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C.A.D.

SYNOPSIS
Page No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT REPORT INTRODUCTION TO C.A.D.A BHADRA C.A.D.A. A. PROFILE WORKING MANAGEMENT OF BHADRA C.A.D.A COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME OF GOVERNMENTS 6. 7. ANALYSIS OF SURVEY FINDINGS PROBLEMS, SUGGESTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE MAPS 71 -91 92-107 108-120 1 - 12 13 -24 25 -40 41 -70

BIBLIOGRAPHY

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

CHAPTER- 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT REPORT

INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES METHODOLOGY AREA OF THE STUDY BENEFITS LIMITATIONS

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

INTRODUCTION

This Project report is entitled

COMMAND AREA

DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY AND ITS PROGRAMMES with special reference to BHADRA COMMAND AREA

DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY SHIMOGA.

Is bought out to

know the over all developmental activities and functions of BHADRA COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY Malavagoppa, Shimoga.

This Project Report have certain objectives with the partial Courses. fulfillment This Bachelor report of Business with Management COMMAND
AREA

Project
AND

deals

DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY

ITS PROGRAMMES. Command area

means command irrigated area in relation to one or more irrigation projects such area as may be notified by the state government, comprising other lands benefited by such

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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irrigation project or projects AUTHORITY means COMMAND

AREA

DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY constituted under section 3 of the KARNATAKA COMMAND


AREA

DEVELOPMENT

ACT,

1980.

This

AUTHORITY main

function

is

to

inspiring

the

Agricultural

activity

and

stimulating to increase the Agricultural Production in irrigated area. This Project Report shows the command area development programme of government. This report is identifies the various problems are encountering in

command area and also to give related suggestions for those problems.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT REPORT

The objectives of the project report are:

To

make

the

detailed

study

about

over

all

developmental objectives and activities of Command Area Development Authority.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

To know about the profile of the Bhadra Command Area Development Authority.

To know about the Organization structure of the Bhadra Command Area Development Authority.

To know about the financial resources and its necessity for improvements of command irrigated area of Bhadra Command Area Development Authority.

To make a study about over all working management of the Bhadra Command Area Development Authority.

To

study

regarding

the

Co-Operative

activities

to

promote active participation of farmers in the irrigation activity and water management.

To

know

about

the

working

progress

of

Bhadra

Command Area Development Authority.

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C.A.D.A

To

know

about

the

Command

Area

Development

programme of government.

To identifying the problems of Bhadra Command Area Development Authority and it covers farmers (stake holders) in irrigated area and to give related

suggestions.

To the partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Business Management Courses.

METHEDOLOGY

The Data is collected for the preparation of Project report includes

1. Primary data 2. Secondary data.

Primary data

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

i)

The

Primary

data

is

collected

through personal interview with the C.A.D.A. Administration and its staff of the Authority. ii) Interviewed with number of farmers in irrigated area, to collect field Information. survey In was this regard the

conducted;

questionnaires are prepared.

Secondary data: The Secondary data has been collected through the books, journal, Annual reports and other related manual of Project in the Authority.

Area of the Study:

The Bhadra Command area Development Authority, which is located in Malavagoppa, Shimoga, and also

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C.A.D.A

number of farmers, those who are members of water users Co-Operative Societies they are located in eight taluks covering three districts among them Shimoga, Bhadravathi, Davanagere, Tarikere, and Malebennur. These areas are chosen for the study.80 respondents are selected and their information and opinion about various aspects of the Command Area Development Authority and its functioning are collected. Benefits: This project report has several benefits they are numarised bellow:

1. The study makes us to know the C.A.D.A. and its programmes 2. The report is helpful to know about the farmers wants, requirements and agricultural activities needed over all development in irrigated area. 3. This report is helpful to know the working management of Bhadra C.A.D.A.

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4. It

increases

the

knowledge

about

developmental

agricultural activities in country. 5. This report ensures partial fulfillment of bachelor of business management course.

Limitations: This project report have some limitations they numarised below:

1. Due to time constrains, limited no., of respondents (only80) are interviewed. 2. Respondents are reluctant to give information; Hence information provided by them may be biased. 3. Partial justices are made in this report due to lack of time.

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4. 4. The up to date information could not be obtained from C.A.D.A. at the time of year-end busy. preparing project report due to

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CONTENTS
CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT REPORT

INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE METHODOLOGY AREA OF THE STUDY BENEFITS LIMITATIONS

CHAPTER - II INTRODUCTION TO COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY


GENERAL INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES. POTENTIALITY OF C.A.D.A. SPHERE OF ACTIVITIES. IMPORTANCE LIMITATION

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CHAPTER - III BHADRA C.A.D.A. A. PROFILE


PROFILE HISTORY BACKDROP ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE MEETING PROCEDURE FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND ITS NECESSITY

CHAPTER - IV WORKING MANAGEMENT OF BHADRA C.A.D.A.

WORKING MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING FIELD WORKING MANAGEMENT IN CO-OPERATIVE FIELD WORKING MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE FIELD PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED LAND AND WATER RESOURCES

MANAGEMENT

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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CHAPTER - V COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME OF

GOVERNMENT

INTRODUCTION CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE STATE GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE

CHAPTER - VI ANALYSIS OF SURVEY FINDINGS

CHAPTER - VII PROBLEMS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ANNEXURE: QUESTIONNAIRE MAPS BIBLIOGRAPHY

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CHAPTER - 2

INTRODUCTION OF COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES


GENERAL INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES POTENTIALITY OF C.A.D.A SPHERE OF ACTIVITIES IMPORTANCE LIMITATION

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C.A.D.A

General Introduction: The Command Area development Programme was launched in the State at the commencement of fifth five year Plan (1974-80) for implementation of command area development programmes. In pursuance of the Policy of the Government of India for integrated and development of the Command Area of comprehensive of major & medium irrigation project. The state government constituted the Command Area development authority for the Tungabhadra project at Munirabadh during (1974) Ghataprabha and malaprabha at belagam during (1976). Cauvery basin Projects at Mysore during (1974). And to Upper Krishna Project during 1977. The command Area Development Authority of Bhadra Project was constituted during 1979. The Command Area Development Authority of irrigation project zone, Gulbarga was constituted during 2000. The Command Area Development Authority was given statutory
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backing from December 1979, with the enactment of the Karnataka Command Area Development Act 1980. The area, which can be irrigated by an irrigation projects, is called Command Area. A development of Command area envisages developing this command area by creating a proper water distribution and network and management facilities, for optimum utilization of available

water. Command area development authorities have been formed for the comprehensive and systematic development of the area in which the benefited areas of the irrigation projects are situated.

The

major

functions

of

the

Command

area

Development Authority are: Reclamation of water logged areas. Construction of field irrigation channels (FIC),

Construction of field drains, On farm development (OFD). Adoptions of warabandi system for distribution of water. Adoption and enforcement of suitable cropping pattern use of surface and ground water. Extension training and demonstration Programmes. All-round development of

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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areas

to

agricultural

implementation

of

participatory

irrigation management.

OBJECTIVES Command area development scheme is implemented to achieve Mainly the following objectives: 1 To bringing the land records up-to-date for land survey and mapping with Arial photograph. 2 3 Conservation of land and water. Construction of field irrigation channels with related structures. 4 5 Construction of field drains with related structures. Land shaping including grading, leveling, bounding and etc., 6 Of field boundaries and regularization of plots under a pipe outlet or an pipe outlet for efficient farm

management.

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Realignment of field boundaries and regulation of plots under a pipe outlet or an adjacent pipe outlet for efficient farm of management.

Lining of field channels with suitable material to prevent seepage of water.

Construction of and upgradation of farm roads with related structures.

10 Grouping a small holding in a continuous area near the outlet and larger ones further away 11 Other ancillary measures to avoid wastage of water and prevent water logging, salinity, alkalinity and etc., 12 Conjunctive use of surface and ground water for multiple cropping and proper utilization of available resources. 13 All-round development on the farm in the areas pertaining to agriculture, horticulture, sericulture, farm forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, communication, agro based industry and Co-operation. 14 Introduction and implementation of participatory

Irrigation management.

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15 Reclamation of water logged area in the layout of CAD projects.

With a view to set suitable policy directions in order to facilitate CADAs development works would go smoothly and it also helps to ensure that administrative and technical services are provided in time. Government has constituted C.A.D.A board consisting of officers of various Development Departments and non-official members such as

representative of small farmers, artisans, and farmers association for administrative supervisions. This authority meets once in three months and reviews the policies and problems relating Command Area Development.

POTENTIALITY OF THE CADA: The ultimate irrigation potential is the gross area that can be irrigated project in a design period for a projected cropping pattern and assured water allowance in its full development. The grass area irrigated will be the aggregate of the areas irrigated in the different crop

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

seasons, the areas under three seasonal and perennial crops being counted only once in a year.

Irrigation potential creation: The irrigation potential created by a project at a given time during or after its construction is the aggregate grass area that can be irrigated annually by the quantity of the water made available by all the connected and completed up to the end of the water courses or the last point in the water delivery system up to which the government is responsible for construction.

Irrigation potential utilization The irrigation potential utilized is the total gross area actually irrigated by project during the year under

consideration. Government of India has instructed that the details of potential created and utilized are to prepared by irrigation deportment.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

SPHERE OF ACTIVITIES C.A.D.A stands for bridging the gap between potential created and potential utilized. So as to maximize crop production and increase the utilization of created potential. C.A.D.A. Undertake the following activities. 1. Formulation and implementation of schemes for the comprehensive development of the command area. 2. Evolve equitable water distribution policy for the Command Area to ensure proper maintenance of the irrigation system. 3. 4. Prevention of land erosion and water logging. Improvement of soil fertility and regulation of cropping pattern.. 5. Ensuring the efficient maintenance of field channels and field drains by the farmers with area. 6. Reclamation of water logged to be given for irrigated waterlogged area only. in the command

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

7.

Localization and Delocalisation of lands for various crops.

8.

Ensuring supplies of all inputs and also ensuring services.

9.

Promotion and setting up of rural growth and centers for integrated development of command areas.

10.

Arranging for credit facilities to the farmers and artisans.

11. 12.

Organizing agricultural co-operatives and associations. Ensuring the formation of farm channels and drains and also necessary land Development.

13. 14.

Construction of field channels and field drains. Ensuring the formation of farm channels and drains and also necessary land Development Works with in individual holdings.

15.

Borrowing and lending money necessary for the due discharge of functions. water. Use of surface and ground

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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16. Ensuring that the beneficiaries form users associations and attend to equitable unit. 17. Setting up agricultural demonstration farms and promoting extension activities. 18. Adaptive demonstration and agricultural training Water distribution each

programme. 19. Acquisition possession for disposal of properties to movable and immovable for the Development of the Command Area. IMPORTANCE The several Command objectives, The Area Development and also of authority it has has some is

functions. main

importance.

importance

command

development authorities are numarised below. 1. Preparation and implementation of developmental projects for the over all development of the command area from the projects some backward area are improved.
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

2.

Reviewing and ensuring the availability of materials are agricultural operations and necessary service at appropriate time.

3.

Arrangement

for

adoptive

trials

and

effective

extension of programmes. It ensures an optimum experiments and effective advertisement of seeds, fertilizers etc., 4. Improving fertility of the soil and prescribe appropriate cropping pattern in the availability of water. 5. Taking up the measures to encourage conjunctive use of irrigation water and to introduce incentive steps in this regard. 6. Integrated efforts in order to develop growth centers in command area.. 7. The importance is laid to organize new agricultural cooperative Societies in the rural parts of command area and to develop and support the existing agricultural

co-operative societies in the area so that the farmers get loans and other services from the societies in time.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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8.

The emphasis is laid on to establish and to facilitate water users co-operation societies to make them perform will and become viable in the command area in order to promote a decentralized and self regulated management system for the efficient water

distribution and land and water management.

LIMITATIONS 1. 2. The Government grants will provide insufficient and there is no correlation between target and grants. The Command Area Development Authority has covered only notified irrigated area. It has not covered non-irrigated area. 3. 4. 5. 6. Some irrigated areas are not properly developed which is located in tail-end command area. Sometime Administrative cost is very high. Lack of proper management Lack of unity in C.A.D.A.area

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

CHAPTER - 3

BHADRA COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY-A PROFILE


PROFILE BRIEF HISTORY ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE MEETING PROCEDURE FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND ITS NECESSITY

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

A-PROFILE

The Bhadra Reservoir Project was completed in the year 1956-57 and the command area is being developed gradually. The Bhadra command area development

authority is constituted by an Act of the Karnataka state Legislature in the year 1979-80 for the overall development of Bhadra Command Area. This Authority has jurisdiction over the command areas of Bhadra command Area of Bhadra Reservoir Project, Tunga anicut, Gondi and

devarabelakere Anicut (pickup). It is in overall charge of the comprehensive development of command area. Viz.,

conservation of land and water, construction of field irrigation channels and field drains, land reclamation of water logged area, formation of farm roads, implementation of warabandi programme etc. The Authorities ensures that effective measures are taken by the concerned department

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to protect the fertility of soil, availability of good seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc., in time and in sufficient quantity and also ensures that the farmers would crop loan required, before cropping seasons, from banks as well as cooperative societies well in time to help their agricultural programme and production., The Authorities has taken steps to co-ordinates the functions of department of water resources, Agricultural, co-operation etc., to see that the

targeted production and productivity of food crops oil seeds, pulses and other crops in command area is maintained and achieved. With a view to take policy decision for overall development of the command area and to give necessary suggestions to the authority with a view to carry out the development works. Government has constituted Bhadra CADA consisting of officers of the various departments and non-official members. Such as members of Rajya Sabha members State Legislative Representatives of small

farmers, artisans representatives of farmers association and so on. This authority meets out lease once in three months.
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In the meeting the authority reviews the progress of deprival works water management, food productions

problems regarding inputs of any etc. BRIEF HISTORY The river Bhadra takes its origin from the Varaha Hills in Chikamagalore district. In the western gate of Karnataka State. The river flows for 192 K.M.S. before it joins Tunga River in Kudli 14 km. East of Shimoga. These two rivers after there. How as the Tunga Bhadra river that is the main tributary to river Krishna.

A Dam across river Bhadra has been constructed at a distance of 1.60 km. From Lakkavally village of Tharikere Taluk, Chikamagalore District. The dam was designed to irrigate an area of 1,05,370. The dam completed 1956 and water allowed for irrigation as and when the work on the canal system progressed.

The numbers of areas are getting benefits from Bhadra Reservoir Project. The Bhadra Command Area
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Development Authority was established in Shimoga for the purpose of development of the above area. The Bhadra Command Area Development authorities also covered 3 projects: 1. Tunga Anicut Project The Tunga River takes its birth at Ganga Moola in the western Ghats and flows through Thirthahalli and Shimoga Taluk. The river Bhadra joins it at Kudli and after the conference the river is called Tunga Bhadra River. An over flow of dam has been constructed across the river tunga distance of 12 kms. From Shimoga near the villager Sakrebylu. This project provides for the utilization of part of the command area. The main object of this project is to supply water to the famine striken areas of Honnali and Shimoga Taluk to as extent. 2. Gondi Project (Sub anicut)

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In Bhadravathi Taluk an Anicut has been constructed across the river Bhadra at Gondi village at distance of 16 kms. From the B.R.P. The total area irrigated by 4464 hect. 3. Devarabelakere Project: A Pickup is constructor below the confluence of shanty sagar near Devarabelakere village to irrigate 4.198 Hect, using the seepage of Bhadra Anicut, which gets in to these valleys. The project is estimated to cost Rs.580 lakhs and it include the heard work comprising of an open spice way and canals. The works on the canals are in progress. ORGANIZATIONAL SET UP According to Karnataka command area Development Act 1980 sec.11: The Government Officials was appointed as Administrator of Bhadra C.A.D.A. Superintendent Engineer of Public Welfare department (P.W.D.) was appointed as Land Development Officer (Engineer) on Deputation service. Joint Director of agricultural Department who is appointed as Land Development Officer (Agriculture) and Joint Registrar

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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of co-Operative department who is appointed as Land Development Officer (Co-operation). The No., of Junior Officers are officer of the above class one Officers regarding their department. And also commissioner officers of

Revenue Department (i.e.K.A.S. Officers) who is appointed as Deputy Administrator and Deputy controller of state accounting department who is appointed as Chief

Accounting Officer.Organizational Chart of Bhadra CADA.

CHAIRMAN

ADMINISTRATOR

DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR

L.D.O. (ENG)

L.D.O. (CO-OP)

L.D.O. (AGRI)

CHIEF ACCOUNTING OFFICER

Administration Staff

Assistant Engineer

Senior Inspector Of Co-op

Assistant Agricultur e Officer

Accounts Superintende nt

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A Section

The above chart is alternatively explained below.

CHAIRMAN A Chairman is a person who is appointed by the state Government. He is the link between government and the Office. He is head of the C.A.D.A. he conducts and presides the meeting. ADMINISTRATOR The Administrator is a class one Officer of the Bhadra CADA. He manages or supervises the land developing activities regarding engineering section, co-operation

section, and also agriculture section of the Bhadra C.A.D.A. Unless the Authority has a chairman the administrator become as chairmen (i.e.incharge). The entire activity of the authority is laid on him. The administrator should possess some optimum qualities. Viz., efficiency, honesty, integrity, heavy intelligence, tactfulness, supervising skill

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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etc. Generally Secretariat of Government, I.A.S. and I.F.S. institutions appoint the administrator of the authority.

Deputy Administrator Deputy Administrator is also one of the class one officers of the Authorities. He maintains the work regarding entire official work and he is also a in-charging

administrator of the authorities. He selected by K.A.S. institutions or Assistant Commissioner Officer of revenue department.

Land Development Officer (Engg) An officer of the irrigation deportment not bellow the rank of a superintending Engineer, as the land development officer (Engineering) of the authority. He is also class one officer of the authority. He can maintain the work regarding the entire engineering works of the authority. The public welfare departments are appointing him.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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Land Development Officer (Co-Op) An officer of the co-operation deportment not bellows the rank of joint registrar of co-operative societies (J.R.C.S.), as the land development officer (co-operation) of the authority. He is a class one officer of the authority. He can maintain the overall Co-operative activities of the authority. Land Development Officer (Agri) An officer of the agriculture deportment not bellows the rank of a Joint Director of Agriculture (J.D.A), as the land development officer (Agriculture) of the authority. He one of the class one officer of the authority. He can maintain and manage the overall agricultural activity of the Authority. The agricultural department appoints him. Chief Accounting Officer (C.A.O.) An officer of the state accounts deportment not bellow the rank of a deputy controller of state accounts, as the Chief Accounting Officer of the authority. He is one of the

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class one officers of the authority. He can maintain the entire accounting activities or financial activities of the authorities. Administrative Staff The Administrative staffs are subordinations of the Administrator or Deputy Administrator. Administrative staff called Manager Personal assistants, Clerks etc., Assistant Engineer: He is a subordinate of The Land development officer Of Engineering section of the authority. Senior Inspector of Co-Operation section He is a Subordinator of Land development officer of Co-operation section or Joint Registrar of Co-Operative Societies (JRCS). Assistant Agriculture Officer (A.A.O) He is a subordinate of Land development officer agriculture section or Joint Director of Agriculture (J.D.A).

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Accounting Superintendent He is a subordinate of Chief Accounting Officer (C.A.O). He maintains clerical work regarding account section of the authority.

MEETING PROCEDURE The authority shall meet at least once in three months ordinarily at the office of the Authority, or at such other place within the Command Area as the Chairman may decide and shall subject to the provisions of sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meeting as may be provided by regulation. The Chairman or in his absence any member chosen by the members present from among themselves, shall preside at a meeting of the Authority. If any member, being the vice-chancellor of the Agricultural University, or an officer of the State

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Government, is unable to attend any meeting of the Authority, he may under intimation to the Chairman, authorize his immediate subordinate officer in writing, to do so. All questions at a meeting of the Authority shall be decided by a majority of the votes of the members present and voting and in the case of an equality of votes, the chairman or, in his absence, the member presiding will have a second or casting vote. Quorum for a meeting of the Authority shall be five. The Authority may associate with itself in such manner and for such purposes as may be provided by regulations, any person whose assistance or advice it may desire in performing any of its functions under the Act. The person so associated shall have the right to take part in the meetings of the Authority relating to the purpose but shall not be entitled to vote. The Bhadra Command area Development authority could have 2 meetings. 1. Board Meeting.
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2. I.C.C. Meeting. Board Meeting The Bhadra CADA can precede the Board Meeting during 3 month in one time. This Meeting has proceeded by Board Members of Bhadra CADA. Chairman and

Administrator of Bhadra CADA. In this meeting, they are discussed Channels, about Field the construction formation of of Field Irrigation roads, and

Drains, of

farm

Implementation

Warabandi

Programmes

Establishment of Water Users co-operative Societies, their in between are registered and how much are M.O.U. and how much have management subsidy and discussed about related matters. Any matters are discussed by this meeting they are properly filed by the office staff. I.C.C. Meeting Bhadra C.A.D.A. has another Meeting called I.C.C. Meeting (i.e., Irrigation Consultative committee Meeting). This Meeting called and proceeds by Superintendent Engineer of Bhadra Reservoir Project and I.C.C membersC.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

with permission and co-operation of Chairmen of Bhadra C.A.D.A. This meeting can proceed during needed in any time in this meeting the committee has taking decision on the area and crop to be irrigated, date of allowing and stopping water in channels etc., for Kharif and Summer crops. FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND ITS NECESSITY The Bhadra Command Area Development Authority did not have own financial resources. It is supported by 100% Government Grants. The Authority can distribute these grants among four sectors. 1. The Administration: Authority can spend the grant amount on its

administrative activities. That is Establishment and other maintenance expenses. 2. The Engineering sectors Authority can spend the grant amount on its

developmental activities regarding engineering field. The financial necessity of the in this field for the construction of
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Field

channels,,

Field

Drains,

Farm

Roads

and

implementation of warabandi programme etc.

1. Co-operative sectors This Authority can spend the grant amount on its cooperative activities. I.e., establishment of Water Users Cooperative Societies for the proper utilization and

management of water and collection of water rates and financial necessity for the construction of society godowncum-office buildings for the marketing processing and storage of the agricultural in puts and outputs,

implementing and sponsoring the training programme for Human Resources Development. 2. Agricultural sectors: The Authority can spend the grant amount, on its activities regarding Agricultural field. Financial assistants for in this field reclamation of lands affected by water logging, alkalinity salinity. And also spent for Adoptive trails and large-scale demonstration programme, soil survey and conservation activities.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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CHAPTER 4

WORKING MANAGEMENT OF BHADRA C.A.D.A.


WORKING MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING SECTOR WORKING MANAGEMENT IN CO-OPERATIVE SECTOR WORKING MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT INTEGRATED LAND AND WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

WORKING MANAGEMENT OF COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY:

The working of the command Area Development Authority is physical development the irrigated Agriculture Area. The working management of the command Area development authority nothing but management or

programme of overall developmental work in irrigated area viz., Management of Developmental works regarding in engineering Field in Co-operative field and in Agriculture Field. The Authority can provide the service and facilities to farmers of irrigated area or Command Area .The total working and Management of C.A.D.A. are broadly clarified in to 3 parts, but be fore knowing, these three parts we have to give emphasis for the following table.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

IN BHADRA CADA: IRRIGATION POTENTIAL AND CROPPING PATTERN: The ultimate potential of Bhadra project, Tunga Anicut and Gondi anicut are 1,05,570 hect, 8701 hect, and 4466 hect, respectively totaling to118737 hect. Talukwise Irrigation Potential utilized under Bhadra Project, Tunga Anicut and Gondi anicut are as follows: Sl No. 1 Irrigated Area Center B.R.P. Tunga Gondi 4423 16675 5427 --4466

Taluk Shimoga District: Shimoga Tq. Bhadravathi Tq. Chikamagalore District: Tharikere Tq. Davanagere District: Harihara Davanagere Honnali Channagiri Harapanahalli Total

Total

9850 21141

2 3

5067 28326 26415 8829 12111 3724 105570

---3274 --8701

------4466

5067 28326 26415 12111 12111 3724 118737

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

THE CROPS GROWN IN NOTIFIED AREAS ARE AS FOLLOWS: Bhadra Project- (Areas In Hector) Crops Sugarcane Paddy Garden crops Semi-dry crops Total Tunga Anicut-(Areas In Hector) Kharif 12000 400000 2436 51134 1,05,507 Summer 11528 7000 2012 81964 1,02,504

Crops Sugarcane Paddy Garden crops Semi-dry crops Total

Kharif 535 7782 384 8,701

Summer 403 403

Gondi Anicut- (Areas In Hector) Crops Sugarcane Paddy Garden crops Semi-dry crops Total Kharif 7370 3570 120 39 4,466 Summer 738 120 3608 4,466

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

THE WORKING MANAGEMENT OF BHADRA C.A.D.A. IS CLASSIFIED AS 3 SECTORS 1. Working management in Engineering sector. 2. Working in Co-operative sector. 3. Working in Agricultural sector. Working management in Engineering sector. The command Area Development Authority has

undertaken the activity regarding Engineering Field as Explained below.

i. Construction of Field Channels. ii. Construction of Field Drains. iii. Implementation of Warabandi iv. Construction of Farm Roads. .

i. Construction and improvements of Field Channel.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Field Channels have been constructed long bank, along with project works in the Command Areas of Bhadra Reservoir, tunga and Gandhi anicut. As they are not in good condition and requires improvements. Moreover in part of paddy growing area field-to-field irrigation is in practices. In order to ensure timely and equitable distribution of water to each field in the command area. There is required to improvement the existing field channels and extension of field channels are constructed. So water will reach each individual land. Following table shows the 5-year working progress in construction of Field Irrigation channels.

Years 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003

Financials (Rs.in lakhs.) Targets Achievemen 171.00 211.76 169.00 252.00 165.00 t 186.25 272.61 213.22 276.64 132.87

Physical (in Hect) Target Achievemen 1140 3200 2816 4200 2750 t 2340 36 1716 3428 1544

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Construction of Field Drains: In order to drain out excess water in the fields, field drains are construct. Flowing table shows 5-year working progress in construction of field drains.

Years 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

Financials (Rs.in Physical (in Hect) lakhs.) Targets Achievemen Target Achievemen 16.00 60.00 60.00 20.00 36.00 t 31.77 36.00 31.05 42.26 38.89 1263 5100 6000 2000 3600 t 2620 3042 3079 6168 3049

1.

Implementation of Warabandi Programme:

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Water, the natural gift of God, now it is becoming scarce day by day. Hence proper economic utilization of the water has become absolutely necessary. Introduction of Warabandi is the first and best method. Warabandhi programme is originally concerned to government with minimum interference of the farmers to ensure equitable water distribution to the large number of cultivators in an outlet command. The warabandi programme is introduced not merely on equity in management of water on the farm but also takes in to consideration the cropping the crop water requirement and soil condition. Government of India is now giving more emphasis in the introduction of warabandi system in all the committed projects. It is to be noticed that the segment upstream from outlet and the down stream segment are to be managed simultaneously for the proper working of warabandi

systems. Hence the entire system from main cannal to field channel has to be incurred under warabandi of CADA for the efficient utilization of the created potential.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Flowing table shows 5-year working progress in implementation of warabandi programme.

Years 199899 199900 200001 200102 200203

Financial (Rs.in lakhs.) Targets Achievemen t 14.00 21.22 10.00 7.00 6.00 3.00 7.78 6.60 5.45 1.62

Physical (in Hect) Target Achievemen t 2567 3719 2000 6000 2000 1000 1846 3079 2307 507

Construction of Farm/Ayacut Roads: There is existing demand for farm /Ayacut Roads in command area for the transportation of Agricultural inputs and output therefore they have decided to construct farm Roads.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Flowing table shows 5-year working progress in formation of farm roads

Years 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

Financial (Rs.in lakhs.) Targets Achievemen t -108.77 108.23 69.53 149.00 64.13 66.00 87.97 17.00 27.46

Physical (in Km) Target Achievemen t -107.1 55 28 75 55.55 33 117 6 40.41

WORKING MANAGEMENT IN CO-OPERATION SECTOR. The Bhadra Command Area Development Authority has undertaken the activities regarding co-operative

department., as explained below. Establishing the water users co-operative societies for proper utilization and management of water and collection of water charges. In the Bhadra command area 298 units have been identified for the purposes of establishment of water users co-operation societies. So far 284 Water Users Co-operative

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Societies are registered like-wise in order to have an authority for water management in their jurisdiction. 59 Water Users Co-operative Societies have entered in to Memorandum of understanding with water resources

department. Actions are being taens to establish all the societies in the identified areas and to see that all the Water Users Co-operative Societies are entering into M.O.U. with W.R.D for the purpose of water management. Financial Assistance for the construction of societies Godowns cum office it is established with the view to enhance the marketing processing and storage capacities and to provide credit and other facilities to the farmers and rural artisans and they also provide limiting 60% of estimated cost to the primary agricultural co-operative society for the They construction conduct of godown sponsor cum the officer training and

buildings.

and

programmes

about

co-operation,

Administration

agricultural management for the development of human resource.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Sanctioning

of

management

subsidy

and

recommending loan and subsidy from NCDC (National Cooperative Development Corporation) to those Water Users Co-operative Memorandum department. They have also taken measures to promote Societies, of which have with entered water into

understanding

resources

conjunctive use of water in Tail- end command areas. Providing subsidy to the members belonging to sc/sts for the installation of pump set to irrigation, to be wee at the rate of 60% of total cost (limiting subsidy amount to Rs.30, 000/- per beneficiary). The Water Users Co-operative Societies are involved in the implementation of this scheme.

Providing

grants

for

the

enrollment

of

farmers

belonging to sc/sts as members of water user co-operative societies for their respective jurisdictions.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Since the farmers belonging to sc/sts in command area are economically/socially backward, each farmers of this category was sanctioned with Rs.100/- so as to enable them to become members of their jurisdictional Water Users Co-operative Societies. As such during 2002-03 Under S.C.P. (special component plan) a sum of Rs.190600/- has been sanctioned in respect of 1906 farmers and under T.S.P.(traible sub plan) a sum of Rs.48700/- respect of 487 farmers and the same has been released to the concerned Water Users Co-operative Societies there by helping and encouraging such farmers to participate actively in the affairs of concerned societies. PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES; Public relations activities base CADAs image among the farmers and public through various methods. Basically public relation activities aims of a available water for increasing agricultural production. Principle of farmers participation in the development of command areas. Introduction and implementation of participatory irrigation management (PIM). Needs awareness campaign to the
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

farmers flock and this leads to the sphere of action by public relations wing. For the effective implementation of awareness programmes, C.A.D.A. public relations wing conduct, field publicity programmer like. Exhibitions. Public relation activities of C.A.D.A. deal with issuing of press releases. Recently audiovisual methods are being used for the effective expression of communication to farmers and the public.

Procedures

are

should

be

following

giving

management subsidy by Bhadra CADA to Water Users Cooperative Societies they are entered into MOU with WRD. Under the participatory Irrigation management

programme the Water Users Co-operative Societies can elect the contributions from its members Rs.225/-

protection are Rs.225/-1. Per hect from central government through Administrative Office of CADA. The society can use this sums as working capital for the maintenance. Progress in Co-Operative Works:

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Right from the beginning the Bhadra Command Area Development Authority had successful performance in its co-operation works. Recently in five years before the Bhadra C.A.D.A. has achieved the progress in co-operation work as explained below. 1.Establishment of Water usage Co-Operative Societies for the proper utilization and management of water and collection of water rates: During 98-99 The W.U.C.S. have been formed in the command areas of this authority. The relevant Acts and Rules pending for the consideration of Government. The authority has recommended to State Government to allow some of these societies to take over water management in anticipation of approval to the amendment. The urgent rehabitation works in respect of two societies have already been done during 1998-99. During 99-2000, till the year 1998-99 21 Water Users Co-operative Societies have been established for proper and systematic usage of water in command area. It is aimed to increase the yield of various
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

crops by distributing the water through Water Users Cooperative Societies for the ensuring year CADA targeted to establish 206 Water Users Co-operative Societies with the concurrence Agricultural and Co-operation Department. During 2000-01 the Authority has recommended about to establish 298 Water Users Co-operative Societies at the end of the year there are 228 Water Users Co-operative Societies are established in this year. The Authority has spent Rs. 97,000/- for the distribution of books 2 Training for the Water users and uses spent Rs.4.97 lakhs for the participatory irrigation management. During 2001-02 in the Bhadra Command Area 298 units of Command Area have been identified for the purpose of establishment of Water Users Co-operative Societies in this regard 228 Water Users Co-operative Societies are established in previous year. In this year. The Water Users Co-operative Societies are increase to 273. In order to have an authority for water management in their jurisdiction. 27 Water Users Cooperative Societies have extended into Memorandum of understanding (MOU) with water resources department.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

During 2002-03 at the end of the year 284 Water Users Cooperative Societies are established. In this year 59 Water Users Co-operative Societies are have MOU with WRD. Actions are being taken to establish all the remining societies in the identified areas and to see that all the Water Users Co-operative Societies are enter into MOU with WRD for the purpose of water management. 2. etc., During 98-99, 8 co-operative societies have been erected for constructing their business premises according to their accounting to their needs. An amount of Rs.6.36 lakhs has been released as subsidy from the CADA (60% of the estimations of the works). During 99-2000 Rs30, 05,050/lakhs has been sanctioned to 48 societies for completion of Godown construction during 2000-01. Rs.14.08 lakhs has been sanctioned to 14 societies for the construction of office during 2001-02 with a view to enhance the with a view to enable the marketing, processing and storage capacities and to ensure providing credit and non credit
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

Construction

of

Godowns/Business

Premises

C.A.D.A

facilities to the farmer and rural areas providing subsidy (initiating to 60% of estimated cost) to the primary agricultural co-operative societies and to other kinds of societies to the construction of Go-down/Office buildings were under taken in this year 5.3 Water Users Co-operative Societies have been assisted with a subsidies amount of the 41,66,526. During 2002-03 with a view to enhance

marketing, processing and storage capacities and to ensure providing credit and non-credit facilities to the farmers and rural artisans, providing subsidy (limited to 60% of

estimated cost) to the primary agricultural co-operative societies and the of other kinds come of societies for the are

constructions

Godown

office

buildings

undertaken. In this year 38 Water Users Co-operative Societies have been assisted with a subsidy amount of Rs.27, 494/-.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

WORKING MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR

Extension of crop production are under irrigation has been the most important developmental activity of

command area. The environmental impact of water logging, salinity, and alkalinity affecting the crop productivity and land degradation. The water logging is causing salt

accumulation in the irrigation tructs making the soil productivity law the continuous water logging has lead to salinity affecting the soil structures and texture, the alkalinity making the soil totally uncultivable. The excessive irrigation, poor drainage, monoculture cultivation, use of fertilizers and pesticides has degraded the soil quality and water centamination. In this back ground the Bhadra command area development authority has undertake some functions: 1. Land reclamation. 2. Soil survey activity.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

3. Soil conservation activity. 4. Large scale demonstrations 5. Adoptive trials. 6. Training programme 7. Conjunctive use of surface and ground water 1. Land Reclamation Government of India have introduced a new scheme for reclaiming the water logged area in the command area of C.A.D. programmes. Out of total area of 1,18,737 hector cultivable lands comprising of Bhadra reservoir project, Tunga Anicut and Gondi Anicut of Bhadra command area development authority. An area as much as 11% is 1,28,58 hector lands affected by water logging, salinity, alkalinity which reduces the agricultural yield in such of the lands by 30-40%. And hence, under the item of work "Land Reclamation" Bhadra C.A.D.A spends some amount of grant-in-aid every year.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

2. Soil Survey Activities Detailed soil survey of command areas are conducted and the interpretations of soil and land conditions are done to find out behavior of soil under the altered water regimes brought about the irrigation. Detailed soil survey is

undertake with the objective to find out areas suitable for irrigations, crops that may be expected, water delivery requirements, land development needs, problems in

drainage and special reclamation practices, etc. 3. Soil Conservation Activities The soil conservation wing in Bhadra C.A.D.A. is responsible for undertaking soil survey and conservation activities in the layout of the C.A.D. programmes. The main soil conservation work being carried out in the command area is land leveling and land shaping. It not only conserve soil but also will project the canal system which in turn improve the irrigation efficiency.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

4. Large Scale Demonstration Large scale demonstration have been chalked out by C.A.D.A. in all aspects of crop production and water management like scientific fertilizers application in paddy, coconuts, banana, vegetable, crop introduction in wet and garden lands etc. With an objective to attract farmers to such advanced technologies, subsidy/incentive for the various inputs like seeds, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals are incorporated which would meet a part of the additional expenditure incurred. 5. Adaptive Trials The objective of Adaptive trails is to study the adaptability of advanced technologies developed in the research station in the farmers field under the command and chalk out new cropping and water resources pattern. Trials were carried out on frequency of irrigation, fertilizer application, changing cropping pattern etc., the trials which were implemented and also

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

1) To control pests and diseases observed in mono-crop series of paddy growing. 2) The peak demands of labour requirement in a mono cropping system. 3) Providing nitrogen rich organic manure to soil good forage in animals. 4) Reduction and elimination of salinity and alkalinity. 5) Efficient use of irrigational water by growing diversified cropping system.

6. Conjunctive use of ground and surface water

Some agricultural practices do not received the channel waters according their requirements. At times land of the tail ends, salinity and alkalinity affected lands and late showing or transplants do not get the uninterrupted supply of water. To help farmers to utilise under ground water in conjunction with surface water, availment of loan facilities on well and pump sets are encouraged.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

PROGRESS IN AGRICULTURAL WORKS From origin of the Bhadra Command Development Authority had successfully satisfied its works regarding Agriculture field. The progress of this Agricultural work as follows. During 98-99 the Land Reclamation works over 84 hect has cost of Rs.10.00 lakhs were programmed in Shimoga Taluk. The proposal August was sent to Central was

Government.

During

1998

and

approval

received during Feb-99, immediately Rs.14.00lakhs were released to the Joint Director of Agricultural Shimoga. The work has executed in Dummalli. Snthekadur, and Sagane of Shimoga Taluk spending Rs.10, 28,329/- During the year 99-2000 Land Reclamation works over 234 hect at a cost of Rs.37.44 lakhs were programmed in Honnali Taluk, Harihara Taluk, Davanagere Taluk. The proposal was sent to Central Government during the approval was receiving during March 14.3.2000. Immediately Rs.37.44 lakhs were

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

received to the Assistant Director of Agricultural Honnali 14.40 lakhs and Assistant Director of Agricultural of Davanagere Rs.11.20 lakhs. Total physical area is 234.00 hect and expenditure at Rs.37.44 lakhs. Land Reclamation works proposals has the Reclamation cost of Rs.12,000/- per hect fixed by the Central Government in adequate.

During 433.00hect programmed

2000-01 at in the

Land cost of

Reclamation Rs.70.00

work lakhs.

over Were

Shimoga,

Bhadravathi,

Davanagere,

Harihara, Channagiri, Honnali and Tharikere Taluk, In this year, the actually spent Rs.68.50 lakhs for the Land Reclamation of 433.33hect. During 2001-02 under this programme of Land Reclamation on area of 194.91 hect was covered at the cost of Rs.31.81lakhs in Shimoga and Bhadravathi Taluk of Shimoga District and Davanagere and Harihara Taluk of Davanagere District. An amount of Rs.11.62 lakhs has released to District watershed

development officer.
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

During

2002-03

Under

the

Programme

of

Land

Reclamation. An area of 332.75 hectare was covered at a cost of Rs.66.55 lakhs. Out of this as sum of 23.99 lakhs were spent in Shimoga, Bhadravathi Taluk and a sum of Rs.84.85 lakhs are spent in Davanagere Taluk and

remaining amount of Rs.17.71 lakhs were spent in Tarikere Taluk. The Reclamation works were done in the identified areas, which were approved by Central Government.

In view of this the programme will implemented: through district watershed development authority of the concern. The concerned officers to the CADA Officer will submit proposals. In turn the proposals will be submitted to the Commissioner (CAD), Ministry of Water Resources (CAD Division) Government of India, New Delhi for approval of the proposals through the water resources department,

Government of Karnataka, Ban galore. After obtaining the approval from the Central

Government the same will be communicated to the District

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Watershed Department. The D.W.D.O of the concerned District will carry out the survey work on the watershed basis and prepare the plan marking with contour lines and draw the main and lateral drains on the basis of contour basis. In turn he will prepare the plan and estimate of the project to carryout the subsurface drainage work on watershed basis. In the land use planning the recommendations has been made to land reclamation works to over water logging and salinity problems. In this programme District Watershed Development officers of the command area have been involved. After issuing the Technical sanction the D.W.D.O will submit the plan and estimate to obtain the Administrative approval . After scrutinizing the plan and estimate the Administrative approval will be given to take up the land reclamation work and the estimated cost will be released to the DWDO to carryout the work. Monitoring and supervision will be made by the DWDO and make payments as such. come the

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

After completion of work he will submit the bills and vouchers along with utilization certificate. Monitoring of the work will also be done by the CADA.

Participatory Irrigation Management

In a number of developing countries, the management of a part of irrigation Systems are being entrusted to farmers' societies. Under this system, which is coming up in many states in India, the water is supplied in bulk to these societies who in turn will distribute them to the farmlands and manage the supplies to the field channels. This kind of participatory management needs to be encouraged in all irrigation projects and extended further right up to the headworks. Necessary legislation has been undertaken to give legal backing to this process. In due course, this should result in efficient use of water for irrigation and augment the existing supplies to some extent. The farmers, apart from the primary role of raising crops, will also have their due say in the management of water supplies. Further, they

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

may also share the responsibility of maintenance and modernization of the irrigation works.

The Bhadra C.A.D.A. could have successfully manage in participatory irrigation management.

Integrated Land and Water Resources Management

This is needed with respect to land and water for sustainable development. The Catchments areas of all dams (small or big) should be protected from environmental Degradation by carrying out measures to prevent soil erosion and sustained growth of vegetation. District level authorities consisting of representatives of local

Adnistration, forests, water supply, pollution control boards and NGOs should be Setup monitor and implement the various measures so that the water supply sources are well protected. In India, there are institutions called Water and Land Management Institutes (WALMIS) in each state, and these should also be associated with the catchments area

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

maintenance.

Enforcing

the

control

measures

should

prevent pollution of surface and ground water resources by industrial effluents etc.. This kind of participatory

management needs to be encouraged in all irrigation projects and extended further right up to the headwork. Necessary legislation has been undertaken to give legal backing to this process. In due course, this should result in efficient use of water for irrigation and augment the existing supplies to some extent. The farmers, apart from the primary role of raising crops, will also have their due say in the management of water supplies. Further, they may also share the responsibility of maintenance and modernization of the irrigation works. The Bhadra C.A.D.A.s successfully is managing this area.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

CHAPTER - 5

COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME OF GOVERNMENT

INTRODUCTION CENTRAL GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE STATE GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

INTRODUCTION

The Command Area Development Programme has been in operation since 1974-75 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Much emphasis has been assigned during the IX Plan in view of Government of Indias decision to double the food grain production during the next ten years duration to meet the increasing need of food for growing population. During the IX Plan Period the emphasis remains to continue to execute On-Farm Development works like Field Channels, Field Drains, Land Leveling and shaping and enforcement of Warabandi including wireless systems to improve

communications in canal network area. The main thrust areas during the IX Plan include reclamation of waterlogged areas in the irrigations commands, dissemination of

technical know-how among farmers and involving farmers in irrigation water management. The tackle the waterlogged areas in the irrigation commands, identification of problem areas, planning and designing of reclamation work would be the pre-requisite.
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

State Government may take up this activity on priority basis to bring waterlogged areas back to its productivity after taking preventive and remedial measures. Transfer of technical know-how of scientific water-management from Lab. To land through adaptive trials, demonstrations need be taken up at the farmers fields, which should be reinforced with suitable training to them. Involvement of farmers in the upkeep of the system and management of irrigation water is an important aspect of the Command Area Development activity to have the worthwhile

realization of benefits from the programme. The programme should be implemented in a manner that it increases the irrigated area through scientific water management and envisaged activities to increase other agricultural productivity and production from irrigated land and bring sustainability in agricultural production. All aspects of the CAD programme need be taken up in an integrated and coordinated manner so as to achieve its objective adequately in water supply timing and equitably.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

A. Central Government Assistance I. GRANTS (on matching basis) i.) CAD Establishment The total cost on establishment of Command Area Development Authorities at project level and the cost of Command Area Development and Water Utilization

Department and Monitoring cell for monitoring of Command Area Development Programme at State level should be kept to the minimum. The cost of establishment should not exceed 20% of the total expenditure viz. from central of Field

assistance

on OFD

Works,

construction

Channels, Field Drains, implementation of Warabandi and reclamation of waterlogged areas under the CAD

programme. If 20% of the Department implementing CAD programme, the additional cost, if any had to be met from the State budget.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A ii.) One-time functional grant for forming FARMERS ORGANISATIONS (W.U.C.S.)

Field channels and field drains, constructed with grants from the State and Central Governments need be maintained by farmers themselves for enabling supply of water to the fullest extent to each farm and also to improve the irrigation efficiency within the irrigation portion handed over to the Association. Outlet commands. It is, therefore, essential to involve farmers in equitable distribution of irrigation water among farmers, repair and maintenance of the distribution network and management of irrigation water in the command areas handled over to them for management. To facilitate the working of these Water Users Associations initially the provision has been made to provide One-time Functional Grant at the rate of Rs.500 per ha. (Rs.225 per ha. by Center, Rs.225/- per ha. by the State and Rs.50/- per ha. by the Farmers). The functional Grant will be given where farmers associations are formed,

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

registered and actually engaged in distribution of water. The amount would be deposited in the fixed account of Farmers Association in the bank and interest accrued thereon would be used for the activities of the Associations. However, necessary proof of fixed deposit of the grants given to the Association, which includes all the tri-parties contributions, will have to be given for the amount granted. iii.) Formulation Warabandi:The Command Area Development Authority does enforcement of Warabandi below the outlets. Integrated water management includes supply from the head regulator of main canal up to the farm gates should be considered as a single unit. Effective co-ordination with the irrigation staff is necessary in working out operation plan for the main system which would be in conformity with the warabandi schedules prepared below the systems should be attempted in advance, considering the recommended sowing times of various crops for kharif and rabbi seasons. Co-ordination with the agriculture Deportment. (extension as well as zonal
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

and

enforcement

of

C.A.D.A

research centers of ICAR or any other reputed Institute) who would advice the most suitable dates of sowing of crops as well as crop sequences is also necessary for effective implementation of warabandi. Working out

scheduled water distribution for opening of the canal, restoring of the branch or distributaries for providing equitable water supply in various sub-commands and informing the farmers in advance, need be done. Installation network is also or reliable and fast aspect communication for collecting

an

essential

information is respect of precipitation in the command, stages of growth of crop, dry spells in different subcommands, etc. based on this information, the deliveries can be planned, altered or modified so that water can be delivered when needed and can be diverted to other areas having dry spells. Such reliable communication system would facilitate monitoring operations through a Central control station and would be effective in introducing midterm corrections in the deliveries.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

The expenditure on the implementation of warabandi include:-

(a)Construction of Adjustable Proportionate Modules at outlet head and measuring devices in field channel like parshall flumes, notches (rectangular or

trapezoidal) or weirs depending upon situation and minor repairs of field channel till formation of farmers association. (b)Providing gates for the outlets in case of updated or pipe outlets so as to control/stop deliveries in the field channels. (c) Display boards at outlet head showing the name of outlet, discharge, C.C.A., name of farmer, area of his field, his turn indicating day and time for taking water, duration of time. The name of farmers Association, if any, functions, responsibilities and duties of the farmers should also appear on the board.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

(d)Auto-transmitters coupled with gauge recorders for speedy and reliable transmission of gauges to the control stations. (e)Expenditure on Warabandi should be incurred in areas where constructions of field channel/drain were

completed. The establishment eligible for Central assistance under this programme should be the bare minimum. iv.) Crop compensation to Farmers for on-farm

development works. A major factor responsible for the slow progress of onfarm development works, particularly land leveling and shaping, has been the short working season available to the land development agencies, especially in the areas where the major crop is Rabbi. The normal working season begins after the harvesting of the rabbi crops and continue till the onset of the monsoon. Thus working season is less than 90 days in a year, though the establishment and machinery have to be maintained for the entire year. Apart from the

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

slow progress, the short season also contributes to higher unit cost to the farmer, as the operational over-heads have to be spread over the smaller quantum of work done. In such area, it is essential to increase the working season by undertaking land development works in the rabbi season also, for which farmers have to be given

compensation as they would have to forego the rabbi crop. The loss is to be shared equally between the farmers, the State Government and the Central Government. While all the farmers in the area of operation in the command would bear one-third on the loss to be distributed among those farmers who are actually deprived of the rabbi crop, the remaining two thirds would be shared equally between the State Government and Central. In other words, the Central Government would meet one third of the estimated loss to the farmers. The estimates of the net loss would vary from project to project depending on the crops sown, the cost of inputs and the prices the produce would fetch in the market.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Minimum support price decided by the Agricultural Prices Commission for the season may be considered or sample studies would have to be made for the purpose for the principal rabbi crops in the areas, which are proposed to be taken up for land leveling and shaping during the rabbi crop season.

v.) Construction of field channels: Construction of field channels is an important activity under the programme for efficient utilization of irrigation water. Properly planned aligned and designed field channel should be constructed from the Government outlet in a manner that each and every field of the outlet command is connected by field channel. The Central assistance to the extent of 50% cost on matching basis for construction of field channels with related structures like cistern,

measuring devices, drop structure, division box, checks, turnouts, flumes, culverts inverted siphons, Community Development works, etc., and lining of 20% length of total length of field channels at vulnerable reaches would be
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

available as grant in the CAD projects, from outlet to the field. The field channel may be lined or unlined but according to the financing pattern only 20% of the total length of field channel could be lined at vulnerable reaches except at those places where more percentage of lining is approved by the Ministry of Water Resources. However, if the seepage losses in the water course are very high due to the type of soil, climatic conditions, scarcity of water and low intensity of irrigation, more percentage of length could be lined after approval of CAD activity are specified in the circular enclosed with the release proposal. vi.) Field Drains: The Central Assistance (Central share for the construction of field drains will be regulated by the cost norm of Rs.1, 000/- per ha. vii.) Reclamation of Waterlogged areas: The problem of waterlogged in the commands of irrigation projects has affected the health of the soil and

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

reduced the agricultural productivity considerably. It has been decided to provide central assistance to States as grant on matching basis for reclamation of water logged areas in the irrigated command of the projects covered under CAD Programme. The items of work under this scheme area: -

Assessment of problem areas in the commands of irrigation projects.

Planning and Designing for preventive and reclamation measures.

Taking up the preventive and remedial activities like land management, drainage (surface, sub-surface,

vertical, etc.)

Monitoring and Evaluations. The Central Assistance will be available at the rate of

half of the actual expenditure or Rs.6, 000/- per ha whichever is less and the balance amount will be borne by the State Government. However, prior approval of the

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Central Government may be taken before undertaking the work. viii.) Adaptive Trial, Demonstration and Training: Appropriate water management practices at the field level, usually called on-farm water management, which include preparation of fields to receive irrigation water, improved methods of irrigation such as borders check basins, furrows, determining the optimal lengths of fields, suitable stream size etc., would also be required to be experimented and demonstrations arranged for the benefit of the farmers. Working out appropriate frequencies and water doses for different crops, evolving water allowances in the command after considering the total water available, field application losses as well as the conveyance loses so as to have equity in distribution of water in various subcommands as well as among the farmers can also be experimented under these trials. Training farmers in

respect of irrigated agriculture, switching over from rain fed crops with low risk, low inputs to high inputs high risk

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

irrigated crops so as to increase yields as well as profits is required to be included in these trials. This change over has to be gradual after considering the financial capability of the farmers, which can be done by adjusting the most suitable combination of fertilizer ingredients (N.P.K) after testing the soils. For this purpose comprehensive adaptive trials should be taken up in the respective command areas according to the guidelines already issued earlier which clearly states that prior approval from Centre may be taken by the State respect of Adaptive Trials before its

undertaking and incurring Government in of expenditure. ix.) Training The irrigation management staff and field level workers from the command area development agency would need training in improving the deliveries from the main system, on farm water management, warabandi, irrigation application at the level of field and participatory irrigation management. The farmers would also need

training in distribution of water below the outlet or minor and maintenance of field channels/field drains. The states
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

and command area development agencies have already been requested to organize this training.

The Superintending Engineer, Executive Engineers and Deputy Engineers can be trained at the respective WALMIs in the states but the field level staff and the farmers need to be trained at the project level. Project level training centers may therefore be setup, for imparting training in respect of the activities or works entrusted to the various categories of staff so as to improve their capabilities and also to have effective quality control. The farmers particularly the outlet leaders of the committee members of the minor may be trained in irrigated crops, crop rotations, proper sowing times, crop water-soil irrigation

relationship,

warabandi,

participatory

management and maintenance of field channels/drains. This can be done by organising 3-5 days workshops, training programme etc.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

The expenditure on training would be shared by Government of India and State Government on 50:50 basis. The reimbursement would be made as grant.

A number of training programmes are also organised by this ministry through All India institutes, such as Administrative Staff College of India, IIMs, WRDTC

(Roorkee), WALMIs and WAPCOs, etc,.

So as to acquaint

the senior level officers in policy planning, in-depth evaluation, participation organising in water The farmers with a view to their

management expenditure

and on

operational training

improvements.

such

programmes would be borne 100% by Government of India. x.) Subsidies

Subsidy for land leveling/shaping, sprinkler and drip irrigation and for ground water development is admissible to small and marginal farmers on matching basis on IRDP pattern, provided loan is raised by farmers from financial institutions. The rates of subsidy under the pattern are as follows.
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

CATEGORY

LAND HOLDING

SUBSIDY

Small farmers Marginal farmers

(1.01 to 2.00 ha.) (upto 1.00 ha.)

25% of the total cost on matching basis 331/3 of the total cost on matching basis.

For small and marginal farmers belonging to the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes the rate of subsidy is 50% of the total cost. Subsidy will be released to State

Governments provided documentary proof is submitted for previous financial year that the amount of subsidy was deposited in the Loan account of the farmer. xi.) Evaluation

In order to assess the impact of command area development programme and also to have in depth studies so as to improve the working and efficiency organising systematic evaluation studies of on-going command area development projects is necessary. This work can be

entrusted to independent agencies (not private consultancy


C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

firms) like State Planning

or Evaluation Directorates,

Institutes already existing in the State Government.

1. Half of the total cost on evaluation studies sponsored by the State Governments would be borne by Government of India. 2. Cent percent of the total cost of evaluation studies sponsored by CAD wing of Ministry of water resources will be borne by Government of India.

II. LOAN Purchase of Machinery and equipment for

land/ground water development State owned corporations entrusted with the work of on-farm development, ground water development etc. within the command areas and relevant to the strategy of development for the command area may need to purchase earth moving and other equipment for the purpose. Loan to the extent of half the cost of the equipment proposed to be

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

purchased would be advanced to the state Government to be passed on to the corporation on whatever terms and conditions the State Government may decide. The State

Government would have to match this with an equal amount and pass it on to the corporation. The recovery of the loan sanctioned by the central Government would be governed by normal procedure of financial rules.

Machinery/equipment, purchase through loan assistance should form the part of inventory of the department.

B. STATE GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE The state government schemes of the command area development programme as explained bellow: 1.Construction Godowns: The state Financial Assistance for the construction of societies Godowns cum office it is established with the view
C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

of

Water

Users

Co-operative

Societies

C.A.D.A

to

enhance

the

marketing

processing

and

storage

capacities and to provide credit and other facilities to the farmers and rural artisans and they also provide limiting 60% of estimated cost to the primary agricultural cooperative society for the construction of godowns cum office buildings. 2.Formation of farm /Ayacut roads: There is existing demand for farm /Ayacut Roads in command area for the transportation of Agricultural inputs and output therefore they have decided to form the farm Roads. The sate government provides financial assistance for completion of these schemes.

3. Programme under special component plan: On the grant in aid advanced the authority, take up several programme for the economic upliftment scheduled caste farmers considering the basic needs of the farming families.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

To improve the socio-economic status of the scheduled caste farmers coming under the area of the authority these plan includes the following programmes Free distribution of agricultural implements kits. Free distribution of agricultural sprayers programme.

Free distribution of sericulture equipment's. Free distribution of fishing equipment's. Free provision of Horticulture programmes.

4. Traible sub plan: On the grant in aid advanced the authority, take up several programme for the economic upliftment tribal area farmers considering the basic needs of the farming families. To improve the socio-economic status of the tribal area farmers coming under the area of the authority.

The state government has provided ensures financial assistance for the above programmes in irrigation area through command area development authority.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

CHAPTER 6

ANALYSIS OF SURVEY FINDINGS

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

FINDING OF THE SURVEY

The conduction of field survey is required in order to know the opinions of respondents towards various aspects of C.A.D.A. and it s programmes the survey has been conducted and collected the opinion as regard to different aspects, from the senior and junior officers of the authority. The survey has been conducted in Shimoga, Bhadravathi Davanagere Tharikere, Honnali Talks and its covered villages. The responses have been collected from 80

respondents. who are the farmers of irrigated area and staff members of the authority. The responses collected from those respondents who are working the own field. Most of the respondents are satisfied with the work. The survey is conducted and got the different opinions from the respondents, which has been analyzed this chapter.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Analysis of the survey

1.Table showing classification of respondents on the basis of their age group

Age 20-30 30-40 40-50 Above 50 Total

No of respondents 10 29 26 15 80

Percentage 12.5% 36% 32.5% 19% 100%

The above table indicates the age group of the respondents. Among 80 respondents, only12.5% of

respondents are belong to age group of 20-30 years. 36% of respondents are belongs to 30-40 years, 32.5% of respondents are belongs to 40-50 years, followed by 19% of the respondents are belongs to above 50 years of age.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

GRAPH SHOWING CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR AGE GROUP

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20-30 30-40 40-50 Above 50

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

2.Table showing Classification of respondents on the basis of their annual income

Annual income Upto-50000 50000-100000 100000-200000 Above 200000 Total

Number of respondents 10 20 35 15 80

Percentage 12% 25% 44% 19% 100%

The above indicates the classification of respondents on the basis of their annual income. Among 80 respondents only 12% of them are having less than 500000 per an am, 25% 0f respondents earn between 50000-100000 p.a. followed by 44% of them having income between 100000200000 and about 19% of respondents are earn more than 200000 p.a. and this table is clearly shown in this diagram.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

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GRAPH SHOWING CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR ANNUAL INCOME

35
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Upto-50000 50000-100000 100000-200000 Above 200000

20 15 10

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

3.Table showing Classification of respondents on the basis of their occupational status Occupation Staff member of the authority Farmers of irrigated area Total Number of respondents 15 65 80 Percentage 19% 81% 100%

The above table indicates the classification of respondents on the basis of their occupational status. Among 80 respondents 20% 0f the respondents belongs to employees or staff members of Bhadra command area development authority and 80% of the respondents belongs to farmers of command irrigated area .
Staff m ber em of th au ority e th 19%

Farm of ers irrigated area 81%

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

4.The table showing classification of staff members of Bhadra C.A.D.A on the basis of their satisfactory area Opinion Satisfied Notsatisfied Total Number of respondents 12 3 15 Percentage 80% 20% 100%

The above table indicates classification of staff members of Bhadra C.A.D.A on the basis of their opinion, Among 15 respondents, 80% of the respondents were satisfied with the work and rest of 20% have negative opinion i.e., they were un satisfied with their work.

Not-satisfied 20%

Satisfied 80%

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

5. The table showing classification of respondents on the basis of opinion of farmers of irrigated area who are attached to the authority Opinion Satisfied Not-satisfied Total Number of respondents Percentage 48 74% 17 26% 65 100%

The above table indicates out of 65 respondents, 74% of the farmers are of the opinion that they were satisfied with the work assistance provided by C.A.D.A. and rest of the 26% of respondents were not satisfied with the assistance of C.A.D.A.

Notsatisfied 26%

Satisfied 74%

6. Table showing classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about working management of Bhadra

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

command members. Opinion

area

development

authority

and

its

staff

Number of respondents 52 13 65

Percentage 74% 26% 100%

Satisfied Not-satisfied Total

The above table indicates classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about working management of Bhadra command area development authority and its staff members. Among 65 respondents there are 80% of respondents are satisfied with working management of Bhadra command area development authority and also about staff members assistance 20% of respondents are unsatisfied.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Graph showing classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about working management authority and of Bhadra its staff

command members

area

development

N o t-sa tisfie d 26 %

S atisfie d 74%

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

6. Table showing classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about government released through Bhadra command area development authority and its staff members.

Opinion Satisfied Not-satisfied Total

Number of respondents 57 23 80

Percentage 71% 29% 100%

The above table indicates classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about government grants of Bhadra command area 71% development of authority. are Among satisfied 80 with

respondents,

respondents

government grants of Bhadra command area development authority and only 29% of respondents are unsatisfied.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

Graph showing classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about government released through Bhadra command members. area development authority and its staff

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Satisfied Not-satisfied

57

23

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

8. Table showing classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about participatory irrigation management. Opinion Excellent Satisfied Not-satisfied Total Number of respondents 55 15 10 80 Percentages 68% 19% 13% 100%

The above table indicates classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about participatory irrigation management. Among 80 respondents, 69% of respondents thought it was excellent, 19% of respondents are felt satisfactory and 12% of respondents were unsatisfied.

Not-satisfied 13% Satisfied 19%

Excellent 68%

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

9. Table showing classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about command area development

programme of government.

Opinion Excellent Satisfied Not-satisfied Total

Number of respondents 45 20 15 80

Percentages 56% 25% 19% 100%

The above table indicates classification respondents on the basis of their opinion about command area development programme of government. Among 80

respondents, 56% of respondents thought it was excellent, 25% of respondents are felt satisfactory and 19% of respondents were unsatisfied.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

GRAPH SHOWING CLASSIFICATION RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR OPINION ABOUT COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME OF GOVERNMENT.

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Excellent Satisfied Not-satisfied

45 20

15

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

CHAPTER 7

PROBLEMS, SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

PROBLEMS

The problems are classified into three groups A. Problems of the authority B. Problems of the farmers C. Problems in command area

A. The Bhadra command area development authority faces certain problems and those problems are explained bellow. a) Financial stringency. The authority did not have its own resources; it is supported by 100% government grants. Before it taking any programmes it will be wait for government. b) Un satisfied staff members. i). Recently, the authority can installing the E.D.P. (Electronic Device Processing) forms of the filing system it

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

is typical to some former clerks, who did not have knowledge in computer technology. ii). Some senior officer can prejudice to the staff creates unpleasantness to the staff

members. It members. iii).

Due to negligence and carelessness of the

employees it is not becoming possible to keep them busy, and it shows inefficiency of the authority.

B. Problems of the farmers

1. The irrigation system had been started from 50 years ago, hence, in irrigation network, the structures (i.e., the structure of cannels ) are destroyed, and there by the water distribution is not proper. 2. Due to accumulation of silt, water is not flowing in cannel; so tail-end farmers are not receiving water. 3. Un authorized farmers (non-members of water users cooperative societies) are using waters illegally from the

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

cannels which resulting in denial of water to the legitimate farmers. Law free agencies are failed to prevent unauthorized utilization of water.
4. Some farmers (stake holders) who are located in tail

end area. They are not properly receive the services and facilities by C.A.D.A 5. Government grants or funds will fall for the purpose. 6. Due to negligence of the farmers, the water is

misutilysation and waste full. 7. Some farmers are uneducated, who did not have knowledge in water management.

C. Problems encountering in CADA Area: Due to excessive Irrigation in the command areas and

cultivation of high water demanding crops. Such as paddy, and sugarcane has lead to water logging, salinity and alkalinity.
The salinity has become very acute in the command

areas.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A The crop productivity has not increased correspondingly

due to low water use efficiency.


Lack of proper crop planning, land degradation salinity

and alkalinity problems occurred.


Besides low productivity and inefficient use of water the

environmental degradation such as water confirmation due to pesticides use, water logging, loss of biodiversity, have been cause of concern.
Water management in affluent/adequate/scarce water

condition, not followed properly.


Water

distribution

beyond

outlet

i.e.,

method

of

distribution and their efficiency is inadequate.


On farm management including agricultural drainage

works-methods to match water releases with water requirement of crops not followed.
Water planning and management for optimum and

efficient water use is inadequate.


Traditional

agronomical,

irrigation

and

water

management practices.
Lack of interest of Farmers in water management.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A Education and Training of farmers in water management,

soil moisture, water conservation is not intensively done.


Loss of plant nutrients due to excessive irrigation and

leading problem arised.


Lack of proper field drains to let out the water freely and

field drains are not maintained properly.


To over come the alkalinity soil amendment such as

Gypsum is not properly used.


Use of Farmyard manure and growing of green manure

crops such as sun hemp, diancha etc is inadequate.

Suggestions
A. To the authority: a). The authority should have right to collection of Waterates. For the prevention of financial stringency. b). The authority should be take Agricultural marketing process and also storing system should be possessed. c). They have to give well training to the staff members about computer technology.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

d). They have to give proper division of work and ensure proper human relation

B. To the farmers 1. They have to give over force to the higher authority for the proper improvements of irrigation structures 2. Properly identifying the silt accumulated area in cannel and completely clearing the silts for distribution of water, the farmers should over force to the authority to take above action. 3. Properly identifying the unauthorized farmers and to give punishment and penalties for them. 4. The tail-end areas farmers should form the separate association for authority emphasis properly laid. 5. The funds granted by Government should be sufficiently and should be in an unambiguous. 6. Installation of computerized water measuring device in each irrigation field for the prevention of wastefulness of the water.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

7. The farmers are participation in VAYASKARA SHIKSHNA SCHEME of Government and also participation in Water Management training. C. To the CADA area Water resources has to be accelerated to meet the growing demands for food production. Massive

programmes for development are being formulated to achieve the full development of irrigation potential. The

timely implementation of the massive programmes is required.

Future development which requires more advanced experts in each discipline of water resources development technology. Various important recommendations in this

regard should relevant to the situations. The solution needs a human approach besides technical support.

Due to excessive irrigation the sodium salts will come up and deposit on the field which causes to water logging & salinity, which controls the

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

availability of nutrients to plants. Continuous use of water without changing the cropping pattern is leads to the water logging alkalinity. To avoid this the cropping systems should be followed.

Salinity can be overcome through lining of open canals, water distribution management and sub surface drainage systems.

Suitable cropping system should be adopted , so as to increase the productivity and land management practices.

Right cropping system for optimal use of water & other resources. Correct method of irrigation, to achieve higher water use efficiency under the present situation, good land development

practices should be followed.

Environmental degradation is due to increase of pests & diseases since showing of same crops continuously. To control the pests & diseases

using of heavy amount of plant protection

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

chemicals which leads to water contamination and killing naturals predators and useful

insects, which causes loss of bio agents.

Proper scheduling of irrigation to sent the optimal requirements of the crop in a given climate.

Equitable

water

distribution

through

twin

system (wara bandi) of irrigation.

The crops should have a low water requirement and should be able to complete their life cycle successfully and managerial ability skills,

machinery & input availability to raise crop.

Traditional agronomical practices should be avoided. Irrigation techniques should be

followed and sound crop production practices for yield maximization.

The agency such as water users co-operatives may be allowed to have appropriate

collaboration with farmers participation.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

A general awareness regarding the nature of working and the limitations is to be created among the people with a view to seek a better involvement and to ensure the mass The

participation in tackling the problems.

training to the farmers is to be conducted frequently protecting the water ways leading to the field of their month point either by

vegitative or by stone pitching soils.

The out let points should be made operative and leak proof.

The field canals should be re-designed and re-laid out wherever necessary, lining of field canals should be taken up on priority. Water can be structures need to be

provided all along the canal.

Drainage net work needs to be rejuvenated.

Land

development and land shaping for efficient irrigation and

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

compulsorily maintained in one direction for easy irrigation and drainage of crops except in case of paddy.

Formation of water users co-operative societies.

Fix

up the responsibilities of maintaining common properties to various office bearers and the members of the society.

Regular training to all the concerned manpower on irrigation water management, drainage, soil problems, soil management, crop management, cropping systems and use of more farm yard manure and growing green crops such as sunlamp, diancha so that soil texture, structure &

productivity increase.

CONCLUSION

From this project report we can analyse the various aspects of command area development authority and its programmes. Again in this project report we can identify the various problems, which are laid on command area

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

development authority and along with its covered area and also given related suggestions. This report also states the agricultural development in the country.

Another important point that one can find out from this report is, that government is providing maximum financial aid and other facilities to irrigation & agriculture sector, the farmers can get these facilities. They will also get compensation from government for their damages due to scarcity and draught.

After considering the above para one can say that even though the agriculture sector in the country is on thrive, though the government is facing economic loss.

Even though the government has provided various schemes, programmes to farmers, they are misutilisiing the service provided by them with out paying the tax, loans, etc. Therefore the government and C.A.D.A. have to give more emphasis for all these areas.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

ANNEXURES

QUESTIONNAIRES MAPS BIBLIOGRAPHY

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers

C.A.D.A

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNUAL ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT OF BHADRA COMMAND AREA DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY.

PERFORMANCE REPORT OF WATER RESOURCES DEPARTMENT.

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES OF THE BHADRA C.A.D.A.

C.A.D.A. by the farmers, for the farmers, to the farmers