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MMM IV Social Marketing Chapter 2 Change and Attitude Formation Issues Introduction Change is a natural phenomenon.

The process of qualitative change cannot be measured in terms of quantitative units. These changes are found impact generating when we move from changes in technology to changes in culture. The process of change is found in attitude governs behaviour. If we talk about a change in the marketing perspective, it is very much related to the hierarchy of needs. Our needs for survival and prosperity are substantially influenced by attitude. Thus, we find a correlation between change and attitude. The existence and prosperity of the organization are the decisive factors influencing the process of change. Social attitude influences the organizational attitude. Change has two important directions, e.g. Positive and Negative. If we find a change in a positive direction, it is welcome. A change in the negative direction jeopardizes everything. If we find multi-dimensional changes in the society e.g., erosion in ethical values, socio-cultural confrontation, social tension and dissension, increase in the generation gap, falling respect for old generations etc., the trend is known as negative. These negative developments start the process of cultural degeneration, disintegration in a traditional family, social disintegration etc. the concept of a family or a home is completely changed. Change A Conceptual Framework About change, an expert opines, The term change itself is wholly neutral implying nothing but a difference through time in the object to which it is applied. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction and even no continuity. Change Governing the Lifestyles Lifestyles we mean the way of living and behaving. The two words living and behaving connote so many things like food items, the dresses, the drinks, the interior decoration, the style of house, the vehicles used, etc. on the other hand, the behaviour connotes skill of transmitting and receiving, our actions and reactions, our expressions, etc. We have gone through 3000 years of agricultural revolution followed by 300 years of industrial revolution. Of late, now we are going through the electronics revolution. We accept the fact that 300 years of industrial revolution have been successful in establishing an edge over the 3000 years of agricultural revolution, especially in terms of materialistic gains to the society. Further we also accept that 30 years of electronic revolution would be successful in establishing an edge over the 300 years of industrial revolution especially in terms of social tension and dissension. Change for What? The society looks at the change in the social perspective. The perception of change concentrates on social welfare or public interests. This makes it essential that our development plans contribute substantially to the social transformation process in a right fashion. We find positive and negative directions of development. When we find the direction positive, it is going to benefit the society in many ways, such as: our development plans provides for social welfare, ecological balance is not disturbed,

poverty and hunger are removed, demographic structure is made optimal, racial or gender discrimination is removed, inequality is minimized, sufferers are given material and moral support and so on.

We do not find the same thing. Actually, the results are adverse. This is due mainly to the fact that scienfitic inventions and innovations are inviting a number of social evils and dangers. Since we find an increase in income, masses develop a craze for materialistic gains. Almost all members of a family work hard even at the cost of their peace and pleasure. The parents are found so busy in the race that they do not get time even to look after their children. Do we find such a change justified? Do we find such a change will serve the social interest? We welcome a change that helps social development based on ethical values, fair practices, legitimate decisions and positive change in attitudes. This necessitates the co-operation of organizations engaged in producing goods or generating services. If organizational decisions are found proactive to the society, the prospects would have no option but to consume and use the available goods and services. When we find wrong perception of development deepening its root in our society, the organizations should assign due weightage to social marketing. Change for Turmoil In a true sense, the social and technological developments have resulted into a big turmoil. We find high levels of unemployment in almost all the industrialized countries. The present society is much better off than what they were in the past about two decades back. The people well off in terms of material assets since more people have their own houses, televisions, videotape recorders, cameras, refrigerators, washing machines, scooters, cars, cell phones, internet connections, etc. Yet many people seem very unhappy. We find considerable social dissensions and stress. Crime has increased in most increased. There is a big generation gap between parents and children. Racial tension seems to be increasing fast. Employer-employee relations are found worsening. Craze for enjoying the materialistic gains is found multiplying. The developments in the transportations and communications network are found contracting the gap between east and west. Most of the negative developments in the society are the gifts of sophisticated media. A number of magazines just to increase their circulation publish pro-sex and violence. The social acceptability of fashion parades has made the fashion industry a paying proposition. The so-called ultra modern society is found fascinated to dresses aggravating sexual urge. The teens prefer these dresses and behave indecently. They insist on privacy and support free and irresponsible sex and ultimately pave ways for new inventions and innovations to counter communicable diseases, aids, etc. Sociologists, economists and writers paint a depressing picture of present society so that traditional culture is moving downwards. Unethical values have established considerably. The technological innovations have also been instrumental in derailing the social systems.

There are many areas where they can play a positive role. When we find the problem of illiteracy, deforestation, population explosion and inadequacy of financial resources, the positive organisational attitude can bring things on track. Both the service sector and the good manufacturing sectors, need a new vision, a new policy and a new strategy. They can promote extensive research to counter the generation of smoke. They can concentrate on those products found environment friendly. They can promote such food products having a positive effect on health. They can promote personal care services to improve the physical health of human resources. The main thing is the priority of their decisions on the business agenda. As against this positive attitude, the organizations open up avenues for the generation of profits by opening private educational institutions and hospitals. The majority of population is below the poverty line who would be the prospects of these hospitals. We cannot argue that the benefits of scientific inventions and innovations remain useful to a few urban affluent section of the society. Educational institutions are not marketing education, but in a true sense are selling education and welcoming profiteering. The problem is more when we find religious organizations, voluntary social organizations, charitable trusts and even Red Cross Society to misuse the funds collected in the names of poor, sufferers and child welfare. In the world of marketing, they are known as not-for-profit making organizations. But we find a change in their perception and that too in the negative direction. Can we negate that it is a change for decay, for turmoil? Factors of Social Change: We go through the three important factors of social change which are found actively instrumental in the formation of social attitude. A change in the biological, technical and cultural factors makes possible a change in the social conditions which play a vital role in the formation of attitudes. Biological Factors: The Biological Factors consist the problem of demography with a number of allied problems. Size of population is considered to be an important dimension. The problem of increase in population is found at peak in India despite a good number of devices to control the birth rate. We find a decline in the death rate but the birth rate is fast increasing. The problem known as population explosion is found making our task more difficult in almost all the areas of positive transformation. This creates imbalance in the ratio of literate and illiterate persons. Generally, the literate persons prefer to adopt birth control measures and like a planned /small family. Technological Factors: Technological advances play a significant role in changing the social attitudes fantastically. Scientific inventions and innovations paved ways for the development of new technologies. This has opened doors for multi-dimensional transformation in social attitudes, beliefs and traditions. An important development that we find due to technological advances is bringing women from home to the factor and office or transformation of housewives into working ladies. Our temptation for a modern living, fashion and western culture are also due to the technological development. Increased industrialization, late marriage of children, craze for availing the materialistic gains, increase in divorce, social violence and tension are also the side effects of industrialization. Cultural Factors: The cultural change stimulates social change. A change in our attitude creates such a situation that we find a basic change in our behaviour. A departure from ethical values, traditional conditions pave avenues for pessimism. The materialistic gains establish an edge over the social values. Personal interests prevail on family or common or social interests. The Western Culture, the Pop-culture adopted in the younger generation transforms the cultural change we could look into at present. Attitude A Conceptual Framework An expert opines Attitude is a combination of fear, love, surprise, pride, sympathy and veneration.

Interest and attitudes are correlative. The interest is a combination of enemy, friend, discovery, family, victim of accident and God. Attitudes connote subjective reactions, status of consciousness within the individual human being with relation to objects whereas the interests signify the objects themselves. The organizational attitudes determine the formation of corporate policies and strategies. The managerial decisions related to marketing are also influenced by the organizational attitudes substantially. If the motives are confined to the generation of profits, the policies and strategies would be different. Formation of Attitude Attitude is substantially influenced by change. The movement of population from backward areas to advanced areas gains a rapid momentum. This helps in increase in the level of income. A change in lifestyles is thus a natural phenomena which gives a new turn to the fashion industry. Since the communications network are highly sophisticated, a change in attitude and behaviour cannot be regulated. Social Attitude Influencing Organisational Attitude If an organization fails in justifying its existence in the society, its survival is found doubtful. If an organization has to survive, it has to pave ways for identifying the social attitudes and to form the organizational attitudes accordingly. Attitude and behaviour of an organization play a commanding role in practicing social marketing. The development of social marketing is the social evils generated by the organizational policies and strategies. Business goals or motives are considerably influenced by the organizational attitude. If the society is opposed to the negative developments, an organization has no option but to change its attitude. This makes it clear that ultimately it is the society which governs the formation of organizational attitude. This necessitates the society to be conscious, literate and well-organised. The need of the hour is to make possible a change in the attitudes of society and an organization in such a way that it helps you get a fair synchronization of three motives, e.g. profit generation, customer satisfaction and social orientation. The development of an organization is influenced by the development of society. The Governmental regulations cannot be sensitive or even our arguments and efforts cannot be effective unless the society is aware, conscious, literate and organized. The social attitudes would be successful in regulating the organizational attitudes but the society should have a sensitive receiver. This is possible only in a conscious society. We always insist for government regulations but in almost all cases, we find these regulations insensitive. For this reason, the main thing to regular social evils and organizational attitude is the social participation. The marketing practices in an organization are vigorously influenced by the changing perception of management. A change in management perception is to influence a change in the marketing perception. If you think about profit generation, it is essential for your survival. If you think about customer satisfaction, it is a pre-requisite for your positive image. Thus, the need of the hour is to make possible a change in the attitudes of society and an organization in such a way that it helps you get a fair synchronization of three motives: 1. Profit Generation 2. Customer Satisfaction 3. Social Orientation. The development of an organization is influenced by the development of society and vice versa. Impact of Business Environment on Organisational Goals

The corporate policy makers are well aware of the emerging trends. The growing consciousness in the society, innovations in the process of technological sophistication, changing levels of income, regulations to govern the business are some of the key issues forcing the business organizations to change the priority order of their goals. Organizational goals include the objectives, purposes, mission, standards, quotas and targets, which the organization is striving for. Social environment constitutes an important component of external environment. In a conscious, organized, educated and well-informed society, an organization must also look at social interests. Similarly, an organization also assigns due weightage to the economic environment. With an increase in the levels of income, we find a change in the organisational goals. In the Indian perspective, we have witnessed an apparent change in the business environmental conditions. However, the multi-dimensional problems like population explosion, ecological imbalance, environment pollution, illiteracy, lack of information education, poor healthcare facilities, contraction in the mobilization of small savings, etc. are found in their top level. However, the society is insensitive and ignorant. Almost all profit making and not-for-profit organizations have been found taking undue advantage of this situation, resulting into large scale exploitation at different stages. They formulate marketing decisions in the face of illiterate, unorganized and unconscious prospects. This is because we even pay high prices even for poor quality of goods and services. The government regulations fail in protecting the society since they are not aware of the emerging problems. For all this, we find education is a prerequisite without which, our efforts to change the organisational attitudes and serve the public interest are to be turned down.