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SPSS Assignment Question 1.

(a). The scatter plot of the two variables that are variable crate and variable educat treating crime rate as dependent variable is shown below. [file from crime.sav] (b). after superimposing a straight line on to the scatter plot that is using the linear fit method, the relationship roughly looks linear R sq linear of .066. Although it may be curving up slightly or there may be an outlier. But if we use the cubic fit method the values are more fitted because the value of R [.242] for the cubic fit method is higher than the linear fit.  SPSS Assignment  (c) From the Pearson’s correlation value we can say that, there is a perfect positive correlation between these variables, which is statically significant at the 5% level. Because the perason’s coefficient r is 1.

Correlations

Correlations

 violent crime rate pct hs graduates violent crime rate[ Pearson Correlation 1 -.256 Sig. (2-tailed) .070 N 51 51 pct hs graduates Pearson Correlation -.256 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .070 N 51 51  SPSS Assignment (d) When the variable crate is correlate with variable educat the result of this regression is

Model Summary

 Adjusted R Std. Error of the Estimate Model R R Square Square 1 .256 a .066 .046 430.724

a. Predictors: (Constant), pct hs graduates

Coefficients a

 Unstandardized Standardized 95% Confidence Interval for Coefficients Coefficients B Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound 1 (Constant) 2152.347 832.477 2.585 .013 479.421 3825.273 pct hs graduates -20.197 10.893 -.256 -1.854 .070 -42.087 1.693

a. Dependent Variable: violent crime rate

(E) plot of the standardized residual against the predicted values in order to detect any outliers

and to assess whether the relationship is linear and whether the residual variance is constant   SPSS Assignment There is one residual greater than 4 and the trend indicates that there is approximately a linear relationship between crime rate and education. And from the scatter of points that tends to increase a little as the predicted value increases which indicating that the assumption of constant variance may not be appropriate.

Question2.

The data file for question 2 is in the country.sav which contains the demographic information of

122 countries.

(a). Explore the relationship between the variable using a scatter plot.

Dependent variable=lifeexpf

The result of the scatter plot matrix is shown below. (b) The scatter plot matrix using the logarithm of the variables that don’t have a linear relationship is depicted below. Logarithm of the variables are=lndocs,lnbeds,lngdp, and lnradio

As we can see easily from the scatter matrix plot the relationship is a linear relationship.  SPSS Assignment  (C) using the forward selection to find the subset of variables that best explain the dependent

variable.

Dependent variable=lifeexp  SPSS Assignment   Coefficients a

 Standardized Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig. 1 (Constant) 57.232 .688 83.233 .000 Natural log of doctors per 10000 6.290 .318 .880 19.792 .000 2 (Constant) 42.138 3.206 13.143 .000 Natural log of doctors per 10000 4.261 .513 .596 8.307 .000 Natural log of GDP 2.493 .519 .345 4.802 .000 3 (Constant) 41.697 3.140 13.278 .000 Natural log of doctors per 10000 4.123 .505 .577 8.168 .000 Natural log of GDP 1.871 .566 .259 3.306 .001 Natural log of radios per 100 people 1.684 .679 .142 2.482 .015

a. Dependent Variable: Female life expectancy 1992

Number of doctors, GDP and number of radio are all positively related to life expectancy in females after controlling for the other variables.

(d) The cook’s distance against the variable sequence

Dependent variable= lifeexp

As we can see from the result of the plot of the matrix of the cook’s distance the most influential

countries are Chad,Afghanistan, an d Guinea.  SPSS Assignment  (e) The distribution of the standardized residuals is shown below

With some possible outliers we can say that the distribution is normally distributed with the normal distribution.  SPSS Assignment  Question 3.

 (a) Independent sample T test (b) Independent sample T test (c) Paired T test (d) Paired T test (e) Independent T test (f) Paired test (g) Independent T test

Question 4.

In the SPSS statistics box gives us the mean and standard deviation for each of the groups in this case age. It also gives the number of people in each group (N). Always check these values first.  SPSS Assignment The first section of the Independent Samples Test output box gives us the results of Levene’s test for equality of variances. This tests whether the variance (variation) of ages for the two groups (populations) is the same. The outcome of this test determines which of the t-values that SPSS provides the correct one is. Since the significance value from the output [.82] is larger than .05 it should be the first column of the out table to be used, which is Equal variance is assumed.

In the given the output from the question, the significance level for Levene’s test is .82. This is larger than the cut-off of .05. This means that the assumption of equal variances has not been violated; therefore, when it is reported the t-value used is the one in the first column from the output.

From the out table the value of sig(2-tailed) in the first column is .000

cut off there is a significance difference in the population’s mean ages of the two groups.

less than .05 the required The value of t from the output table from the equal variance assumed column 3.9 and the values for N1 and N2 is the same from the output table 100. Up on substituting the value of the Eta squared is .0713. Then according to the guideline( proposed by Cohen,1998) for interoperating this value are .01=small effect .06= moderate effect .14= large effect For this particular question the, which have the effect size of .0713, effect is in the range of moderate and large.

An independent sample test was conducted to compare the average ages of people who buy and who don’t buy a product. There is a significance difference in buying the product [mean 29.45,SD 15.56 and mean 38, SD 15.49];t(198)=-3.9,p<.001) The magnitude of the difference in the means was large (eta squared=.0713).

Question 14. The data file for this question is school.sav and the aim is to check whether there are differences or not between the two groups that is above and below the median percentage of low income for all Chicago schools.

The group statics of the percent low income is shown below  SPSS Assignment   Group Statistics

 above or below median loinc N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Percent low income above the median for low inc 32 73.219 8.7498 1.5468 % 1993 below the median for low inc 32 39.706 13.5002 2.3865 % 1993 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper Percent Equal low variances 5.793 .019 11.784 62 .000 33.5125 2.8439 27.8276 39.1974 income assumed Equal variances not 11.784 53.138 .000 33.5125 2.8439 27.8087 39.2163 assumed

From the Levene’s test for equality of variances we have sig. value of .019 which is less than below the cut off value .05. The means that the variance between the two group (below and above) are not the same. Therefore the value of t-test is used the one that is in the raw of variance not assumed. To find out whether there is a significance difference between the two groups, refer to the column labeled sig(2-tailed), which appears under the section labeled t-test for unequal means. In combination with the Leven’s test result this value is 000 which is below .05. Therefore there is a significant difference in the means of the two groups.  SPSS Assignment   Group Statistics

 above or below median loinc N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean average ACT score 1994 above the median for low inc 32 15.022 .8746 .1546 % 1993 below the median for low inc 32 16.700 2.1506 .3802 % 1993 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper average Equal - ACT score variances 16.501 .000 62 .000 -1.6781 .4104 -2.4985 -.8577 4.089 1994 assumed Equal - variances not 40.982 .000 -1.6781 .4104 -2.5070 -.8493 4.089 assumed

In the similar approach there is a significance difference between the means of the two groups. Because the significance value under the labeled sig(2-tailed) is 000 which is below .05  SPSS Assignment Question 16. The data file for this question is buying.sav and the aim is to test the null hypothesis of the following

1. Family buying score is the same when pictures are shown and when they are not. The result is shown below with its interpretation

Group Statistics

 Picture Accompanied Question N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Family Buying Score Pictures 48 159.08 27.564 3.979 No Pictures 50 168.00 21.787 3.081

Independent Samples Test

 Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper Family Equal variances 1.382 .243 -1.780 96 .078 -8.917 5.008 -18.858 1.025 Buying assumed Score Equal variances -1.772 89.42 .080 -8.917 5.032 -18.915 1.081 not assumed 9

From independent sample test we have the value of the significance .243 from the assumption of equal variance that is the Levene’s test and it is greater than the cut off that is .243>.05. This tells us which t-test to be used weather the Equal variance or the unequal variance assumption. But for this case since the Levene’s test value is greater than .05 then the t-test value is from the Equal variance assumption i.e value of t- that in the raw of equal variance. Therefore once the t- test value is determined the significance value can be identified. For this particular question the significance value that is P is .078. Since the value of p is greater than .05 [.078>.05] the null  SPSS Assignment hypothesis is not rejected. Therefore it is concluded that the family buying score is the same when the pictures are shown and when they are not.

An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture and without picture. There are no significance difference in scores with picture (M=159,SD=27.564) and without picture (M=159,SD=21.787;t(96)=-1.78,p=.078]. The magnitude of the difference in the mean is moderate (eta square=.03).

2. Ho: The average buying score for the husband is the same with and without pictures. Ho is the null hypothesis.

Group Statistics

 Picture Accompani Std. Std. Error ed Question N Mean Deviation Mean Sum of husband's buying scores Pictures 48 80.12 14.258 2.058 No Pictures 50 83.98 14.329 2.026 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means 95% Sig. Confidence Interval of the Difference (2- Mean Std. Error F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper Sum of Equal husband's variances .036 .849 -1.335 96 .185 -3.855 2.889 -9.589 1.879 buying assumed scores Equal variances not -1.335 95.874 .185 -3.855 2.888 -9.588 1.878 assumed  SPSS Assignment With similar approach of the above, the significance for this part is .185 from [sig 2-tailed] column and it is greater than the cut off (.05), the null hypothesis is not rejected. Still the average buying score for husband is the same with and without picture.

An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture and without picture. There are no significance difference in scores with picture (M=80.12,SD=14.258) and without picture (M=83.98,SD=14.329;t(96)=-1.335,p=.185]. The magnitude of the difference in the mean is moderate (eta square=.018).

3.Ho : The average buying score for the wives is the same with and without pictures. Ho is the null hypothesis.

Group Statistics

 Picture Accompanied Question N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Sum of wife's buying scores Pictures 49 78.98 16.033 2.290 No Pictures 50 84.02 15.444 2.184

Independent Samples Test

 Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper Sum of Equal wife's variances .025 .876 -1.593 97 .114 -5.040 3.164 -11.319 1.239 buying assumed scores Equal 96. variances not -1.593 .115 -5.040 3.165 -11.322 1.241 677 assumed

With similar approach of the above, the significance for this part is .114 from [sig 2-tailed] column and it is greater than the cut off (.05), the null hypothesis is not rejected. Still the average buying score for wives is the same with and without picture.  SPSS Assignment An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture and without picture. There are no significance difference in scores with picture (M=78.98, SD=16.033) and without picture (M=84.02, SD=15.444;t(97)=-1.593,p=.114]. The magnitude of the difference in the mean is moderate (eta square=.025).

Question 18.

A manufacturer of high-performance automobiles produces disc brakes that must measure 322 millimeters in diameter. Quality control randomly draws 16 discs made by each of eight production machines and measures their diameters.

The appropriate test to determine whether or not the mean diameters of the brakes in each sample significantly differ from 322 millimeters is One Sample T Test to determine. The file for this question is brake.sav and its confidence interval is 90%

The descriptive statics which displays the sample size, mean, standard deviation, and standard error for each of the eight samples

The sample means disperse around the 322mm standard by what appears to be a small amount of variation.

One-Sample Statistics

 Machine Number N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 1 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.219985E 16 2 .0111568 .0027892 2 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.220143E 16 2 .0106913 .0026728 3 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.219983E 16 2 .0104812 .0026203 4 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.219954E 16 2 .0069883 .0017471 5 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.220042E 16 2 .0092022 .0023005 6 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.220025E 16 2 .0086440 .0021610 7 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.220062E 16 2 .0093303 .0023326 8 Disc Brake Diameter (mm) 3.219967E 16 2 .0077085 .0019271  SPSS Assignment Since their confidence intervals lie entirely above 0.0, it is possible to say that machines 2, 5 and 7 are producing discs that are significantly wider than 322mm on the average. And similarly, because its confidence interval lies entirely below 0.0, machine 4 is producing discs that are not wide enough.

Question19.

A physician is evaluating a new diet for her patients with a family history of heart disease. To test the effectiveness of this diet, 16 patients are placed on the diet for 6 months. Their weights and triglyceride levels are measured before and after the study, and the physician wants to know if either set of measurements has changed. The data are found in dietstudy.sav of SPSS sample files. Use appropriate test to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-diet weights and triglyceride levels of these patients

Paired Samples Statistics

 Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Pair 1 Weight 198.38 16 33.472 8.368 Final weight 190.31 16 33.508 8.377 Pair 2 Triglyceride 138.44 16 29.040 7.260 Final triglyceride 124.38 16 29.412 7.353

Paired Samples Correlations

 N Correlation Sig. Pair 1 Weight & Final weight 16 .996 .000 Pair 2 Triglyceride & Final triglyceride 16 -.286 .283

As the study was made to know if there is a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-diet weights and triglyceride levels of these patients, a paired-samples t-test was appropriate test

1. There is a statistically significant decrease in weight from pre-diet (M = 198.38) to post- diet (M = 190.31), t(15)=11.175. Since the probability value p (0.000) <. 0005 (two- tailed) which is substantially smaller than our specified alpha value of .05, there is a significant difference in weight of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements. The mean decrease in weight is 8.062 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 6.525 to 9.600. The t value is used to calculate the effect size statistic squared (eta squared statistic).

Eta squared =

( )  SPSS Assignment Eta squared =

. ( ) = 0.893

.

According to Cohen 1988, pp. 284–7 guidlines, the Eta squared value .01=small effect, .06=moderate effect, .14=large effect. Since the Eta squared value obtained 0.893 is greater than 0.14, there is a large effect with a significant difference in weight of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements.

2. There is a statistically significant decrease in triglyceride from pre-diet (M = 138.44) to post-diet (M = 124.38), t(15)=1.200. Since the probability value p (0.249) <. 0005 (two- tailed) which is substantially smaller than our specified alpha value of .05, there is a significant difference in triglyceride of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements. The mean decrease in triglyceride is 14.062 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -10.915 to 39.040.

The effect size statistic squared (eta squared statistic):

Eta squared =

. . (

) = 0.0876

Since the Eta squared value obtained 0.0876 is in between 0.06 and 0.14, there is moderate effect with a significant difference in triglyceride of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements.  