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Diapositive

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Techniques de mesure de la
succion/pression capillaire en
laboratoire

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Prof. Jean-Claude VERBRUGGE

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jverbrug@ulb.ac.be

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Diapositive
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Classification des mthodes


Mthodes procdant une mesure
proprement dite:

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Tensiomtre, papier filtre, bloc poreux


tmoin, psychromtre

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Mthodes imposant une valeur fixe:

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Plaque de succion, chambre de pression,


dessiccateur vide, mthode osmotique

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EDT-GC-20080318

Diapositive
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Rappels: dfinitions et
relations
s = uc = ua uw
pF = logs avec s en cmCE
s = RT/M ln H/100 = RT/M ln p/p0

Diapositive
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R = Constante des gaz parfaits (8,314 J/(mol K)


T = Temprature absolue
= Masse volumique de leau
M = Masse molaire de leau (18 kg/kmol
H = Humidit relative
p = tension de vapeur de leau du sol
p0 = tension de vapeur de leau libre
EDT-GC-20080318

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Rappels: dfinitions et
relations
pF = 4,035 + log T + log (2 log H)
s = scap + sosmotique
sosmotique < sels dissous

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Pour des concentrations faibles:


sosmotique ~ (RT/M)N
O N = titre molaire du corps dissous

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Rappels: translation daxes

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ua

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Sol

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uw
s = ua uw
1) ua = 0 D s = uw D dpression sous la
pierre poreuse
2) uw = 0 D s = ua D surpression dans la
chambre
EDT-GC-20080318

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Tensiomtre: principe
Le + ancien (1922)
s < 50 70 kPa
s > si eau
remplace par une
solution osmotique
! Qualit du contact
sol-bougie poreuse
! t quilibre +
H2O D s
EDT-GC-20080318

Diapositive
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Diapositive
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Tensiomtre: Ridley & Burland


(Imperial College - 1993)

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Volume eau 3 mm
Pierre poreuse sa= 1,5 MPa sature sous pression
de 4 MPa pendant 24h
Mesures pendant plusieurs semaines s~1200 kPa
Succions maximales 2000 3000 kPa
! Qualit du contact sol - pierre poreuse
EDT-GC-20080318

Diapositive
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Tensiomtre: Guan et Fredlund


(U. Saskatchewan - 1997)

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Pierre poreuse sa= 1,5 MPa, sature sous pression de 12 MPa


en 6 cycles de 1h + succion de 85 kPa
Succions maximales 1250 kPa
Mesures pendant ~3 jours
! Qualit du contact sol - pierre poreuse
EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive

Tensiomtre: Toker et al.


(MIT- 2003)

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Pierre poreuse en cramique spciale faible pression de


saturation (fragile)
Succions maximales 2200 kPa
Mesures pendant ~ ? Jours
! Qualit du contact sol - pierre poreuse

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Papier filtre

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Mthode simple
Peu prcise
Dure de la mesure
Domaine 50 kPa < s < 10 MPa

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Papier filtre

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Watmann n42 et Schleicher & Schuell n589


EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Bloc poreux tmoin

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Principe similaire au papier filtre


? Relation biunivoque entre rsistance lectrique, wbloc, s ? D
volution monotone des paramtres (hystrsis)
Sensible aux sels dissous
Contact avec le sol
10 kPa < s < 10 MPa
EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive

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Psychromtre

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Psychromtre

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Thermocouple:
Effets Peltier et Seebeck
100 kPa < s < 15 MPa
Sensibilit fonction des mtaux du thermocouple
Transistors:
Sensibilit et prcision > thermocouples
Hystrsis
Pas deffet Peltier

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Sensibles aux T

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Plaque de succion

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~ tensiomtre
Contact sol pierre
poreuse amlior
par fin film de kaolin
s < 50 70 kPa

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Chambre de pression
~Plaque de succion
mais translation
daxes
Smax < 15 MPa
Usuel s < 1,5 MPa
Contact sol pierre
poreuse amlior
par fin film de kaolin
EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive

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Dessiccateur vide

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H fix par solution


saline
Sensible T
Echanges en phase
vapeur : lents
Sous vide
5 < s < 350 MPa
Volume chantillon <<
Vide

Diapositive
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Bain thermostatis
EDT-GC-20080318

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Dessiccateur vide +
mthode osmotique

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Mthode osmotique
= tensiomtre avec
pierre membrane
semi-permable et
liquide solution
de polythylne
glycol (PEG) 20000
s = solution
concentration en
PEG
0 < s < 1,5MPa
EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Mthode osmotique

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive

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Exemples dapplication dans


les appareils dessais de sol

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Triaxial
Oedomtre
Bote de cisaillment

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Triaxial

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Faibles s: translation daxes


s> et fixe (essai drain): PEG
s> et variable psychromtres ou
tensiomtres( IC, MIT, )

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Triaxial

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Triaxial

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive

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Triaxial

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
Oedomtre

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Combinaison oedomtre et
chambre de pression

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Combinaison oedomtre
et mthode osmotique

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive
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Bote de cisaillement

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EDT-GC-20080318

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Diapositive

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Merci pour votre attention

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EDT-GC-20080318

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