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SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Question 1. Answers to Questions (a). The scatter plot of the two variables that

Question 1.

Answers to Questions

(a). The scatter plot of the two variables that are variable crate and variable educat treating crime rate as dependent variable is shown below. [file from crime.sav]

dependent variable is shown below. [ file from crime.sav ] (b). after superimposing a straight line

(b). after superimposing a straight line on to the scatter plot that is using the linear fit method, the relationship roughly looks linear R sq linear of .066. Although it may be curving up slightly or there may be an outlier. But if we use the cubic fit method the values are more fitted because the value of R [.242] for the cubic fit method is higher than the linear fit.

for the cubic fit method is higher than the linear fit. Msc program in Energy Technology,
for the cubic fit method is higher than the linear fit. Msc program in Energy Technology,

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment (c) From the Pearson’s correlation value we can say that, there is a perfect
SPSS Assignment (c) From the Pearson’s correlation value we can say that, there is a perfect

(c) From the Pearson’s correlation value we can say that, there is a perfect positive correlation between these variables, which is statically significant at the 5% level. Because the perason’s coefficient r is 1.

Correlations

Correlations

 

violent crime rate

pct hs graduates

violent crime rate[

Pearson Correlation

1

-.256

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.070

N

51

51

pct hs graduates

Pearson Correlation

-.256

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.070

 

N

51

51

1 Sig. (2-tailed) .070   N 51 51 Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
1 Sig. (2-tailed) .070   N 51 51 Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment (d) When the variable crate is correlate with variable educat the result of this

(d) When the variable crate is correlate with variable educat the result of this regression is

Model Summary

 

Adjusted R

Std. Error of the Estimate

Model

R

R Square

Square

1

.256 a

.066

.046

430.724

a. Predictors: (Constant), pct hs graduates

Coefficients a

 

Unstandardized

Standardized

95% Confidence Interval for

Coefficients

Coefficients

     

B

Model

B

Std. Error

Beta

t

Sig.

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1 (Constant)

2152.347

832.477

 

2.585

.013

479.421

3825.273

 

pct hs

             

graduates

-20.197

10.893

-.256

-1.854

.070

-42.087

1.693

a. Dependent Variable: violent crime rate

(E) plot of the standardized residual against the predicted values in order to detect any outliers

and to assess whether the relationship is linear and whether the residual variance is constant

is linear and whether the residual variance is constant Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
is linear and whether the residual variance is constant Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
is linear and whether the residual variance is constant Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment There is one residual greater than 4 and the trend indicates that there is

There is one residual greater than 4 and the trend indicates that there is approximately a linear relationship between crime rate and education. And from the scatter of points that tends to increase a little as the predicted value increases which indicating that the assumption of constant variance may not be appropriate.

Question2.

The data file for question 2 is in the country.sav which contains the demographic information of

122 countries.

(a). Explore the relationship between the variable using a scatter plot.

Dependent variable=lifeexpf

Independent variables=urban,docs,hospbed,gdp,and radio

The result of the scatter plot matrix is shown below.

radio The result of the scatter plot matrix is shown below. (b) The scatter plot matrix

(b) The scatter plot matrix using the logarithm of the variables that don’t have a linear relationship is depicted below. Logarithm of the variables are=lndocs,lnbeds,lngdp, and lnradio

As we can see easily from the scatter matrix plot the relationship is a linear relationship.

matrix plot the relationship is a linear relationship. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
matrix plot the relationship is a linear relationship. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment (C) using the forward selection to find the subset of variables that best explain
SPSS Assignment (C) using the forward selection to find the subset of variables that best explain

(C) using the forward selection to find the subset of variables that best explain the dependent

variable.

Dependent variable=lifeexp

Independent variables=lndocs,urban,lnbeds,lngdp,lnradio

Independent variables= lndocs,urban,lnbeds,lngdp,lnradio Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
Independent variables= lndocs,urban,lnbeds,lngdp,lnradio Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Coefficients a     Standardized     Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients
SPSS Assignment Coefficients a     Standardized     Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients
SPSS Assignment Coefficients a     Standardized     Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients

Coefficients a

   

Standardized

   

Unstandardized Coefficients

Coefficients

Model

B

Std. Error

Beta

t

Sig.

1

(Constant)

57.232

.688

 

83.233

.000

Natural log of doctors per

         

10000

6.290

.318

.880

19.792

.000

2

(Constant)

42.138

3.206

 

13.143

.000

Natural log of doctors per

         

10000

4.261

.513

.596

8.307

.000

Natural log of GDP

2.493

.519

.345

4.802

.000

3

(Constant)

41.697

3.140

 

13.278

.000

Natural log of doctors per

         

10000

4.123

.505

.577

8.168

.000

Natural log of GDP

1.871

.566

.259

3.306

.001

Natural log of radios per 100 people

1.684

.679

.142

2.482

.015

a. Dependent Variable: Female life expectancy 1992

Number of doctors, GDP and number of radio are all positively related to life expectancy in females after controlling for the other variables.

(d) The cook’s distance against the variable sequence

Dependent variable= lifeexp

Independent variable =lndocs,lngdp,lnradio

As we can see from the result of the plot of the matrix of the cook’s distance the most influential

countries are Chad,Afghanistan, an d Guinea.

influential countries are Chad, Afghanistan, an d Guinea. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
influential countries are Chad, Afghanistan, an d Guinea. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment (e) The distribution of the standardized residuals is shown below With some possible outliers
SPSS Assignment (e) The distribution of the standardized residuals is shown below With some possible outliers

(e) The distribution of the standardized residuals is shown below

With some possible outliers we can say that the distribution is normally distributed with the normal distribution.

is normally distributed with the normal distribution. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
is normally distributed with the normal distribution. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Question 3. (a) Independent sample T test (b) Independent sample T test (c) Paired
SPSS Assignment Question 3. (a) Independent sample T test (b) Independent sample T test (c) Paired

Question 3.

(a)

Independent sample T test

(b)

Independent sample T test

(c)

Paired T test

(d)

Paired T test

(e)

Independent T test

(f)

Paired test

(g)

Independent T test

Question 4.

In the SPSS statistics box gives us the mean and standard deviation for each of the groups in this case age. It also gives the number of people in each group (N). Always check these values first.

people in each group (N). Always check these values first. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical
people in each group (N). Always check these values first. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment The first section of the Independent Samples Test output box gives us the results

The first section of the Independent Samples Test output box gives us the results of Levene’s test for equality of variances. This tests whether the variance (variation) of ages for the two groups (populations) is the same. The outcome of this test determines which of the t-values that SPSS provides the correct one is. Since the significance value from the output [.82] is larger than .05 it should be the first column of the out table to be used, which is Equal variance is assumed.

In the given the output from the question, the significance level for Levene’s test is .82. This is larger than the cut-off of .05. This means that the assumption of equal variances has not been violated; therefore, when it is reported the t-value used is the one in the first column from the output.

From the out table the value of sig(2-tailed) in the first column is .000

cut off there is a significance difference in the population’s mean ages of the two groups.

less than .05 the required

mean ages of the two groups. less than .05 the required The value of t from

The value of t from the output table from the equal variance assumed column 3.9 and the values for N1 and N2 is the same from the output table 100. Up on substituting the value of the Eta squared is .0713. Then according to the guideline( proposed by Cohen,1998) for interoperating this value are .01=small effect .06= moderate effect .14= large effect For this particular question the, which have the effect size of .0713, effect is in the range of moderate and large.

An independent sample test was conducted to compare the average ages of people who buy and who don’t buy a product. There is a significance difference in buying the product [mean 29.45,SD 15.56 and mean 38, SD 15.49];t(198)=-3.9,p<.001) The magnitude of the difference in the means was large (eta squared=.0713).

Question 14. The data file for this question is school.sav and the aim is to check whether there are differences or not between the two groups that is above and below the median percentage of low income for all Chicago schools.

The group statics of the percent low income is shown below

The group statics of the percent low income is shown below Msc program in Energy Technology,
The group statics of the percent low income is shown below Msc program in Energy Technology,

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Group Statistics   above or below median loinc   N Mean Std. Deviation Std.
SPSS Assignment Group Statistics   above or below median loinc   N Mean Std. Deviation Std.
SPSS Assignment Group Statistics   above or below median loinc   N Mean Std. Deviation Std.

Group Statistics

 

above or below median loinc

 

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

 

Percent low income

above the median for low inc

 

32

73.219

 

8.7498

 

1.5468

%

1993

       

below the median for low inc

 

32

39.706

 

13.5002

 

2.3865

%

1993

       
 

Independent Samples Test

 
   

Levene's Test for Equality of

 
   

Variances

 

t-test for Equality of Means

 
           

Sig. (2-

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

   

F

Sig.

t

df

tailed)

Difference

Difference

Lower

Upper

Percent

Equal

                   

low

variances

5.793

.019

11.784

62

 

.000

33.5125

2.8439

27.8276

 

39.1974

income

assumed

   

Equal

                   

variances not

11.784

53.138

 

.000

33.5125

2.8439

27.8087

 

39.2163

assumed

   

From the Levene’s test for equality of variances we have sig. value of .019 which is less than below the cut off value .05. The means that the variance between the two group (below and above) are not the same. Therefore the value of t-test is used the one that is in the raw of variance not assumed. To find out whether there is a significance difference between the two groups, refer to the column labeled sig(2-tailed), which appears under the section labeled t-test for unequal means. In combination with the Leven’s test result this value is 000 which is below .05. Therefore there is a significant difference in the means of the two groups.

is a significant difference in the means of the two groups. Msc program in Energy Technology,
is a significant difference in the means of the two groups. Msc program in Energy Technology,

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Group Statistics   above or below median loinc N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error
SPSS Assignment Group Statistics   above or below median loinc N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error
SPSS Assignment Group Statistics   above or below median loinc N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error

Group Statistics

 

above or below median loinc

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

 

average ACT score 1994

above the median for low inc

 

32

 

15.022

 

.8746

 

.1546

%

1993

         

below the median for low inc

 

32

 

16.700

 

2.1506

 

.3802

%

1993

         
 

Independent Samples Test

 
   

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

 

t-test for Equality of Means

 
         

Sig. (2-

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 
 

F

Sig.

t

df

tailed)

Difference

Difference

Lower

Upper

average

Equal

                 
 

-

ACT score

variances

16.501

.000

62

.000

-1.6781

.4104

-2.4985

-.8577

 

4.089

1994

assumed

Equal

                 
 

-

 

variances not

40.982

.000

-1.6781

.4104

-2.5070

-.8493

 

4.089

 

assumed

In the similar approach there is a significance difference between the means of the two groups. Because the significance value under the labeled sig(2-tailed) is 000 which is below .05

under the labeled sig(2-tailed) is 000 which is below .05 Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical
under the labeled sig(2-tailed) is 000 which is below .05 Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Question 16. The data file for this question is buying.sav and the aim is

Question 16. The data file for this question is buying.sav and the aim is to test the null hypothesis of the following

1. Family buying score is the same when pictures are shown and when they are not. The result is shown below with its interpretation

Group Statistics

 

Picture

       

Accompanied

Question

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Family Buying Score

Pictures

48

159.08

27.564

3.979

No Pictures

50

168.00

21.787

3.081

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of

 

Variances

 

t-test for Equality of Means

 
         

Sig. (2-

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

F

Sig.

t

df

tailed)

Difference

Difference

Lower

Upper

Family

Equal variances

1.382

.243

-1.780

96

.078

-8.917

5.008

-18.858

1.025

Buying

assumed

Score

Equal variances

   

-1.772

89.42

.080

-8.917

5.032

-18.915

1.081

not assumed

9

From independent sample test we have the value of the significance .243 from the assumption of equal variance that is the Levene’s test and it is greater than the cut off that is .243>.05. This tells us which t-test to be used weather the Equal variance or the unequal variance assumption. But for this case since the Levene’s test value is greater than .05 then the t-test value is from the Equal variance assumption i.e value of t- that in the raw of equal variance. Therefore once the t- test value is determined the significance value can be identified. For this particular question the significance value that is P is .078. Since the value of p is greater than .05 [.078>.05] the null

the value of p is greater than .05 [.078>.05] the null Msc program in Energy Technology,
the value of p is greater than .05 [.078>.05] the null Msc program in Energy Technology,

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment hypothesis is not rejected. Therefore it is concluded that the family buying score is

hypothesis is not rejected. Therefore it is concluded that the family buying score is the same when the pictures are shown and when they are not.

An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture and without picture. There are no significance difference in scores with picture (M=159,SD=27.564) and without picture (M=159,SD=21.787;t(96)=-1.78,p=.078]. The magnitude of the difference in the mean is moderate (eta square=.03).

2. Ho: The average buying score for the husband is the same with and without pictures. Ho is the null hypothesis.

Group Statistics

 

Picture

   

Accompani

   

Std.

Std.

Error

ed Question

N

Mean

Deviation

Mean

Sum of husband's buying scores

Pictures

 

48

80.12

14.258

2.058

No Pictures

50

83.98

14.329

2.026

 

Independent Samples Test

 
 

Levene's

 

Test for

Equality of

Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

 
               

95%

Sig.

Confidence Interval of the Difference

(2-

Mean

Std. Error

 

F

Sig.

t

df

tailed)

Difference

Difference

Lower

Upper

Sum of

Equal

                 

husband's

variances

.036

.849

-1.335

96

.185

-3.855

2.889

-9.589

1.879

buying

assumed

scores

Equal

                 

variances

not

-1.335

95.874

.185

-3.855

2.888

-9.588

1.878

assumed

.185 -3.855 2.888 -9.588 1.878 assumed Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
.185 -3.855 2.888 -9.588 1.878 assumed Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment With similar approach of the above, the significance for this part is .185 from

With similar approach of the above, the significance for this part is .185 from [sig 2-tailed] column and it is greater than the cut off (.05), the null hypothesis is not rejected. Still the average buying score for husband is the same with and without picture.

An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture and without picture. There are no significance difference in scores with picture (M=80.12,SD=14.258) and without picture (M=83.98,SD=14.329;t(96)=-1.335,p=.185]. The magnitude of the difference in the mean is moderate (eta square=.018).

3.Ho : The average buying score for the wives is the same with and without pictures. Ho is the null hypothesis.

Group Statistics

 

Picture

     

Accompanied

 

Question

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Sum of wife's buying scores

Pictures

49

78.98

16.033

2.290

No Pictures

50

84.02

15.444

2.184

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of

 

Variances

 

t-test for Equality of Means

 
         

Sig. (2-

Mean

Std. Error

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

F

Sig.

t

df

tailed)

Difference

Difference

Lower

Upper

Sum of

Equal

                 

wife's

variances

.025

.876

-1.593

97

.114

-5.040

3.164 -11.319

1.239

buying

assumed

scores

Equal

     

96.

         

variances not

-1.593

.115

-5.040

3.165 -11.322

1.241

 

677

 

assumed

With similar approach of the above, the significance for this part is .114 from [sig 2-tailed] column and it is greater than the cut off (.05), the null hypothesis is not rejected. Still the average buying score for wives is the same with and without picture.

buying score for wives is the same with and without picture. Msc program in Energy Technology,
buying score for wives is the same with and without picture. Msc program in Energy Technology,

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture

An independent sample t-test is conducted to compare the family buying score with picture and without picture. There are no significance difference in scores with picture (M=78.98, SD=16.033) and without picture (M=84.02, SD=15.444;t(97)=-1.593,p=.114]. The magnitude of the difference in the mean is moderate (eta square=.025).

Question 18.

A manufacturer of high-performance automobiles produces disc brakes that must measure 322 millimeters in diameter. Quality control randomly draws 16 discs made by each of eight production machines and measures their diameters.

The appropriate test to determine whether or not the mean diameters of the brakes in each sample significantly differ from 322 millimeters is One Sample T Test to determine. The file for this question is brake.sav and its confidence interval is 90%

The descriptive statics which displays the sample size, mean, standard deviation, and standard error for each of the eight samples

The sample means disperse around the 322mm standard by what appears to be a small amount of variation.

One-Sample Statistics

Machine Number

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

1 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.219985E

   

16

2

.0111568

.0027892

2 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.220143E

   

16

2

.0106913

.0026728

3 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.219983E

   

16

2

.0104812

.0026203

4 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.219954E

   

16

2

.0069883

.0017471

5 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.220042E

   

16

2

.0092022

.0023005

6 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.220025E

   

16

2

.0086440

.0021610

7 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.220062E

   

16

2

.0093303

.0023326

8 Disc Brake Diameter (mm)

 

3.219967E

   

16

2

.0077085

.0019271

3.219967E     16 2 .0077085 .0019271 Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
3.219967E     16 2 .0077085 .0019271 Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Since their confidence intervals lie entirely above 0.0, it is possible to say that

Since their confidence intervals lie entirely above 0.0, it is possible to say that machines 2, 5 and 7 are producing discs that are significantly wider than 322mm on the average. And similarly, because its confidence interval lies entirely below 0.0, machine 4 is producing discs that are not wide enough.

Question19.

A physician is evaluating a new diet for her patients with a family history of heart disease. To test the effectiveness of this diet, 16 patients are placed on the diet for 6 months. Their weights and triglyceride levels are measured before and after the study, and the physician wants to know if either set of measurements has changed. The data are found in dietstudy.sav of SPSS sample files. Use appropriate test to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-diet weights and triglyceride levels of these patients

Paired Samples Statistics

 

Mean

N

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Pair 1

Weight

198.38

16

33.472

8.368

Final weight

190.31

16

33.508

8.377

Pair 2

Triglyceride

138.44

16

29.040

7.260

Final triglyceride

124.38

16

29.412

7.353

Paired Samples Correlations

 

N

Correlation

Sig.

Pair 1

Weight & Final weight

16

.996

.000

Pair 2

Triglyceride & Final triglyceride

16

-.286

.283

As the study was made to know if there is a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-diet weights and triglyceride levels of these patients, a paired-samples t-test was appropriate test

1. There is a statistically significant decrease in weight from pre-diet (M = 198.38) to post- diet (M = 190.31), t(15)=11.175. Since the probability value p (0.000) <. 0005 (two- tailed) which is substantially smaller than our specified alpha value of .05, there is a significant difference in weight of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements. The mean decrease in weight is 8.062 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 6.525 to 9.600. The t value is used to calculate the effect size statistic squared (eta squared statistic).

Eta squared =

( )

squared (eta squared statistic). Eta squared = ( ) Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
squared (eta squared statistic). Eta squared = ( ) Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering

SPSS Assignment

SPSS Assignment Eta squared = . ( ) = 0 . 8 9 3 . According

Eta squared =

. ( ) = 0.893

.

According to Cohen 1988, pp. 284–7 guidlines, the Eta squared value .01=small effect, .06=moderate effect, .14=large effect. Since the Eta squared value obtained 0.893 is greater than 0.14, there is a large effect with a significant difference in weight of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements.

2. There is a statistically significant decrease in triglyceride from pre-diet (M = 138.44) to post-diet (M = 124.38), t(15)=1.200. Since the probability value p (0.249) <. 0005 (two- tailed) which is substantially smaller than our specified alpha value of .05, there is a significant difference in triglyceride of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements. The mean decrease in triglyceride is 14.062 with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -10.915 to 39.040.

The effect size statistic squared (eta squared statistic):

Eta squared =

. . (

) = 0.0876

Since the Eta squared value obtained 0.0876 is in between 0.06 and 0.14, there is moderate effect with a significant difference in triglyceride of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements.

of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering
of the patients between the pre- and post-diet measurements. Msc program in Energy Technology, Mechanical Engineering