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Manual Testing 1) What is Quality?

Quality is conformance to requirements, Degree of Excellence and Measuring as per specifications. 2) What is Quality Assurance? Quality Assurance involves entire software development process i.e. monitoring and improving the process, making sure that any agreed upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. 3) What is Quality Control? The Operational Techniques and Activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality. 4) What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control? Quality Assurance ---------------------------Prevention based Process oriented Organization level Phase Parallel activity 5) What is Testing? Testing is a process of excising or evaluating a system component by manual or automated means to verify that is satisfying specified requirements. To ensure that manufactured product is working according to specifications and working perfectly. 6) What is Verification? Verification is a static testing procedure. It involves verifying the requirements, detailed design documents, test plans, walkthroughs, and inspections of various documents produced during the development and testing process. Ensuring that the output of a phase meets the requirement or goals set for the phase. Are you building the product right. It is a preventive procedure. It involves more than two or three persons and is a group activity. It requires co-operation and scheduling of meetings and discussions. It is also called human testing, since it involves finding the errors by person participating in a review or the walkthrough. Verification occurs on requirements, design and coding. Quality Control ------------------------Detection based Project oriented Producer responsibility End phase activity

Manual Testing

Verification is made both in the executable and non-executable forms of a work product. Verification finds errors early in the SDLC and reduces the cost of errors. An effective tool for verification is a checklist.

Verification activities include Requirements verification. Functional design verification Internal design verification Code verification

Verification tasks include Planning Execution

Verification deliverables (work products) are Verification test plan Inspection report Verification test report

7) What is Validation? Validation is a dynamic testing procedure. Validation involves actual testing of the product as per the test plan (unit, integration, system, acceptance test). Ensuring that a phase is effective in achieving its goal. Are we building the right product. It is a corrective procedure. It involves the tester and user (sometimes). It is to check that the product satisfies the requirements and is accepted by the user. It is also called computer testing, since errors are found out by testing the software on a computer Validation occurs only in coding and executable application. Validation is done only on executable forms of a work product. Validation finds errors only during the testing stage and hence cost of errors reduced is less than verification. Various manual and automated test tools are available for validation.

Validation activities include Unit testing

Manual Testing Usability testing Function testing System testing Acceptance testing

Validation tasks include Planning Testware developments Test execution Testware maintenance

Validation deliverables are Test plan Test design specification Test case specification Test procedure specification Test log Test incident report

8)What is Quality Analyst? Identifies weakness in the process and improve them. Sets measurements program to evaluate process. Process are established and continuously improved to produce products that meets specification and are fit to use.

9) What is Test Eng? Verifies specific attributes of the product or project. Focuses on inspection, testing and removal of defects. Responsibility of worker. Concerned with specific products.

10) What is Priority? Priority is with respect to the delivery of the application. It is assigned by the developer and describes the importance a developer places on fixing the bug. 11) What is Severity? Severity is with respect to the application. It is assigned by user and describes the level of impact the bug is having on them.

Manual Testing

12) What is Test Plan? Test plan is a document that describes the overall approach to testing and testing objectives. A standard test plan consists of following. Software system description Test scope Test objectives Assumptions Risk analysis Test design Test data management Test environment Test tools Test techniques Schedule and milestones Resources Roles and responsibilities Defect management Configuration management Guidelines for generating testware Metrics to capture

13) What is Test Case? Test case is basically a sequence or flow of test to achieve certain functionality. Test case is used for how to test. The test case should contain. Test case id Pre condition Steps or description Expected output Actual output Result

14) What is Testing Life Cycle? Proposal Test Requirement Specifications Test Design Test Review Inspection and Release

Manual Testing Client Acceptance

15) What is Test Strategy? Test Strategy will give the full insight of the counter part that how will be the testing carried out, viz, for preparation of test data we will use boundary, equivalence partitioning, and we will be using this % of white box and this % of black box. Test strategy is a subset of test plan. Test strategy talks about the overall approach towards testing 16) What is Test Methodology? A test methodology talk about using which methods and techniques the test case verifies their objectives. The tests that you will execute, how they are going to verify their objective becomes the best methodology. 17) What is Test Script? A procedure identifying steps required executing a test case, including the actual values for input and expected results. 18) What is Test Report? A document that contains the current status of the testing of a project. This can include software system description, test scope, test objectives, test results, a summary of working and non-working functions of the application, risk and recommendations. 19) What is Test Coverage? Coverage of requirements in testing in terms of test cases. First you will have the business requirement documents, you may have the functional spec. documents. Now based on that you will prepare your test cases. You may go for a traceability matrix to see the coverage of requirements. 20) What is Test Scenario? The events that occur when executing the application. It is a sub issue of test case. 21) What is Test Objective? Test objective gives us what actually to test.

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Manual Testing 22) What is Test Environment?

A description of software and hardware environment in which the tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and drivers. 23) What is Test Suite? Test suite consists of multiple test cases (procedures and data) that are combined and often managed by test harness 24) What is Test Harness? A system of test drivers and other tools to support test execution. (E.g.: stubs, drivers, executable test cases). The harness provides a simple user interface for testing. 25) What is Test Procedure? A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases often called a manual test script. 26) What is Test Criteria? Decision rules used to determine whether software item or software feature pass or fail a test. 27) What is Test Bed? Test bed is the environment used for testing. Test bed is the test data, test tool etc, on which you can execute the testing. To simplify the definition all those, which includes for executing the testing process, would comes as test bed. 28) What is Test Driver? It is a dummy program to generate required value for another module. It is a bottom up strategy. 29) What is Test Stub? Stubs are dummy programs, which generate constant value for another modules. It is a top down strategy.

Manual Testing 30) What are different types of Testing Techniques? White Box Testing - Structural Testing Black Box Testing - Functional Testing

31) What is White Box Testing? It is done based on the knowledge of the internal logic of application code. Execute every line and every decision outcome in code. It is also known as structure test or clear box test for class box test. Typically used in early testing stages. It tells the statement coverage. 32) What is Black Box Testing? Black Box Testing only focused on the functional requirements of the software. In this method we should not interact with the internal logic of application code. It is also known as data-driven test or function test. Typically used in later testing stages. It tells the functional coverage. It finds the errors of Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures Performance errors Initialization and termination errors 33) What is Gray Box Testing? Some identified complex modules are white box tested, while complete application is black box tested. 34) What are different types of Testing? Manual Testing Automated Testing

35) What is Manual Testing? Testing the application manually i.e. with out using the third party tools, based on the knowledge of the internal logic of application code. 36) What is Automated Testing? This method of testing is done by using third party tools. In this method, we automate or run a particular test case for a specific number of times, which in turn save time.

Manual Testing

37) What is the difference between Manual Testing and Automated Testing? Manual Testing -----------------------------Time consuming Less reliability Need of human resources Inconsistent 38) Which test cases to Automate? Tests that need to be run for every build of the application. (Regression test, sanity test) Tests that use multiple data values for the same action. (Data driven tests) Tests that requires detailed information from application internals. (SQL, GUI attributes) Stress/Load testing Automated Testing -------------------------------Speed Reliability Programming capabilities Repeatability, reusability and coverage

39) Which test cases not to Automate? Usability testing. (how easy is the application to use) One-time testing. (tests that you only have to run once). ASAP testing. (test that you need to run immediate testing) Ad hoc/random testing. (based on intuition and knowledge of application) Tests without predictable results.

40) What are levels of Testing? Unit Testing Integration Testing System Testing User Acceptance Testing

41) What is Unit Testing? It involves testing the code-path, condition, branch etc.each must be executed at least once. Individual unit of the software are tested in isolation from the other parts of a program. Field level check (default, null, unique, length, numeric, -ve, date) Field level validation (date, field (emp-id), range check) User interface checks (tab, hot key, message box, menu option) Functional checks (screen functionality, auto generation)

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42) What is Integration Testing? Test that evaluate the integration and consistency of the interacting components. Data dependency checks Data transfer checks

We will use stubs and drivers in integration testing. 43) What is System Testing? System testing verifies that all these system elements mesh together properly and software archives overall function/performance. 44) What is Acceptance Testing? Acceptance testing is conducted by the customer to validate requirements. It normally covers functionality and other aspects of the software to verify and validate against client requirements 45) What is Regression Testing? This process of testing is done when new features are added or when features have been modified to confirm that the feartues that have been functioning are still functioning and that defects, which have been fixed, still remain fixed. 46) What is Load Testing? Testing an application under heavy loads, such as testing of website under a range of loads to determine at what point the systems response time degrades or fails. More users are accessing the same transaction or data at the same time. What is the response time of system? 47) What is Stress Testing? Stress Testing is running the system in advance circumstances. In case of web site if you throttle the bandwidth too much and then test it or you go too fast while navigating and check the response. Such a circumstance is not a normal circumstance but a special instance, which can adversely affect the performance of the system. Stress Testing is used to describe such tests as system functional testing while under unusually heavy loads, heavy repetition of certain actions or inputs, input of large numerical values, large complex queries to a database system.

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To test the application performance when there is resource constraints means when the resource is optimum and only the application is running there is no performance problem. Then try to run applications like MS Word, Notron Anti-Virus tools and some testing tools like Rational Robot. Now you are putting a memory constraint. Now your cpu utilization is more and the same memory is divided by all the applications. Like that suppose your application needs 256 MB RAM for a good performance. Now put stress by reducing the RAM size by 64MB, your application should not crash. So in stress testing the application is put under stress by reducing system resources. 49) What is Alpha Testing? Testing that takes place at the service providers place, where customers are involved. This is done at the time when the software is considered to please the customers and to gather feedbacks from the customers. (controlled environment) 50) What is Beta Testing? Testing that take place at the customers place, where the service provider may or may not involve. This is also done when the software is considered to please the customers and to gather feedbacks from customers. 51) What is Smoke Testing? Smoke test describes an initial set of tests that determine if a new version of application performs well enough for further testing. Smoke test belongs to the category of the positive test. If the build passes the smoke test then it is a good build and stable enough. 52) What is Sanity Testing? Sanity tests are subsets of the confidence test and are used only to validate high-. To determine if a new software level functionality version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. 53) What is Exploitery Testing? Not based on any test cases, but often to have the significant understanding of the software before testing it. 54) What Adhoc/random Testing Testing? Based on intuition and knowledge of application tests without predictable results. Similar to exploitery testing, but often taken to mean that, the tester have significant understanding of software before testing it.

Manual Testing 55) What is Functional Testing?

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Functionality testing is the determination of whether each functionality mentioned in SRS is actually implemented. The objective is to ensure that all the functional requirements as documents in the SRS are accomplished. 56) What is GUI Testing? In this we will test background and foreground color combination suits the eyes, program work in all screen resolution mode, program does not contain broken links, application dos not raise any critical errors. 57) What is User Interface Testing? Focus is on testing the user interface, navigation and negative user behaviour. In this we will test whether labels present correctly, tab control. 58) What is Usability Testing? Usability testing is an attempt to uncover the software usability problems involving the human-factor. Ensures that all pages present cohesive information to the user. It is recommended that both end users and UI designers perform this testing. 59) What is Database Testing? How to test store procedure? Have test data prepared, write a shell program in such away that each and every condition of stored procedure is passed and failed. This is a normal practice. How to test triggers, functions, packages? Testing the data stored indatabase, no of rows and columns.

60) What is Risk based Testing? Assume that we have 100% test cases with us already written or prepared and we give with very less time to complete the testing activity, so at that time we cannot complete the execution of available 100% test cases, so what we do is, we identify few test cases which are marked as critical or high priority and we only execute these test cases.(say 50%) 61) What is Comparison Testing? Situations where independent versions of software be developed for critical applications, even when only a single version will be used in the delivered computer based system. These independent versions from the basis of a black box testing techniques called comparison testing or back to back testing.

Manual Testing 62) What is Recovery Testing?

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Recovery testing is a system test that focuses the software to fall in a variety of ways and verifies that recovery is properly performed. If recovery is automatic, reinitialization, checkpointing mechanisms, data recovery and restart are evaluated for correctness. If recovery requires human interaction, the mean-time-to repair is evaluated to determine whether it is within acceptable limits. 63) What is Security Testing? Security testing attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system will, in fact, protect it from improper penetration during security testing, password cracking, unauthorized entry into the software, network security are all taken into consideration. 64) What is Application or Project Testing? You have to go by software requirements specification and if the same is satisfied, can be sent for release. Project testing means its only for one particular client and strictly according to client own requirements, o.s, environment so the testing the application will be restricted and bounded to whatever client needs. 65) What is Product Testing? Whereas in product testing, requirements will not be freezed soon u may have many incremental functionality, as well as suggestions/customization at various level. Testing the patches, etc moreover planning for the test is a challenge. Product will be used by any body who will have different o.s, different languages and technologies, environments.so the functionality of the application will be extended across various o.s, environment. 66) What is Client/Server Testing? Tests to examine the network communication and interplay between software that resides on the client and server. Checks are run on the client, on the server and on both are. Application Function test Server test Database test Transaction test Network communication test

67) What is Web Testing? Web sites are essentiality client/server applications with web servers and browsers clients. Consideration should be given to the interactions between HTML pages, TCP/IP

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communication, Internet connections, firewalls, applications that run in web pages (such as applets, javascript, plug-in applications), and applications that run on the server side (such as cgi scripts, database interfaces logging applications, dynamic page generators, asp, etc). Web site testing checklist includes. General (GUI Testing) Usability, Interface and navigation testing Tables Frames Data verification External Interfaces Internal Interfaces Browsers IE, Netscape, ADL, Mac etc. Cookies Load/concurrent usage Error handling Network impacts Security Page flow testing Business logic testing

68) What is Page Flow Testing? Ensures that pages that have a preceding page requirements cannot be visited without having first visited the preceding page. It deals with ensuring that jumping to random pages does not confuse the application. A page flow diagram is a very useful aid for tester to use when checking for correct page flow within application. 69) What is Installation and Upgrade Testing? We need to check the installation/upgrade documentation for recovery and flow all instruction from the point of view of user. If user cannot install or upgrade the product whether it is through an inability to understand documentation, a failure of the installation/upgrade program, or lack of resource, the product has failed the user. 70) What is Multiple Configuration Testing? A product may be usually tested under default configuration, it is also important to test under non-default configuration. 71) What is User Documentation Testing? If a new user is unable to use the software because of poor documentation, the product as a whole is unusable. All sections of the user documentation should be tested for

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accuracy against the reality of product. Verify as corrected and complete all demos, tutorials and exercise described in user documentation. 72) What is Forward Backward Compatibility? The product must be compatible with any previous release and supported dependencies. Backward compatibility testing ensures that no problem will arise from a user trying to use new version of product along an old version and verifies integration between products. 73) What is Capacity and Volume Testing? It is related to capacity of network to handle traffic and its behavior under various volumes are tested; similarly data storage capacity is also tested. 74) What is Extended Session Testing? Remain in a session for an extended period of time and click items to navigate the screen. Remain in a single page for an extended length of time. The users session should been saved and may optionally be restored on re-login The users state must reflect the last complete action the user performed

75) What is Business Logic Testing? It is validation that certain sequences to intact generate the correct outputs back to the application use as well any backend users be they human or machine. 76) What is Localization Testing? Focus in on testing the problems associated with multiple languages support, conversion and also hardware aspects. 77) What is Reliability Testing? Which is a part of system testing encompasses the testing of any specific reliability factors that are stated explicitly in SRS. 78) What is Data Volume Testing? Moving large amounts of data through the application either directly via input/output to WebPages, or directly as input/output from database that is referenced by a web page 79) What is External Testing?

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External testing deals with checking the effect of external factors on the application. (web server, database server, network connectivity) Database unavailability Database error detection and recovery test Database authentication test Connection pooling test WebPages authentication test Browser compatibility test

80) What is Connectivity Testing? Connectivity testing involves determining if the server and clients behaves appropriately under various circumstances. Kill the browser or hitting esc key and reloading. Simulation of hub failure between PC and web server Web sever on/off test Database server on/off test Application server on/off test Quit from session without user saving state Quit from session with user saving state Client forced quit due to browser crashing Server forced quit from session due to inactivity

81) What is Dependency Testing? It is recommended to test any API calls made to other products and ensure that these calls act as promised. 82) What is Standard Conformance Testing? Specific set of industry standards has to be tested. Tests need to be planned and conducted to detect bugs in standards conformance that could seriously affect the prospects of product in the market. 83) What is Testability? Software Testability is simply how easily a computer program can be tested. testability occurs as a result of good design. 84) What is Walk-Through? It is an informal meeting for evaluation or informal purpose. Little or no preparation is usually required. The author of the material being reviewed facilitates walk

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through. The participates are led through the material in one or two formats, the presentation is made without interruptions and comments are made at the end, or comments are made throughout. In either case, the issues raised are captured and published in a report distributed to the participants. Possible solutions for uncovered defects are not discussed during the review. 85) What is Inspection? Inspections are facilitated by knowledgeable individual called a moderator, who is not a member of the team or the author of the product under review. The moderator is assisted by a recorder who records the defects found and actions assigned. The meeting is planned in advance and material is distributed to all the participants and the participants are expected to attend the meeting well prepared. The issues raised during the meeting are documented and circulated among the members present and the management. Inspection is used foe small work. 86) What is Review? Review is used for big work. Checking the quality of the finished product or document before delivery. Reviews help you to discover defects and to ensure product compliance to specification, standards or regulations.

87) What is Peer Review? Peer Review is generally a one-to-one meeting between the author of a work product and peer, initiated as a request for impact regarding a particular artifact or problem. There is no agenda, and results are not formally reported 88) What is Top-down Integration Testing strategy (methodology)? 89) What is Bottom-up Integration Testing strategy (methodology)? 90) What is Tracebility matrix? 91) What is Test matrix? 92) What are Test matrices? 93) What are testing methodology? 94) What are different Testing Techniques? (for writing test cases) Equivalence Partitioning Boundary Value Analysis Error Guessing

Manual Testing Cause Effect

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95) What is Equivalence Partitioning? It is a Black box testing method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test case can be derived. An ideal test case single-handedly uncovers a class of error there by reducing the total number of test cases that must be developed. A single value in an equivalence partition is assumed to be representative of all other values in the partition. This is used to reduce the problem that it si not possible to test every input value. The aim of equivalence testing is to select values that have equivalent processing, one that we can assume if a test passes with the representative value, it should pass with all other values in the same partition. 96) What is Boundary Value Analysis? It is a test case design technique, which complements Equivalence partitioning. Rather then selecting any element of the equivalence class, boundary value analysis leads to the selection of the test cases at the edge of the class. 97) What is Equivalence Class? It represents a set of valid or invalid states for input conditions. An input condition is a specific numeric value, a range of values, a set of related values, and a Boolean condition. 98) What is Cause Effect? This is rigorous approach, recommended for complex systems only. Divide specification into workable pieces. Identify the cause and their effects. Link cause and effect in a graph Make decision table. Convert each column into test cases.

99) What is Error Guessing? Supplementary technique Based on intuition and experience No formal procedure

100) What are primary goals of testing?

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35) What is meant by Defect or Bug? Defect is a variance in the desired product attribute. Defect from specification i.e. product build varies from product spec. Defect in capturing user requirements i.e.Varience is something that user does not want in the build. 36) What are different types of Unit Testing? Functionality testing User interface testing Regression testing

37) What are different types of Integration Testing? Functional testing User interface testing Regression testing Dependency testing Performance testing Smoke testing Forward / Backward capability Capacity and volume testing Error handling and recovery Concurrent execution

38) What are different types of System Testing? Functionality testing User interface testing Regression testing Capacity and volume testing Error handling and recovery Performance testing Stress testing Network and distributed environment Standard conformance Security testing Installation and upgrade testing Multiple configuration testing

39) What are different types of Acceptance Testing?

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User documentation testing Alpha testing Beta testing

40) What is Functionality Testing? During UT, each component or object is tested for correctness and completeness of implementation of specific functionality. During IT, we focus on the functionality that requires the correct operation of two or more components or flow of data between them. During SI, we should consider functionality in terms of whole sequence of end user operations or on entire area of functionality. 41) What is User Interface Testing? During UT, phase often involves only a selected few user interface objects or specific screen or page. During IT, we need to focus on the navigation or page flow across several screens or pages. During ST, we need to test the complete navigation required to meet the client requirements. 46) What is Error/Disaster handling and Recovery? Recovery testing forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verifies that recovery software is properly performed. 47) What is Concurrent Execution? A product that can have many instances of it running at the same time in parallel should undergo these concurrent execution tests Sample usage (two users) Standard usage (many users) Boundary situations (max number of users plus or minus one)

48) What is Network and Distributed Environment? If a product works in network and distributed environment we need to test for Date and time zone handling

Manual Testing Communication and telephony standards

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Manual Testing 58) What is Web Testing?

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Testing which goes beyond the basic functionality and system testing of the computer world to include tests for availability, performance/load, scalability, usability compatibility and links. Optimize testing with through risk analysis of the site to identify and prioritize key areas and testing tasks. Consider interaction between HTML pages, TCP/IP communications, Internet connections, firewalls and applications that run on sever side. 59) What are different types of Web Testing? Unit testing Page flow testing Usability testing Performance testing Data volume testing Security testing Regression testing External testing Business logic testing

60) What is Unit Testing in Web Testing? Testing of individual modules and pages that make up applications. Input tests (good i/p, bad i/p, out of range i/p, execessive i/p, multiple clicks on buttons, reload of pages prior to results being returned.) 61) What is Page Flow Testing? Ensures that pages that have preceding page requirements cannot be visited with out having first visited the preceding page. It deals with ensuring that jumping to random pages does confuse the application. A page flow diagram is a very useful aid for the tester to use when checking for correct page flow with in application. 62) What is Usability Testing? Ensures that all pages present cohesive information to the user. It is recommended that both end user and UI designer perform this testing, and this testing be done very early during development cycle. Examples: Spelling checks, graphics checks, meaningful error messages, accuracy of data displayed, accuracy of data in the database as a result of user input, accuracy of data in database as a result of external factors, meaningful help pages including context sensitive help.

Manual Testing 64) What is Security Testing?

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Security testing ensures that sensitive information is not in the clear text form, unauthorized access is not permitted. It involves verifying whether the server and the application are managing security correctly. All these tests must pass will with no exceptions. It involves Unauthenticated access to application Unauthorized access to application Unencrypted data passing Protection of the data Log files should be checked to endure they do not contain sensitive information Session information must be valid and secure. Multiple login testing by a single user from several clients Automatic logout after N minutes of inactivity with positive feedback to user Attempt to break into application by running username/password checks using password-cracking program.

68) Why do software have Bugs? Miscommunication Software complexity Programming errors Change in requirements Time pressure Poor documentation code

71) What are contents of Defect Tacking? Bug identifier Bug status Application name Bug occurred Environment spec Test case identifier Bug description Severity Priority Tester name Test date Bug reporting date Name of developer

Manual Testing Description of fix Date of fix Retested date Application version that contains the fix Tester responsibility for retest Retested results Regression testing requirements Tester responsibility for regression tests Regression testing results Was the bug reportable

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72) What are Testing Activities? Test case design Review of test case design Testing Reporting test results Review and sign-off test results Defect reporting

73) What are Testing Documents? Test plan for the project Test case documents

74) What are Testing Records? Test report Review reports Defect log

78) What is V-model? It is generally used foe SDLC and TLC System requirement specifications External design Internal design Coding Testing Installation and release -system testing -regression testing -integration testing -unit testing

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79) What are benefits of Usability Testing? Better quality software Software is easy to use Users more readily to accept the software Shortens the learning curve for new users

81) What is Walk-through? It is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purpose. 82) What is Inspection? It is more formal than walk-through, typically 3 to 8 people including moderator, reader and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection typically a document such as spec or test plan and the purpose is to find problems and see whats missing, not to fix anything. 86) What is Tester Responsibility? Identifying the most appropriate implementation approach for given test Implementing individual tests Setting up and executing the tests Verifying the test execution Analyzing and recovering from execution errors

88) What is Ad-hoc Testing? Similar to expliotery but the tester have the significant understanding of the software before testing it. 90) What is End-to-End Testing? Similar to system testing, involves testing of complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as integration with database, using network communication or interconnecting with hardware. 91) What is Non-Incremental/Big-Bang Testing? Testing each module independently and then combine the modules to form the program. 92) What is Test set? Set of Sub-Tests.

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93) Objectives of each type of test. Test ---------------Regression Stress Performance User interface System Objective -----------------------------------------------verifying a defect fixes isolates memory leaks verify server performance under load verify UI adheres to standards verify a successful transaction

94) What if the software is so buggy it cant really be tested at all? The best bet in this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely effect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development, process manages should be notified and printed with some documentation as evidence of the problem. 95) How can it be known when to stop testing? Deadlines Test cases completed with certain percentage passed Test budged depleted Coverage of code, functionality, requiremtnts reaches a specific point Bug rate fall below a certain level Beta or alpha testing period ends

96) What if there isnt enough time for through testing? Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. Since its rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an appication, every possible combination of events. Which functionality is most important to projects intended purpose? Which functionality is most visible to user? Which functionality has the largest safety impact? Which aspects of application are most important to customer? Which aspects of similar previous projects caused problems? Which kinds of problems would cause the most customer service complaints? Which kinds of tests could easily cover multiple functionality? Which test will have the best high-risk-coverage to time-required ratio?

98) What is Test Bed?

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An environment containing the hardware, instrumentation, simulators, software tools, and other support elements need to conduct a test 100) What is Test Condition? The set of circumstances to invoke a test. 101) What is Test Data? The actual values used in the test or that are necessary to execute the test. 102) What is Test Documentation? Documentation describing plans for, or results of the testing of a system or component, types include test case specification, test incident report, test tag, test plan, test procedure, test report. 105) What is Test Item? A software item, which is the object of testing. 106) What is Test Log? A chronological record of all relevant details about the execution of test. 109) What is Test Status? The assessment of the result of running tests on software. 111) What is Test Tree? A physical implementation of test suite. 115) What is Test Environment? A description of the hardware and software environment in which the tests will be executed, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers. 117) What is Bug Life Cycle? Detect bug Reproduce bug Fixing bug Reporting bug

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