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CHAPTER II

Formulating Theory
hypothesis
Construct/
Blueprint
indicators

Valid
Reliable

Theoretically
Empirically

Correlation (X and Y) Valid

Discrete score

Basic assumption/Rationale

Hypothesis

Instrument
Test/non-test

Valid
Reliable

Theory
Tryout

Blueprint
Correlation (X and Y)
Discrete score
Continuum score

External
Internal

At the same time

Different time

Reliable

Test-retest

Two parallel forms

Correct (1)
Wrong (0)

Valid
r=
Reliable

Continuum score

Construct and indicators

05
0 10

Xi Xt
st

rkk =

Valid
r=
rkk =

pi
qi

k pq
1
2
k 1
st

x x
( x )( x )
k s
1
i

Reliable

Split-half

k 1

st

2
i

No
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
7
3
0.7
0.3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

p
q

2. st =

3. X t =

6
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
4
6
0.4
0.6

7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
2
8
0.2
0.8

Xt

xt

xt2

3
2
2
5
5
4
1
7
6
2
37

-0.7
-1.7
-1.7
1.3
1.3
0.3
-2.7
3.3
2.3
-1.7

0.49
2.89
2.89
1.69
1.69
0.09
7.69
10.89
5.29
2.89
36.1

Xt

3.7

pi
qi

2
t

4. X 1 =

5. r =

2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
4
6
0.4
0.6

X i Xt
st

1. r =

Number of item
3
4
5
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
7
5
8
3
5
2
0.7
0.5
0.8
0.3
0.5
0.2

36.1
= 1 .9
10

37
= 3 .7
10

3 + 2 + 2 + 5 + 5 + 7 + 6 30 37 4 1 2 30
=
or
=
= 4.29
7
7
7
7

X i Xt
st

pi 4.29 3.7 0.7


=
= 0.47
qi
1 .9
0 .3

6. ro (0.47) < rt (0.632); item number 1 is not valid.


3
2
2
5
5
4
1
7
6
2
37

173

=X

173

37
136.9

36.1

x = X
2

25
25

s=

16

1
49
36
4

( X )
n

37 2
=173= 173 136.9 = 36.1
10

( X )

= 173

( X )

x
n

37 2
= 173 136.9 = 36.1
10

No.
Resp.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1
5
5
5
4
5
4
5
3
2
5
43

2
5
5
4
4
5
5
4
4
4
4
44

3
5
4
5
3
5
5
5
4
5
5
46

4
4
4
3
3
5
4
4
4
3
4
38

Numbers of items
5
6
4
5
3
4
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
4
4
4
3
37
34

Xt
7
4
3
3
3
3
4
2
3
3
4
32

8
4
3
2
2
4
2
2
1
2
2
24

9
3
2
2
2
3
1
2
1
1
2
19

10
3
3
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
20

1) Correlation
X1
Y
X2
2) Comparison
No. Resp.
1.
2.
etc.

Deductive Approach

Main effects
Simple effects
High Motivation
Low Motivation
Total

Inductive Approach

Inductive Approach
< >
> <

Deductive
Approach

42
36
33
30
41
34
31
27
29
34
337