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TheVallettaPrinciplesforthe SafeguardingandManagementof HistoricCities,TownsandUrban Areas

Adoptedbythe17thICOMOSGeneralAssemblyon 28November2011

PrincipesdelaValettepourla sauvegardeetlagestiondesvilleset ensemblesurbainshistoriques


Adoptes parla17e AssemblegnraledelICOMOS le28novembre2011

Preamble
Humanitytodaymustconfrontanumberofchanges. Thesechangesconcernhumansettlements,in general,andhistorictownsandurbanareasin particular.Theglobalizationofmarketsandmethods ofproductioncauseshiftsinpopulationbetween regionsandtowardstowns,especiallylargecities. Changesinpoliticalgovernanceandinbusiness practicesrequirenewstructuresandnewconditions intownsandurbanareas.Thesearealsonecessaryto counteractsegregationandsocialrootlessnessaspart ofattemptstoreinforceidentity.

Prambule
Lhumanitsetrouveaujourdhuiconfronteune sriedechangements.Ceschangementsconcernent leshabitatshumains,engnral,lesvilleset ensemblesurbains,enparticulier.Laglobalisationdes marchsetdesmodesdeproductionprovoquedes mouvementsdepopulationsentrelesrgionsetvers lesvilles,principalementlesgrandesvilles.Ces changementsdanslagouvernancepolitiqueetles pratiquesentrepreneurialesentrainentdenouvelles constructionsetconditionsdetravaildansleszones urbaines.Ceuxcisontaussiindispensablespourlutter contrelasgrgationetledracinementsocial,et contribuentauxeffortsrenforcantcettelutte. Danslecontexte,aujourdhuiinternational,dela rflexionsurlaconservationurbaine,onnoteune prisedeconsciencecroissantedecesnouvelles exigences.Lesorganisationschargesdela conservationetlavalorisationdupatrimoineont besoindedvelopperleurscomptences,leursoutils, leursattitudeset,dansdenombreuxcas,leurrle dansleprocessusdeplanification. LeCIVVIH(ICOMOSComitInternationaldesVilles etVillagesHistoriques),adoncmisjourles approchesetlesconsidrationscontenuesdansla ChartedeWashington(1987)etlaRecommandation deNairobi(1976),fondessurlecorpusdes documentsderfrence.LeCIVVIHaredfiniles objectifs,attitudesetoutilsncessaires.Ilaprisen considrationlesvolutionssignificativesdes dfinitionsetmthodologiesenmatirede sauvegardeetgestiondesvillesetensemblesurbains historiques.

Withinwhatisnowaninternationalframeworkof reflectiononurbanconservation,thereisanever increasingawarenessofthesenewdemands.The organizationschargedwiththeconservationof heritageandtheenhancementofitsvalueneedto developtheirskills,theirtools,theirattitudesand,in manycases,theirroleintheplanningprocess. CIVVIH(ICOMOSInternationalCommitteeon HistoricTownsandVillages)hasthereforeupdated theapproachesandconsiderationscontainedinthe WashingtonCharter(1987)andtheNairobi Recommendation(1976),basedontheexistingsetof referencedocuments.CIVVIHhasredefinedthe objectives,attitudesandtoolsneeded.Ithastaken intoconsiderationthesignificantevolutionin definitionsandmethodologiesconcerningthe safeguardingandmanagementofhistorictownsand urbanareas.

Themodificationsreflectagreaterawarenessofthe issueofhistoricheritageonaregionalscalerather thanjustconfinedtourbanareas;ofintangiblevalues suchascontinuityandidentity;oftraditionallanduse, theroleofpublicspaceincommunalinteractions,and ofothersocioeconomicfactorssuchasintegration andenvironmentalfactors.Questionsaroundtherole oflandscapeascommonground,orconceptualizing thetownscape,includingitstopographyandskyline, asawhole,seemmoreimportantthanbefore. Anotherimportantmodification,particularlyinfast growingcities,takesintoaccounttheproblemsof largescaledevelopments,whichalterthetraditional lotsizesthathelptodefinehistoricurban morphology.

Cesmodificationsrefltentunemeilleurepriseen comptedelaquestiondupatrimoinehistoriqueau niveauterritorial,etnonplusseulementl'chellede l'ensembleurbain;desvaleursimmatrielles,comme lacontinuitetlidentit;desusagesduterritoire urbaintraditionneletdurledelespacepublicdans leschangescollectifsetdautresfacteurssocio conomiquescommel'intgration;desfacteurs environnementaux.Desquestionstellesquele paysageconsidrcommeunsoclecommunou conceptualisantlepaysageurbaincommeuntout, avecsatopographiehistoriqueetsasilhouette physique,semblentplusimportantesquavant.Autre modificationimportante,danslecasparticulierdes villescroissancerapideolesamnagements urbainssontsusceptiblesdedtruireleparcellaire traditionnel:onprendraencomptelaquestiondu dveloppementlchellelargeensaidantdela dfinitionhistoriquedelamorphologieurbaine. Encesens,ilestfondamentaldeconsidrerle patrimoinecommeuneressourceconstitutivede lcosystmeurbain.Ceconceptdoittrestrictement respectpourassurerundveloppementharmonieux auxvilleshistoriquesetleurenvironnement. Lanotiondedveloppementdurableaprisune importancetellequelesdirectivesdurbanisme rglementairesefondentsurunepolitiqueoriente verslalimitationdelexpansionurbainepluttque verslaprservationdupatrimoineurbain. Lobjectifprincipaldecedocumentestdeproposer desprincipesetdesstratgiesapplicableschaque interventiondanslesvillesetensembleshistoriques. Cesprincipesetstratgiesdevrontsauvegarderles valeursdesvilleshistoriquesetdeleursabordsainsi queleurintgrationdanslaviesociale,culturelleet conomiquedenotretemps.

Inthissense,itisfundamentaltoconsiderheritageas anessentialresource,aspartoftheurbanecosystem. Thisconceptmustbestrictlyrespectedinorderto ensureharmoniousdevelopmentofhistorictowns andtheirsettings. Thenotionofsustainabledevelopmenthasgained suchimportancethatmanydirectivesonarchitectural planningandinterventionsarenowbasedonpolicies designedtolimiturbanexpansionandtopreserve urbanheritage. Themainobjectiveofthisdocumentistopropose principlesandstrategiesapplicabletoevery interventioninhistorictownsandurbanareas.These principlesandstrategiesaremeanttosafeguardthe valuesofhistorictownsandtheirsettings,aswellas theirintegrationintothesocial,culturalandeconomic lifeofourtimes.

Theseinterventionsmustensurerespectfortangible Lesinterventionsdevrontgarantirlerespectdu patrimoinehistoriquematrieletimmatrielainsique andintangibleheritagevalues,aswellasforthe qualityoflifeofinhabitants. laqualitdeviedeshabitants. Thispresentdocumentforthesafeguardingof historictownsandurbanareasandtheirsettings,is dividedintofourparts: 1Definitions 2Aspectsofchange(Challenges) 3Interventioncriteria 4Proposalsandstrategies Leprsentdocumentpourlasauvegardedesvilleset ensembleshistoriquesetdeleursabordsestdivisen quatreparties: 1Dfinitions 2Aspectsduchangement(Dfis) 3Critresdintervention 4Propositionsetstratgies

1Definitions
aHistorictownsandurbanareas Historictownsandurbanareasaremadeupof tangibleandintangibleelements.Thetangible elementsinclude,inadditiontotheurbanstructure, architecturalelements,thelandscapeswithinand aroundthetown,archaeologicalremains,panoramas, skylines,viewlinesandlandmarksites.Intangible elementsincludeactivities,symbolicandhistoric functions,culturalpractices,traditions,memories, andculturalreferencesthatconstitutethesubstance oftheirhistoricvalue. Historictownsandurbanareasarespatialstructures thatexpresstheevolutionofasocietyandofits culturalidentity.Theyareanintegralpartofa broadernaturalormanmadecontextandthetwo mustbeconsideredinseparable.

1Dfinitions
aVillesetensembleshistoriques Lesvillesetensembleshistoriquessontconstitus d'lmentsmatrielsetimmatriels.Leslments matrielscomprennent,enplusdelastructure urbaine,deslmentsarchitecturaux,despaysages dansethorslaville,desvestigesarchologiques,des panoramas,profils,chappesvisuellesetdessites remarquables.Leslmentsimmatriels comprennentdesactivits,desfonctionssymboliques ethistoriques,despratiquesculturelles,des traditions,dessouvenirsetdesrfrencesculturelles quiconstituentlasubstancedeleurvaleurhistorique. Lesvillesetensembleshistoriquessontdesstructures spatialesquiexprimentl'volutiond'unesocitetde sonidentitculturelle.Ilssontpartiesintgrantes duncontextenaturelouanthropisplusvasteet doiventtreconsidrscommeindissociablesde celuici.

Historictownsandurbanareasarelivingevidenceof Lesvillesetensemblesurbainshistoriquessontune thepastthatformedthem. preuvevivantedupassquilesamodels. Historicalortraditionalareasformpartofdaily humanlife.Theirprotectionandintegrationinto contemporarysocietyarethebasisfortownplanning andlanddevelopment. bSetting Settingmeansthenaturaland/ormanmadecontexts (inwhichthehistoricurbanheritageislocated)that influencethestaticordynamicwaytheseareasare perceived,experiencedand/orenjoyed,orwhichare directlylinkedtothemsocially,economicallyor culturally. cSafeguarding Thesafeguardingofhistorictownsandurbanareas, andtheirsurroundings,includesthenecessary proceduresfortheirprotection,conservation, enhancementandmanagementaswellasfortheir coherentdevelopmentandtheirharmonious adaptationtocontemporarylife. 3 Cesterritoireshistoriquesoutraditionnelsfontpartie delaviequotidiennedeshommes.Leurprotectionet leurintgrationauseindelasocitcontemporaine sontlefondementdelaplanificationurbaineetde l'amnagementduterritoire. bMilieu Lemilieudsignelescontextesnaturelsou/et faonnsparlhomme(osetrouvelepatrimoine urbainhistorique),quiinfluencentlamanirestatique oudynamiquedontcesensemblessontperus, exprimentset/ouapprcis,ouquileursont directementlisurleplansocial,conomiqueou culturel. cSauvegarde Lasauvegardedesvillesetensembleshistoriqueset deleursabordscomprendlesprocduresncessaires leurprotection,conservation,miseenvaleuret leurgestion,ainsiqu'leursdveloppementcohrent etadaptationharmonieuselaviecontemporaine.

dProtectedurbanarea Aprotectedurbanareaisanypartofatownthat representsahistoricalperiodorstageofdevelopment ofthetown.Itincludesmonumentsandauthentic urbanfabric,inwhichbuildingsexpressthecultural valuesforwhichtheplaceisprotected. Theprotectionmayalsoincludethehistorical developmentofthetownandsupportits characteristiccivic,religiousandsocialfunctions. eBufferzone Abufferzoneisawelldefinedzoneoutsidethe protectedareawhoseroleistoshieldthecultural valuesoftheprotectedzonefromtheimpactof activitiesinitssurroundings.Thisimpactcanbe physical,visualorsocial. fManagementPlan AManagementPlanisadocumentspecifyingindetail allthestrategiesandtoolstobeusedforheritage protectionandwhichatthesametimerespondsto theneedsofcontemporarylife.Itcontainslegislative, financial,administrativeandconservationdocuments, aswellasConservationandMonitoringPlans. gSpiritofplace Spiritofplaceisdefinedasthetangibleand intangible,thephysicalandthespiritualelements thatgive theareaitsspecificidentity,meaning,emotionand mystery.Thespiritcreatesthespaceandatthesame timethespaceconstructsandstructuresthisspirit (QuebecDeclaration,2008).

dZoneurbaineprotge Unezoneurbaineprotgeesttoutepartiedeville quireprsenteunepriodehistoriqueouunephase dudveloppementdelaville.Ellecomprendles monumentsetletissuurbainauthentique,dans lequellesbtimentsexprimentlavaleurculturelle pourlaquellelelieuestprotg. Cetteprotectiondoitinclureledveloppement historiquedelavilleetmaintenirlesprincipales fonctionsciviles,religieusesetsociales. eZonetampon Lazonetamponestunezoneprcisesituehorsdela zoneprotgedontlerleestdedfendrelesvaleurs culturellesdelazoneprotgecontrel'impactdes activitsproduitesdanssonenvironnement.Cet impactpeuttrephysique,visuelousocial. fPlandegestion Unplandegestionestundocument spcifiantpoint parpointlesstratgiesetinstrumentsncessairesla protectiondupatrimoineetqui,enmmetemps, rpondauxncessitsdelaviecontemporaine.Il contientdesdocumentslgislatifs,conomiques, administratifsetdeconservation,ainsiquedautres planscommeceuxdeConservationetdeSuivi. gLespritdulieu Lespritdulieupeuttredfinicommelensemble deslmentsmatrielsetimmatriels,physiqueset spirituelsquidonnentlazoneconcerneson identitspcifique,sonsens,sonmotionetson mystre.Lespritcrel'espaceet,danslemme temps,l'espaceinvestitetstructurecetesprit. (DclarationdeQubec2008)

AspectsofChange

Aspectsduchangement

Historictownsandurbanareas,aslivingorganisms, aresubjecttocontinualchange.Thesechangesaffect alltheelementsofthetown(natural,human,tangible andintangible).

Lesvillesetensemblesurbainshistoriques,entant quorganismesvivants,sontsoumisdes changementscontinus.Ceschangementsconcernent tousleslmentsconstitutifsdelaville,(naturelset humains,matrielsetimmatriels).

Change,whenappropriatelymanaged,canbean opportunitytoimprovethequalityofhistorictowns andurbanareasonthebasisoftheirhistorical characteristics. aChangeandthenaturalenvironment TheWashingtonCharterhasalreadyfocusedonthe problemslinkedtochangesinthenatural environment:Historictowns(andtheirsettings) shouldbeprotectedagainstnaturaldisastersand nuisancessuchaspollutionandvibrationsinorderto safeguardtheheritageandforthesecurityandwell beingoftheresidents.(WashingtonCharter).

Lechangement,dirigavecpropos,peuttreune opportunitpouramliorerlaqualitdesvilleset ensemblesurbainshistoriquessurlabasedeleurs caractristiqueshistoriques. aChangementetenvironnementnaturel LaChartedeWashingtonstaitdjconcentresur lesproblmeslisauxmodificationsde lenvironnementnaturel:Desmesuresprventives contrelescatastrophesnaturellesetcontretoutesles nuisances(notammentlespollutionsetlesvibrations) doiventtreprisesenfaveurdesvilleshistoriqueset deleurmileu,tantpourassurerlasauvegardedeleur patrimoinequepourlascuritetlebientrede leurshabitants. Danslesvillesetensemblesurbainshistoriques,le changementdevraittrefondsurlerespectdes quilibresnaturels,enempchantladestructiondes ressourcesnaturelles,ladissipationdnergieetla rupturedelquilibredescyclesnaturels. Lechangementdoittreutilispouramliorerle contextecologiquedesvillesetensembles historiques;leverlaqualitdelair,deleauetdu sol;favoriserladiffusionetlaccessibilitauxespaces verts;empcherunepressiontropimportantesurles ressourcesnaturelles. Lesvilleshistoriquesetleurmilieudoiventtre protgsdeseffetsduchangementclimatiqueetdes catastrophesnaturellesdeplusenplusfrquentes. Lechangementclimatiquepeutavoirdes consquencesdvastatricespourlesvilleset ensemblesurbainshistoriquescar,lafragilitdeson tissuurbain,ilfautajouterlobsolescencede nombreuxbtimentsquincessiteraientdes investissementslourdspourfairefaceauxproblmes rsultantdecechangement. Lebutpourraittredeprofiterdecesstratgies rsultantdelaprisedeconsciencemondiale croissanteduchangementclimatiquepourles appliquerauxdfisdelasauvegardedesvilles historiques. bChangementetcontextebti Ausujetdelarchitecturemoderne,laChartede 5

Inhistorictownsandurbanareas,changeshouldbe basedonrespectfornaturalbalance,avoidingthe destructionofnaturalresources,wasteofenergyand disruptioninthebalanceofnaturalcycles. Changemustbeusedto:improvetheenvironmental contextinhistorictownsandurbanareas;improve thequalityofair,waterandsoil;fosterthespread andaccessibilityofgreenspaces;andtoavoidundue pressureonnaturalresources. Historictownsandtheirsettingsmustbeprotected fromtheeffectsofclimatechangeandfrom increasinglyfrequentnaturaldisasters. Climatechangecanhavedevastatingconsequences forhistorictownsandurbanareasbecause,in additiontothefragilityoftheurbanfabric,many buildingsarebecomingobsolete,requiringhighlevels ofexpendituretotackleproblemsarisingfrom climatechange. Theaimshouldbetotakeadvantageofstrategies arisingfromgrowingglobalawarenessofclimate changeandtoapplythemappropriatelytothe challengesofsafeguardinghistorictowns. bChangeandthebuiltenvironment Onthesubjectofmodernarchitecture,the

WashingtonCharterstates:Theintroductionof contemporaryelementsinharmonywiththe surroundingsshouldnotbediscouragedsincesuch featurescancontributetotheenrichmentofan area. Theintroductionofcontemporaryarchitectural elementsmustrespectthevaluesofthesiteandits setting.Itcancontributetotheenrichmentofthe town,bringingalivethevalueofurbancontinuity.

Washingtonnonait: L'introductiond'lments contemporains,enharmonieavecleur environnementnedoitpastredcourage,car chaquedtailpeutcontribuerlenrichissementde lensemble. Lintroductiond'lmentsd'architecture contemporainedoitrespecterlesvaleursdusiteetde sesabords.Ellecontribueenrichirlaville,en maintenantvivantelacontinuitdesonhistoire esthtique.

Thebasisofappropriatearchitecturalinterventionsin Lerespectdesvaleurs,modlesetstrateshistoriques spatial,visual,intangibleandfunctionaltermsshould doitinspirerdesinterventionsarchitecturales berespectforhistoricalvalues,patternsandlayers. appropriesleursconditionsspatiales,visuelles, immatrielles,fonctionnelles. Newarchitecturemustbeconsistentwiththespatial organisationofthehistoricareaandrespectfulofits traditionalmorphologywhileatthesametimebeing avalidexpressionofthearchitecturaltrendsofits timeandplace.Regardlessofstyleandexpression,all newarchitectureshouldavoidthenegativeeffectsof drasticorexcessivecontrastsandoffragmentation andinterruptionsinthecontinuityoftheurbanfabric andspace. Prioritymustbegiventoacontinuityofcomposition thatdoesnotadverselyaffecttheexisting architecturebutatthesametimeallowsadiscerning creativitythatembracesthespiritoftheplace. Larchitecturenouvelledoittrecohrenteavec lorganisationspatialedelensemblehistoriqueet respecteusedesamorphologietraditionelle,touten exprimantlesmodesarchitecturalesdesontemps. Indpendammentdesesstyleetmoyens dexpression,toutenouvellearchitecturedevraviter leseffetsngatifsdecontrastesdrastiquesou excessifs,lesfragmentationsetinterruptionsdela continuitdutissuurbain. Laprioritdoittredonneunecontinuitde compositionquinedoitpasnuirel'architecture existanteetdoitpermettreenmmetempsune crativitmesurel'aunedel'espritdulieu.

Architectsandurbanplannersmustbeencouragedto Onencouragerauneforteimplicationdesarchitectes acquireadeepunderstandingofthehistoricurban eturbanistesdanslacomprhensionducontexte context. urbainhistorique. cChangeinuseandsocialenvironment Thelossand/orsubstitutionoftraditionalusesand functions,suchasthespecificwayoflifeofalocal community,canhavemajornegativeimpactson historictownsandurbanareas.Ifthenatureofthese changesisnotrecognised,itcanleadtothe displacementofcommunitiesandthedisappearance ofculturalpractices,andsubsequentlossofidentity andcharacterfortheseabandonedplaces.Itcan resultinthetransformationofhistorictownsand urbanareasintoareaswithasinglefunctiondevoted totourismandleisureandnotsuitablefordaytoday living. Conservingahistorictownrequireseffortsto cChangementd'usagesetenvironnement Laperteet/oulasubstitutiondefonctionsetusages traditionnels,defaonsdevivrespcifiques certainescommunautslocales,peutaussiavoirun impactngatifmajeursurlesvillesetensembles urbainshistoriques.Silanaturedeceschangements nestpasreconnue,onrisqued'aboutirau dplacementdespopulationsetladisparitionde leurspratiquesculturelles,cequiauraitpour consquencelapertedel'identitetducaractredes lieuxabandonns.Ilpeutenrsulterune transformationdesvilleshistoriquesenzones monofonctionnellesconsacresautourismeetaux loisirs,inadapteslaviequotidienne. Lasauvegarded'unevillehistoriqueimpliquedes 6

maintaintraditionalpracticesandtoprotectthe indigenouspopulation. Itisalsoimportanttocontrolthegentrification processarisingfromrentincreasesandthe deteriorationofthetownorareashousingandpublic space.

effortspourgarderlesusagestraditionnelset protgerlesrsidentsetutilisateurstraditionnels. Ilestaussiessentieldecontrlerleprocessusde gentrificationcausparl'augmentationdesloyerset ladgradationdeshabitatsetespacespublicsdes villeshistoriques.

Ilfautreconnaitrequeceprocessusdegentrification Itisimportanttorecognisethattheprocessof gentrificationcanaffectcommunitiesandleadtothe peutaffecterlespopulationsetconduirelaperte d'habitabilitd'unlieuet,terme,desoncaractre. lossofaplacesliveabilityand,ultimately,its character. Retentionofthetraditionalculturalandeconomic diversityofeachplaceisessential,especiallywhenit ischaracteristicoftheplace. Historictownsandurbanareasruntheriskof becomingaconsumerproductformasstourism, whichmayresultinthelossoftheirauthenticityand heritagevalue. Lemaintiendeladiversittraditionnelleculturelleet conomiquedechaquelieuestessentiel, spcialementsilestcaractristiquedecelieu. Lesvillesetensemblesurbainshistoriquescourentle risquededevenirunproduitdeconsommationde tourismedemasse,cequipeutconduirelapertede leurauthenticitetvaleurpatrimoniale.

Newactivitiesmustthereforebecarefullymanaged Lesactivitsnouvellesdoiventtregres toavoidsecondarynegativeeffectssuchastransport prudemment,afindviterleseffetsngatifsdes conflitsdetransportouembouteillages. conflictsortrafficcongestion. dChangeandintangibleheritage Thepreservationofintangibleheritageisas importantastheconservationandprotectionofthe builtenvironment. Theintangibleelementsthatcontributetothe identityandspiritofplacesneedtobeestablished andpreserved,sincetheyhelpindeterminingthe characterofanareaanditsspirit. dChangementetpatrimoineimmatriel Laprservationdupatrimoineimmatrielestaussi importantequelaconservationetlaprotectiondu contextebti. Lesvaleursimmatriellesquicontribuentl'identit etl'espritdeslieuxdoiventtreprserveset enseignesdslorsqu'ellesaidentladtermination ducaractred'unterritoireetdesonesprit.

3InterventionCriteria
aValues

3Critresdintervention
aValeurs

Allinterventionsinhistorictownsandurbanareas Touteinterventiondanslesvillesetensembles mustrespectandrefertotheirtangibleandintangible urbainshistoriquessedoitderespecteretfaire culturalvalues. rfrenceauxvaleursculturellesmatrielleset immatrielles. bQuality Everyinterventioninhistorictownsandurbanareas bQualit Chaqueinterventiondanslesvillesetensembles historiquesdoitavoirpourobjectifd'amliorerla 7

mustaimtoimprovethequalityoflifeofthelocal residentsandthequalityoftheenvironment. cQuantity Anaccumulationofchangescouldhaveanegative effectonahistorictownanditsvalues. Majorquantitativeandqualitativechangesshouldbe avoided,unlesstheywillclearlyresultinthe improvementoftheurbanenvironmentandits culturalvalues. Changesthatareinherenttourbangrowthmustbe controlledandcarefullymanagedtominimise physicalandvisualeffectsonthetownscapeand architecturalfabric. dCoherence On'coherence'article3oftheNairobi Recommendationstates: Everyhistoricareaanditssurroundingsshouldbe consideredintheirtotalityasacoherentwholewhose balanceandspecificnaturedependonthefusionof thepartsofwhichitiscomposedandwhichinclude humanactivitiesasmuchasthebuildings,thespatial organizationandthesurroundings.Allvalidelements, includinghumanactivities,howevermodest,thus havesignificanceinrelationtothewholewhichmust notbedisregarded. Historictownsandurbanareasaswellastheir settingsmustbeconsideredintheirtotality.

qualitdeviedeshabitantsetlaqualitde l'environnement. cQuantit Uneaccumulationdechangementspeutavoirun effetngatifsurlavillehistoriqueetsesvaleurs. Leschangementsmajeurs,quantitatifsetqualitatifs doiventtrevits,moinsqueleurobjectifnesoit clairementlamliorationdelenvironnementurbain etdesesvaleursculturelles. Leschangementsinhrentslacroissanceurbaine doiventtrematrissetsoigneusementgrs,de faoncequeleurseffetsvisuelsetphysiquessurle tissuurbainetarchitecturalsoientminimiss. dCohrence Surlacohrencenousnousrfrerons larticle3 delaRecommandationdeNairobi: Chaqueensemblehistoriqueetsesabordsdevraient treconsidrdanssaglobalit,commeuntout cohrent,dontl'quilibreetlanaturespcifique dpendentdelasynthsedeslmentsquile composent,etquicomprennentautantlesactivits humainesquelesbtiments,l'organisationde l'espaceetlesenvirons.Tousleslments inventoris,incluantdesactivitshumaines,mme modestes,ont,parrapportl'ensemble,une significationqu'ilimportedenepasngliger. Lesvillesetensemblesurbainshistoriques,comme leurmilieu,doiventtreconsidrsdansleurtotalit.

Theirbalanceandnaturedependontheirconstituent Leursquilibreetnaturedpendentdespartiesqui parts. lescomposent. However,thesafeguardingofhistorictownsand urbanareasmustbeanintegralpartofageneral understandingoftheurbanstructureandits surroundings.Thisrequirescoherenteconomicand socialdevelopmentpoliciesthattakehistorictowns intoaccountatallplanninglevels,whilstalways respectingtheirsocialfabricandculturaldiversity. eBalanceandcompatibility Quoiqu'ilensoit,lasauvegardedesvilleset ensembleshistoriquesdoittrepartieintgrante d'unecomprhensionglobaledelastructureurbaine etdesonterritoire.Ceciplaidepourdespolitiquesde dveloppementconomiqueetsocialcohrentes,qui prennentencomptelesvilleshistoriquestousles niveauxdeplanification,toutenrespectantleurtissu socialetleurdiversitculturelle. equilibreetcompatibilit

Thesafeguardingofhistorictownsmustinclude,asa Lasauvegardedesvilleshistoriquesdoit,condition 8

mandatorycondition,thepreservationof fundamentalspatial,environmental,social,cultural andeconomicbalances.Thisrequiresactionsthat allowtheurbanstructuretoretaintheoriginal residentsandtowelcomenewarrivals(eitheras residentsorasusersofthehistorictown),aswellas toaiddevelopment,withoutcausingcongestion. fTime Thespeedofchangeisaparametertobecontrolled. Excessivespeedofchangecanadverselyaffectthe integrityofallthevaluesofahistorictown. Theextentandfrequencyofinterventionmustbe embeddedinandcompatiblewithfeasibilityand planningdocumentsandstudies,aswellasadhering totransparentandregulatedintervention procedures. gMethodandscientificdiscipline Knowledgeofthehistoryofahistorictownorurban areashouldbeexpandedthrougharchaeological investigationandappropriatepreservationof archaeologicalfindings.(WashingtonCharter)

incontournable,prserverlesgrandsquilibres (spatiaux,environnementaux,sociaux,culturelset conomiques).Celaimpliquedesactionspermettant ausystmeurbaindemaintenirseshabitants dorigineetdaccueillirceuxquiarrivent(comme rsidentsoucommeutilisateursdelavillehistorique), ainsiquededvelopperlesactivitssansencauserla congestion. fTemps Larapiditduchangementestunparamtre contrler.Lavitesseexcessiveduchangementpeut nuirel'intgritdelensembledesvaleursduneville historique. Leschellesetlestempsdinterventiondoiventtre encadrsetcompatiblesaveclesdocumentset tudespralablesainsiquavecdesprocdures dinterventiontransparentesetrglementes

gMthodeetrigueurscientifique Ilimportedeconcourirunemeilleure connaissancedupassdesvilleshistoriquesen favorisantlesrecherchesdel'archologieurbaineet laprsentationappropriedesesdcouvertessans nuirel'organisationgnraledutissuurbain. (ChartedeWashington). Lasauvegardeetlagestiond'unevilleouensemble historiquedoiventtremenesavecprudence, mthodeetrigueur,selonlesprincipesdu dveloppementdurable. Sauvegardeetgestiondoiventsappuyersurdes tudesprliminairespluridisciplinairesafinde dterminerlescomposantesetlesvaleursdu patrimoineurbainconserver.Ilestindispensable davoiruneconnaissanceapprofondiedusiteetde sonmilieupourtouteactiondesauvegarde.

Thesafeguardingandmanagementofahistorictown orurbanareamustbeguidedbyprudence,a systematicapproachanddiscipline,inaccordance withtheprinciplesofsustainabledevelopment. Safeguardingandmanagementmustbebasedon preliminarymultidisciplinarystudies,inorderto determinetheurbanheritageelementsandvaluesto beconserved.Itisimperativetotohaveaprofound knowledgeofthesiteanditssettingtoinformany safeguardingaction.

Continuousmonitoringandmaintenanceisessential Lentretiencontinuestessentiellasauvegarde tosafeguardahistorictownorurbanareaeffectively effectived'unevilleouensemblehistorique. Properplanningrequiresuptodateprecise documentationandrecording(contextanalysis,study atdifferentscales,inventoryofcomponentpartsand ofimpact,historyofthetownanditsphasesof evolution,etc.). 9 Uneplanificationappropriencessitederenseigner entempsrelunedocumentationprcise(analysedu contexte,tudediffrenteschelles,inventairedes partiesconstituantesetdelimpact,histoiredelaville etdesesphasesdvolution,etc.).

Directconsultationandcontinuousdialoguewiththe residentsandotherstakeholdersisindispensable becausethesafeguardingoftheirhistorictownor areaconcernsthemfirstandforemost. hGovernance Goodgovernancemakesprovisionfororganizing broadorchestrationamongstallstakeholders:elected authorities,municipalservices,publicadministrations, experts,professionalorganizations,voluntarybodies, universities,residents,etc.Thisisessentialforthe successfulsafeguarding,rehabilitationand sustainabledevelopmentofhistorictownsandurban areas. Participationbytheresidentscanbefacilitated throughdistributinginformation,awarenessraising andtraining.Thetraditionalsystemsofurban governanceshouldexamineallaspectsofculturaland socialdiversity,soastoestablishnewdemocratic institutionstosuitthenewreality.

Unaccsdirectladocumentationainsiquun dialoguecontinuaveclapopulationetlesautres partiesprenantessontindispensablescarla sauvegardedesvilleshistoriquesconcerneenpremier leurshabitants. hGouvernance Unebonnegouvernancepermetlorganisationdune largeconcertationentretouteslespartiesprenantes: autoritslues,servicesmunicipaux,administrations publiques,experts,organisationsprofessionnelles, associationslocales,universits,habitants,etc.Ceci estessentielausuccsdelasauvegarde,dela rhabilitationetdudveloppementdurabledesvilles etensembleshistoriques. Laparticipationdeshabitantspeuttrefacilitepar desactionsdinformation,desensibilisationetde formation.Lessystmesdegouvernanceurbaine devrontexaminertouslesaspectslisladiversit socialeetculturelleallantjusqutablirdenouvelles institutionsdmocratiquespoursadapterauxralits nouvelles.

Lesprocduresdeplanificationetdesauvegardedes Proceduresforurbanplanningandsafeguarding historiccitiesmustprovidesufficientinformationand villeshistoriquesdoiventmettreenplacedes timeforresidentstogivefullyinformedresponses. informationsetdlaissuffisantspourqueleurs habitantspuissentragirentouteconnaissancede cause. Safeguardingneedstobeencouragedandfinancial measuresputinplace,inordertofacilitate partnershipswithplayersfromtheprivatesectorin theconservationandrestorationofthebuilt environment. iMultidisciplinarityandcooperation Planningfortheconservationofhistorictownsand urbanareasshouldbeprecededbymultidisciplinary studies.(WashingtonCharter) Fromthebeginningofpreliminarystudies,the safeguardingofhistorictownsshouldbebasedonan effectivecollaborationbetweenspecialistsofmany differentdisciplines,andundertakenwiththe cooperationofresearchers,publicservices,private enterprisesandthebroaderpublic. Thesestudiesshouldleadtoconcreteproposalsthat Lesactionsdesauvegardedoiventtrefavoriseset desmesuresfinanciresprisespourfaciliterdes partenariatsaveclesecteurpriv,dansledomainede laconservationetlarestaurationdubti.

iPluridisciplinaritetCoopration Laplanificationdelasauvegardedesvilleset quartiershistoriquesdoittreprcded'tudes pluridisciplinaires.(ChartedeWashington). Lasauvegardedesvilleshistoriquesdoittrefonde surunecollaborationeffectiveentredesspcialistes denombreusesdisciplinesdiffrentes,toujours partirdtudespralablesetaveclacooprationdes chercheurs,desservicespublics,desentreprises privesetdugrandpublic. Cestudesdoiventaboutirdespropositions 10

canbetakenupbypoliticaldecisionmakers,social andeconomicagentsandresidents. jCulturaldiversity Withinthecontextofurbanconservationplanning, theculturaldiversityofthedifferentcommunities thathaveinhabitedhistorictownsoverthecourseof timemustberespectedandvalued. Itisessentialtoestablishasensitiveandshared balanceinordertomaintaintheirhistoricalheritage inthefullnessofitsculturaldiversity.

concrtesquipuissenttreassumesparles responsablespolitiques,lesagentsconomiqueset sociauxetleshabitants. jDiversitculturelle Dansuncontextedeplanificationurbaineen conservation,ilfautrespecteretmettreenvaleurla diversitculturelledesdiffrentescommunautsqui onthabitaufildutempslesvilleshistoriquesavec leurstraditions. Ilestessentield'tablirundlicatquilibre consensuelpermettantdemaintenirlepatrimoine historiquedanslaplnitudedesadiversitculturelle.

4ProposalsandStrategies
aElementstobepreserved 1Theauthenticityandintegrityofhistorictowns, whoseessentialcharacterisexpressedbythenature andcoherenceofalltheirtangibleandintangible elements,notably: aUrbanpatternsasdefinedbythestreetgrid,the lots,thegreenspacesandtherelationshipsbetween buildingsandgreenandopenspaces; "bTheformandappearance,interiorandexterior, ofbuildingsasdefinedbytheirstructure,volume, style,scale,materials,colouranddecoration; cTherelationshipbetweenthetownorurbanarea anditssurroundingsetting,bothnaturalandman made;(WashingtonCharter)

4PropositionsetStratgies
aLeslmentsprserver 1L'authenticitetl'intgritdesvilleshistoriques, dontlecaractreetlacohrenceentreleslments matrielsetimmatrielsexprimentlaspcificit,et notamment: a laformeurbainedfinieparlatrame,le parcellaire,lesespacesvertsetlesrelationsentreles diversespacesurbains:espacesbtis,espaceslibres, espacesplants; b Laformeetl'aspectdesdifices(intrieuret extrieur),telsqu'ilssontdfinisparleurstructure, volume,style,chelle,matriaux,couleurs etdcorations; c Lesrelationsdelavilleavecsonenvironnement natureloucrparl'homme,(Chartede Washington);

dThevariousfunctionsthatthetownorurbanarea d Lesdiffrentesfonctionsquelavilleaacquisesau hasacquiredovertime; fildutemps. eCulturaltraditions,traditionaltechniques,spiritof e Lestraditionsculturelles,techniques placeandeverythingthatcontributestotheidentity traditionnelles,l'espritdeslieuxettoutcequi contribuel'identitd'unlieu. ofaplace; 2Therelationshipsbetweenthesiteinitstotality,its 2Lesrelationsquiexistententrelesitedanssa constituentparts,thecontextofthesite,andthe totalit,sespartiesconstituantes,soncontexteetles partiesquiformentcecontexte. partsthatmakeupthiscontext; 3Socialfabric,culturaldiversity; 4Nonrenewableresources,minimisingtheir consumptionandencouragingtheirreuseand 3Letissusocial,ladiversitculturelle. 4Lesmatriauxnonrenouvelables,minimisantleur consommationetstimulantleurrutilisationet 11

recycling. bNewfunctions Newfunctionsandactivitiesshouldbecompatible withthecharacterofthehistorictownsorurban area.(WashingtonCharter) Theintroductionofnewactivitiesmustnot compromisethesurvivaloftraditionalactivitiesor anythingthatsupportsthedailylifeofthelocal inhabitants.Thiscouldhelptopreservethehistorical culturaldiversityandplurality,someofthemost valuableelementsinthiscontext. Beforeintroducinganewactivity,itisnecessaryto considerthenumberofusersinvolved,thelengthof utilization,compatibilitywithotherexistingactivities andtheimpactontraditionallocalpractices. Suchnewfunctionsmustalsosatisfytheneedfor sustainabledevelopment,inlinewiththeconceptof thehistorictownasauniqueandirreplaceable ecosystem. cContemporaryarchitecture Whenitisnecessarytoconstructnewbuildingsorto adaptexistingones,contemporaryarchitecturemust becoherentwiththeexistingspatiallayoutinhistoric townsasintherestoftheurbanenvironment. Contemporaryarchitectureshouldfinditsexpression whilerespectingthescaleofthesite,andhaveaclear rapportwithexistingarchitectureandthe developmentpatternsofitscontext.

recyclage. bNouvellesfonctions Lesfonctionsetactivitsnouvellesdoiventtre compatiblesaveclecaractredesvilleshistoriques. (ChartedeWashington). L'introductiondenouvellesfonctionsnedoitpas compromettrelemaintiendesactivits traditionnellesetdetoutcequiestutilepourlavie quotidiennedeshabitants.Celapermetdeprserver ladiversitetpluralitculturellehistorique,facteurs constituantsprimordiauxdansuntelcontexte. Avantdintroduireunenouvelleactivit,ilfaut considrerlenombredutilisateursconcerns,la duredutilisation,lacompatibilitaveclesautres activitsexistantesetlimpactsurlespratiques traditionnelleslocales. Cesnouvellesfonctionsdoiventaussisatisfaireles besoinsdudveloppementdurable,dansune conceptiondelavillehistoriqueentant qucosystmeuniqueetirremplaable. cArchitecturecontemporaine Quandilestncessairedeconstruiredenouveaux btimentsoud'adapterceuxquiexistentdj, l'architecturecontemporainedoittrecohrente aveclaconfigurationspatialeexistante,danslaville historiquecommedanslerestedel'environnement urbain.L'architecturecontemporainedoits'exprimer traversdesprojetsrespectantlchelledessiteso ilssontimplants,etquigardentunrapportavecles architecturesprexistantesetlemodlede dveloppementdeleurcontexte. Uneanalyseducontexteurbaindevraitprcder touteconstructionnouvellenonseulementpour dfinirlecaractregnraldel'ensemble,maisaussi pourenanalyserlesdominantes:harmoniedes hauteurs,couleurs,matriauxetformes,constantes dansl'agencementdesfaadesetdestoitures, rapportsdesvolumesbtisetdesespacesainsique leursproportionsmoyennesetl'implantationdes difices.Uneattentionparticuliredevraittre accordeladimensiondesparcelles,tout remaniementrisquantd'avoiruneffetdemasse nuisiblel'ordonnancedel'ensemble. (RecommandationdeNairobiart28).

"Analysisoftheurbancontextshouldprecedeany newconstructionnotonlysoastodefinethegeneral characterofthegroupofbuildingsbutalsotoanalyse itsdominantfeatures,e.g.theharmonyofheights, colours,materialsandforms,constantsinthewaythe faadesandroofsarebuilt,therelationshipbetween thevolumeofbuildingsandthespatialvolume,as wellastheiraverageproportionsandtheirposition. Particularattentionshouldbegiventothesizeofthe lotssincethereisadangerthatanyreorganizationof thelotsmaycauseachangeofmasswhichcouldbe deleterioustotheharmonyofthewhole"(Nairobi Recommendationart.28).

12

Perspectives,views,focalpointsandvisualcorridors areintegralpartsoftheperceptionofhistoricspaces. Theymustberespectedintheeventofnew interventions.Beforeanyintervention,theexisting contextshouldbecarefullyanalysedand documented.Viewcones,bothtoandfromnew constructions,shouldbeidentified,studiedand maintained. Theintroductionofanewbuildingintoahistorical contextorlandscapemustbeevaluatedfromaformal andfunctionalpointofview,especiallywhenitis designatedfornewactivities. dPublicspace Publicspaceinhistorictownsisnotjustanessential resourceforcirculation,butisalsoaplacefor contemplation,learningandenjoymentofthetown. Itsdesignandlayout,includingthechoiceofstreet furniture,aswellasitsmanagement,mustprotectits characterandbeauty,andpromoteitsuseasapublic placededicatedtosocialcommunication. Thebalancebetweenpublicopenspaceandthe densebuiltenvironmentmustbecarefullyanalyzed andcontrolledintheeventofnewinterventionsand newuses. eFacilitiesandmodifications

Perspectives,vues,pointsfocaux,couloirsvisuelsfont partieintgrantedelaperceptiondesespaces historiques.Ilsdoiventtrerespectsencas d'interventionsnouvelles.Avanttouteintervention,le contexteexistantdoittresoigneusementanalyset document.Descnesdevue,depuisetversles nouvellesconstructions,doiventtretudisetmis enplace. L'introductiond'unnouveaubtimentdansun contexteoupaysagehistoriquedoittrevalue aussid'unpointdevueformeletfonctionnel,surtout quandilestaffectdenouvellesactivits. dEspacepublic Lespacepublicnestpasseulementunespace rservlacirculationdanslesvilleshistoriques,mais aussiunlieudolonpeutcontempler,dcouvriret jouirdelaville.Sontrac,sonamnagement,y comprislemobilierurbain,ainsiquesagestion, doiventprotgersoncaractreetsabeautet promouvoirsonusagecommelieuconsacraux relationssociales. Lquilibreentreespacespublicsettissucompactbti doittresoigneusementanalysetmaitrisencasde nouvellesinterventionsouutilisations.

equipementsetamnagements

Urbanplanningtosafeguardhistorictownsmusttake L'urbanismedesauvegardedesvilleshistoriquesdoit intoconsiderationtheresidentsneedforfacilities. prendreenconsidrationlesbesoinsdquipement deshabitants. Theintegrationofnewfacilitiesintohistoricbuildings Linstallationdenouveauxquipementsdansles isachallengethatlocalauthoritiesmustnotignore. btimentshistoriquesestundfiquelesresponsables delavillenepeuventlaisserdecot. fMobility Trafficinsideahistorictownorurbanareamustbe strictlycontrolledbyregulations.(Washington Charter) Whenurbanorregionalplanningprovidesforthe constructionofmajormotorways,theymustnot penetrateahistorictownorurbanarea,butthey shouldimproveaccesstothem.(Washington fMobilit Lacirculationdesvhiculesdoittrestrictement rglementel'intrieurdesvillesoudesquartiers historiques.(ChartedeWashington). Lesgrandsrseauxroutiers,prvusdanslecadrede l'amnagementduterritoire,nedoiventpaspntrer danslesvilleshistoriquesmaisseulementfaciliterle traficl'approchedecesvillesetenpermettreun 13

Charter) Mosthistorictownsandurbanareasweredesigned forpedestriansandslowformsoftransport.Gradually theseplaceswereinvadedbythecar,causingtheir degradation.Atthesametime,qualityoflifehas reduced. Trafficinfrastructure(carparks,subwaystations,etc) mustbeplannedinwaysthatwillnotdamagethe historicfabricoritsenvironment.Ahistorictown shouldencouragethecreationoftransportwitha lightfootprint. Itisimportanttoencouragepedestriancirculation.To achievethis,trafficshouldbedrasticallylimitedand parkingfacilitiesreduced.Atthesametime, sustainable,nonpollutingpublictransportsystems needtobeintroduced,andsoftmobilitypromoted. Roadwaysshouldbestudiedandplannedtogive prioritytopedestrians.Parkingfacilitiesshould preferablybelocatedoutsideprotectedzonesand,if possible,outsidebufferzones. Undergroundinfrastructure,suchassubways,must beplannedsoasnottodamagehistoricor archaeologicalfabricoritsenvironment.

accsfacile. (ChartedeWashington). Laplupartdesvillesetensemblesurbainshistoriques onttconuspourdespitonsetuntransport petitevitesse.Progressivementcesespacesontt envahisparlautomobile,provocantleurdgradation. Danslemmetemps,laqualitdevieyabaiss. Lesinfrastructuresdemobilit(parking,stationsde mtro,etc.)doiventtreplanifiesdemanirene pasendommagerletissuhistoriqueetson environnement.Lavillehistoriquedoitpromouvoirla crationdevoiesdecirculationlgre. Ilestimportantdetoujoursfavoriserlespitons.Pour celailfautdrastiquementlimiterlacirculationet rduirelestationnement.Danslemmetempsdes systmesdetransportpublicadapts,durablesetnon polluantsserontmisenplaceetlescirculations doucesserontdveloppes. Lavoiriedevraittretudieetplanifieendonnant prioritauxpitons.Lesairesdestationnement serontimplantesdeprfrenceendehorsdeszones protgesetsipossiblehorsdeszonestampon. Lesinfrastructuressouterraines,tellesquelemtro, doiventtreplanifiesdemanirenepas endommagerletissuhistoriqueetarchologiqueni sonenvironnement.

Majorhighwaynetworksmustavoidprotectedareas Lesgrandsrseauxroutiersdoiventviterleszones protgesetleszonestampon. andbufferzones. gTourism Tourismcanplayapositiveroleinthedevelopment andrevitalisationofhistorictownsandurbanareas. Thedevelopmentoftourisminhistorictownsshould bebasedontheenhancementofmonumentsand openspaces;onrespectandsupportforlocal communityidentityanditscultureandtraditional activities;andonthesafeguardingofregionaland environmentalcharacter.Tourismactivitymust respectandnotinterferewiththedailylifeof residents. Toogreataninfluxoftouristsisadangerforthe preservationofmonumentsandhistoricareas. gTourisme Letourismepeutjouerunrlepositifdansle dveloppementetlarevitalisationdesvilles historiques.Ledveloppementdutourismedoity trefondsurlamiseenvaleurdesmonumentset espaceslibres,surlerespectetlesoutiendelidentit despopulationslocales,deleursculturesetactivits traditionnelles,etsurlasauvegardedes caractristiquesduterritoireetdel'environnement. L'activittouristiquedoitrespecteretnoninterfrer aveclaviequotidiennedeshabitants. Uneaffluencetropimportantedetouristesest dangereusepourlaprservationdesmonumentset ensembleshistoriques.

Conservationandmanagementplansmusttakeinto Lesplansdesauvegardeetdegestiondoivent accounttheexpectedimpactoftourism,andregulate prendreencomptelimpactattendudutourismeet theprocess,forthebenefitoftheheritageandof enrgulerleprocessusaubnficedupatrimoine 14

localresidents. hRisks Whateverthenatureofadisasteraffectingahistoric townorurbanarea,preventativeandrepairmeasures mustbeadaptedtothespecificcharacterofthe propertiesconcerned.(WashingtonCharter) Conservationplansofferanopportunitytoimprove riskpreparednessandtopromoteenvironmental managementandtheprinciplesofsustainability. iEnergysaving Allinterventionsinhistorictownsandurbanareas, whilerespectinghistoricheritagecharacteristics, shouldaimtoimproveenergyefficiencyandto reducepollutants. Theuseofrenewableenergyresourcesshouldbe enhanced. Anynewconstructioninhistoricareasmustbeenergy efficient.Urbangreenspaces,greencorridorsand othermeasuresshouldbeadoptedtoavoidurban heatislands. jParticipation Theparticipationandtheinvolvementofthe residentsandalllocalinterestgroupsareessential forthesuccessoftheconservationprogrammeand shouldbeencouraged.Theconservationofhistoric townsandurbanareasconcernstheirresidentsfirst ofall.(WashingtonCharter,art3).

urbainetdeshabitants. h Risques Lesmoyensmisenuvrepourprvenirourparer leseffetsdetoutescalamitsdoiventtreadaptsau caractrespcifiquedesbienssauvegarder. (ChartedeWashington). Lesplansdesauvegardeoffrentl'opportunitde renforcerlescapacitsdeprventiondurisqueetde promouvoirlagestionenvironnementaleetles principesdudveloppementdurable. iEconomiesdnergie Touteinterventiondanslesvillesetensembles historiquesdoittreorienteverslamliorationde l'efficacitnergtiqueetlarductiondespollutions, toutenrespectantlepatrimoinehistorique. L'utilisationdesourcesd'nergierenouvelablesdoit trerenforce. Toutenouvelleconstructiondanslesquartiers historiquesdoittreconomesurleplan nergtique.Laplanificationd'espacesvertsurbains, tramesverteetautresmesuresdevraittreadopte, afind'viterlesilotsdechaleururbaine. jParticipation Laparticipationetl'implicationdeshabitantsde toutelavilleainsiquedesgroupesd'intrtslocaux sontindispensablesausuccsdesprogrammesde sauvegarde.Ellesdoiventdonctrerecherchesen toutescirconstancesetfavorisesparlancessaire prisedeconsciencedetouteslesgnrations.Ilne fautjamaisoublierquelasauvegardedesvilleset quartiershistoriquesconcerneenpremierlieuleurs habitants.(ChartedeWashingtonart3). Laplanificationdansleszonesurbaineshistoriques doittreunprocessusparticipatif,impliquanttoutes lespartiesprenantes. Envued'assurerlaparticipationetl'implicationdes habitants,unprogrammedinformationgnrale commenantdsl'gescolairedoittremisen uvre.L'actiondesassociationsdesauvegardedoit trefavoriseetdesmesuresfinanciresdestines faciliterlaconservationetlarestaurationdubti 15

Planninginhistoricurbanareasmustbea participatoryprocess,involvingallstakeholders. Inordertoencouragetheirparticipationand involvement,ageneralinformationprogramme shouldbesetupforallresidents,beginningwith childrenofschoolage.Theactionsofconservation associationsmustbeencouraged,andfinancial measuresputinplace,tofacilitatetheconservation

andrestorationofthebuiltenvironment. Mutualunderstanding,basedonpublicawareness, andthesearchforcommonobjectivesbetweenlocal communitiesandprofessionalgroups,isthebasisof thesuccessfulconservation,revitalizationand developmentofhistorictowns.

misesenplace. Unecomprhensionmutuelle,fondesurla sensibilisationdupublicetlarecherchedobjectifs communsentrehabitantsetprofessionnels,estun gagederussitedelaconservation,revitalisationet dveloppementdesvilleshistoriques.

Informationtechnologyenablesdirectandimmediate Lestechnologiesdinformationpermettentune communication.Thisallowsforactiveandresponsible communicationdirecteetimmdiate.Celafacilitela participationactiveetresponsabledesgroupes participationbylocalgroups. locaux. Authoritiesmustbeencouragedtotakeaninterestin thesafeguardingofhistorictownsandurbanareas,in ordertoestablishfinancialmeasureswhichwill enablemanagementandimprovementplansto succeed. kConservationPlan Lintrtdesautoritspourlasauvegardedesvilleset desensembleshistoriquesdoittreencouragafin dtablirlesmesuresfinanciresadquatesla russitedesplansdemiseenvaleuretdegestion.

kPlandesauvegarde

Leplandesauvegardedevras'attacherdfinirune Theconservationplanshouldaimatensuringa harmoniousrelationshipbetweenhistoricurbanareas articulationharmonieusedesquartiershistoriques (ChartedeWashingtonart.5). ...(WashingtonCharterart.5). Itcoversbothtangibleandintangibleelements,in ordertoprotectaplacesidentitywithoutimpeding itsevolution. Theprincipalobjectivesoftheconservationplan shouldbeclearlystatedasshouldthelegal, administrativeandfinancialmeasuresnecessaryto attainthem.(WashingtonCharterart.5) Aconservationplanmustbebasedonurbanplanning forthewholetown,includinganalysisof archaeological,historical,architectural,technical, sociologicalandeconomicalvalues.Itshoulddefinea conservationproject,andbecombinedwitha managementplanandfollowedbypermanent monitoring. Theconservationplanmustdeterminetheterms, rules,objectivesandoutcomesofanychanges.It shoulddeterminewhichbuildingsandspaces mustbepreserved,whichshouldbepreservedunder certaincircumstancesandwhich,underquite exceptionalcircumstances,mightbeexpendable. (WashingtonCharter). Ilconcernelafoisdeslmentsmatrielset immatriels,afindeprotgerl'identitdeslieux,sans entraverleurvolution. LesprincipauxobjectifsduPlandeSauvegarde doiventtrededfinirlesorientationset modalitsdesactionsentreprendreauplan juridique,administratifetfinancier.(Chartede Washingtonart.5). Unplandesauvegardedoittreundocument durbanismecomprenantuneanalysedesfacteurs archologiques,historiques,architecturaux, techniques,sociologiquesetconomiques.Ildoit dfinirunprojetdeconservationetlecombineravec unplandegestionetundispositifdesuivipermanent.

Leplandesauvegardedoitdterminerlesrgles,les objectifsetlaperformanceduchangement.Ildoit encoredterminerlesbtimentsougroupesde btimentsetlesespacesprotgerparticulirement, conserverdanscertainesconditionsetdansdes circonstancesexceptionnelles,dtruire.(Chartede Washingtonart.5).

Beforeanyintervention,existingconditionsshouldbe L'tatdeslieuxavanttouteinterventionsera 16

rigourouslydocumented. Theconservationplanmustidentifyandprotectthe elementscontributingtothevaluesandcharacterof thetown,aswellasthecomponentsthatenrich and/ordemonstratethecharacterofthehistoric townandurbanarea. Theproposalsintheconservationplanmustbe articulatedinarealisticfashion,fromthelegislative, financialandeconomicpointofview,aswellaswith regardtotherequiredstandardsandrestrictions. TheConservationPlanshouldbesupportedbythe residentsofthehistoricarea.(WashingtonCharter art.5). Whenthereisnoconservationplan,allnecessary conservationanddevelopmentactivitiesinahistoric townmustbecarriedoutinaccordancewiththe principlesandobjectivesofconservationand enhancement. IManagementPlan Aneffectivemanagementsystemshouldbedevised accordingtothetypeandcharacteristicsofeach historictownandurbanarea,andtheirculturaland naturalcontext.Itshouldintegratetraditional practices,andbecoordinatedwithotherurbanand regionalplanningtoolsinforce. Amanagementplanisbasedontheknowledge, conservationandenhancementoftangibleand intangibleresources. Thereforeitmust: determinetheculturalvalues; identifystakeholdersandtheirvalues; identifypotentialconflicts; determineconservationtargets; determinelegal,financial,administrativeand technicalmethodsandtools; understandstrengths,weaknesses,opportunities andthreats; definesuitablestrategies,deadlinesforthework, andspecificactions.

rigoureusementdocument. Leplandesauvegardedoitidentifieretprotgerles lmentsconstitutifsdesvaleursculturellesdelaville ainsiquelescomposantesquienrichissentet/ou montrentlecaractredelavilleetdel'ensemble urbainhistorique. Lespropositionsduplandesauvegardedoiventtre formulesdefaonraliste,tantdupointdevue lgislatif,financieretconomiquequeparrapport aux normesetrestrictionsimposes. Leplandesauvegardedoitbnficierdel'adhsion deshabitants.(ChartedeWashingtonart.5).

Enl'absencedunplandesauvegarde,toutesles oprationsdeconservationetdetransformationdela villehistoriquedoiventtreeffectuesconformment auxprincipesetobjectifsdesauvegardeetdemiseen valeur. lPlandegestion Unsystmedegestionefficacedoittreconuselon letypeetlescaractristiquesdesvillesetensembles historiquesetselonleurcontextecultureletnaturel. Ildoitintgrerlesactivitstraditionnellesettre coordonnaveclesautresinstrumentsde planificationurbaineetterritorialeenvigueur. Unplandegestionsappuiesurlaconnaissance,la sauvegardeetlamiseenvaleurdesressources matriellesetimmatrielles. Parconsquent,ildoit: dterminerlesvaleursculturelles, identifierlespartiesprenantesetleursvaleurs, identifierlesconflits potentiels, dfinirdesobjectifsdesauvegarde, dfinirlesmthodesetinstrumentslgaux, financiers,administratifsettechniques, comprendrelesopportunits,forces,faiblesseset menaces, dfinirdesstratgiesadaptes,leschancesdu programmeainsiquelesactionsspcifiques.

Theproductionofsuchamanagementplanshouldbe Lamiseenplaceduntelplandegestiondoitsuivre aparticipatoryprocess. uneprocdureparticipative. Inadditiontotheinformationprovidedbylocal Enplusdesdonnesprovenantdeladministration 17

authorities,officials,fieldsurveyanddetailed documentation,thePlanshouldinclude,asan appendix,theconclusionsfromstakeholder discussionsandananalysisoftheconflictsarisingin theseinherentlycontradictorydebates.

locale,d'enqutesdeterrainetd'unedocumentation dtaille,leplandoitfairetat,enannexe,des conclusionsdesdbatsentrelesparties,avecune analysedesconflitssurvenusaucoursdessancesde questionsrponses.

FollowUp
Theserecommendationsaretheoutcomeof collaborativeworkbyCIVVIH,whichintendsthemas acontributiontothewiderdiscussionsbeingledby ICOMOS.

Suivi
Cesrecommandationssontlersultatd'une dmarchecollaborativeconueparleCIVVIHqui contribueainsilarflexionuniversellemenepar lICOMOS.

Thisisanopensourcedocumentthatcanbeupdated Ilsagitdundocumentouvertquipourra inthelightoftheevolutionoftheissuesdiscussed. treactualislalumiredelvolutiondesquestions dbattues.

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