Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8



) )14

I] Write a brief of no more than four lines for each of]

-:the following
Surveying -1
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science
of accurately determining the terrestrial or threedimensional space position of points and the distances and
angles between them. These points are usually on the
surface of the Earth and are often used to establish land
maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental
purposes. In order to accomplish their objective,
surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering,
trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.
2-Plane Surveying
Plane surveying, which assumes that the Earth is flat, is the most commonly practised
form of surveying. It consists primarily of locating the positions of features on the ground
(or fairly close to it). This is achieved, in the first instance, by a combination of angular
and linear measurement. Linear measurement is therefore at the foundation of surveying,
which is at the foundation of the geomatics and geodetic science disciplines. It is this
process of measuring things on the ground which is fundamental to later, fancier
measurement systems.
3- Cadastral Surveying
Using a Cadastral survey or Cadastral map, is a comprehensive
register of the metes-and-bounds real property of a country. A cadastre
commonly includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the precise
location (some include GPS coordinates), the dimensions (and area), the
cultivations if rural, and the value of individual parcels of land.
Cadastres are used by many nations around the world,[1] some in
conjunction with other records, such as a title register.

Cadastral map of village

Pielnia1852, Austrian Empire

4- Hydro Surveying
Hydrographic survey is the science of measurement and description of
features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction,
dredging, offshore oil exploration/drilling and related disciplines. Strong
emphasis is placed on soundings, shorelines, tides, currents, sea floor
and submerged obstructions that relate to the previously mentioned
activities. The term Hydrography is sometimes used synonomously to
describe Maritime Cartography, which in the final stages of the
NOAA Survey Ship

hydrographic process uses the raw data collected through hydrographic survey into information usable by
the end user.

5- Topographic Surveying
Topographic Survey is a survey that measures the elevation of points on a particular piece of land, and

presents them as contour lines on a plot.

Topographic maps are based on Topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are
called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of landmark and landscape
information. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property and
governmental boundaries.

6- Photogrammetry
Photogrammetry is the first remote sensing technology ever developed in which geometric properties
about objects are determined from photographic images. Photogrammetry is as old as modern
photography and can be dated to the mid-nineteenth century.
In the simplest example, the distance between two points that lie on a plane parallel to the photographic
image plane can be determined by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale s of the image is
known. This is done by multiplying the measured distance by 1/s.

7- Geodetic Surveying or Geodesy

Geodesy also called geodetics, a branch of earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the
measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional
time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal motion, tides, and
polar motion. For this they design global and national control networks, using space and terrestrial
techniques while relying on datums and coordinate systems.

8- Triangulation & Trilateration

Triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known
points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly. The point
can then be fixed as the third point of a triangle with one known side and two known angles.
Trilateration is a method for determining the intersections of three sphere surfaces given the centers and
radii of the three spheres.

9-Total Station
Total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in
modern surveying.it is an electronic theodolite (transit)
integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to
read distances from the instrument to a particular point.

Archaeological survey using a total station on

an Iron Age dwelling in Ytterby, Sweden.1

10- Photo interpretation

Photo interpretation is the methodology for acquiring
information from photograms or stereopairs. It was developed
in parallel with Photogrammetry, and is the first application of
remote sensing familiar to human beings, in the sense that
photograms and stereoviews constitute an analogical opticalmechanical and photochemical equivalent to the sensitivity of
the eye to visible light, optical perception and stereoscopic
the most widely used in Photo interpretation applications are
the aerial photographs; that means images taken from an
aircraft carrying a photogrammetric camera with a
perpendicular or an inclined optical axis.

Geographic information system (GIS), or Geographical information system captures, stores,
analyzes, manages, and presents data that is linked to location. Technically, a GIS is a system which
includes mapping software and its application to remote sensing, land surveying, aerial photography,
mathematics, photogrammetry, geography, and tools that can be implemented with GIS software. Still,
many refer to "geographic information system" as GIS even though it doesn't cover all tools connected to
Land Information System (LIS) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework
developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and
advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes.
The LIS infrastructure provides the modeling tools to integrate these observations with the model
forecasts to generate improved estimates of land surface conditions such as soil moisture, evaporation,
snow pack, and runoff, at 1km and finer spatial resolutions and at one-hour and finer temporal

12- Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the
use of either recording or real-time sensing device(s) that are wireless, or not in physical or intimate
contact with the object (such as by way of aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, buoy, or ship). In practice, remote
sensing is the stand-off collection through the use of a variety of devices for gathering information on a
given object or area.

13- Map Updating

Map updating is a regular process that add every thing new from Earth to the Map and done once every
five to seven years.

14- GPS
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based global
navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation,
and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all
weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth.
Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in
The Photogrammetry camera's field of view defines how much it sees and is a function of the focal
length of the lens and the size (often called the format) of the digital sensor. For a given lens, a larger
.format sensor has a larger field of view

15- Close-Range Photogrammetry

: : )(Surveying

)(Plane Surveying

))Cadastral Surveying

. 500:1 2500:1

)) Hydro Surveying

)) Topographic Surveying


)) Photogrammtery

)) Geodetic Surveying



))Triangulation & Trilateration

* ) (Triangulation

* ) (Trilateration
) (


))Total Station

) (
. )(Triangulation )(X,Y,Z

))Photo interpretation

(Geographical Information Systems (GIS


(Land Information System(LIS

)" (LIS ".
)( .
) (spatial referencing system

)(Remote sensing




)(Map Updating

(Global Positioning System(GPS

, ,

)(Close-Range Photogrammetry

) " "( ,

: -:

.1 1000:1 ) (
.2 25000:1
.3 5640:1
.4 5000:1
.5 500:1 )(
.6 2815:1
.7 2784:1

66.1473 ,


''59 31' 57.25


-1 :


-2 :


-3 :

- - - -
-4 :


-5 :



-6 = 22.4

= 38.79
= 12.6025

= 0.578

= 7.29

= 2.39


= 46.80
= 84.16
= 48.20
= 69.84