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The huge quantity of concrete is consumed by construction industry all over the world.

In India, the conventional concrete is produced using natural sand from river beds as fine aggregate. Decreasing natural resources poses the environmental problem and hence government restriction on sand quarrying resulted inscarcity and significant increase in its cost. This paper present the optimization of partial replacement of manufactured sand by natural sand with fly ash in High Performance Concrete (HPC). Concrete mixes were evaluated for compressive strength and flexural strength. The ordinary portland cement was partially replaced with fly ash by 1.5%, 2.5 %, and 5% and natural sand was replaced with manufactured sand by four proportions (ie 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%). The results indicated that there is an increase in the compressive and flexural strength of HPC nearly 20% and 15% respectively with the increase of manufactured sand percentage. Addition of up to 50% of manufactured sand as sand replacement yielded comparable strength with that of the control mix. However, further additions of manufactured sand caused reduction in the strength. The optimum percentage of replacement of natural sand by M-sand is 50%. The results also revealed that increase in percentage of partial replacement of fly ash, increased the compressive and flexure strength of High Performance Concrete. I. INTRODUCTION Sand is the one of main constituents of concrete making which is about 35% of volume of concrete used in construction industry. Natural sand is mainly excavated from river beds and always contain high percentage of in organic materials, chlorides, sulphates, silt and clay that adversely affect the strength, durability of concrete & reinforcing steel there by reducing the life of structure, when concrete is used for buildings in aggressive environments, marine structures, nuclear structures, tunnels, precast units, etc. Fine particles below 600 microns must be at least 30 % to 50% for making concrete will give good results. Normally particles are not present in river sand up to required quantity. Digging sand, from river bed in excess quantity is hazardous to environment. The deep pits dug in the river bed, affects the ground water level. Erosion of nearby land is also due to excessive sand lifting. In order to fulfill the requirement of fine aggregate, some alternative material must be found. The cheapest and the easiest way of getting substitute for natural sand is by crushing natural stone to get artificial sand of desired size and grade which would be free from all impurities is known as Manufactured sand. Concrete made with crushed stone dust as replacement of natural sand in concrete can attain the same compressive strength, comparable tensile strength, modulus of rupture and lower degree of shrinkage as the control concrete. From Literature Review it is observed that compressive and split tensile strength of M30 grade concrete increased by replacing 30% of natural sand with MSand The characteristics defining a HPFA concrete mixture Minimum of 50% of fly ash by mass of the cementitious materials must be maintained. Low water content, generally less than 130 kg/m3 is mandatory. Cement content generally no more than 200kg/m3 is desirable. For concrete mixtures with slumps less than 150 mm and 28-daycompressive strength of less than 30 Mpa. For concrete mixtures with specified 28-day compressive strength of 30MPa or higher, slumps >150 mm, and water-to-cementitious materials ratio of the order of 0.30

For concrete exposed to freezing and thawing environments, the use of an air-entraining admixture resulting in adequate air-void spacing factor is mandatory. Advantages HPFA Concrete

Less dependent on skill on site Safer, quieter sites (no vibration) Better appearance Better durability(the design process ,specification ,environmental effects accidents ,repairs) Strength as needed

of materials


Use of fly ash concrete in high performance concrete Higher ultimate strength Improved workability Reduced bleeding Reduced heat of hydration Reduced permeability Increased resistance to sulphate attack Lowered costs Reduced shrinkage Increased durable

Properties of concrete Based on field experience and laboratory tests, the properties of HVFA concrete, when compared to conventional portland cement concrete, can be summarized as follows: Easier flow ability, pump ability, and comp actability. Better surface finish and quicker finishing time when power finish is not required. Slower setting time, which will have a corresponding effect on the joint cutting and lower power-finishing times for slabs. Early-strength up to 7 days, which can be accelerated with suitable changes in the mix design when earlier removal of formwork or early structural loading is desired. Much later strength gain between 28 days and 90 days or more .After three to six months of curing, much higher electrical resistivity, and resistance to chloride ion V ery high durability to the reinforcement corrosion, alkali-silica expansion, and sulfate attack. Better cost economy due to lower material cost and highly favorable lifecycle cost. II. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

Normal concrete lacks required strength and durability which are more often required for large Concrete structures such as high rise buildings, bridges and structures under severe exposure Condition. Due to booming construction activities natural sand is becoming scarce due to excessive on scientific methods of mining from the river beds. For these reasons it is necessary to produce a concrete with improved strength and performance, with suitable materials. This research shows the effective utilization of by product silica fume and M-sand in High Performance Concrete. III. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 3.1 Materials: 3.1.1 Cement: Ordinary Portland cement of 53 Grade and the specific gravity of cement were found to be 3.15. The physical properties of cement given in table

3.1.2 Fine Aggregate: Natural Sand: Locally available River sand having bulk density 1860 kg/m3 was used and the specific gravity is 2.56. The Fineness modulus of river sand is 2.64.Manufactured sand: M- Sand was used as partial replacement of fine aggregate. It was collected from TECHNOMAX Building Solutions India Pvt. Ltd. Coimbatore, India. The bulk density of manufactured sand was 1860 kg/m3, specific gravity and fineness modulus was found to be 2.56and 3.10 respectively. The percentage of particles passing through various sieve were compared with natural sand and it was found to be similar. The results are presented in Table.2. Table 2 Sieve analysis of River sand &M-Sand

3.1.3 Coarse Aggregate:

Crushed angular aggregate with maximum grain size of 12.5mm and downgraded was used and having bulk density 1691kg/m3. The specific gravity and fineness modulus was found to be 2.89 and 2.75 respectively. 3.1.4 Water:

Fresh portable water, which is free from acid and organic substance, was used for mixing the concrete 4. Experimental Procedure: The specimen of standard cube of (150mm x 150mm x 150mm) and standard prisms (100mm x 100mm x 500mm) were used to determine the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete. Three specimens were tested for 7 & 28 days with each proportion of silica fume and M-sand replacement. Totally 78 cubes and 78 prisms were cast. The constituents were weighed and the materials were mixed by hand mixing. The mixes were compacted using vibrating needle. The water binder ratio (W/B) adopted was 0.32 and weight of super plasticizer was estimated as 1.2 % of weight of binder .The specimens were demoulded after 24 h, cured in water for 7 & 28 days, and then tested for its compressive and flexural strength as per Indian Standards

5. CONCLUDING Throughout the world, the waste disposal costs have escalated greatly. At the same time, the concrete construction industry has realized that coal fly ash is relatively inexpensive and widely available by-product that can be used for partial cement replacement to achieve excellent workability in fresh concrete mixtures. Consequently, in the modern construction practice 15%20% of fly ash by mass of the cementitious material is now commonly used in North America. Higher amounts of fly ash on the order of 25%-30% are recommended when there is a concern for thermal cracking, alkali-silica expansion, or sulfate attack. Such high proportions of fly ash are not readily accepted by the construction industry due to a slower rate of strength development at early age. The high-volume fly ash concrete system overcomes the problems of low early strength to a great extent through a drastic reduction in the water-cementitious materials ratio by using a combination of methods, such as taking advantage of the superplactisizing effect of fly ash when used in a large volume, the use of a chemical superplactisizer, and a judicious aggregate grading. Consequently, properly cured high-volume concrete products are very homogenous in microstructure, virtually crack-free, and highly durable. Because there is a direct link between durability and resource productivity, the increasing use of high volume concrete will help to enhance the sustainability of the concrete industry. In conclusion, the high-volume concrete offers a holistic solution to the problem of meeting the increasing demands for concrete in the future in a sustainable manner and at a reduced or no additional cost, and at the same time reducing the environmental impact of two industries that are vital to economic development namely the cement industry and the coal-fired power industry. The technology of high-volume fly ash concrete is especially significant for countries like China and India, where, given the limited amount of financial and natural resources, the huge demand for concrete needed for infrastructure and housing can be easily met in a cost-effective and ecological manner.