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English Professional in USE: LAW

Unit 1: Legal Systems

Questions:

Substantive law- drept material Procedural law- drept procesual Common law- drept cutumiar Statute law- drept legislativ Criminal law- drept penal Legal person- persoana juridica Natural person- persoana fizica Liabilities- obligatii Duties- indatoriri Accession to- aderare la Signatory- semnatar

a.

What are the main branches of law?

b.

Describe the British and the Romanian Parliaments. Describe the American Congress.

c.

What are the three powers in the state?

Unit 2 : Sources of law : legislation

Questions:

Statutes- legi (emise de Parlamentul Britanic) Bill- proiect de lege Statutory instruments- legi/ hotarari emise de Guvern Bye-laws- “legi”/ hotarari locale Compliance with- conformitatea cu Case law- drept jurisprudential To enact a law- a adopta o lege To repeal a law- a anula o lege Obsolete laws- legi desuete Public scrutiny- scrutin public Provisions- prevederi Drafting legislation- elaborare/ intocmire de legi

a. Why are laws made?

b. How are laws made in Romania/ UK and USA?

c. What would a society be like without laws?

The process of making a law in the UK and Romania

1. Propunere:

   

- 250,000 de semnaturi

- Din partea guvernului

- Camerele Parlamentului

2. Comisia de specialitate

3. Comisia juridica

4. Senat- Camera Deputatilor Camera Deputatilor- Senat (daca nu se discuta 30 de zile este adoptata tacit)

5. Presedintele ( daca nu este de acord se trimite inapoi la Camere, iar cand este trimisa din nou presedintelui acesta trebuie sa o aprobe)

6. Publicare in Monitorul Oficial (The Official Gazette) – daca nu este stipulat in lege un termen de intrare in vigoare atunci legea intra in vigoare la trei zile de la data publicarii).

Unit 3: Sources of law: common law

Questions:

Common law- drept cutumiar Judicial decisions- decizii judiciare Override- a avea prioritate fata de Court- instant, curte

Binding precedent- stare decisis=obligativitatea precedentului judiciar Counsel/ lawyer- avocat The rule at law reasoned- ratio decidendi (motivele care au determinat instanta sa se pronunte intr-un anumit sens, de ex.

a. Describe the principle of the binding precedent.

b. Does the Romania legal system include case law? If yes, is it binding on the decisions made in courts?

al

condamariisau achitarii)

Persuasive authority- obiter dictum (hotarari care nu au caracter obligatoriu si nu au valoare de precedent judiciar) Evidence- dovada, proba First instance- instanta de fond Case citation- citarea unui caz:

Meah v Roberts ( v=versus: in a civil case it is said ‘and’) [Meah=the claimant/plaintiff-reclamantul; Roberts= the defendant/ respondent- paratul]

Unit 4: The Court System

Questions:

To hear- a audia Matters of fact- stare de fapt Points of law- probleme de drept Judge- judecator Criminal court- instanta de drept penal Civil court- instanta de drept civil Stipendiary magistrate- judecator renumerat care serveste in cea mai joasa instanta din Regatul Unit (Magistrates’ Court) Lay magistrate- judecator in cadrul “Magistrates’ Court “ care nu are pregatire juridica Jury- juriu format din 12 jurati (jurors) Appeal- apel Contract disputes- litigii contractuale Compensation claims- cereri de compensare Consumer complaints- reclamatii ale consumatorilor Faulty goods/ services- produse/ servicii defectuoase Bankruptcy- faliment Legal remedy- repararea prejudiciului Injury- vatamare Circuit judges- judecatori din “County Court” Estate- proprietate To hear a case- a audia/ judeca un caz Reverse/ uphold a decision- a respinge/ sustine o decizie To leapfrog- a trece peste ( aici: a trece peste o instanta) Leave for appeal- cerere pentru recurs Barrister- avocat pledant Solicitor- avocat care pregateste cazul (in Romania avocatul

face amble activitati – pregateste cazul si pledeaza in instanta, neexistand doua profesii separate cum e cazul Regatului Unit) Life peers- nobili pe viata

a. What is the Courts’ Structure in the UK, the USA and Romania?

b. Do you think that it’s fair for 12 common people (the jury) to decide for the faith of a person?

c. Are juvenile delinquents offered rehabilitation programs in Romania?

http://www.loc.gov/law/help/image/uk_chart. jpg

http://www2.maxwell.syr.edu/plegal/scales/c

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The Court System in Romania:

The High Court of Cassation and Justice The Court of Appeal The County Court- (Tribunal) First Instance Court, Local Court (e.g. Tg. Mures- Judecatoria Tg. Mures)

Tribunalul, Curtea de apel si Inalta Curte de Casatie si Justitie au urmatoarele sectii (divisions):

1. Civila

2. Penala

A

sitting of five judges- 5 judecatori audiaza ….

3. Comerciala

Petty crimes- infractiuni minore Punishment- pedeapsa Fine- amenda Imprisonment- inchisoarea Homicide- omor To be tried- a fi judecat Trial- process Indictable offences- fapte ilicite grave Theft- furt Assault- atac Drug dealing- traficul de droguri Prosecute – a acuza Allegations- acuze inca nedovedite To commit a crime- a comite o infractiune Conviction- condamnare Sentence- sentinta To grant appeal- a aproba apelul

4.

Contencios administrativ si fiscal (Administrative and Tax Litigations)

Unit 5: Criminal justice and criminal proceedings

Questions:

Charged with a crime- acuzat de comiterea unei infractiuni Apprehend the suspect- a prinde suspectul Detain in custody- a retine in custodie

a. What are the steps of criminal proceedings?

Offender- persoana care a comis o fapta ilicita (infractorul)

b. What are the categories of criminal offences?

A

file on the case- un dosar cu privire la caz

Crown Prosecution Service- Procuratura ( varianta pentru

 

Marea Britanie)

Evidence- dovada

c. Do you think that the rate of criminality is high in your area compared to other areas?

Caution- se trimite cazul inapoi pentru completarea cercetarii

 

penale

Criminal proceedings- proceduri penale Serving of a summons- inaintarea unei citatii Warrant of arrest- mandat de arestare Issued by- eliberat de Legal aid- asistenta judiciara Independent duty solicitor- avocat din oficiu

Defence costs- cheltuieli de judecata Case citation:

d. Do you feel protected in your town, village?

e. Are there any common features of serial killers?

R

v Green [R(Regina/ Rex) versus (in a criminal case it is said

‘against’) Green (the prosecuted party)

Summary offences- fapte ilicite minore Indictable offences/ notifiable - fapte ilicite grave Indictment- rechizitoriu Pleads guilty- pledeaza vinovat Trial by jury- process cu jurati

Adversarial- adversativ Cross examination- audierea facuta de avocatii ambelor parti

A

person under arrest- o persoana arestata

To be granted bail- a fi eliberat pe baza de cautiune Temporarily released- eliberat temporar Preparatory hearing – audiere preliminara Disclosure of material relevant to the case- prezentarea materialelor relevante pentru caz The accused whereabouts- locul unde se afla acuzatul (in

momentul savarsirii faptei) Witness- martor Plea- pledoarie Reduced sentence- sentinta redusa Acquitted- achitat To try- a judeca Trial- proces Triable- care poate fi judecat

 

Unit 6: Civil procedure

Questions:

Debt repayment- refinantarea datoriilor Breach of contract- incalcarea contractului Insolvency proceedings - procedure de insolventa (incapacitatea firmei de a plati datoriile; un ceditor poate sa solicite instantei deschiderea procedurii insolventei; la randul lui debitorul poate sa faca contestatie; daca se respinge contestatia judecatorul dispune deschiderea procedurii insolventei: 2 cai- fie un plan de reorganizare al societatii; sau falimentul) Non-contentious litigation- faza necontencioasa a litigiului ( in legislatia noastra nu exista, dar va fi introdusa in noul Cod de procedura civila- in institutia medierii) Come/ get into force- a intra in vigoare Claim- cererea de chemare in judecata ( plangere in penal) Claim form- cererea de chemare in judecata ( la noi nu exista formular special insa codul de procedura civila/ penal prevede elementele pe care trebuie sa le contina) Summons- citatie Summons to appear- mandat de aducere in instanta Claimant- reclamant Defendant- parat To make an order- a emite o ordonanta Acknowledgement of service- comunicarea actelor (cate parti avem atatea exemplare sa pregatim) Counterclaim- cerere reconventionala The particulars of the claim- capetele de cerere Filing a reply - intampinarea Small claims- cereri a caror obiect sunt sume sub o anumita valoare Disclosure- comunicarea actelor depuse Written requests- cereri scrise Witness statements- declaratiile martorilor Parties- partile Settle differences- a rezolva diferendele/ disputele Stay of proceedings- suspendarea procesului Stay of execution- suspendarea executarii unei sentinte Review the process- revizuirea hotararii ( doar in mod exceptional: elemente descoperite dupa process) Enforce the judgment- investirea hotararii cu formula executorie

a. Describe the process of a civil claim in the UK and Romania.

b. What do you do if your business partner breaches the contract? Do you sue him or try to settle the conflict out of court?

c. If you want to become a lawyer, would you like to specialize in civil law or in criminal law and why?

Guiding lines:

Etapele procesului civil:

1. Cerere de chemare in judecata ( filing a claim)

2. Intampinare ( the defendant files a reply)

3. Reclamantul vine cu raspuns la intampinare (the claimant files his reply to the defendant’s reply)

4. Decision of the court ( damages awarded)

5. Appeal can be filed against the decision of the court.

Se redacteaza cererea de chemare in judecata. Partea se numeste reclamant ; Se depune la instanta ; In mod aleatoriu se fixeaza termenul de judecata

La primul termen de judecata sunt

chemati, citati paratii. Se verifica daca sunt indeplinite procedurile :

plata taxei de timbru, daca e semnata cererea, daca sunt citate toate partile- de catre judecator ; Tot la acest termen reclamantul poate sa isi completeze cererea, sa o intregeasca, sa o modifice ; Tot la primul termen paratul depune intampinarea- raspunsul ; La cererea reclamantului se acorda un termen pentru studierea intampinarii ;

 

La urmatorul termen (2) reclamantul poate sa depuna raspuns la intampinare

   

si la cererea paratului se mai acorda un termen pentru studierea acestui raspuns ;

La urmatorul termen 3

Se da cuvantul pe probe : reclamantul propune probele in sprijinul cererii lui de chemare in judecata, respectiv : martori, interogartoriul paratilor, expertiza de specialitate – contabila, medico-legala, inscrisuri. Se pun in discutie inseamna ca ambele parti sustin pct de vedere cu privire la acestea. Judecatorul decide daca le admite sau respinge . Tot la acest termen paratul propune probele (sustinerea intampinarii)

La urmatorul termen se administreaza

probele : martorii sunt audiati, paratii sunt interogati (setul de intrebari formulate de partea adversa sunt predate judecatorului care le va adresa direct- nu sunt cunoscute intrebarile de catre cealalta parte. Se administreaza toate probele ; Se acorda cuvantul pe fond – partile pun conlcuziile cu privire la fondul litigiului : fiecare sutine pozitia finala dupa care urmeaza pronuntarea hotararii de catre judecator ; Hotararea face obiectul cailor de atac : apel si recurs, sau numai recurs in functie de valoarea litigiului

Unit 7: Tribunals

Questions

Tribunals- sectii de contencios adminsitrativ (la Tribunal, Curtea de apel si Inalta Curte) Judicial- judiciar The Executive- puterea executiva Social security- protectie sociala Employment Tribunal- o institutie de mediere in UK- Sectia litigii in munca Mental Health Review Tribunal- re-examinare a pedepsei intr- un centru medical de detentie (la noi e de competenta Sectiei penale) Lands Tribunal- o institutie de mediere in UK- Sectia Funciar (la noi e de competenta Sectiei civile) Judicial review- control judiciar ( instanta superioara verifica corectitudinea hotararilor judecatoresti pronuntate de instantele inferioare) Chairperson- presedinte Lay representatives- reprezentanti fara pregatire juridica Expertise- expertiza Clerks- functionari, grefier Administering procedures- administrarea activitatilor administrative in cadrul curtii Clerical staff- personal administrativ Hearing accommodation- organizarea audierilor Claimants- reclamanti To lodge/ file claims- a depune plangeri Respondents- parati Defend claims- intampinare

a.

What are tribunals?(give some examples of tribunals)

b.

What is the composition of tribunals?

c.

What is the procedure followed in a tribunal?

d.

How are disputes between private citizens resolved in Romania?

e.

Do you think that such tribunals as those in the UK would reduce the number of court cases in Romania? Why?

Resolve disputes- a rezolva disputele Cases brought before tribunals- cazurile aduse in fata instantei Unfair dismissal- concediere inechitabila, injusta To broker a settlement- a media o intelegere Claim may be withdrawn- plangerea ar putea fi retrasa The costs are borne by the public purse- costurile sunt suportate din banii publici Hearing- audiere Witness statement- declaratiile martorilor Parties- partile

 

Unit 8: EU Law

 

Questions:

Common Foreign and Security Policy- politica externa si de securitate comuna Justice and Home Affairs Policy-Justitie si afaceri interne Common market- piata comuna Single Internal Market- Piata interna unica Free movement of goods, persons, services and capital- libera circulatie a bunurilor,… Free trade area- zona libera de comert Member States- state membre Customs duties- taxe vamale Quotas- restrictii cu privire la cantitatea de bunuri importate Duty- taxa, impozit Common Customs Tariff- tarif vamal comun EU law- drept comunitar Regulations- regulamente Directives- directive Subsidiarity- subsidiaritatea Citizenship- cetatenia National of a Member State- cetatean al unui stat membru Community law overrides national law- dreptul comunitar are prioritate in fata dreptului intern Provisions- prevederi Entirety – totalitate Binding- obligatorii Decisions of ECJ (European Court of Justice)- decizii ale Curtii Europene de Justitie Recommendations- recomandari Opinions- opinii

a. What is the EU?

b. What was the original aim of the Community?

c. What is the principle of subsidiarity?

d. What are the legal acts the Community may use?

e. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of being a EU citizen?

Unit 9: Solicitors

Questions:

a. What are the duties of solicitors?

To practice- a profesa Solicitors- avocat in Marea Britanie care nu pledeaza in instante superioare si care se ocupa cu documentarea/ pregatirea cazurilor Barrister- avocat pledant

b. What are the legal professions in Romania and what training is required?

Legal adviser- jurist Advice agency- agentie de consiliere Advocacy- avocatura Draft legal documents- a intocmi documente legale Appear in court- a se infatisa in instanta Conveyance- transfer de proprietate Draw up contracts- a intocmi contracte Will- testament Right of audience- drept de a pleda Support staff- personal auxiliar To regulate- a reglementa Training- instruirea Graduate- absolvent Trainee- stagiar Degree- diploma de licenta Traineeship- practica, stagiatura Specialism- specializare Training contract- contract de stagiatura Secondment- detasare pe un alt post Seat supervisor/ supervising partner- supervizorul stagiarului (la noi este “maestrul”) Admitted to the Bar- admis in Barou Bachelor of Law (LLB)- licentiat in Drept Master’s Degree- Diploma de master Privatizations- privatizari Mergers- fuziuni Acquisitions- achizitii Corporate- corporatii

c.

What legal profession would you choose and why?

Unit 10: Barristers

Questions:

Barristers in practice- avocati care profeseaza Sole traders- liber profesionist Unlimited liability- raspundere nelimitata In-house counsel- avocat propriu (al unei firme), jurist Self-employed practice- cabinet de libera practica The Bar- Baroul Circuits- circuite, zone Tenant- chirias, aici se refera la calitatea de membru a unei asociatii (chamber) a avocatilor care se afla intr-una din cele 4 Inns of Court din Londra Ancillary staff- personal auxiliar To provide representation in the courts- a reprezenta in instanta Counsel- avocat To draft documents- a intocmi documente Court procedure- proceduri judiciare To give opinions- a oferi consultatii, informatii Legal advice- consiliere juridica On behalf of- in numele Lay clients- clienti fara pregatire juridica Personal injury- vatamare Crime- infractiune

a. What are the duties of the barristers?

b. What training is required in order to become a lawyer in Romania?

c. If you were to choose to work as an independent lawyer or as an in- house lawyer for a company, what would your choice be and why?

1. Examen de intrare in Barou (Bar exam)

2. 2 ani stagiatura ( 2 years traineeship with a senior laywer)

3. Semnatura maestrului (Senior Lawyer signature)

4. Examen de definitivat (exam to get full rights of audience in court)

1.

Law degree- diploma de drept:

 

Bachelor of Laws (LLB)

Postgraduate Diploma in Law (GDL)- conversion course- curs de conversie profesionala

2.

Bar Vocational Course (BVC)- curs pentru intrarea in Barou

3.

Called to the Bar- intra in Barou

4.

Pupillage in chambers for 12 months- stagiatura pe o perioada de 12 luni:

a. A non-practising six months- o perioada de 6 luni in care nu practica, doar insoteste maestrul

b. Other 6 months:

- supply legal services (furnizeaza servicii juridice)

- exercise rights of audience (drept de a pleda in instanta) Draft pleadings- a intocmi pledoarii Advocacy – avocatura Forensic accountancy- dovezi legate de problemele financiare in cazul unor litigii

5. The qualified barrister applies for a tenancy (aici:

 

calitate de membru)in chambers

6. Junior barrister- avocat cu o practica mai mica de 10/15 ani

7. Senior barrister (QC- queen counsel)- avocat cu o practica mai mare de 10/15 ani)

Unit 12: Judges

Questions:

The Judiciary- puterea judecatoreasca Appointment- numire Lower court- instant inferioara Upper court- instant superioara Penal establishments- penitenciare Young offender- delicvent juvenil Probation service- serviciul de probatiune (care se ocupa cu supravegherea celor eliberati conditionat) Reoffend- recidiva Probation officer- supraveghetor al celui eliberat conditionat On the Bench- in instanta Civil courts- instante civile To fine- amenda Commit to imprisonment- a condamna la inchisoare Suspended sentence- pedeapsa cu suspendare Seek an injunction- a cere un ordin judecatoresc Hearing of the application- judecarea cauzei Undertaking – responsabilitate, promisiune Applicant/ respondent- reclamant/ parat

a. What training is required to become a judge in the UK? (very little training: induction course, visits to penal establishments, meetings with personnel from the Probation Service, a sitting in on the Bench- the judge area in the court)

b. What training is required in order to become a judge in Romania?

c. What are the qualities of a good judge?

Pentru b)-Prima posibilitate:

1. Examen la Institutul National de Magistratura

 

2. Timp de 2 ani de la data absolvirii :

judecator stagiar (trainee judge)

3. Dupa aceea se sustine un examen pentru a deveni judecator definitiv numit prin decret prezidential

   

a)

A doua posibilitate :

Vechime de 5 ani intr-o profesie juridica, se sustine examen, devii judecator definitiv Pentru a te califica pentru o instanta superioara trebuie sa acumulezi o anumita vechime (seniority) si sa sustii un examen pentru fiecare trecere de la o instanta inferioara la una superioara ( judecatorie – tribunal- - curte de appel)

Pentru the High Court of Cassation and Justice judecatorii care candideaza trebuie sa intruneasca anumite conditii (vechime, moralitate, experienta) sustin un examen in fata Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii si apoi sunt numiti (appointed).

Curtea Constitutionala are 9 judecatori- 3 numiti de presedinte, 3 de catre Camera Deputatilor si 3 de catre Senat. Din 3 in 3 ani acestia sunt schimbati.

UNIT 25: ADR

 

Alternative Dispute Resolution =solutionarea alternativa a conflictelor Mediation organizations- organizatii de mediere Civil disputes- litigii civile Small claims- cereri cu valoare redusa Litigation process- procesul Disputants- partile din litigiu Contractual provisions- prevederi contractuale Agreements- intelegeri, contracte Dispute resolution clause- clauza privind solutionarea conflictului Contracting parties- partile din contract, parti contractante Dispute- disputa, conflict, diferend Reach a settlement- a ajunge la o intelegere/ tranzactie Arbitration- arbitraj Nominated- numit Parties- parti Mediation- medierea Third party- tert Contentious- contencios All parties discussion- concilierea partilor Seek to negotiate a settlement- negocierea unei intelegeri Settlement reached- se ajunge la o intelegere Legally binding contract- contract

Med-Arb-

Questions:

 

a.

Have you ever been in dispute with

another person over an agreement or a

contract? What was the problem? How did you solve it?

b.

Do you favor an out-of-the court

procedure to settle disputes?

What would be the qualities of a good mediator?

c.

d.

Do you think that on-line mediation

could have the same impact as the one held in a meeting room? What are the

advantages and disadvantages of on-line mediation?

Mediated settlement- intelegere la care s-a ajuns in urma

unei medieri Adjudication- conciliere/ mediere Adjudicator-conciliator/ mediator

 

An adjudicator is someone who presides, judges and arbitrates during a formal dispute. The term adjudicator essentially means a judge, without invoking the legal term. An Ombudsman is a type of adjudicator in local government in the United Kingdom.

An example of an adjudicator is a person who makes a preliminary judgment as to an unemployment insurance claim. An adjudicator makes an initial decision to keep a case from going to court. Although the adjudicator's decision doesn't have the same legal weight, an adjudicator has still rendered a decision just like a judge. Although a case can be appealed to a judge, the adjudicator's decision is frequently accepted as the same as what a judge would make, keeping many time-consuming cases out of the court system.

De îndată ce este posibil după primirea notific ării, secretarul general informează toate p ărțile contractante ale Tratatului privind Carta Energiei asupra existen ței sesizării și le invită să îi comunice dac ă se consideră a fi una dintre celelalte p ărți contractante implicate, în vederea numirii unui conciliator, în temeiul articolului 7 alineatul (7) litera (b). Alegerea formei de notificare a p ărților contractante revine secretarului general, dar acesta trebuie să se asigure c ă p ărților contractante le sunt oferite suficiente informa ții pentru a- și putea evalua interesele.

Conciliatorul va supraveghea concordatul preventiv

Give notice- a notifica Binding upon- obligatorie pentru

UNIT 29: Tort-personal injury claim

Questions:

Personal injury claim- actiune in raspundere civila individuala/ pentru fapte proprie

a.Have you ever bought a faulty product? Did you do anything about that?

Liability- raspundere

b.Do you know any examples of defamation in media?

Liability without fault- raspundere obiectiva

Strict liability- raspundere civila neconditionata (de dol sau culpa) Civil wrong- prejudiciu

c.Do we need a certain extent of censorship as regards media and does that affect the freedom of speech?

Wrong-vatamare

d.Have you ever heard about a frivolous case? Are the claims grounded in such cases? (Liebeck v. McDonald’s case)

Tort = prejudiciu, paguba, delict civil, raspundere delictuala civila

=delict in afara unui contract

 

Tort = a harmful wrong (other than a breach of contract) for which

courts will provide a remedy-despagubire-, usually damages, to a private party. Torts include injuries to persons, such as injuries caused by negligent automobile accidents, medical malpractice, or

product defects; injuries to property, such as nuisances public and private nuisance = tulburarea linistii si a ordinii publice si private- and trespasses; and injuries to reputation. Donald G. Gifford "Tort" The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L. Hall. Oxford University Press.

2005.

Some torts are also breaches of contract. Negligent driving by a taxi- driver that causes injury to his passenger is both the tort of negligence and breach of the contract to carry the passenger safely to his destination. The passenger may sue either in tort or for breach of contract, or both. Many torts are also crimes. Assault is both a crime and a tort. Dangerous driving is a crime and may give rise to an action in tort if it causes injury to another person. The crime is prosecuted by agents of the state in the name of the Crown. It is left to the injured person to seek compensation from the wrongdoer by means of an action in tort. Oxford Dictionary of Law. Ed. Elizabeth A. Martin and Jonathan Law. Oxford University Press, 2006.

Tortious liability- raspundere civila

Applicability to actions in tort- aplicare in cazul actiunilor in raspundere civila

Breach of contract- incalcarea prevederilor contractuale

Injured by damage or loss- vatamata prin provocarea de daune sau pierderi/prejudicii To claim damages in compensation- a cere daune pt. despagubire/ in compensatie Action for damages-actiune in despagubire Action for damages for the loss-actiune pentru repararea prejudiciului cauzat Tort law- dreptul raspunderii civile delictuale

(tort law = droit de la responsabilité civile délictuelle)

Negligence-neglijenta, culpa

Affirmative negligence- culpa prin omisiune Comparative negligence- culpabilitate comparata (intre aceea a victimei si a agentului, cu efecte asupra stabilirii daunelor) Contributory negligence- culpabilitatea victimei (ce duce in unele state din SUA la excluderea daunelor, iar in Anglia la o evaluare corespunzatoare a acestora) Gross negligence- culpa grava (culpa lata) ; ordinary negligence – culpa usoara (culpa levis)

Breach of a duty- incalcarea obligatiei Claimant- reclamant (plaintiff- England &Wales; pursuer –Scotland) Suffers injury or loss- sufera vatamari sau pierderi Trespass- incalcare a proprietatii Without lawful justification- fara un temei legal

Defamantion- calomnie/ insulta Libel- calomnie prin presa (in scris) Slander- calomnie/ insulta exprimata doar oral Nuisance- (vezi mai sus)

No tenant shall cause or permit any odors of cooking or other processes, or any unusual or objectionable odors, to emanate from the Premises which might, or does, annoy other tenants or create a public or private nuisance.

public nuisance nuisance publique n. f.

Definition :

 

((

))

an act which interferes with the enjoyment of a right which all

members of the community are entitled to. E.g. right to fresh air, not to be exposed to health dangers from infectious diseases, unwholesome food, etc.

common nuisance Tulburarea ordinii si linistii publice Legea 61/1991 Art. 2 pct. 1 – săvârşirea în public de fapte, acte sau gesturi obscene etc

"A person is guilty of a public nuisance (also known as common nuisance), who (a) does an act not warranted by law, or (b) omits to discharge a legal duty, if the effect of the act or omission is to endanger the life, health, property, morals, or comfort of the public, or to obstruct the public in the exercise or enjoyment of rights common to all Her Majesty's subjects."

Use and enjoyment of his land- folosinta si posesia terenului Quiet enjoyment of property-folosinta pasnica a imobilelor (USA) Product defects causing damage or harm to consumers- defecte ale produselor ce pot cauza daune si vatamari consumatorilor Strict liability- raspundere civila neconditionata (de dol sau culpa) Liability for damage- raspundere pentru daune Suppliers- furnizori Consumer Protection Act- Legea (UK) privind protectia consumatorilor Put into effect- a pune in practica EU Product Liability Directive- Directiva UE privind raspunderea pentru calitatea produsului Personal injury claim- actiune in raspundere civila individuala/ pentru fapte proprie

(Personal and adv. injury:

- The new definition of ***personal and advertising injury*** will incorporate any bodily injury that results from a personal or advertising offense. As a result, if a third party suffered an injury from a personal offense, such as false arrest, damages would be covered under the limit for personal and advertising injury.

http://www.aaisonline.com/Viewpoint/03fall2.html

A Personal Injury occurs where you have suffered some form of injury, either physical or psychological, as the result of an accident www.accident-compensation.adopto-finance.com/glossary.html

Personal Injury - this extension expands the bodily injury definition to include specific non-physical injury such as libel, slander and false arrest. - Explica ţie:

personal & adv injury = personal and advertising injury

se mai poate spune prejudicii personale si prejudicii care decurg din publicitate

Personal Injury. Injury other than bodily injury arising out of false arrest or detention, malicious prosecution, wrongful entry or eviction, libel or slander, or violation of a person's right to privacy committed other than in the course of advertising, publishing, broadcasting or telecasting. Contrast with Advertising Injury.

Advertising Injury. Injury arising out of libel or slander, violation of the right to privacy, misappropriation of advertising ideas, or infringement of copyright, title or slogan committed in the course of advertising goods, products, or services. Contrast with Personal Injury.)

Personal injury claim in negligence- actiune in raspundere civila pentru fapte proprie din culpa Sustained an injury- a suferit un prejudiciu/ vatamare A claim against- o plangere impotriva Damages- daune (compensatorii) To award damages- a acorda daune To pursue a claim- a formula o actiune Quantum (of damages)- cuantumul daunelor General damages- daune generale (to compensate for the pain and suffering) Special damages- daune speciale (financial loss- prejudicii/ pierderi financiare; loss of earnings=beneficiu nerealizat:

( in sistemul nostru avem o alta clasificare: daune materiale/ daune morale)

FR manque à gagner

EN loss of earnings

RO beneficiu nerealizat

def: Valoarea exprimat_ în bani a sporului patrimonial pe care creditorul l-ar fi realizat

dac_ debitorul _i-ar fi executat în contractuale asumate,

natur_

_i întocmai obliga_iile

spor de care creditorul a fost lipsit prin faptul neexecut_rii obliga_iei. Al_turi de

pierderea efectiv_, este o parte component_ a prejudiciului în cadrul

r_spunderii

 

contractuale.

ref: Du_u, M.: Dic_ionar de drept privat, Editura MONDAN, Edi_ia

a

II-a, 2002

surs_: 61993J0415, considerentul 40

liability is admitted= recunoasterea vinovatiei Interim payments- plati anticipate Grant interim relief- a dispune masuri provizorii Interim measure- masuri provizorii

FR ordonner des mesures provisoires

EN grant interim relief

context: […], considers that the sole obstacle which precludes it from granting interim relief

is

a rule of national law, must disapply that rule.

surs_: 61989J0213, considerentul 17

RO dispune m_suri provizorii

surs_: 61989J0213, considerentul 17

before the final claim is settled- inainte de solutionarea cererii

UNIT 41: Employment Law

Questions:

Employment law- dreptul muncii Employment and policy procedure- politica si procedura angajarii Employment contract- contract de munca Settlement of disputes- rezolvarea conflictelor Proceedings- proceduri Employment Tribunal- o institutie (in UK) care mediaza conflictele de munca Civil court- instanta civila Contractual provisions- prevederi contractuale Regulating- care reglementeaza Employer-Angajator Employee- angajat Labour relations- relatii de munca Trade unions- sindicate Collective agreements- contracte colective de munca Collective bargaining- negociere colectiva Conditions of work- conditii de munca Case law- jurisprudenta EU directives- directive ale UE

a.What does an employment contract include?

b.Are women and men employed as equals in Romania, in terms of pay and conditions?

c.Have you ever read or seen advertisements on TV or in magazines that tried to make the public aware of discrimination issues?

d.Do you agree with the following statement: “Women should be able to resume their careers after taking time off to bring up a family”?

Jurisdictions- jurisdictii International conventions- conventii internationale Statutory rights- drepturi prevazute de lege Entitlement to- dreptul la National minimum wage- salariu minim pe economie Equal pay for like work = dreptul la salar egal pentru munca egala.

RO egalitate de remunerare (pentru locuri de munca echivalente) -EN equal pay ES igualdad de retribución FR égalité de rémunération

Sursă: 12004V, articolul III - 214 alineatul (2)

CONTEXT: Egalitatea de remunerare , fără discriminare pe motiv de sex, presupune ca: (a) remunera ţia acordată pentru aceea şi munc ă plătită la norm ă să fie stabilită pe baza aceleia şi unităţi de m ăsură; (b)remunera ţia acordată pentru aceea şi munc ă plătită cu ora să fie aceea şi pentru locuri de munc ă echivalente. (http://www.europarl.europa.eu/transl_es/RO/terminologie/glosar_c onstitutional.htm#r)

Another source- Glosar Juridic. Institutul European din Romania :

-principe de l'égalité des rémunérations entre travailleurs masculins et féminins

EN principle that men and women should receive equal pay

RO principiul remunerarii egale a lucratorilor de sex masculin si a celor de sex

feminin

sursa: 61975J0043, considerentele 1, 4 si 16

Itemized pay statement- stat de plata detailat/ desfasurat Time-off and holidays- zile libere si concedii Statutory sick pay- indemnizatie de concediu medical

Contractual Sick Pay: the Employee will receive their normal salary for a period of 4 weeks, in any 12 month period where a doctor's certificate is produced after 7 consecutive days sickness. Payments will be less Statutory Sick Pay and any Social Security benefits due to the Employee.

Explica ţie:

contractual sick pay - indemniza ţia de concediu medical contractuală (prev ăzută de contractul de muncă) statutory sick pay - indemniza ţia de concediu medical legală (prev ăzută de lege)

Sick leave (or sickness pay or *sick pay*) is an employee benefit in the form of paid leave which can be taken during periods of sickness *Sick leave provisions* vary by country, state and even industry The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) specifies that all employees who are sick for a period longer than 4 consecutive days but less than 28 days are eligible to *Statutory Sick Pay* (SSP) paid

by their employer[2]. There are some exceptions including:

http://www.answers.com/Statutory Sick Pay

A healthy and safety working environment- un mediu de lucru sigur si sanatos Family and parental leave- concediu pentru ingrijirea unui membru bolnav al familiei si concediu parental Maternity leave/ paternity leave- concediu de maternitate/ paternitate Protected rights on transfer of business- drepturi de protejare a angajatilor in cazul transferului/ cesiunii afacerii/ firmei Transfer of undertakings – transferul intreprinderii:

FR lieu d'établissement des entreprises

EN place of establishment of the undertakings

RO loc de stabilire a întreprinderilor

surs_: 61996A0102, considerentul 54 (Sursa- Glosar Juridic, Institutul European din Romania)

notice of termination of employment- preaviz privind incetarea unui contract de munca employment termination note- nota de lichidare unlawful deduction- deduceri ilegale not to be discriminated against on grounds of sex, race, sexual orientation…= a nu fi discriminat pe motiv de sex, rasa, orientare sexuala… part-time- cu timp partial (poate fi jumatate de norma) fixed-term employment- contract de munca pe durata determinata clauses in the contract- clauze contractuale restrictive convenant- clauze speciale giving notice- acordarea termenului de preaviz

Source:

http://www.hrs.iastate.edu/hrs/files/P&SDisputeResolutionProcedu res.pdf Formal Dispute Resolution (Grievance) The formal procedures apply to all P&S employees except those employees whose Letter of Intent states they are exempt from P&S policies or who are otherwise at-will, and those employees with contracts that may include limited grievance and appeal processes. The University offers formal options for resolution of certain types of disputes that allows for a multi-level review of the employee’s concerns. The process starts when the employee submits a written grievance identifying the issue and parties involved and requesting a resolution (as well as some other pertinent information indicated on the appropriate grievance form, see Form:

Grievance - Employment/Working Conditions or Form: Grievance - Loss of Job/Loss of Compensation). The person against whom the grievance is filed is

given an opportunity to submit a written response. If further appeals are made from the initial grievance, successive levels of review will consider the parties’ respective written and evidentiary presentations, resulting in a written decision– all within defined timeframes. The formal grievance procedure may be used for disputes that involve the following issues:

 

Employment and working conditions (e.g., denial of training opportunities, disagreements regarding performance or supervision, unfair treatment that does not fall under the Discrimination and Harassment Policy, etc.) Loss of compensation or loss of job (e.g., discharge, demotion, request for repayment, etc.)

variation of contract-modificarea clauzelor contractuale unilaterally varied- modificare facuta unilateral failure to observe such obligations- in cazul nerespectarii unor astfel de obligatii give rise to a claim- duce la formularea unei actiuni wrongful dismissal- concedierea nelegala unfair dismissal- concedierea nelegala fara sa urmeze procedura constructive dismissal- demisie fortata (datorata comportamentului angajatorului) resign- a demisiona gross misconduct- abatere disciplinara grava theft- furt summary dismissal- concediere pt abateri disciplinare grave to be made redundant- concediere datorata reorganizarii to cease-a inceta

UNIT 44: IT Law and Cybercrime

Questions:

IT law- drept cibernetic e-commerce- comertul electronic end-users- utilizatori finali legal adviser- consilieri juridici breach -incalcare hacking- accesarea neautorizata a unui calculator illegally obtained content- cotinut obtinut in mod ilicit, databases- baze de date virus writing/ virus spreading- raspandirea virusului computer crime- criminalitate informatica UK-Computer Misuse Act USA-Computer Fraud and Abuse Act RO- Prevenirea si Combaterea Criminalitatii Informatice Credit card fraud online/ credit card scams- frauda online

a.What are the common computer crimes?

b.Have you ever got a phishing email?

c.Do you feel protected on the Internet?

d.Do you trust e-banking?

e.What problems are there in balancing freedom of expression and censorship on the Internet?

cu cardul/ inselatorie, escrocherie cu cardul Identity theft- furtul identitatii Deception- inselaciune Aggravated ID theft- furt de identitate calificat Pharming- procedura prin care utilizatorii sunt mutati pe un site fals, de ex cand incearca sa se conecteze la situl real al bancii unde sunt clienti Bona fide- de buna credinta Phishing- ‘braconaj’, Misrepresentation- fals in declaratii Fraudster- persoana care comite frauda To disclose- a dezvalui Money laundering- spalare de bani Who will be in receipt of this data- cine va detine aceste informatii Consent of- acordul… Consent must be informed and freely given – consimtamantul trebuie sa fie liber exprimat si in cunostinta de cauza Falling foul of the law - to break the law Infringe regulations - a incalca regulamentele

 

http://ro.scribd.com/doc/98339938/Investigatii-

informatice

UNIT 45: Environmental law

Questions:

Treaty-tratat Conventions- conventii Customary law- drept cutumiar Non-binding instruments- instrumente neobligatorii Guiding principles- Polluter pays principle- principiul « poluatorul plateste » The cost of damage is carried by the party responsible- costul daunei este suportat de partea responsabila Precautionary principle- principiul precautiei Sustainable development principle- principiul dezvoltarii durabile Environment impact assessment principle-principiul evaluarii impactului asupra mediului Common but differentiated responsibility principle- principiul responsibilitatii comune dar si diferentiate National Environmental Law- Dreptul intern al mediului Compliance- conformitate Enforcement- punere in aplicare Legal frameworks- cadre legale Domestic law- dreptul intern Pollution control laws- legi care vizeaza controlul poluarii Town and country planning law- legi privind planul de urbanism

a.Is environment protected in the area where you live?

b.How does town and country planning affect environment?

c.Do you know any protected areas in your country? How are they protected?

d.How should individuals protect the environment?

Regulatory mechanism- mecanism de reglementare Application for and grant of permission- cerere si acordare de autorizatii Attaching conditions to development- reguli aditionale in cazul dezvoltarii imobiliare Statutory regulations- norme statutare, legislative Listed building- “cladire protejata” (monument istoric, care nu poate fi demolata ori a carei arhitectura nu poate fi schimbata) Environmental liability- raspunderea in domeniul mediului Damages- daune (compensatii) Injunction- hotarare judecatoreasca de suspendare sau de amanare/ interdictie =un fel de ordonanta presedintiala

X shall be entitled to an injunction against any such breach without the necessity of posting any bond. Explanation:

S: (n) injunction (a formal command or admonition) S: (n) injunction, enjoining, enjoinment, cease and desist order ((law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity) "injunction were formerly obtained by writ but now by a judicial order"

Criminal prosecution- urmarire penala, acuzare Environmental licences- certificate de mediu Enforcement proceedings- proceduri de executare Environmental damage- prejudicii aduse mediului Take civil action in tort- sa formulize actiune in raspundere civila delictuala/ actiune pentru repararea prejudiciului To remedy the situation- a remedia/ indrepta situatia