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Chapter # 1 {Exercise Short Questions}

Q 1: Name several repetitive phenomenon occurring in nature which can serve as reasonable time standards. Answer: Repetitive phenomenon of nature as time standards: Rotation of the earth around its own axis count time in days. Revolutions of the earth around the sun count time in years. Revolutions of the moon around the earth count in time months. The change of weather. The movement of stars.

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Q 2: Give the drawbacks to use the time period of a pendulum as a time standard. Answer: As the time period of simple pendulum is given by T = 2 This shows time period depends upon length l and the value of g at a place. Drawbacks to use the period of simple pendulum as a time standard. The value of g varies from place to place. Air resistance opposes the motion of bob. Temperature changes affect the length of string of pendulum.

Hence it is not suitable to use the period of simple pendulum as a time standard. Q 3: Why we use it useful to have two units for the amount of substance, the kilogram and the mole? Answer: Both kilogram and mole are units of mass and are used for the amount of substance. Kilogram is used for large (ordinary) measurement of mass (mass of a body) and mole is used when small mass (atoms or molecules) is required. One mole of a substance contains same number of atoms or molecules (NA = 6.02 1023). Q 4: Three students measured the length of a needle with a scale on which minimum division is 1 mm and recorded as (i) 0.2145 (ii) 0.21 (iii) 0.214. Which record is correct and why? Answer: The record (iii) is correct. Reason: As the scale used for measurement has the least count of 1 mm = 0.001 m. So the reading must be taken up to three decimal places. Therefore, the reading 0.214 m is correct. Q 5: An old saying is that A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. What analogous statement can you make regarding experimental data used in computation? Answer: The analogous statement is the result of an experimental data is as accurate as the least precise measurement is used in computation. Q 6: The time period of the simple pendulum is measured by a stop watch. What types of errors are possible in the time period?

Answer: The time period measured by a stop watch has following two errors I. II.

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Systematic error:- Zero error or poor calibration in stop watch. Personal error:- Negligence at the start or stop of experiment or inexperience of a person.

Q 7: Does the dimensional analysis give any information on constant of proportionality that may appear in an algebraic expression. Explain? Answer: No, Dimensional analysis does not give any information about a constant of proportionality. It is determined experimentally. For example, Time period of simple pendulum And Drag force T=2 Fd = 6 rv

Dimensional analysis does not give any information about 2 and 6 (constant). Q 8: What are the dimensions of (i) Pressure (ii) Density Answer: Dimension of Pressure = = = Dimension of Density = = =[

Q 9: The wavelength of a wave depends on the speed of the wave and its frequency f. Knowing that [] = [L], [V] = L ] and = . Describe which of the following is correct. = or = L = ] [L] = 1 2 ] = and =

Answer: Give that [] = [L] , A. 1. 2. Dimension of = =

Dimension of = L

From equation (1) and (2)

] Equation is incorrect.

B. Dimension of

From equations (1) and (3)

Equation is correct.