addition of condensed milk to the diet would result in better nutrition and health, stronger and faster growth, etc. However, evidence tends to indicate that in at least one situation there were dysfunctional consequences of the innovation. Instead of health benefits, a substantial increase in dysentery, diarrhea, and a high infant mortality rate resulted.

The Critical Concern Political Environment on Business

The critical concern Political environment has a very important impact on every business operation no matter what its size, its area of operation. Whether the company is domestic, national, international, large or small political factors of the country it is located in will have an impact on it. And the most crucial & unavoidable realities of international business are that both host and home governments are integral partners. Reflected in its policies and attitudes toward business are a governments idea of how best to promote the national interest, considering its own resources and political philosophy. A government control's and restricts a company's activities by encouraging and offering support or by discouraging and banning or restricting its activities depending on the government. Here steps in international law. International law recognizes the right of nations to grant or withhold permission to do business within its political boundaries and control its citizens when it comes to conducting business. Thus, political environment of countries is a critical concern for the international marketer and he should examine the salient features of political features of global markets they plan to

Requirement #6:

What are six important functions of your national government? Explain how these

functions affect your family and local community.

| |After the Revolutionary War, the commanding officer, George Washington, relinquished his power

encouraged the drafting of a new


| |Constitution.

This was one of the first instances of a leader stepping down so that the people could

decide their own future and | |destinies. | |The preamble to the U.S. Constitution lists six functions of government:



| | |1. To form a more perfect Union - The national government will be

The International Legal Environment

by SREE RAMA RAO on FEBRUARY 7, 2010 The Pajama Caper:

The controversy arose over a US embargo forbidding US business to trade with Cuba and concerned whether or not the embargo could be enforced in Canada. Wal-Mart was selling Cuban made pajamas in Canada. When Wal-Mart officials in the United States became aware of the origin of manufacture, they issued an order to remove all the offending pajamas because it is against US law (the Helms Burton Act) for a US company or any of its foreign subsidiaries to trade with Cuba. Canada was incensed at the intrusion of US law on Canadian citizens. The Canadians felt they should have the choice of buying Cuban made pajamas.

Wal-Mart was thus caught in the middle of conflicting laws in Canada and the United States and Canada US foreign policy feud over the extra territoriality of US law. Wal-Mart Canada would be breaking US law if it continued to sell the pajamas, and it would be subject to a million dollar fine and possible imprisonment of its managers. However, if the company pulled the pajamas out of Canadian stores as the home office ordered, it would be subject to a $ 1.2 million fins under Canadian law. After discussion with Canadian authorities, Wal-Mart resumed selling the pajamas. Canada was upset with the United States for attempting to impose its laws on Canadian companies (Wal-Mart Canada is a subsidiary of Wal-Mart US) while the United States says that Wal-Mart was violating its laws in not abiding by the boycott with Cuba. The situation illustrates the reality of the legal environment and international marketing companies are subject to both home country laws and host country laws when doing business in another country. The federal government finally settled with Wal-Mart in 2003 and the pajama caper was finally closed.

How would you like to play a game where the stakes were high and there are no standard set of rules to play by the rules. Rules changed whenever a new player entered the game, and when a dispute arose, the

referee used the other players‘ rules to interpret who was right? This fairly well describes the international

legal environment. Because no single, uniform international commercial law governing foreign business transactions exists, the international marketer must pay particular attention to the laws of each country within which it operates. An American company doing business with a French customer has to contend with two jurisdictions (United States and France) two tax systems, two legal systems and a third super national set of European Union laws and regulations that may override French commercial law. The situation is similar when doing business in Japan, Germany, or any other country. Laws governing business activities within and between countries are an integral part of the legal environment of international business.

The legal systems of different countries are so disparate and complex that it is beyond the scope of this text to explore the laws of each country individually. There are, however, issues common to most international marketing transactions that need special attention when operating abroad. Jurisdiction dispute resolution intellectual property, the extraterritoriality of US laws, cyber law, and associated problems are in this article to provide a broad view of the international legal environment. Although space and focus limit an in-depth presentation the material presented should be sufficient for the reader to conclude that securing expert legal advice is a wise decision when doing business in another country. The foundation of a legal system profoundly affects how law is written, interpreted and adjudicated. The place to begin is with a discussion of the different legal systems.

Chapter 8 Developing a Global Vision Through Marketing Research

Saturday, October 1, 2011 6:58:56 PM


What Should You Learn? The importance of problem definition in international research The problems of availability and use of secondary data Quantitative and qualitative research methods Multicultural sampling and its problems in less developed countries Sources of secondary data How to analyze and use research information

Global Perspective Japan Test Market for the World - Text: P.215 Enterprises with international scope of operations

Need for current, accurate information magnified

Marketing research

The systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data to provide information useful in marketing decision making

International marketing research involves two complications

Information must be communicated across cultural boundaries The environments within which the research tools are applied are often different in foreign markets

Breadth and Scope of International Marketing Research-Text: P.217 Types of information needed by research

General information about the country, area, and/or market Information to forecast future marketing requirements >By anticipating social, economic, consumer, and industry trends within specific markets or countries Specific market information used to make and develop marketing plans >Product >Promotion >Distribution >Price decisions

Unisys Corporation’s planning steps for collecting and assessing the following types of information

  • 1. Economic

  • 2. Cultural, sociological; and political climate

  • 3. Overview of market conditions

  • 4. Summary of the technological environment

  • 5. Competitive situation

Emerging markets

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Emerging markets are nations with social or business activity in the process of rapid growth and industrialization. The economies of China and India are considered to be the largest. [1] According to The Economist many people find the term outdated, but no new term has yet to gain much traction. [2] Emerging market hedge fund capital reached a record new level in the first quarter of 2011 of $121 billion. [3] The seven largest emerging and developing economies by either nominal GDP or GDP (PPP) are China, Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico, Indonesia, and Turkey.

The ASEANChina Free Trade Area, launched on January 1, 2010, is the largest regional emerging market in the world



Emerging Markets Consultants offers a wide range of real estate services, including:

Real estate acquisition Real estate disposition / disposal Location analysis Market entry reporting Portfolio restructuring Ownership / financing advisory Financial modelling Capital markets Feasibility and risk studies Programme management Valuation / appraisal Corporate workplace standards Design/programming analysis

Sectors covered include:




Serviced offices








Data centres


High street retail Shopping malls Residential - villas and apartments Hotels and hospitality Leisure Land

Opportunity outlook and impact

Our survey found indications of the growing importance of this opportunity in several nations and sectors.

Geographic view

This opportunity ranked, in relative terms, highest for executives in Russia and China, perhaps reflecting the fact that many companies in these markets are focused on rapid growth and international expansion.

M&A opportunities are seen as rising in the majority of geographies surveyed. In five of the six sectors we looked at, (M&A has less relevance for the public sector, aside from state-owned enterprises), M&A was expected to have potentially greater impact as a strategic initiative in 2013 than today.

Sector perspective

Executives in life sciences and retail gave this opportunity a great relative priority than other sectors. However, life sciences may feel that efforts to "buy in" innovation have reached a peak.

High street retail Shopping malls Residential - villas and apartments Hotels and hospitality Leisure Land OpportunityMergers and acquisitions Obstacles to success The most frequently mentioned barriers to M&A opportunities include: 1. A lack of organizational experience 2. A lack of perceived value. These perceived challenges were highest among health care organizations, although this may reflect lower use of M&A in that sector. We also found that executives from the BRICs and the Middle East perceive significantly more barriers to M&A than respondents in Europe and the US. This may well reflect a lack of experience among fast-growing companies in developing countries that have historically relied upon organic growth. " id="pdf-obj-44-21" src="pdf-obj-44-21.jpg">

Obstacles to success

The most frequently mentioned barriers to M&A opportunities include:

  • 1. A lack of organizational experience

  • 2. A lack of perceived value.

These perceived challenges were highest among health care organizations, although this may reflect lower use of M&A in that sector.

We also found that executives from the BRICs and the Middle East perceive significantly more barriers to M&A than respondents in Europe and the US. This may well reflect a lack of experience among fast-growing companies in developing countries that have historically relied upon organic growth.

<a href=Challenges to mergers and acquisitions, as reported by organizations surveyed " id="pdf-obj-45-3" src="pdf-obj-45-3.jpg">

Responding to the opportunity

We found that the two most frequently reported factors enabling M&A success were:

  • 1. The use of M&A deals as part of a strategy to enter new product or service markets

  • 2. Continuous and systematic searching for opportunities, based on a defined target profile

<a href=Factors enabling mergers and acquisitions, as reported by organizations surveyed " id="pdf-obj-45-18" src="pdf-obj-45-18.jpg">

Sector strategies

The health care sector was significantly less likely to report that M&A opportunities were a key part of their strategy for growth.

Banking was the least likely sector to be currently considering M&A opportunities.

2 in 10 power and utilities companies surveyed were currently evaluating a specific merger or acquisition opportunity twice as high as companies across all sectors.

Geographic approaches


A relatively high proportion of BRIC organizations were currently monitoring the market for acquisition

opportunities. In India, 6 out of 10 respondents expressed interest. Organizations in the major continental European economies were also active in monitoring markets for

opportunities. In the US and UK, only 1 in 10 organizations surveyed were actively seeking to benefit from this strategic initiative.

Organizations' responses to M&A

<a href=Challenges to mergers and acquisitions, as reported by organizations surveyed Responding to the opportunity We found that the two most frequently reported factors enabling M&A success were: 1. The use of M&A deals as part of a strategy to enter new product or service markets 2. Continuous and systematic searching for opportunities, based on a defined target profile Factors enabling mergers and acquisitions, as reported by organizations surveyed Sector strategies  The health care sector was significantly less likely to report that M&A opportunities were a key part of their strategy for growth.  Banking was the least likely sector to be currently considering M&A opportunities.  2 in 10 power and utilities companies surveyed were currently evaluating a specific merger or acquisition opportunity — twice as high as companies across all sectors. Geographic approaches  A relatively high proportion of BRIC organizations were currently monitoring the market for acquisition  opportunities. In India, 6 out of 10 respondents expressed interest. Organizations in the major continental European economies were also active in monitoring markets for  opportunities. In the US and UK, only 1 in 10 organizations surveyed were actively seeking to benefit from this strategic initiative. Organizations' responses to M&A " id="pdf-obj-45-72" src="pdf-obj-45-72.jpg">

Public-private partnership (PPP) is the tenth and final opportunity on the ladder. However, on average across all respondents, the impact of this opportunity is expected to rise over time.

Opportunity outlook and impact

Sector perspective

This opportunity earns a place in the top 10 as a result of its high relevance in a few sectors. It was given relatively high priority by the public administration executives we surveyed.

In health care, it ranked as one of the top five opportunities, with the expectation that the opportunity will grow in impact over the next few years.

Retail and oil and gas were likely to report that their firms did not focus on PPPs.

Geographic view Firms in the US were the most open to and confident in, exploiting this opportunity.

Firms located in India are also increasingly well positioned to benefit from PPPs, perhaps a legacy of frequent interaction between the government and private sector during the era of central planning.

<a href=Public-private partnership " id="pdf-obj-46-51" src="pdf-obj-46-51.jpg">

Obstacles to success


Power and utilities and life sciences firms in particular cite a range of operational barriers to success, including:

Conflicting objectives


A lack of experience on both sides

A mismatch between the cultures of the public and private sectors

<a href=Challenges to private-public partnership, as reported by organizations surveyed " id="pdf-obj-46-85" src="pdf-obj-46-85.jpg">

Responding to the opportunity

Our survey underlined the critical importance, for firms looking to profit from PPP opportunities, of investing resources in building relationships at local and national government levels.

Two significant factors in enabling success include:

  • 1. A history of cooperative relationships with the public sector

  • 2. A perceived strategic advantage in enhancing cooperation

These factors were commonly reported by executives in all sectors, but particularly in health care and banking.

<a href=Factors enabling public-private partnership, as reported by organizations surveyed " id="pdf-obj-46-105" src="pdf-obj-46-105.jpg">

Sector strategies

Power and utilities firms were likely to report that their efforts to benefit from PPPs had faced serious challenges. Nearly 40% of power and utilities firms reported that measures to take full advantage of this opportunity were needed, but not yet implemented.

Geographic approaches

The proportion of organizations reporting previous PPP success and exploring future collaborations was particularly low in Germany and the UK and particularly high in China and Brazil.

Executives in India and Poland were more likely to report that authorities in their countries were increasingly interested in PPP.

Organizations' responses to public-private partnership

 Power and utilities firms were likely to report that their efforts to benefit from PPPs

Percentage reporting that they have no interest in public-private partnership, by sector

 Power and utilities firms were likely to report that their efforts to benefit from PPPs

Global Marketing Management Planning and Organization

Globalization is a term used to describe a point in time when a organization creates its products to match the consumers needs on a global scale. It also requires marketing across several different key countries across the world. The marketing part of this is to establish the brand‘s awareness, global consumers, and creating a marketing campaign appropriate for each area.

Not every organization should think about going worldwide and steps should be taken before even considering such a task. The age, location, values, and other things in the area are key in producing profit. The product should take steps to adapt to the taste of the consumer in that area. For example Coca-Cola uses 2 different recipes (sugar or corn syrup) for every market. Also they change the logo on the bottles to match that countries primary language.

Accomplishing global marketing management planning and organization seems like an impossible task but is well worth the reward.

International Retailing - Meaning and Important Concepts

nternational trade and commerce has existed for centuries and played a very important part in the World History. However International Retailing has been in existence and has gained ground in the past two to three decades. The economic boom in several countries, coupled with globalization have given way to Organisations looking at setting up retailing across borders. The advent of internet and multimedia has further changed the dimensions as far as International Retailing is concerned.

Who are the International Retailers

When you think of International Retailers the names that come to one‘s mind would be the

Wal-Mart, Gucci, Ralph Lauren, Mango, GAP etc. All of these are International Retailers. However we can broadly classify the International Retailers under two categories. The first category would be the global grocery retailers and the second category belongs to the International fashion Brands.

International Grocery Retailers

The Companies namely Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Metro, Tesco and Ahold etc are the leading international grocery retailers who have multi country presence. Major portion of their total revenue comes from foreign sales. Wal-Mart operates in over 8,500 stores in 15 countries with foreign sales contributing to 18% of its $405,046 billion net sales (2000). Carrefour, a French international retailer has presence in 32 countries with foreign sales amounting to over 48% of its net sales.

These international grocery retailers follow a multi brand and multi product business format which includes all products like food encompassing all types of fresh vegetables, fruits, juices, chocolates etc, fashion and clothing including bed linen etc, grocery, all types of branded consumables, as well as liquor and many more household goods under one roof. They generally follow a format that allows for selling to whole sellers, retailers as well as general public at the mega stores.

Traditionally these International Grocery Retailers have operated mainly in US and in Europe. Specifically in Europe the largest markets have been in Germany, France and UK. With globalisation and with several countries opening their markets to FDI in retail, these Organisations are moving into other parts of the world and into emerging markets.

There is yet another group of International retailers like IKEA, Lego, Toys ‗R‘Us etc who have chosen to focus and specialise in a particular segment like furniture etc.

International Fashion Retailing

Names like Ralph Lauren, Gucci, Zara, Hugo Boss, JC Penny, Benetton, Jimmy Choo, Swarovski, Dolce & Gabbana etc belong to the second category of International Fashion Retailers. Originally these Companies catered to domestic markets in the countries of their origin. Fashion and Luxury brands have always been known by their label and brand value across countries, through word of mouth and sought after by the rich and famous from all over. Over the years, these companies have realised the opportunity in expanding their product mix and promoting their brands internationally. Thus we see the emergence of international fashion brands, luxury product brands dealing exclusively with branded clothing including sportswear, casual and formal wear, party wear, foot ware and accessories, luxury items including watches, perfumes, jewellery and many more items of personal use.

In the earlier times, the nova rich and the business class were the main customers who sourced these branded products from abroad. However in the recent times we see the educated and economically empowered youth demanding fashion and going in for branded items. International brands have thus established a niche for themselves in domestic markets aided by the increasing demand for branded fashion products. International grocery retailers have expanded their business in emerging markets by virtue of their investments and procurement strategies.

The Global Advertising &Promotion Efforts

In this case , obviously spot advertising becomes the main promotional vehicle

Both strategies are useful in reaching global markets , if the sporting event is big enough . Viewers ' passion for their sports teams and athletes can run very deep . In addition , sports is seen as having universal appeal and , at least with its focus on individual achievement is apolitical and safe in that it does not raise controversial issues of social power and inequity ( Jacobson and Mazur , 1995 , 111 . Countries importing sports images may find these images less objectionable and culturally imperialistic

than American movies or TV situation comedies One U .S . media executive concluded about global sports that "If you are a foreign country worried about importing American ideology , the safest thing you can buy is sports programming and Disney ( Hofmeister and Hall , 1995 , A12

The Olympics have become an especially powerful form of global sponsorship and advertising . Despite the amateur connotation of the Games , the modern Olympics have literally always been accepting of advertisers ' advances . The program for the 1896 Games featured an ad for Kodak and Coca-Cola began its association with the Games in 1928 Stotlar , 1993 , 35

The commercialism of the Olympics took a geometric leap forward with the 1984 Los Angeles Games , however . That year the Games turned a 1 billion deficit that the 1976 Montreal Games experienced into a 215 million profit (Manning , 1987

The change in fortunes was not achieved by decreasing the expensive spectacle of the Games , but by bringing in more sponsorship revenue . But there was a promotional price to be paid for that additional money . The depth and breadth of involvement by sponsors in the Games significantly increased in Los Angeles in 1984 and this involvement was even more visible in Barcelona in 1992

Corporations could choose to sponsor various elements ...

Scope and Importance of Personal Selling

In the US, 14 million people are employed in sales positions, according to the department of labor. Sales personnel include stockbrokers, manufacturing sales representatives, real estate brokers etc. Most students in this class will have been employed as a sales person.

Nature of Personal Selling

Gives marketers:

The greatest freedom to adjust a message to satisfy customers informational needs, dynamic.

Most precision, enabling marketers to focus on most promising leads. vs. advertising, publicity and sales

promotion Give more information

Two way flow of information, interactivity.

Discover the strengths and weaknesses of new products and pass this information on to the marketing

department. Highest cost. Businesses spend more on personal selling than on any other form of promotional mix.

Goals range from


finding prospects


convincing prospects to buy


keeping customers satisfied--help them pass the word along.

Types of Sales Persons

Order Takers


Seek repeat sales, make certain that customers have sufficient product quantities where and when they need it. Do not require extensive sales effort. Arrange displays, restocks them, answer phone calls. Low compensation, little training required. High turnover of personnel. 2 types:


Inside Order Takers receive orders by mail/phone, sales person in a retail store.


Field Order Takers travel to customers. Use laptop computers to improve tracking of inventory and orders etc.

Order Getters


Sell to new customers and increase sales to present customers, sometimes called creative selling. Generate customer leads, provide information, persuading customers and closing sales. Required for high priced, complex and/or new products. High pressure, requires expensive, time consuming training.

Support Personnel

Facilitate the selling function. Primarily business to business products.


Missionary Salespeople Distribute information regarding new goods or services, describes


attributes and leaves materials, does not close sales. Assist producers' customers in selling to their own customers. IE call on retailers and persuade them to carry the product. Pharmaceuticals may go to doctors offices and persuade them to carry their products. Trade Salespeople May perform order taking function as well. Spend much time helping


customers, especially retail stores, to promote the product. Restock the shelves, set up displays. Technical Salespersons Offer technical assistance to current customers. Usually trained engineers etc. Service Salespeople interacts with customers after sale is complete.



team of selling professionals in selling to and servicing major customers, especially

when specialized knowledge is needed to satisfy different interests in customers' buying centers.

Elements of the Personal Selling Process

No 2 salespersons use exactly the same sales method, but it is generally a seven step process:

  • 1. Prospecting and Evaluating Seek names of prospects through sales records, referrals etc., also responses to advertisements. Need to evaluate if the person is able (Undergraduate degree to attend a graduate program), willing and authorized to buy. Blind prospecting-rely on phone directory etc. Return to Contents

  • 2. Preapproach (Preparing) Review key decision makers esp. for business to business, but also family


assess credit histories


prepare sales presentations


identify product needs.

Helps present the presentation to meet the prospects needs.

  • 3. Approaching the Customer Manner in which the sales person contacts the potential customer. First impression of the sales person is Lasting and therefore important. Strive to develop a relationship rather than just push the product. Can be based on referrals, cold calling or repeat contact. Return to Contents

  • 4. Making the Presentation Need to attract and hold the prospects Attention to stimulate Interest and stir up Desire in the product so the potential customer takes the appropriate Action. AIDA Try to get the prospect to touch, hold or try the product. Must be able to change the presentation to meet the prospect needs. Three types of presentations:


Stimulus Response Format: Appropriate stimulus will initiate a buy decision, use one appeal after

another hoping to hit the right button


Clerk @ McDonald's "Would you like fries with


your burger?" Formula Selling Format: (Canned Sales Presentation) memorized, repetitive, given to all

customers interested in a specific product. Good for inexperienced sales people. Better with heavily advertised items that are presold. Telemarketing a credit card!!


Need Satisfaction Format: Based on the principal that each customer has a different set of needs/desires., therefore the sales presentation should be adapted to the individual customer's needs, this is a key advantage of personal selling vs. advertising. Sales person asks questions first, then makes the presentation accordingly. Need to do homework, listen well and allow customers to talk etc. Must answer two types of questions:

  • for more information

  • overcome objections.

Overcoming Objections

Seek out objections and address them. Anticipate and counter them before the prospect can raise them.

Try to avoid bringing up objections that the prospect would not have raised. Price objection is the most common Need to provide customers with reasons for the $s, build up the value before price is mentioned Must be convinced of price in own mind before you can sell to customer. Get budget info. on buyer before you try to sell, and must know what they want, must sell service on top of product augmented product--to create value!! Must know value of product, provide warranties etc.!!

  • 5. Closing Ask prospect to buy product/products. Use trial closes, IE ask about financial terms, preferred method of delivery. 20% sales people generally close 80% sales., Avon, over 1/2 US $1.4 bn business from 17% of 415,000 SRs. Need to be prepared to close at any time. The following are popular closing techniques:


Trial Close (Minor decision close)


Assumptive close (Implied consent close)


Urgency close


Ask for the sale close

If prospect says no, they may just need more reasons to buy!!

  • 6. Following Up Must follow up sale, determine if the order was delivered on time, installation OK etc. Also helps determine the prospects future needs. Accomplishes four objectives:


customer gain short term satisfaction


referrals are stimulated


in the long run, repurchase


prevent cognitive dissonance

Old school, sell and leave!!--Quickly before customer changes her mind!! Now:



Stay a few minutes after sale--reinforce, make them feel good, made wise choice, leave small gift (with co. name on it!!), call office at any time etc!!

Follow up, reinforce, know birthdays, new year etc, friendly correspondence building!!






Calling In Japan's Car Market

Half of cars are sold door-to-door. This is shrinking due to environmental changes. Toyota has more than 100,000 door-to-door sales people. Developing Long-term relationships is key, Keiretsu, do business with only those you know and trust. Face-to-face meetings before business to establish trust, the approach stage. Follow up is key to relationship:

After sales:


call inquiring on car's immediate performance


hand written greeting cards


written invitations for low cost oil changes

Prospecting includes:


Driving schools for people to obtain licenses = prospects


Also referrals from existing customers is very important


Curtesy calls to clients who referred new customers.

Timing of presentation:


To housewife in the middle of the day


Just before 3 year "Shaken", following 2 years

"At first I had no intention of buying a new car, but Mr. Saito is very good at proposing reasons why I should change" = $1,600 shaken.

Management of Salesforce

Sales force is directly responsible for generating sales revenue. Eight general management areas:

  • 15. Establish Salesforce objectives

Similar to other promotional objectives Demand oriented or image oriented. Major objective is persuasion, converting consumer interest into sales. Sales objectives; expected to accomplish within a certain period of time. Give direction and purpose and act as a standard for evaluation. Set for total salesforce and each individual salesperson.

Can be $s, units sold, market share to achieve, for individual salespersons, also include ave. order size, ave. # of sales/time period, and ratio orders/calls.


Organizing the Salesforce

  • In-house vs. independent agents (manufacturer's sales agents).

  • Organize by:

    • Geography (simplest, but not suitable if product(s) are complex or customers require specialized knowledge)

    • Customer: Different buyers have different needs

    • Product: Specific knowledge re: products is needed

  • Size. Marginal analysis, or determine how many sales calls/year are needed for an organization to effectively serve its customers and divide this total by the average # of sales calls that a person makes annually. Also use subjective judgement. MBNA estimates how many calls to expect, one year in advance, and then determines the size of the salesforce at any given time.

    • 17. Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople

    Need to establish a set of required qualifications before beginning to recruit. Prepare a job description that lists specific tasks the salesperson should perform and analyze traits of the successful salespeople within the organization.

    May use assessment centers--intense training environment that places candidates in realistic problem settings in which they give priorities to their activities, make and act on decisions. Recruitment should be a continual activity aimed at reaching the best applicants. Applicants that most match the demographics of the target market. Changing demographics, may be wise to hire hispanic sales people if your territory is in Florida!!

    • 18. Training Sales Personnel

    Use formal programs, or Informal on-the-job training. Can be complex or simple. Training should focus on:

    • the company

    • products

    • selling techniques.

    Aimed at new hires and experienced personnel. Can be held in the field, educational institutions or company facilities.

    Oldsmobile spent $25 million last year to teach its dealers how to better treat its customers.

    • 19. Compensating Sales People

    To attract, motivate and retain sales people, that facilitate and encourage good treatment of the customers. Need to understand personalities of sales people. Strive for proper balance of freedom, income and incentives. Need to determine the best level of compensation required, and the best method of calculating it.

    • Straight salary

    • straight commission (selling insurance)--single percentage of sales or sliding rate

    • Combination plan

    • 20. Motivating Sales People

    Need a systematic approach, must also satisfy non-financial needs:

    • Job security

    • Working Conditions

    • Opportunities to succeed

    Sales contests increase sales.

    Symbolic awards--plaques, rings etc. Can also use negative motivational methods for under performers. Due to burn out--even the best need motivating!!

    Ongoing process



    reps. hungry

    Need a motivational program. Spend time with reps, personal attention!! Take interest in them and the sales goals

    • 4. Compensation packet that rewards quality salesmanship and extra effort

      • 5. Recognition of extra effort of sales force

      • 6. Make sure SR feel important

      • 7. Keep SR informed of company activities

      • 8. Make certain reps. believe in the company

      • 9. Goals must be realistic and achievable and changeable

        • 10. Determine what they want and give it to them

        • 11. Controlling and Evaluating Salesforce performance

    Rely on information from call reports, customer feedback and invoices. Performance is determined by objectives. May compare with predetermined performance standards or with other sales people working under similar conditions.

    Negotiating with International Customers, Partners and Regulators

    by SREE RAMA RAO on JANUARY 23, 2011 It is not so much that speaking only English is a disadvantage in international business. Instead it‘s more than being

    bilingual is a huge advantage. Observations from sitting in on an aisatsu (a meeting or formal greeting for high level executives typical in Japan) involving the president of a large Japanese industrial distributor and the marketing vice president of American machinery manufacturers are instructive. The two companies were trying to reach an

    agreement on a long term partnership in Japan.

    Business cards were exchanged and formal introductions made. Even though the president spoke and understood English one of his three subordinates acted as an interpreter for the Japanese president. The president asked everyone to be seated. The interpreter sat on a stool between the two senior executives. The general attitude between the parties was friendly but polite. Tea and a Japanese orange drink were served.

    The Japanese president controlled the interaction completely asking questions from all the Americans through the interpreter. Attention of all the participants was given to each speaker in turn. After this initial round of questions for all the Americans the Japanese president focused on developing a conversation with the American vice president. During this interaction an interesting pattern of non verbal behaviors developed. The Japanese president would ask a question in Japanese. The interpreter then translated the questions for the American vice president. While the interpreter spoke, the America‘s attention (gaze direction) was given to the interpreter. However, the Japanese president‘s gaze direction was at the American. Thus, the Japanese president could carefully and unobtrusively observe the American‘s facial expressions and nonverbal responses. Conversely, when the American spoke the Japanese president had twice the response time. Because the latter understood English he could formulate his responses during the translation process.

    What is this extra response time worth in a strategic conversation? What is it worth to be able to carefully observe the nonverbal responses of your top level counterpart in a high stakes business negotiation? Face to face negotiations are an omnipresent activity in international commerce. Once global marketing strategies have been formulated, marketing research has been conducted to support those strategies and once product service, pricing, promotion, and place decisions have been made then the focus of managers turns to implementation of the plans. In international business such plans are almost always implemented through face to face negotiations with business partners and customers from foreign countries. The sales of goods and services, the management of distribution channels, the contracting for marketing research and advertising services, licensing and franchise agreements and strategies alliances all require managers of different cultures to sit and talk with one another to exchange ideas and express needs and preferences. Executives must also negotiate with representatives of foreign governments who might approve a variety of their marketing actions or in fact be the actual ultimate customer for goods and services. In many countries governmental officials may also be joint venture partners and in some cases vendors. For example negotiation for the television broadcast rights for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing China, included NBC the international Olympic Committee and Chinese governmental officials. Some of these negotiations can become quite complex, involving several governments, companies and culture. Good examples are the European and North American talks regarding taxing the Internet, the on going interactions regarding global environmental issues or the ongoing WTO negotiations begun in Doha Qatar in 2001. All these activities demand a new kind of business diplomacy.

    One authority on international joint ventures suggests that a crucial aspect of all international commercial relationships is the negotiation of the original agreement. The seeds of success or failure often are sown at the negotiation table vis-à-vis (face to face) where not only financial and legal details are agreed to but perhaps more importantly the ambience of cooperation is established. Indeed the legal details and the structure of international business ventures are almost always modified over time usually through negotiation. But the atmosphere of

    cooperation initially established face to face at the negotiations table persist or the venture fails. Excerpts from International Marketing

    The Organizational Structure of International Marketing

    There is no right way to tackle global markets. When deciding upon a structure that best matches your international needs, the objective should be to create the most efficient system based on the needs of your company, your shareholders, and your products and services. Ultimately, the structure must be strong enough to achieve corporate goals and flexible enough to withstand market pressures


    By definition, international marketing is the performance of business activities that direct a flow of goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit. Depending upon your source, there are four or five basic marketing structures that can support these activities and several operational factors that can impact your decision of which structure will work best for your organization.

    Operational Underpinnings

    While the exact descriptions vary somewhat, marketing structures should be developed based upon the operational arrangement of a company. Begin by identifying with which operational arrangement you are dealing. The company may be a multinational organization with primarily overseas operation and a portfolio of independent, often country- specific, product brands. Or, it may be arranged as an international company in name, but function primarily as a domestic operation with overseas sales operations viewed as profit appendages. A third operational arrangement is more global, consisting of overseas manufacturing and a sales pipeline delivery to a unified global market. A fourth operational structure is the most complex: an organized, integrated network in which overseas operations may manufacture product components in one country, assemble in another, distribute globally, but manage product sales people, or information among geographically-dispersed, but interdependent units.


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    The Basic Decision: Centralized versus Decentralized

    Once the underlying operation has been identified, consider how it functions. The first basic marketing structure decision that must be made is whether marketing will be conducted from a centralized location where decisions are made at headquarters (HQ) and simply executed in the field, or if decision-making will be decentralized; made independently in the regions or countries where the manufacturing, distribution and sales are occurring. rnrnCentralized marketing requires strong communications and solid organizational processes to be successful; otherwise, the lack of communication of company policies and goals will slow marketing to a crawl. It also demands a more uniform approach to everything from messaging to pricing and promotional activities. rnrnDecentralized marketing allows for localized, or at least country-specific, decision-making and message modification based on cultural attributes like affluence or literacy. While it facilitates rapid decision-making, it can also lead to a fragmented brand.

    Marketing Structure: Aligned Around Products

    Marketing structures aligned around products are focused on the delivery of the products for specific customer groups. These dedicated cross-functional teams tend to include product-expert vertical teams, such as a cross- functional group including product management, manufacturing facilities, call centers, direct sales teams, and customer service groups, all focusing on a specific product or group of products and a global customer base. This marketing structure is aligned around product expertise and is focused on providing the best product to meet the

    needs of the most customers. While there is usually a company headquarters and management staff, the group is often multi-national with offices dispersed around the globe.

    Marketing Structure: Aligned Around Geographic Areas

    In other international marketing structures, teams are organized around geographic areas of the world: North Africa, the Caribbean/South America, Asia, North America, etc. They may all deliver the same group of products, but the team adjusts the product attributes, positioning, pricing and messaging based upon the geographic area of the globe they serve. Marketing expertise is not in the products, but knowledge of the audience to which the products are to be offered. These teams may be cross-functional groups, and may or may not be overseen directly from the company's headquarters. Typically, they revolve around a geographic, regional office.

    Marketing Structure: Aligned Around Processes and Activities

    Another marketing organizational structure is one closely aligned to distribution channels or the company's physical, in-country manufacturing capability. With this structure, marketing is designed to focus on key accounts and global direct sales, or big ticket, multi-million dollar sales with long lead times. This is common in manufacturing and technology industries. Another marketing structure more common in wholesale/retail sales revolves around seasonal product lines. This includes short lead-time distribution and activities with set market schedules, showrooms, and both major and minor accounts. The global fashion industry is an example of this structure.