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Basic PVT (Fluid behaviour as a function of Pressure, Volume and Temperature)

Statoil module Field development Magnus Nordsveen

Status: Draft

Content

Phase envelops Gas field
Comp Mole% N2 0.95 CO2 0.6 H20 0.35 C1 95 C2 2.86 C3 0.15 iC4 0.22 nC4 0.04 iC5 0.1 nC5 0.03 C6 0.07 C7 0.1 C8 0.08 C9 0.03 C10+ 0.13

Hydrates
Characterisations of fluids Equation of states (EOS)

Status: Draft

Phase diagram for a single component


Dense phase P Critical point

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Trippel point

Status: Draft

Phase envelope of an oil reservoir

2 phase mixture

Status: Draft

Phase envelope of a gas condensate reservoir


Tres, Pres

Liquid 2 phase mixture

Gas

Status: Draft

Phase envelops for 3 reservoir types


Gas Condensate C

Pressure

Oil Heavy oil

C = Critical point Temperature


Status: Draft

Water-hydrocarbon phase behaviour


Liquid water and hydrocarbons are essentially immiscible in each other Water vapour in the gas will be governed by gas composition and the vapour
pressure of the liquid phase

With water, oil and gas present, there will be two liquid fields and one gas field

A gas reservoir is often saturated with water vapour When gas is produced through a well and flowline, temperature drops and water
condenses

Condensed water amounts to some m3 per MSm3 produced gas

Status: Draft

Hydrate formation
400

Hydrate domain
Access to small molecules Access to free water Right pressure Right temperature

350
Pressure (bara) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

No hydrates can exist in this region

10

15
Temperature (C)

20

25

30

Status: Draft

Effect of thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors:


Methanol, Ethanol, MEG, salt

400 350 300

Chemicals move the hydrate curve Hydrate domain


No hydrates
Normal operational domain

(bara) Trykk (bar) Pressure

250
200 150 100 50 0 0 5

10

15

20

25

30

Temperature (C) Temperatur (C)

Status: Draft

Characterisation of fluids
Based on fluid properties (old) Based on composition
Definitions: Standard conditions [STP] for temperature and pressure: 15 oC, 1 atm

GOR = Volume of gas/ Volume of oil [Sm3/Sm3]


WC = Volume rate of water/ Volume rate of liquid [-] o = o/w at STP (oil density / water density) - specific gravity of oil g = g/a at STP (gas density / air density) - specific gravity of gas

API = 141.5/ o 131.5 (American Petroleum Institute measure of oil density)

Status: Draft

Old type characterization


Useful when no composition exists The fluid is characterized by: API gravity / o g GOR Fluid properties as: Bubble point Pressure (Pb), gas-oil ratio (RSGO), densities,
viscosities, etc are functions (correlations) of the above parameters

Status: Draft

Reservoir fluid types (GOR)


Fluid type Dry gas Wet gas Physical behaviour No hydrocarbon liquid condensation during production Hydrocarbon liquid condensation in reservoir is negligible during production. Condensation in wells, flowlines and separators. Condensation of hydrocarbons in reservoir is significant during production. Condensation in wells, flowlines and separators. Gas bubbles is formed in reservoir during production Typical GOR [Sm3/Sm3] > 100 000 (at least)) > 10 000

Gas Condensate Oil

500 < > 10 000

< 500

Status: Draft

Reservoir fluid types (API)


Oil type Light oil Oil Heavy oil Extra heavy oil Typical API [-] > 30 22 < > 30 10 < > 22 < 10

Comment: Arguably the most important fluid property for production of heavy oils is viscosity which is very dependent on pressure and temperature. Viscosity could thus be used as classification of reservoir types. However, during production the temperature and pressure (and thus viscosity) can change considerably along the well/flowline to the processing facility. Viscosity typically increases with decreasing API

Status: Draft

Characterisation of fluids based on composition


Thousands of components from methane to large
polycyclic compounds

Carbon numbers from 1 to at least 100 (for heavy oils


probably about 200)

Molecular weights range from 16 g/mole to several


thousands g/mole

Comp Mole% N2 0.95 CO2 0.6 H20 0.35 C1 95 C2 2.86 C3 0.15 iC4 0.22 nC4 0.04 iC5 0.1 nC5 0.03 C6 0.07 C7 0.1 C8 0.08 C9 0.03 C10+ 0.13

Status: Draft

Gas chromatography
Fingerprint analysis
Normal, paraffinic oil Waxy oil

Biodegraded oil

Status: Draft

Characterization challenge
Low carbon number components: Possible to measure with reasonable accuracy Known properties Higher carbon number components: consists of many variations with different properties cannot measure individual components Characterization: Lump C10 and higher into C10+
Comp Mole% N2 0.95 CO2 0.6 H20 0.35 C1 95 C2 2.86 C3 0.15 iC4 0.22 nC4 0.04 iC5 0.1 nC5 0.03 C6 0.07 C7 0.1 C8 0.08 C9 0.03 C10+ 0.13

Status: Draft

Fluid properties based on composition

mix xi i

Status: Draft

Equations of state (EOS)


Any equation correlating P (pressure), V (volume) and T (temperature) is called
an equation of state

Ideal gas law: PV = nRT <=> (good approx. for P < 4 bar) n: moles, R: gas constant, : molar volume Van der Waals cubic EOS: P
RT a 2 vb v

RT v

a: is a measure for the attraction between the particles b: is the volume excluded from by the particles
Status: Draft

Equations of state (EOS) & Phase envelope

Family of PV isotherms for a pure component

Family of PV isotherms for a cubic EOS

Status: Draft

PVTSim
In the oil industry we typically use software packages to characterize the fluid
based on a measured composition

In Statoil we use PVTSim from Calsep Ref: Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids (Book),
Karen Schou Pedersen and Peter L. Christensen, 2006.

Status: Draft

Thank you

Status: Draft