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This is adapted from www.cranfield.ac.

uk images by Les Moy

The Set
Preparation Feet are in a comfortable shoulder width stance with the right foot slightly forward Body moves to the ball and establishes position with the shoulders square to the target (usually a hitter) Arms and legs are slightly bent with weight on toes not heels Eyes follow ball through the "window" formed by the fingers and thumbs above forehead

Execution Ball is contacted with fingers and thumbs while elbows absorb ball momentum Arms and legs move towards the target (elbows and knees extend at the same time) Weight transfers toward the target High front set drops to the left sideline (butt is further back while shoulders are more forward) and quick set, usually to Middle, is placed to the attacker's hitting hand (hips are lower and body is more vertically aligned)

Follow Through

Arms are fully extended with both hands pointing toward the target Player moves in the direction of the set but does not jump Hands point and follow through towards where the ball will go

We want to use this pass as much as possible. It is quicker, more efficient and the kids have more success or control with it.

Successful Spikes
Preparation Wait behind the attack line (3m line) and watch setter for clues on ball position Eyes on the ball after set and keep aligning body to trajectory of ball, usually outside for power Weight forward and anticipate the approach (speed, distance and angle) which may be quicker for middle quick or slower for outside power

Execution Begin approach when ball is at peak of its trajectory Cover distance with few steps of longer stride length with slight curve Last two steps, right and close left, are quicker. Momentum changes from forward to upwards Arms swing back at least to waist level (legs are bent) Both arms swing forward and high, engage abdominal muscles for follow through Left arm, or non-dominant, becomes a target hand and right goes back like a bow Contact ball above and in front of hitting shoulder Contact with heel-to- finger tip (flick); NO closed fists Use forcible wrist snap Hand contact with full arm extension (no bent elbow unless trying for off-speed) Wrist action and shoulder action control direction of ball

Follow Through Hand follows ball toward target (fingers should point down) Land on both feet (own side of net) Bend knees to cushion landing

The spike is a forceful hit into the opponents' court. This skill requires the player to coordinate running forward, jumping up in the air and hitting the moving ball over the net (dont touch the net) so that it lands in the opponents' court and hopefully stays down! It also effective as a back court attack because it is hard to block. Most would say it is the best part of the game and Ya look cool too.

Blocking Strategy
All Players Anticipate play of opponents by attempting to read what the opponents will do Move to the defensive position and ready to react before the ball is contacted

Front Row Players Have hands at shoulder level or lower in starting position Move along the net left and right but never away from the net Outside blocker 'sets' the block by aligning with opponents hitting shoulder As arms push up from sides, hands push across net on the block (push over, not into, the net) When not blocking, move to the attack line ready to play defense

The purpose of the block is to deny the opponents' attacking balls access to your court. It is the first line of defense against the opposition; if you can block well the opposition have to work harder to get it over. This may result in a loss of confidence and they may resort to giving easier balls, to get over the hands of your blocker. Back Court Players Keep low body posture with weight forward on the toes Track the ball and try to 'read' the action of the hitter through body alignment

Keep position outside of blockers arms (do not stand behind blocker)

Stay deep in the court, unless you read that the hitter is going to tip Must also save any ball that hits the block and rebounds deep into the court Set any 'easy' high balls to the corners of the court (position 2 or 4) so we can hit it back or set it up for a spike React early and tell the players in front of you what you see (deep, tip, cover)

The Pass
Preparation Feet are in an easy stride position, shoulder width apart Knees are bent; ball is played from low position Player moves to ball, sets position (alignment) and then plays the ball; they should not be running and playing the ball at the same time Player has flat forearm platform, thumbs parallel, elbows locked and arms together Arms are parallel to thighs (arm position controls trajectory)

Execution Player receives the ball by bending knees (slightly in elbows) and absorbing energy Arms move forward and upward (shrug of shoulders and extension of elbows) while hands point down (face direction ball will go) There is NO swinging action to the arms Weight transfers forward and body moves forward rather than falling away Ball contact is on the fleshy part of the forearms not hands Passer directs ball to target because of good pre-alignment and possibly some back torsion not because of swinging. ** outside hip (forward) alignment from sidelines Ball is contacted away from body (elbows extended) for proper trajectory; butt back and arms low to go over net or arms under shoulder height to stay on own side

Follow Through Arms remain below shoulder level Hands remained joined, elbows remain locked Weight is transferred toward target and hands are directed there as well Eyes follow ball to target- look down the barrel

If you are waiting for 3-4 seconds for a ball to hit your forearms, you probably should have taken it with your hands in an overhead pass. Forearm passes are mainly used in defense of a spike or a hard serve.A setter should hardly ever use a forearm pass.

Underarm Serve
Preparation Stand facing the net with the foot opposite the hitting hand forward. The ball is held at waist level in front of the hitting hand shoulder (opposite)

Execution The player leans forward as they swing their arm forward and contact the ball. The hand holding the ball is in line with the hitting side shoulder and the ball is dropped, not thrown, (roll wrist) just before the contact by the hitting hand Contact happens about waist level (place of contact controls trajectory over net) The player hits underneath with the heel of the hand as there are no bones there

Follow Through The hitting arm follows through in the direction of the target and so does the dominant foot (make sure to be behind line) palm points to where the ball is intended to go (look down the barrel) not up body enters court ready to play


The team winning a rally scores a point (Rally Point System). When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains a point and the right to serve. A point is awarded on every play. The players of the team that win the serve, rotate one position clockwise. The new player enters in position 6 for class games. A game is won by the team that first scores 25 points, with a two-point advantage (no scoring cap). A team must win two games to win a match. lly scores a point (Rally Point System). When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains a point and the

Overarm Serve
Preparation With a firm wrist, toss (keep whole arm straight) the ball about 40cm high - so that the ball would fall to the spot just inside of the lead foot and in line with the hitting shoulder. PRACTICE this skill. Elbow and hand (of hitting arm) are at shoulder height or above throughout the entire serving motion. Good hitting depends on good body alignment and timing

Execution Shift weight to lead foot, or step forward and suck in your gut, as you make contact with the ball. Shoulders move forward as a result of abdominals. Wrist and hand firm throughout serve. Contact with slightly curved hand (heel through finger flick), through the middle back of ball, when arm is fully extended. The hand contact should sound like a "thud", not a "slap" sound and the power comes from pulling in the abdominal muscles. Preferably hit top part of ball.

Follow Through Hand follows ball to target. Finish with hand alongside or within body line, not to opposite side of body.

Tips for New Players

This page was taken from the New Zealand Volleyball Scenes and designed by Les Moy.
The essence of Volleyball is that of Maximum participation by all the players in the team. - leading to maximum enjoyment of the sport by the Participants. Three hits on each side of the net are not only allowed - they are encouraged. Using all three hits has two major advantages. i. It involves more of the team. ii. It enables the ball to be set up into a position where the final hitter has a better chance of making a spike, which is harder for the opposition to return.

Serve Reception
All Players

Decide who will receive the ball as soon as possible after contact by the server Call for the ball before it crosses the plane of the net All players 'open up' or align to the player playing the ball, especially useful if pass gets shanked Help call the ball out-of-bounds for other players

Front Row Players Allow balls that are higher than head level to be played by back row players Do not move back more than one step to play the ball Front row players 'open up' to the player playing the ball and align to the setter, especially middle quick

Call the ball 'out' on the sideline for the back row player on the same side of the court Be ready to move forward quickly on short serves or net serve

Back Row Players

Allow a ball that is at chest height or higher to go out-ofbounds (know your spacing) Call the ball 'out' on the sideline for the front row player on the same side of the court Be more aggressive from the left back position in receiving when the ball is between the left and right backs as it is easier for left back to align ball to setter Call the ball 'out' over the end line for the other back player Always position yourself between the front row players and talk to them if visibility is skewed

align to the player playing the ball, especially useful if pass gets shanked and you have to chase it or if you have to chase down a 'touched' ball


Never receive the serve Call short serves; communication is your main job Call for the pass and extend the hand closer to the net, as a target for the passer Face the left sideline with the right foot forward in the stride position, preferably out of position 2.5
Alert players to possible plays....before they happen.