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# Ir.

## TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

OTTO CYCLE
The Otto cycle is the theoretical cycle for the spark-ignition (SI) engine

0-1 suction stroke 1-2 compressed isentropically 2-3 heat is added at constant volume
3-4 isentropic expansion 4-1 the heat is rejected
Consider 1 kg of air.
Heat added during process 2-3 = cv (T3 - T2)
Heat rejected during process 4-1 = cv(T4 – T1)
∴ Work done = heat added – heat rejected
= cv (T4 – T2) – cv(T4 – T1)
work done
Thermal efficiency, η =
heat supplied
c v ( T3 − T2 ) − c v (T4 − T1 )
Or η=
c v (T3 − T2 )

(T4 − T1 )
=1−
(T3 − T2 )

v1 v4
Now compression ratio = Expansion ratio =r
v2 v3

## For ideal gas pv = RT and pv γ = cons tan t.

These equations yield
γ −1 γ −1
T2  v1  v  T3
=  =  4  = = r γ −1
T1  v 2   v3  T4

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Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

∴ T3 = T4 r γ −1 and T2 = T1 r γ −1

Hence, substituting
T − T1 T4 − T1 1
η =1− 4
=1− = 1 − γ −1
( γ −1
T4 r − T1r γ −1
) ( T4 − T1 ) r γ −1
r
The efficiency can also be expressed in terms of temperatures T3 and T4.
v1 v 3
Now, since = , it follows that
v2 v4

T2 T3 T T T2 T1
= or 2 = 1 =
T1 T4 T3 T 4 T3 T 4
-1
and hence,
T2 T T3 − T2 T4 − T1
1− = 1− 1 or =
T3 T4 T3 T4
Therefore,
T4 − T1 T4
=
T3 − T2 T3
Hence, substituting, in (a) we get
T4 T
η = 1− = 1− 1
T3 T2

## Otto cycle efficiency at different compression ratios and γ

Helium (γ = 1.66) monoatomic gas
Argon (γ = 1.97) monoatomic gas

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Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

## Mean effective pressure (mep) of Otto cycle

Let clearance volume be unity, i.e, V2 = V3 = 1, and V1 – V4 = r
p3
and =α
p2

p2 p
Now = rγ = 3
p1 p4

p3 p 4
∴ = =α
p 2 p1

## Work done = area of the p-v diagram

p 3 v 3 − p 4 v 4 p 2 v 2 − p1 v1
= −
γ −1 γ −1

1   p3  p 
= p 4 r − 1 − p1 r 2 − 1
γ −1   p4r   p1 r  

=
r
γ −1
[ ( ) (
p 4 r γ −1 − 1 − p1 r γ −1 − 1 )]

=
r
γ −1
( )
r γ −1 − 1 ( p 4 − p1 )

p1 r ( α − 1)( p 4 − p1 )
=
γ −1
Length of the diagram = r − 1

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Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

## area of the diagram

∴ mep =
length of the diagram

=
( )
p1 r ( α − 1) r γ −1 − 1
( γ − 1)( r − 1)
1. Two Stroke

Spark plug

Deflector

Transfer port

Inlet valve

Crankcase

P
3 P

Piston travel in
uncovering port

4
1
5
V
VC VS 24 V

## Ideal diagram Actual diagram

Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

## 2. The Diesel Cycle

Work done in compression 1-2 = area 1256 Heat supplied in 2-3 = area 2365
Work done in expansion 3-4 = area 23456 heat rejected in 4-1 = area 4156
Net work done = area 1234

## The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle is given by

heat added − heat rejected
η=
c p ( T3 − T2 ) − c v ( T4 − T1 ) c v ( T4 − T1 ) 1 ( T4 − T1 )
= =1− =1−
c p ( T3 − T2 ) c p ( T3 − T2 ) c p ( T3 − T2 )
cv

1  T − T1 
= 1 −  4 
γ  T3 − T2  T1
:
 T4  T2
 −1
T T
=1− 1  1 

γ T2 T3 
 −1
 T2 
For isentropic compression and expansion process
γ −1 γ −1
T1  v 2  T4  v 3 
=  and = 
T2  v1  T3  v 4 

T3 v 3
For constant pressure heat addition 2-3, =
T2 v 2
Also v4 = v1

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Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

γ −1 γ −1
T4 T3  v3 / v 4  v v  v 
Thus =   = 3  3  =  3 γ
T1 T2  v 2 / v1  v2  v2   v2 
Substituting these values in Eq.(the thermal efficiency), we get
 
 
1  v2 −1 
η = 1−
γ ( v1 / v 2 )  T3 − 1 
γ −1
 
 T2 

1  ρ γ −1 
η = 1−  
r γ −1  γ ( ρ − 1) 

Note that the efficiency of the Diesel cycle differs from that of Otto cycle only by the
bracketed term, which is always greater than unity (except when ρ = 1 and there is no heat
addition).Thus the Diesel cycle always has a lower efficiency than the Otto cycle of the same
compression ratio.

Fig ..Efficiency of the Diesel cycle for various cut-off ratios and compression ratios.

## Mean Effective Pressure (mep) of Diesel cycle.

Work done = area of the p-v diagram
p 3 v 3 − p 4 v 4 p 2 v 2 − p1 v1
= p2 ( v3 − v2 ) + −
γ −1 γ −1
p 3 ρ − p 4 r − ( p 2 − p1 r )
= p 2 ( ρ − 1) +
γ −1

=
( )
p 2 ( ρ − 1)( γ − 1) + p 2 ρ − ρ γ r 1−γ − p 2 1 − r γ −1 (p ) [
− 2 γ ( ρ − 1) − r 1−γ ρ γ − 1 ( )]
γ −1 γ −1
area of the indicator diagram
mep =
length of the indicator diagram

=
[ (
p 2 γ ( ρ − 1) − r 1−γ ρ γ − 1 )]
( γ − 1)( r − 1)

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Ir. TRI TJAHJONO, MT/INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

=
[ ( )]
p1 r γ γ ( ρ − 1) − r 1−γ ρ γ − 1
( γ − 1)( r − 1)

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