Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 57

We Follow Our Social Contract.....

We have created a contract in our classroom that all of our friends have signed their name to. It is called a social contract. It was designed to develop a self-managing group. We really try everyday to abide by our social contract in addition to our classroom rules. Some of the words on our social contract include.... Being Honest Having Manners Being Nice Being Helpful Being Fair Being Respectful Being Thankful Being Responsible Sharing I asked my students the following questions and as a class we came up with the previous answers: 1. How do you want to be treated by me (the teacher)? 2. How do you want to be treated by each other? 3. How do you think I (the teacher) want to be treated by you? 4. How do we want to treat each other when there is conflict?

http://classroom.crandall-isd.net/webs/Lindsay_Mack/social_contract.htm
Classroom Management Resource Page Shindler School Climate PLSI Workshops by JVS Teaching -

Chapter 13: Implementing the Social Contract and Delivering Consequences (from
Transformative Classroom Management, by John Shindler)

A social contract is only as good as its implementation. The most critical elements in the process of the development and use of a social contract relate to how effectively the teacher a) fosters an understanding of the cause and effect relationship between choices and outcomes and b) intentionally and effectively implements the agreed upon consequences within the contract. Once the social contract has been initially developed, it will be defined largely by how it is implemented in the first few days. Whether it was developed with the involvement of the students, or constructed by the teacher alone, the essence of the contract is that it defines the collective good. It says, in effect, we are the contract, and it will work to the degree that all of us as members of the class community buy in and commit to it. Therefore, it is true democracy, in the sense that its power comes not from the teacher, but from the collective commitment of the students to their functioning as a body. In the early stages of any implementation of the social contract the teacher needs to clearly project the following fundamental concepts, both by word and deed: 1. The contract is about the welfare of its participants, not the wishes of the teacher. 2. I (the teacher) am just a manager/steward/facilitator of the contract, not the police, boss, or judge of good and bad behavior. 3. When contract violations occur I (the teacher) owe it to you (the participants) to hold you accountable for what you have agreed to. 4. You (the participants) do not need to be sorry when you violate the contract, you just need to accept your consequence and make an effort to learn from the event. 5. Therefore, I (the teacher) neither need to ask for your repentance for what you did, nor do I need to apologize for the discomfort a consequence may involve.

6. I (the teacher) owe it to you (the participants) to implement the contract in a manner that protects and respects your dignity, and as a result you (the participants) owe me some recognition of the difficulty of my role. 7. It is okay for any member of community to raise concerns for the common good. Always Keep the Big Picture in Sight As the teacher we need to continually help each student to recognize that the social contract is just one more part of the overall effort to support his/her journey to becoming more selfresponsible, disciplined, successful and an integral part of the classroom community. One way to do that is to help students recognize that consequences occur many times a day, and that the majority of them are naturally occurring and even those that are initiated by the teacher are primarily positive. Figure 13x. Types of Consequences

Positive
Naturally Occurring
Sense of accomplishment Growth Learning Positive recognitions by the teacher Good Grades More opportunities and choices

Negative
Unhappy recognitions that a choice has led to an unwanted outcome Lost opportunities Teacher delivered consequences

Logical/Manufactured

If, as suggested in chapter 8, we make a very intentional effort to use positive recognitions of our students efforts, most of their interactions with us will be positive. They choose to invest in their work (cause/action), we recognize them and give them positive, task-clarifying feedback (effect/consequence). Moreover, when the student makes a choice that leads to a significant outcome either positive or negative, we should supportively, caringly help them connect the dots between the choice they made and the result. So when it is time to approach a student with the fact that they have just violated their agreement to the social contract, it is just another means to help them in their growth toward personal responsibility and accountability to their peers. Many students will be new to being part of a democratic classroom. If student have grow accustomed to classrooms managed by punishments, shaming, a requirement of obedience, and/or a teacher as the boss, it may take them a while to get used to being empowered. Using language that continuously clarifies the roles of the participants is important, especially in the early going. You may need to remind them that, the class is full of only talented, responsible, self-disciplined students. And repeat to them on occasion that, I am not the boss or the police in here, I am not going to get mad at you. My job is to hold you accountable for what youve all agreed to, and help you to become more self-disciplined and responsible. However, while words are important in helping clarify the conceptual framework that the members of the class are operating out of, over time the power and effectiveness of the social contract will come from what the student seeing you do when it is time to implement the consequences outlined in the contract. As you recall from our discussion in chapter 7 related to the social learning model, actions speak louder than words when it comes to what the student learn about the integrity of the social contract and what to expect when violations occur. Delivering Consequences By definition, consequences exist only as abstractions. It is in how they are implemented that will define whether students experience them as fair and/or opportunities to learn rather than

personal and punitive. Curwin and Mendler (1986) suggest that, Sometimes it is more how we say something than what we say. A lousy consequence delivered (effectively) is better than a good consequence delivered in a public humiliating manner. They offer a series of useful steps for implementing a consequence. Keeping each of these practices in mind when it is time to address a behavior that violates the social contract will help ensure that the intervention is effective and does not attack the students dignity. Figure 13.x Curwin and Mendlers 9 steps for consequence implementation 1. Always implement a consequence: Be consistent. 2. Simply state the rule and consequence. 3. Be physically close: Use the power of proximity 4. Make direct eye contact. * 5. Use a soft voice. 6. Catch the student being good. 7. Dont embarrass the student in front of the class. 8. Be firm, but anger free when giving the consequence. 9. Dont accept excuses, bargaining or whining. *(maybe better said as make personal contact).

Why is Consistency so Important? Recalling chapter 3 in which we examined why problems occur, near the top of the list of reasons was a lack of consistency. The younger the students we are teaching, the more significant this will be. At the heart of the social contract is the cause and effect relationship between the choices and consequences. If students make certain choices, then the teacher is given the responsibility by the contract to implement a consequence. The purpose for the teacher faithfully executing their role in the contract goes far beyond making sure the student gets what they deserve. When the teacher does what is expected of them, the message is sent that the contract is working. It is not an arbitrary instrument. It is a real and living thing. The message is sent that the contract governs all students, not just those that the teacher feels need to improve their behavior. With consistency comes a feeling that there is a rightness, a justice, a security that governs the class.

Recalling the social learning model, when the teacher applies the contract inconsistently, students learn that the implicit rules of the (constructed) classroom reality (see chapter 4), include arbitrary teacher subjectivity. And most destructively to the contract, they learn that what and why consequences get implemented is not so much about the contract that was agreed upon, it is about the unpredictable desires of the teacher. Of course, subjectivity and discretion will always be a reality, but when the students see variation in consequence implementation resulting from laziness, favoritism, different moods, payback, weakness, or just careless randomness, they lose some degree of faith in the integrity of the social contract. Eventually most students will understand that there may be a need for exceptions and variation because students have different needs, and to best help the collective, the teacher needs to take each learners special circumstances into account, But no matter how noble the intentions, it will be difficult for many students to interpret differential treatment as anything other than inconsistency. Examining privacy, proximity, group consequences: Using the power of the social context wisely When we intervene with one student privately our interaction is between that student and us alone. When we intervene with a student publicly, we bring in an audience and all that that implies. Privacy requires proximity. When implementing a consequence to one or more students, be physically close to that student. Speak in a private tone. It may be useful to bend down to the students level so as to reduce your position of dominance. The power of the event will come from our fulfilling our job in the equation by holding the student accountable, and not in any display of our toughness.

Recalling the social learning model, students can learn lesson indirectly. They can infer what will happen to them in a particular situation by what they observe happening to another student in that same situation. There is a temptation to use the public dimension of an intervention with one student or group to send a message to the whole class. The logic is, if the rest of the students in the class see this student getting a consequence, they will learn that the same fate could be theirs. When it comes to positive consequences this is pretty useful logic. If a student is making a good effort, we recognize it, or if a student needs help, we give them support, or if a student is risking sharing an idea, we take great care to show publicly that we will validate the effort and the risk. But when we use a public context for implementing contract violations, we bring shame and embarrassment into the equation. This can seem inconsequential to us, because the interaction often feels the same from our end. But to the student, public penalties hurt, and can be experienced as attacks to their dignity. And even if the public consequence does not produce much negative emotion, the public shaming component shifts the focus of the consequence from a natural and related outgrowth of the social contract to a weapon wielded by the teacher. Possessing the power

of this weapon can make us feel influential, but giving in to the power trip will undermine our authority, the legitimacy of the social contract, and students dignity in the long-term. What about giving public group consequences? Recalling our discussion in chapter 7, related to the social learning model, when is the use of a whole class consequence a defensible idea? That is, when would we want to withhold an opportunity for all if any student fails to meet their obligation - using the power of peer pressure as leverage.

Answer, when three important conditions are met. First, the consequence should not be aimed at an identifiable victim. For example if we say, No one leaves until all the paper is picked up, we are using the power of the collective (i.e., peer pressure) to motivate each individual to do their part. But note that that is different from one particular individual. For example, if we had said No one leaves until Billy picks up his paper. Second, when there is no repetitive pattern that emerges, certain students are at a disadvantage, or certain students become the target of hostility from the group as a whole. For example, if we find that quite a few students in the class did not treat the materials used in the lesson very well (given a clear expectation of how the materials were to be treated beforehand), and as a result we decide to withhold those materials for a couple of days from the whole class, this can be an effective consequence. It demonstrates active follow-through. It also demonstrates a clear a cause and effect relationship respect the materials and you can use them, dont and you will have to wait to try again later. But if the penalty is the result of a few of the same students on a repeated basis, a group consequence becomes much less desirable. The majority of the class feels penalized for the actions of a few, and will likely develop a growing resentment for them, and a loss of trust in the teachers sense of fairness. Delivering a consequence to an individual contract violation Curwin and Mendler offer 3 pieces of advice when it comes to how to deliver the message to a student who has violated the contract 1) simply state the consequence, 2) be firm and anger free, and 3) use a soft voice. On the surface they all seem like good common sense. But the power of these ideas lies primarily with what they imply not to do. If the social contract is fundamentally about each participants commitment to an agreement, then for the teacher to add anything other than delivering the news shifts the focus (and locus of control) from the agreement (where it belongs) to the teacher (the external agent) and weakens the relationship. So adding a little guilt, or shame or a lecture, or putting the behavior into a broader context such as this is the 3rd time you have done this, or if you keep doing this. . is not only unhelpful, but detracts from the power of the lesson. Even though it may feel natural and common and our parents and teachers did it with us, we need to resist the

temptation to add anything to the simple message that the student made the choice that violated their agreement, and now they must accept the consequence for that choice.

What Constitutes a Successful Implementation? It may be useful in the process to keep in mind what we are trying to accomplish as we move to implement a consequence. First, the event should help strengthen the students internal locus of control. That is, the student should feel that their choice is the cause, and the consequence is the logical effect. Second, the student should maintain a sense that they need to be responsible for the group and making different choices in the future might be a good place to start. Third, we need to walk away having opened the door to the students own internal reasoning process. We cannot make them learn a lesson. We cannot tell them they did learn a lesson. But we can do our job, and trust the process and the students sense of reason to result in healthier choices in the future.

Conversely, signs that we will not likely see behavior change in the future include the following. First, if we see a student who is acting repentant and projects a shameful affect. It is likely that that student has not learned a lesson. This may be an unfamiliar notion, but as we look closer at the students thinking we see that they are caught up in the sorry game instead of thinking of ways to do better next time. Second, if the student has difficulty accepting ownership and projects an external locus of control. We can see this when the student gets overly fixated on how they perceive you as being unfair, why you are picking on them, and focus excessively on the personal aspect of the event. It is likely that this student is used to punishments, and will translate your clear cause and effect consequence language into their being punished. To help these students grow and become better members of the community, we need to help them with their cause and effect processing, approach them with an unconditional positive regard, gently help them understand that we dont need them to feel bad and that consequences are not personal, and that, we are sincerely and steadfastly behind their efforts to make thoughtful choices.

Two Step-by-Step Consequence Implementation Examples

Elementary level case: Bothering others during a learning activity

Social Contract Agreement: We give our attention to those that are speaking and keep our hands to ourselves when we are on the carpet. If we need to speak, we raise our hands. And the consequence for failing to do so is 1) removal from the activity. And if the problem is chronic 2) a behavioral contract.

Student Behavior: As the teacher is leading a lesson as the students sit on the carpet. One student (Peter) is not listening, touching and trying to engage the other students next to him/her.

Teacher intervention: For mild cases in which students simply appear to be antsy or distracted and have lost focus, it may be most efficient and helpful to use a combination of eye contact and a clarifying statement or clarifying question. For example, we may stop (an active consequence), give Peter a second to recognize that he is violating the contract, and then resume our lesson after we get active recognition the student understands and is ready to be more responsible (i.e., they stop and demonstrate attentive behavior). We may also use a clarifying statement such as we all need to have our eyes up here right now, or we are all giving Jose our undivided attention. Jose, could you start over, and we will all do a better job of listening this time. Or we could use a clarifying question, such as, what would it look like if we were all doing a great job of listening right now? or Are we all listing like Pumas right now? Use a positive tone and avoid glaring at the student. As we discussed in chapter 8, avoid all negative recognitions such as Peter, I need you stop talking and pay attention. Occasionally they may feel necessary at the beginning of the year, but eliminate them from your language quickly and completely. You will be surprised that you will not miss them.

It is important to keep in mind, that the contract is not intended to corral students, or offer short-term solutions. It is intended to change awareness and as a result patterns of behavior. So solutions such as proximity alone, or what Jones refers to as camping out will most often stop the behavior, but send the message that the teacher is the cop, and that one should not misbehave around them. Also, the technique of using personal recognitions (discussed in chapter 8) such as the phrase, I like the way Judy is listening right now, will have a limited and confusing affect, and will lose its power over time.

Lets assume this is the beginning of the year, and Peter is still learning how to be a functional part of a group. We may want to give him a break due to what we see to be a lack of understanding of the expectation (if it is not the beginning of the year, we may want to skip the warnings and more straight to the consequence). If the eye contact and clarifications did get the result we needed, we should then make a private and personal contact with the Peter. Subtly, and without drawing the attention of the other students, we need to get close to Peter and help him understand the expectation and the consequences. We might say, Peter, what is the expectation when we are all on the carpet? There is no need to include any negative language. Peter may need some help, but at some point, we need to hear him correctly state the expectation. At that point, we need to ask the student what the consequence is (that has been agreed to in the social contract) for failing to be selfresponsible during time on the carpet. If the student does not know, we need to remind them (and again, not knowing is a defense that needs to be sincere and in any event can not be used long). Warnings and reminders send the message that, I will assume that you did not understand what you did, and from now on, after this warning, you will. If this is such a

case, we might say to Peter. So Peter, when I look back here later, what am I going to see? Peter repeats the expected behavior. And what is the consequence, if you arent able to show me that you can be a responsible part of the group? Again, Peter needs to state the consequence. At that point we can smile genuinely at Peter, and then shift our attention back to the group. We do not want to hover, or get caught up in anticipation of what Peter is going to do. We need to be in the moment, and let Peter make his choice.

In most cases, eye contact, and clarifying recognitions will do the trick. When that does not work, making a personal contact and reminding the student of the expectation will take care of most problems. But we need to provide meaningful and related consequences that fit the severity of the situation. So, if we look back and see Peter talking to his neighbor, we should not repeat the more subtle consequences such as eye contact. We asked Peter to act responsibly. He told us that he a) understood and b) was committed to fulfilling his responsibility. His behavior demonstrated that he made a choice to violate his agreement. So, the time for warnings, and group consequences is passed, and we need to deliver the next level of consequence. In this case, Peter has lost his opportunity to be part of the group. Therefore, we need to approach Peter, and privately, speaking softly and plainly, we need to tell him, in so many words, Peter, I just observed you talking to your neighbor. What was the consequence that we agreed to when one of us does that? (Let Peter answer) Thats right, so since you chose to talk, I want you to sit by yourself at your seat while we continue here on the carpet. Can you do that? Do you understand why? (wait for recognition) And when we are on the carpet tomorrow, you will have another chance to show that you can listen and keep your hands to yourself.

It is important that in this case that we send the message to the rest of the class, that we put our energy into those that are choosing to be responsible. If students see us putting a great deal of attention into Peter, those that are seeking attention may (usually unconsciously) conclude that misbehaving is a good way to get attention. Yet at some point, during the transition to the next activity, we will want to send the quick private message to Peter, Thanks for sitting quietly, I know that you will be able to do better next time.

Secondary Case Abuse of the Pencil Sharpening Privilage Social Contract Agreement: In this class we use the pencil sharpener when absolutely necessary, and do not disturb others when we go. The agreed upon consequence is loss of opportunity to use the sharpener.

Student Behavior: During one period, a student (LeeAnn) makes a series of trips (3), to the pencil sharpener, during a time when the other students are expected to be concentrating on

independent work. She also takes the opportunity to make distracting comments to some of her friends and other receptive students along the way.

Teacher Intervention: If we interpret that the expectation is weak, and that most students do not assume that there is any problem with using the sharpener multiple times in a period, we may want to take the opportunity to clarify the expectation and remind the class of the consequence. This is may be especially useful at the beginning of the year. A reminder is not a consequence, but we may need to take responsibility this time for a poorly understood expectation.

However, if the consequence is clear and well understood, we need to simply implement the consequence. If we feel LeeAnn is in need of some help adjusting to the expectation, a personal reminder may help, however, reminders should be used sparingly as students get more mature and familiar with the social contract in your class. So lets assume this is not early in the year, and LeeAnn should be clear about the expectation.

We need to approach LeeAnn and create a private interaction. We may choose to make eye contact with her to show seriousness and sincerity, or we may want to let her drop her gaze to the desk and speak to a spot on the desk. Culturally, eye contact can be problematic. It can make the students feel either threatened, or disrespectful to be forced to look us in the eye. Get to know what works with your students. Speaking in a soft tone, we need to help LeeAnn see the cause and effect between her choices and why we are talking to her right now. It is typically effective to ask her the question, what is the expectation regarding sharpening pencils during class? Depending on her answer, we may need to help her recall when the expectation was discussed, and that she was present when the class agreed to the expectation and the consequence. We need to then simply state the consequence. We might say something such as, What I saw was you making the choice to use the sharpener for entertainment, it distracted the other students and violated your agreement to them and our social contract. Therefore the consequence is the loss of the use of the sharpener for the rest of the week. I can loan you a pen today, if you give it back at the end of the period. And next week before, you get your to use the sharpener, I need you to assure me that you are going to take your commitment seriously. We may also want to add a final thought to the effect, I know that you are a great kid and I believe that you can do better.

In this scenario, it will be important to help LeeAnn recognize that most of the interactions that we have with her are positive and most of the consequences in the class are too. So we may want to catch her doing something well, and offer a positive recognition. Both public and private positive recognitions will have power, as long as they are sincere. And as we will explore in the next chapter, we may have to admit that some of the responsibility for a students desire to use a trip to the pencil sharpener to meet their basic needs for fun and belonging rests with our choice of instructional strategy. Too much independent work is going to lead to such problems.

Dealing with Bargaining, Excuses, and Whining On the one hand, in the development of the social contract, the existence of bargaining can be a healthy thing. And as events arise where students and the teacher recognize that a new expectation, rule, or procedure may be in the best interest of the collective, negotiating revisions to the contract or class expectations can be valuable. Yet these are examples of pro-active, democratically developed changes.

On the other hand, It is rarely a good idea to bargain after the fact with a student who is trying make a deal to avoid a consequence. For example, in the example above LeeAnn or Peter may try to talk their way out of accepting the agreed upon consequence. What if they responded, Sorry teacher, I really am. I promise, I wont do it again, really. Part of us may be tempted to say, OK, I can see you are repentant and basically a good kid. Just dont do it again. This seems harmless, but the result is a degradation of the contract, a loss of respect for us, and our role as leader, and a likelihood that the behavior will occur again. And when it does happen again, we will likely encounter an even greater intensity of bargaining and whining. This is because it has now worked once - the use of the strategy has been reinforced. On the other hand, if we hold fast and follow-through, we may feel at the time that the student is upset at us and ready to exhibit revenge behavior in the future. And they may in a small number of cases, but if we are fair and our consequences are pro-active, logical, and well understood, the likely result will be that the student returns with a higher level of respect for us, and that they will be less likely to bargain and/or make the same choice in the future.

What if a student says No to you and the contract? The more consistent we are, the more clear and related the consequences are, and if we implement them in a way that preserves the students dignity and sends the fundamental message, that we know that they are capable of responsible, mature and considerate behavior, we will get an ever decreasing amount of bargaining, whining and excuses, along with fewer contract violations. However, the possibility will always exist that a student says No to the contract. As we will discuss in more detail in chapter 20, examining conflict resolution and power struggles, the contract cannot maintain its integrity if there are those in the class that deliberately disrespect it. A student has the choice to say No to the contract (i.e., a reasonable request from us), but that choice leaves them outside the community until they choose to reaffirm their commitment to the collective, by way of their actions and living up to their agreement. We never have to fear a student saying no, if we keep in mind that all we can do is give students choices and encourage their success. We cannot make students choices for them.

Comparing the Use of the Social Contract in 1-style and 2- Style Teachers A social contract is an effective tool for both the 1-style and 2-style teachers. Used within the context of either style it will lead to an ever-decreasing number of contract violations and ever-increasing sense of ease and fairness on the part of the students. Yet, it will operate

somewhat differently in each case. At the beginning of the year, both teachers will need to rely heavily on demonstrating consistency and follow-through. The 1-style teacher will have to make a greater commitment to student involvement in the development process, but in each case the teacher will need to take a strong leadership role early. Yet over time, the 2style teachers classes will be defined by the degree to which he/she shows consistency and fairness in implementing the contract. In the 1-style classroom, as time goes on, the teacher needs to make a greater effort to help the students internalize the purpose underlying the contract and its principles. The ownership of the contract is shifted to the members of the class society as a collective, and away from the teacher as authority. The locus of control for the contract (i.e., responsible, healthy, considerate behavior) in the 2-style classroom will primarily rest with teacher. Throughout the term the student will see the teacher as the agent that keep the class functioning effectively. The locus of control in the 1-style classroom will shift overtime to the students.

Why not test the boundaries of the contract? The primary reason that a student in a 2-style classroom thinks why not? is related to the teacher they do not want to be given a consequence from the teacher. Eventually, the main reason that a student in a 1-style classroom thinks why not? is that they would be neglecting their commitment to their classmates and digressing in their own personal growth. While the 2-style class will feel secure in the judgment that their teacher has the ability to maintain a functioning classroom, they will remain limited in their democratic participation skills, and moral development when compared to the students in the 1-style classroom. Moreover, as the students in the 1-style classroom learn to take ownership for their classroom social contract, the foundation is being set for their development as a community. We will explore the idea of community in more detail in chapter 22, and more about creating a 1-style classroom in chapter 21.

Chapter 9: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds

From Transformative Classroom Management. By John Shindler. 2008 Reproduction is unlawful without permission
In this Chapter What are Social and Communal Bonds? What is a Social Contract? Steps in Implementing the Social Contact This chapter explores the nature of social and communal bonds. It is the first of three chapters dealing with the practical and theoretical issues related to creating and maintaining an effective social contract, and provides a step-by-step process for developing a working classroom social contract in ones class.

Many teachers today want what could be characterized as a democratic classroom. Others aspire to have classrooms that function as learning communities. This trend toward seeking classroom structures that endeavor to empower students, rather than simply control them is an encouraging development. The good news for these teachers is that over time

and with effective leadership, any class can be a functional democratic society. And with a little more time, and a clear understanding of what it takes to empower students to value and commit to the common good of the group, any class can begin to take on the characteristics of a community. Both will require a great deal of awareness of what is standing in the way of ones success, and a dedicated intention and commitment to doing what it takes to make it happen.

What are Social Bonds? Social bonds or social contracts are explicit and implicit agreements made between individuals in any group to help clarify what they should expect from one another. The group can be as small as two people or as big as the population of a country or even a planet. For example we each enter into an agreement with our governments in which we pay some taxes, and we can expect some services in return. Likewise, when we walk down the street we have some confidence that others will refrain from harming us if we refrain from harming them. In both of these examples, the agreements are fairly clear; however, there are times when what it means to fulfill our part of the bargain or what behavior constitutes violating the social contract can be more ambiguous. As we know from living in a modern society, laws do not guarantee that citizens treat each other fairly, or act as good democratic participants. In fact, laws are just the beginning of creating what could be called a well-functioning democratic society. This is also true in the classroom. Rules do not make a democratic classroom, no matter how well the teacher enforces them. A democracy is more. At the heart of a working democracy are well-defined, collectively owned, social bonds. Social bonds include both implicit and explicit agreements among the members of the collective that create mutual understanding and trust. The intentional development of a social contract (also called a behavioral covenant, or bill or rights), can help clarify those agreements. A well-functioning social contract promotes both a well-managed class and provides students with an invaluable education in democratic participation. What are Communal Bonds? Where social bonds answers such questions as, What must I do to fulfill my part of the (social) contract? communal bonds answer the question, What can I do to make the collective better? Societal bonds are at the root of what make most of our daily interactions smooth and reasonable. Communal bonds more often reflect friend and family relationships and are at the root of why we feel part of something greater than ourselves. It is difficult to have sustainable communal bonds without well-functioning social bonds in place. As you begin to develop your vision for your ideal classroom and management style, clarifying your intentions related to what kinds of bonds you want operating in your classroom is useful. Social bonds are essential for any 1 or 2-Style classroom to create a sense of safety, clarity, and efficiency. But to achieve more substantive levels of group cohesion, a high functioning 1-Style classroom, and what we refer to as transformative outcomes, we need to foster communal bonds among our students. In this chapter we will focus primarily on how we create the kind of well-functioning social bonds that are required for a successful democratic society and return to the idea of community later in Chapter 17.

Chapter Reflection 9-a: In your estimation, what portion of classes that you observe would you
characterize as democratic? How many would you describe as true learning communities?

What is a Classroom Social Contract? At minimum a classroom social contract outlines what any member of the group needs to do to keep from infringing on the rights of the other members. A more empowering social contract will outline what members can do so that they and the class get better. The contract classroom exists as a set of rules, principles, boundaries, expectations and consequences that govern the interactions of all members of a class. It exists both as a concrete document and an abstract concept. It is preferable to write the concrete aspects of the contract as clearly, simply and positively as possible. The power of the contract will depend on ones translation of the abstract aspects of the contract into practical, accessible operational ideas and behaviors.

Rules can exist as words on paper or a whiteboard and stay just words, never becoming meaningful. Until they become a concrete and material part of the students lived experience, they will have little influence on behavior. For those of us (especially the more practicalminded sensates, see Chapter 3) who tend to have great affection for rules and legalistic thinking, it is critical that we shift our focus from the rule as written law to rules as values implying a larger purpose.

In the same way, principles can remain mere abstractions and noble concepts that are never translate into actions. Those of us (especially the more abstract minded intuitives, see Chapter 3) need to continuously help our students understand how the concepts that seem so clear to us can be applied, and what they look like in practical behavior. Our discussion of expectations (in Chapter 6) should be useful in assisting you in formulating concrete strategies for translating your abstract desires into tangible behavioral expectations that are clear to students.

Where Does the Social Contract Exist? A social contract can begin as a document. While useful, the written document is not the contract. The social contract exists to the degree to which the stakeholders (teachers, students and assistants) understand it and commit to it. The knowledge component is foundational; one cannot commit to something that one does not know or understand. Likewise, if you do not commit to what you have ceremonially agreed to, you are not fulfilling your role, and consequently the social contract does not truly exist. Moreover, if the contract exists in your head, and not in your students, it does not exist. Finally--and this point can not be emphasized too strongly--if the students view you as (externally) imposing the rules on them, the contract loses power as well as effectiveness. If the students see the ownership of the social contract as (internal) theirs, it will be powerful and effective. In other words, to the

degree that it exists within the hearts and minds of students, and not as an imposition from the teacher, the contract exists.

Chapter Reflection 9-b: Have you at some time observed what a leader of a group referred to as a social
contract or a democratic organization, but was truly a quasi-dictatorship? What was the reaction of the members?

Implementing your Classroom Social Contract Implementing a social contract involves a great deal more than explaining the classroom rules. The social contract functions to the degree that it is meaningful, internalized, and committed to by the students. It will be internalized and bought into much more if students feel a sense of ownership. For that reason it makes a sense to have students involved in creating the class rules, as well as the consequences of breaking rules. If you find yourself uncomfortable with the idea of students taking an active role in this process you might discuss the rationale behind your thinking with them, and if possible, involve them in problem-solving any necessary modifications as the contract evolves.

Chapter Reflection 9-c: Recall a situation in which you were involved in the creation of a set of guiding
principles. How did it affect how you felt about the value of the principles?

Step 1: Deciding on Term(s) for your Contracts Basic Tenets We need terms to express what we will refer to as the basic tenets of our contract. While on the one hand, what we call the basic tenets of our agreement are ultimately a matter of semantics, on the other hand, each of the assortment of possible options for these basic terms implies a somewhat different meaning. We should make a choice of terms that best represents the kind of thinking we want to define our contract. Here is a list of the most common terms and their common meanings:

Rules implies codes of behavior. Usually very behavioral and do not assume much room for interpretation. Bill of Rights implies what is required of each member of the group and what each can expect from the other members. Principles implies generalized intentions for behavior. These can have lots of room for interpretation. Policies these are a lot like rules, but can include more suggestions for procedures. Boundaries implies the behavioral lines that should not be crossed. These are easier to negotiate, but more difficult to articulate in a contract. Expectations implies desired behavior. Are usually more general and open to interpretation, but are easiest to write in positive terms. As discussed in Chapter 6, we will inevitably have dozens of expectations. If we use them in our social contract,

we might want to refer to them as general expectations to help distinguish them from the countless operational expectations that we will be trying to promote. It is certainly reasonable to consider using a combination of terms, such as Rules, Bill of Rights and/or Principles for the few global pillars of the contract, Procedures for the operational processes that we need to have in place to help the class function smoothly, and Expectations for the countless occasions where a shared understanding for what to do, and how to act need to be in place.

Chapter Reflection 9-d: What do you think of when you here the terms listed above? What are your
associations with each term? What would you guess your students association with each would be?

Step 2: Develop your list of basic tenets/expectations (or rules, principles, or boundaries, etc.) No matter how organic, negotiated or flexible your vision of your social contract, you will need some concrete pillars to anchor the broader contract. These rules, bill of rights, expectations, policies, or boundaries should be reduced to writing and made visible to all members of the classroom society. Keeping in mind two suggestions will help you down the road. First, make the list as short as possible; three to five items are best. Too many rules are difficult to remember, and have the effect of making each item less powerful as more items are added. Second, they should be stated positively. Our unconscious minds can only understand positive messages. So if one has an item stated, Do not talk when others are talking, it sends a confusing message to the unconscious. Moreover, stating expectations negatively can have the effect of encouraging the negative behavior. Restating the rule into positive terms eases the unconscious conflict and clarifies the expectation. So a more effective alternate phrasing would be something such as, Be attentive to those who are speaking and expect others to be attentive when you are speaking.

Chapter Reflection 9-e: Consider times in your life when you were involved in creating a group plan. How did it affect your level of buy-in and investment in the outcome? Compare those cases with those in which a set of rules was imposed upon you. In which situation did you find yourself being most respectful of the rules? What do your conclusions suggest about the value of including your students in this stage of the process?

Depending on the age of the students you will need to guide the process accordingly. If they are very young (grades K-3), you might want to use primarily questions. For example you might ask, What kinds of things would you say are important for all students to do, if we are

going to have a good class? And then as you hear responses, you might pick those that are getting at the most important areas, and paraphrase them for the approval of the whole group. For example, a student might offer the idea, We should not hit each other. Lets assume that the idea identified a useful principle. So to validate the student and achieve consensus one might respond by saying, What do you all think? Should one of our four rules be we keep our hands to ourselves and respect each others space? That rule would include not hitting, what do you think? Raise your hand if you want me to write that as one of our rules. As you can observe, if we undertake the process in this fashion, we are able to maintain as much control of the outcome as we need to feel confident in the results of the process, but it is genuinely collaborative.

If our students are older (grades 4-12), we might begin by placing students in groups and then prompt them to generate two or three basic expectations for the class. If we have been using concept-building exercises previously, we can initiate the exercise in a familiar manner. In essence, we are asking our students to generate examples for the following concept things that all students can do, that if we each did them, the class would function well and grow as a collective. They will need to be reminded that their ideas need to be stated positively. As the students come up with their ideas we can list them on the board or an overhead projector. We might take the opportunity to add items that we feel are critical and are not already on the list. Students are rarely offended if we think of things that they had forgotten. After all ideas have been recorded, the next step is to work with the students to find the 3-5 themes that emerge from the list. After the themes have been developed, we (with or without the help of the students, depending on your preference) can take each theme and synthesize it into a concise phrase. If we do it alone, the phrasing may be a little better, but if the students do it, it will likely lead to another elevation of their level of ownership for the process. One idea for including the students at this stage of the process is to give each group one of the themes and have them work with it until they come up with an acceptable phrase. In the end, a majority of the class must approve each phrase that is submitted.

Chapter Reflection 9-f: Students with experience doing concept attainment exercise will be much more
effective when it is time to work with the social contract. This strategy is described briefly in chapter 13, but helping your students become experts in concept attainment will have a transformative effect on many areas of the class experience.

Step 3: Developing Consequences for Contract Violations As we will discuss in more detail in the next chapter, developing clear, logical and related consequences for contract violations is essential to the success of any social contract. Even though the two terms are used interchangeably by many, there is a significant difference between what constitutes a consequence and what constitutes a punishment. Logical and related consequences help students foster cause and effect relationships between their

thoughts and actions and the outcomes of those thoughts and actions. These lessons lead to ever increasing levels of responsibility, and promote the students internal locus of control. Punishments lead to obedience at best, and more often to resentment and hostility. Few meaningful lessons are learned from punishments and their use degrades the quality of the contract. Punishments externalize the causality of the event as the student associates the interventions with pleasing and or displeasing the teacher rather than with the choices made.

Developing consequences as a class is an excellent way to promote higher levels of ownership and understanding. It will take time to help them understand the difference between punishments and consequences, but it is a useful distinction to make. In addition, it will help clarify the nature and purpose of the social contract. Using the exercise involving the student missing the bus in the following chapter would be a useful place to start. The degree to which you have students involved in the development process is up to you. However, keep in mind the trade-off. We want to maintain a sense of coherence and vision to the contract. That will come primarily from your ability to support ideas and outcomes that integrate well as a whole. One the other hand, more student involvement usually translates into more empowerment and buy-in.

If we want to support student involvement, we might want to use an inductive process to accomplish this. For instance, we might ask the students questions and brainstorm ideas for the common problems the class might face. It is best to be proactive rather than reactive when doing this. For example, consider a case where a student begins to abuse use of the pencil sharpener. If we raise the issue to the class as a whole after the event, the issue will be associated with the student, and our discussion will feel like public shaming to that student. If possible, we should anticipate the problem and have the discussion before the problem comes up. To be effective, consequences have to be well understood and in place before we can hold students accountable for them. Until then, we can use warnings. But use warnings as infrequently as possible. They weaken the cause-and-effect in the contract.

Take the case of the class where the students begin to request going to the restroom more often than we feel they should, and we determine that it is hurting the class as a result. We might take the opportunity to brainstorm a policy with the students on how to solve our problem. If we want to guide the process toward what we feel is a sound idea, we can begin by offering a plan for them to evaluate and approve. Or we can have students choose an idea from those that they generated themselves. But once the class has voted a policy into place, we can make an assumption about the level of understanding and ownership they will have toward that policy. So when that expectation is raised in whatever form, it will not come out of left field, or feel imposed.

With very young students, we will need to provide a greater amount of assistance in the consequence development process, but it can still be a useful exercise. The very young student can have difficulty recognizing an appropriate level of severity and can tend to think

in terms of punishment. They will struggle with the notion that the consequences need to be logical and related. They will also abstract themselves from the possible misbehavior. They often struggle to conceive that they may be the ones violating the social contract. As a result, when we ask for ideas from this age student, we are often surprised at what they come up with. We might ask, What should we do if someone comes back from recess late? We might get a response such as They should be spanked, or, They should have to stay after school. Again, it may be wise to offer alternatives and have students select from among them. This will promote ownership while supporting an outcome everyone can better accept.

When a policy, rule or consequence is not working well, it represents an opportunity to improve the social contract, as well as provide the students with the opportunity to engage in a democratic decision-making exercise. Students of any age can successfully participate in a class meeting, if it is well organized. We will discuss class meetings and their benefits in more detail in Chapter 17, but they will have value to the extent that they are well structured, effectively led, and that students take them seriously. Here are some basic guidelines for an effective class meeting:

1. We need to establish a time frame for the meeting to take place and achieve an
outcome. For small problems, that might be five or ten minutes, or it might be longer for more substantial problems, such as conflict among subgroups in the class. 2. We need to have a pre-established outcome. In most cases, this is to answer a question. For example, we might instruct the class that we have five minutes to answer the question, What are we going to do when people go over their time limit at the computer? 3. We need to have a policy in place that ensures that only one person talks at a time. We can use Roberts Rules of Order, or the concept of the talking stick, or any method that we find that accomplishes this goal. 4. We need to have a well-established system for making decisions. This can be a public vote, a private vote, or you the teacher assessing where the consensus lies and voicing the will of the group. Students should feel free to suggest to you (privately is best) that the class is in need of a class meeting to resolve a pressing problem. You may not feel every request is worthy of a class meeting. But the more this process is generated by the students and results in an increased sense of justice and mutual respect, the more it will strengthen the social contract. For those who are inclined toward 1-Style management approach, a useful goal will be to make yourself redundant in the process as the students learn to take an ever-increasing degree of control over the process.

Step 4: Make the Social Contract as Conspicuous as Possible. The initial process of creating the basic rules, expectations and consequences for contract violations should happen as soon as possible in the term. And once it is in place, the social contract has a birth. But it will fade in memory if it does not become a living document. It will need to evolve to meet the needs of its stakeholders, and grow as the collective grows in maturity, since any social contract will exist only in the collective understanding of the participants. This understanding begins with familiarity. One idea is to use phrases from your

contract as banners within the class. For example, This class is built on respect, or, Attitudes become actions. Take advantage of the walls of your classroom. Student are bombarded by thousands of visual images each day, why not make the ones in your class empowering?

Chapter Reflection 9-g: What creative ways have you seen teachers use the walls of the classroom to
promote the expectations of their class?

For grades two and up, one option is to send a copy of the contract home with each student and have each parent and the student sign it, denoting that they have read and understood it. This practice can have many benefits. First, it provides an opportunity for families to read your social contract, promoting their understanding of what you are trying to accomplish and their appreciation that your discipline system is proactive and positive. Second, it allows you to refer to the fact that the student signed the contract. This may be valuable when they feel tempted to distance themselves from their agreement.

To promote understanding of the written content of your social contract, it can be a very effective strategy to take time to discuss it, and then quiz the students on it. This may sound odd, but the investment of time will be paid back many times in improved behavior later. Why not expect the students to pass the social contract contents quiz, before they are able to enjoy the privilege of taking part in the other aspects of the class? It may be as simple as requiring that the students are able to list the class rules, and requiring a 100% score before they are allowed to use a specified piece of classroom equipment (e.g., a computer, gym equipment, lab materials, puzzles, library books). However, only use the idea of a quiz if you judge that the students need help buying into the social contract. While the written word can be a powerful tool in promoting a social contract, a good number of very effective social contracts exist almost entirely on an implicit level--as shared understandings between the teacher and the students. This is possible because the majority of the means by which the social contract is communicated are by teacher-student interactions. Recall our discussion of classroom expectations in Chapter 6. Students will respond to the degree that an expectation is clear and associated positively. Therefore we need to promote our social contract with effective methods and avoid ineffective methods. Beginning with the most effective methods (as outlined in Chapter 6), lets examine how each technique can be used to promote the strength of ones social contract.

Purposeful Action: The most defining factor in the development and implementation of the social contract will be the degree to which the teacher is consistent, clear, and follows through. This idea will be explored in depth in Chapter 11.

Positive Recognitions: I just want to recognize how respectful and supportive you each are to the person presenting. How does it feel to be in a class that is so respectful of one another? Let the students know it when they are behaving in a way that is promoting the social contract and the common good.

Clarifying Statements: We all have our full attention on Phang right now, and we are listening for some of the key details that he included in his story. This is a powerful way to remind the student of the expectation without being negative or lecturing them.

Mantras: In this class, we raise our hands before we speak, or, In this class, there are only hard working, intelligent students. Mantras are words that can translate into actions eventually. Even if they are far from a realistic assessment at first, they will become actualized over time.

Clarifying Questions: What is the consequence, if we do not finish our work during class? or What is the expectation when we are at the computer? These help the students recall the aspect of the social contract without being told. They breed accountability and selfreflection.

Warnings: Use when an expectation, rule, policy or consequence is new and unfamiliar; after that they only weaken the cause-and-effect relationship that gives the social contract much of its power.

Negative recognitions, lectures, put-downs, punishments, personal praise, and public shaming all weaken the contract and undermine the relationship between the teacher and the students. This idea will be discussed further as we examine the use of punishments in the next chapter.

Chapter Reflection 9-h: Recall a class where there were few if any rules, but all the students seemed to
be on the same page. How was this accomplished? Examine the list of methods above. Did the teacher use any of these to help support a shared understanding in the class?

Figure 9.1: Sample Social Contract

Our Social Contract I ___(students name)________, a member in the class of ____(teacher and school)______, hereby commit to being a responsible member of the class, and doing what it takes to learn, grow, and help others learn and grow.

I have been part of our collective process for creating our Social Contract on ________. I understand and commit to the following rules:

We respect one another. This is shown in our 100% attention and listening. In raising our hands to speak. Being considerate to the needs of others. And saying only positive things to others in the class.

We are responsible. This is shown in our preparedness. It is shown in the choices that we make. We do our part to make the class a better place.

We do our best. This is shown in making a consistently excellent effort all day long. We do our best when things are easy and when they are difficult. We persist even when we are tempted to quit on ourselves or others.

I understand that my role in the social contract is to live up to my agreement, accept consequences when I do not, and work to become a more responsible person and contributor to the class. I understand it is my obligation to know the expectations and consequences that have been developed by the class and teacher. I understand that I have a right to voice my opinion about any rule, expectation or consequence at any time. But I do accept that once they have been established, it is my responsibility to be accountable to them, or accept the consequences.

By my actions and my signature below, I hereby commit to doing my best to fulfill my responsibility to the class and our social contract.

__________________________________ Student Signature

_____________________ Date

__________________________________ Parent or Guardian Signature (optional)

_____________________ Date

Step 5: Practice and Teach the Expectations of Your Contract If a procedure needs to be improved, practice it (see Chapter 12). If the social contract requires a new set of skills, teach and model them (see Chapter 14, related to cooperative learning). To promote a practical understanding of the contract, make the implicit aspects more explicit. If your contract has words such as respect, responsibility, attention, attitude, cooperation, effort, encouragement, etc, (and it is desirable that it would), you must make those abstractions concrete and personal, or they will remain abstractions. So use practical behavior to help students inductively master the conceptual realities. As discussed above, positive recognitions of behavior are both concrete and personal. They teach concepts fast, if we help students recognize the connection. For example, after an activity we might say, Our goal was to take care of our materials so that they would last; I see that they are still in all here and in great shape. That kind of responsible behavior tells me I can trust you and to go out and get more materials. Or, I notice that each of the members of this group have waited their turn to speak, that is a great example or respect. We will want to use mantras, clarifying statements and clarifying questions in the same way. How you deal with contract violations will have the most significant effect on the integrity of the social contract. When we observe behavior that is violates the agreement, we have three choices. Only one is helpful. The other two will quickly undermine the integrity of the contract. If we take action, follow through and hold the students accountable, the contract is shown to have efficacy and integrity. If we ignore the behavior, or if we go negative (e.g., become disappointed, shame the student, recognize the behavior publicly, etc.), it shows the contract to be weak and randomly applied. When it is inconsistently applied, it becomes about the teacher (the external locus of control) and less about the choice of the student (internal locus of control), and therefore loses power.

In Chapter 12, we will discuss how to lead the classs efforts to function effectively on a technical level (listening, transitions, redirections, daily routines, etc.). These behaviors represent an opportunity for students to show respect for one another and a value their learning.

Chapter Reflection 9-i: Recall the social learning model, what does it imply about the importance of
consistency?

Step 6 (Ongoing): Clarify Expectations and Roles The roles of both the teacher and students within the social contract may appear obvious. However, you might be surprised at how much students vary in their view of their role in the contract and what they view as your role. So, depending on the style of leader you desire to be, you will need to remind the students what your role is, what it is not, what their role is and what it is not. Students will likely bring in a composite of the roles that they adopted from past classes and their home life. Likewise, they will assign you a role that mirrors what they have experienced from others. Again, dont stay in thoughts of disappointment or insult. Be proactive. Continuously clarify the roles within the social contract. This will be an ongoing process. It will require public reminders such as, I am not going to come and fix the problems in your groups. You will need to work out your disagreements on your own. And private encounters, Esteban, it is your responsibility to bring the necessary materials. The social contract will work best if take a facilitator role. Avoid being the judge, the police, or and passive shopkeeper. The importance of this will be reinforced in the following chapters.

As the expectations become more familiar and concrete to students, one can begin to use language that tests the degree to which the expectations have been internalized. For instance, if the behavior related to what defines the concept a ready group has been internalized by students, one only need refer to the term. In this case, we might say, I am looking for the groups that are ready. If we observe groups demonstrating ready group behavior, we know that the students have it. If they do not, we know it is time to clarify the concept a bit further, and then assess the expectation later to see if it has been internalized. Again, clarifying questions are helpful in assisting the students from the learning stage to the performance stage. For example, instead of saying to the class, Class please say hello to our Principal Mr. Maroufi., we might simply ask the class, How do we greet a guest in our class?

Chapter Reflection 9-j: Recall the analogy we used in chapter 6, referring to instructions as giving a fish,
and clarifying questions as teaching to fish. Can you see the differential effect of the 2 strategies in the process of supporting the internalization of our social contract?

Step 7 (ongoing): Foster Community Relations The social bonds among the members of the class will become stronger, if they are supported by communal bonds. Fundamentally, a basic social contract does not require the need for interdependence and/or a commitment on the part of the students to the common good, yet building those qualities into the logic of the overall contract will bring an added level of vitality to the classroom relationships. Applying the following three principles will go a long way in promoting the communal bonds in your class. Promote respect and be intolerant of disrespect Promote teamwork and mutual interdependence Show caring and pride in the groups accomplishments Each of these ideas is examined in more detail in Chapter 17.

Step 8 (recommended): Shift ownership of the Contract from yourself to the Collective

No matter if your preference is for a more teacher-centered class (2-Style orientation) or a more student-centered class (1-Style orientation), your contract will become stronger to the degree that the ownership of it resides with the students rather than the teacher. If the students come to view the contract as something that you are imposing upon them, it will have a limited effect. However, if they view the contract as something that functions to make their class more effective and more emotionally safe, and they appreciate the feeling of responsibility that it promotes, it will grow in efficacy and integrity.

To help promote ownership of the contract, it is useful to gradually shift the focus of your language from the kinds of behavior expected to the value to ones self and the group when that behavior is exhibited. Especially if you are interested in developing a 1-Style classroom, helping students appreciate the value of consideration, self-discipline, and personal responsibility are critical to promoting a living and internalized social contract, and will lead naturally into the development of communal bonds. We will discuss the pathway to a 1-Style classroom and how to build a community upon the foundation of the social contract in Chapter 17.

Transformative Idea:
After reading Chapter 22, you may recognize the value of assessing the quality of student participation or process in your class. This technique can have a powerful effect on student behavior as it helps to clarify and reward what it means to demonstrate a high quality investment. It can work synergistically with the classes social contract. Whereas the social contract can clarify high quality behavior, and address behavioral problems, assessing the quality of behavior can have the effect of improving it. This is explained in ________.

In the next chapter, we will explore the importance of developing logical and related consequences for social contract violations, and helpful guidelines for doing so. In Chapter 11, we discuss steps for effectively implementing the consequences of our social contract. Journal Reflections 1. Do you want your expectations and social contract to come mostly from you, or from your students? Why? 2. Discuss your thoughts about the following terms rules, principles and expectations. In your class, which of these will be more prominent? Why?

Class Activities:
1. In groups discuss your feelings related to the use of student input in the creation of the social contract. Do you feel that it is worth the effort and loss of control over the outcome. In groups, take 5-10 minutes to independently brainstorm some of the rules and expectations that you would include the social contract section of your classroom management plan. What terms are you going to use to describe the ingredients? Share your ideas with one another. Sharing your classroom management plan ideas with other will help you 1) get more ideas, and 2) clarify and strengthen your own ideas as you have to explain and/or defend them to others. Develop a social contract for a hypothetical class or one that you are teaching.

2.

3.

References: Curwin R & Mendler A (1986) Discipline with Dignity. ASCD Press. New York Chapter 11: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds In this chapter we will explore the nature of social bonds, communal bonds and go through a step-by-step process for creating and maintaining a classroom social contract. Many teachers want a democratic classroom these days. This is an encouraging development. Moreover, a good portion of teachers indicate that they want their classrooms to be learning communities. The good news for these teachers is that with enough time, and the right guidance from the teacher, any class can be a functional democratic society. And with a little more time and the application of the right principles, any class can begin to take on the characteristics of a community. What are social bonds? Social bonds or social contracts are explicit and implicit agreements made between individuals to help clarify what they should expect from one another. For example we enter into an agreement with the government in which we pay some taxes, and we can expect some services in return. Likewise, we walk down the street with some confidence that others will refrain from harming us, if we refrain from harming them. In both of these examples, the agreements are fairly clear, but there are times when what it means to fulfill our part of the bargain or what behavior constitutes violating the social contract can be a bit more ambiguous. As we know from living in a modern society, laws do not guarantee that citizens treat each other fairly, or act as good democratic participants. In fact, laws are just the beginning of creating what could be called a well-functioning democratic society. This is also true in the classroom. Rules do not make a democratic classroom, no matter how well the teacher enforces them. A democracy is more. At the heart of a working democracy are well-defined, collectively owned, social bonds. Social bonds include both implicit and explicit agreements

among the members of the collective that create mutual understanding and trust. A well functioning social contract promotes both a well-managed class and provides students with an invaluable education in democratic participation. What are communal bonds? Where social bonds ask, what must I do to fulfill my end of the (social) contract? Communal bonds ask the question, What can I do to make the collective better? Societal bonds are at the root of what make most of our daily interactions smooth and reasonable. Communal bonds are more often related to friends and family and are at the root of why we feel a part of something greater than ourselves. Yet, it is difficult to have sustainable communal bonds without some existing social bonds in place. And due to the fact that communal bonds require another level of depth of emotional investment, relationship and commitment, they operate to a lesser degree than social bonds in our lives and in classrooms. So it makes sense to begin with an examination of how we create the kind of well-functioning social bonds that are required for a successful democratic society and return to the idea of community later in chapter 24. What is a classroom social contract? .A classroom social contract is a set of rules, principles, boundaries, expectations and consequences that govern the interactions of all members of a class. It exists both as a concrete document and an abstract concept. It is essential to write the concrete aspects of the contract as clearly, simply and positively, as possible. Yet, the power of the contract will relate more to ones ability to translate the abstract aspects of the contract into practical, accessible operational ideas and behaviors. Rules can exist as words on paper or a wall and stay just words, never becoming meaningful. Until they become a concrete and material part of the students lived experience, they will have little influence on behavior. For those of us (especially the more practical minded sensates, see ch.2) who tend to have great affection for rules and legalistic thinking, it is critical that we shift our focus from rule as written law to rules as values implying a larger purpose. In the same way, principles can remain mere abstractions and noble concepts that are never translate into actions. Those of us (especially the more abstract minded intuitives, see ch.2) need to continuously help our students understand how the concepts that seem so clear to us can be applied and what they look like in practical behavior. Our discussion of expectations (in chapter 8) should have been useful in assisting you in formulating concrete strategies for translating your abstract desires into tangible behavioral expectations that are clear to students. Implementing your Classroom Social Contract Implementing a social contract involves a great deal more than explaining the classroom rules. The social contract functions to the degree that it is internalized by, and is meaningful to students. It is internalized much more if students feel a sense of ownership of it. For that reason it makes a lot of sense to have students involved in creating the class rules, as well as the consequences for when rules are broken. If you find yourself uncomfortable with the idea of students taking an active role in this process you might, at least, discuss the rational behind your thinking with them, and if possible, involve them in problem solving any necessary modifications, as the contract evolves. Step 1: Deciding on Term(s) for Your Contracts Basic Tenants On the one hand, what we call the basic tenants of our agreement are ultimately a matter of semantics, on the other hand, each of the assortment of possible options for these basic term implies a somewhat different meaning. Here is a list of the most common terms and their meanings:

Rules implies codes of behavior. Usually very behavioral and do not assume much room for interpretation. Principles implies generalized intentions for behavior. These can have lots of room for interpretation. Policies these are a lot like rules, but can include more suggestions for procedures. Boundaries implies the behavioral lines that should not be crossed. These are easier to negotiate, but more difficult to articulate in a contract. Expectations implies desired behavior. Are usually more general and open to interpretation, but are easiest to write in positive terms.

Step 2: Develop your list of basic tenants/expectations (or rules, principles, or boundaries, etc.) No matter how organic, negotiated or flexible your vision of your social contract, you will need some concrete pillars to anchor the broader contract. These rules, expectations or boundaries should be reduced to writing and made visible to all members of the classroom society. Two guidelines will save you some problems down the road. First, make the list as short as possible. Three to five items are best. Too many rules are difficult to remember, and has the effect of making each item less powerful as more items are added. Second, they should be stated positively. Our unconscious minds can only understand positive messages. So if one has an item stated as, Do not talk when others are talking, it sends a confusing message to the unconscious. Restating it into positive terms eases the unconscious conflict and clarifies the expectation. So a more effective alternate phrasing would be, something such as, Be attentive to those who are speaking and expect others to be attentive when you are speaking. Can you recognize the difference? Again, this is a great place to involve the students. Consider times in your life when you were involved in creating a group plan. How did it affect your investment in the outcome? Compare those cases with those in which a set of rules was imposed upon you. In which situation did you find yourself being most respectful of the rules? Depending on the age of the students you will need to guide the process accordingly. If they are very young (K-3), you might want to use primarily questions. For example, you might ask, What kinds of things would you say are important for all students to do, if we are going to have a good class? And then as you hear responses, you might pick those that are getting at the most important areas, and paraphrase them for the approval of the whole group. For example, a student might offer the idea, We should not hit each other. Lets assume that you thought that idea identified a useful principle. So to validate the student and achieve consensus one might respond by saying, What do you all think? Should one of our four rules be we keep our hands to ourselves and respect each others space? That rule would include not hitting, what do you think? Raise your hand if you want me to write that as one of our rules. As you can observe, if we undertake the process in this fashion, we are able to maintain as much control of the outcome as we need to feel confident in the results of the process, but it is genuinely collaborative. If our students are older (4-12), we might begin by placing students in groups and prompting them to generate 2 or 3 basic expectations for the class. If we have been using conceptbuilding exercises previously, we can initiate the exercise in a familiar manner. In essence, we are asking our students to generate examples for the following concept things that all students can do, that if we did them, the class would function well and grow as a collective. They will need to be reminded that their ideas need to be stated positively. As the students come up with their ideas we can list them on the board or an overhead projector. We might take the opportunity to add items that we feel are critical and are not already on the list. Students are rarely offended if we think of things that they had forgotten. After all ideas have been recorded, the next step is to work with the students to find the 3-5 themes that emerge

from the list. After the themes have been developed, we (with or without the help of the students, depending on your preference) can take each theme and synthesize it into a concise phrase. If we do it alone, the phrasing may be a little better, but if the students do it, they experience another level of ownership for the process. One idea for including the students at this stage of the process is to give each group one of the themes and have them work with it until they come up with an acceptable phrase. In the end, a majority of the class must approve each phrase that is submitted. Step 3: Developing Consequences for contract violations As we will discuss in more detail in the next chapter, developing clear, logical and related consequences for contract violations is essential. There is a significant difference between consequences and punishments, even though both terms are used interchangeably by many. Consequences that are logical and related help students foster cause and effect relationships between their thoughts and actions and the outcomes of their actions. These lessons lead to ever increasing levels of responsibility. Punishments lead to obedience at best, and more often to resentment and hostility. Few meaningful lessons are learned from punishments and the contract is degraded as the students relate teacher interventions with pleasing and or displeasing the teacher rather than with being held accountable. Developing consequences as a class (this works best in multiple subject classes like those found in K-8) is an excellent way to promote higher levels of ownership and understanding. Modifying and discussing consequences as a class, within a class-meeting context, has a lesser but similar effect, and may be more practical for high school classes. Step 4: Make the Social Contract as conspicuous as possible. Once the basic rules, expectations and consequences for contract violations have been determined the social contract is ready to use. But it will fade in memory if it does not become a living document. Much of any social contract will exist only in the collective understanding of the participants. This understanding begins with familiarity. Use phrases from your contract as banners within the class. For example, this class is built on respect. Or attitudes become actions. Student are bombarded by thousands of visual images each day, why not make the ones in your class empowering? For grades 3 and up, one option is to send a copy of the contract home with each student and have each parent and the student sign it, denoting that they have read and understand it. This practice can have many benefits. First, it provides an opportunity for parents to read your social contract. This promotes their understanding of what you are trying to accomplish and their appreciation that your discipline system is proactive and positive. Second, it allows you to refer to the fact that student signed the contract. This may be valuable when they feel tempted to distance themselves from their agreement. To promote understanding of the written content of your social contract, it can be a very effective strategy to take time to discuss it, and then quiz the students on it. This may sound odd, but the investment of time will pay you back many times over. And why not expect the students to pass the social contract contents quiz, before they can take part in the other aspects of the class. However, a great deal of the social contract exists only in implicit agreement. If the contract contains words such as respect, effort, positive, cooperative, attentive or any word that only exists as a concept, they need to be clarified by being operationalized in behavior. This will take time, and intention. Maintain the assumption that your contract will operate to achieve more responsible behavior to the degree that the student feel a sense of ownership of it, and understand its contents on a real and practical level.

Step 5: Practice and teach the expectations of your contract To promote a practical understanding of the contract, and make the implicit aspects more explicit, you must take the time to identify behavior that helps define to students what it means to meet their contractual agreements. We usually have two choices when we see behavior that is inconsistent with what we feel is desirable, to be disappointed or to take action. The contract gets stronger when we take action, and weaker when we dwell in our disappointment. Action can be in the form of following through with consequences, pointing out high quality effort on the part of the students, modeling the principles in the contract, and teaching and practicing procedural aspects of the contract until they are a source of pride for all members of the class. In chapter 14, we will discuss how to lead the classs efforts to function effectively on a technical level (listening, transitions, redirections, daily routines, etc). These behaviors represent an opportunity for students to show respect for one another and a value their learning. Step 6 (ongoing): Clarify Expectations and Roles Over the course of the year, one of your primary roles as the leader of the classroom social contract is to help students grow in the skills required to be high quality contributors. In chapter 8 we discussed how expectations for these skills could be developed. Do not be afraid to use mantras from the contract. For instance, This is a time that we need to keep in mind that we only use life giving language with one another. Or We always give the person who is speaking our undivided attention. As the expectations become more familiar and concrete to students, one can begin to use language that tests the degree to which the expectations have been internalized. For instance, if the behavior related to what defines the concept a ready group, has been internalized by students, one only need refer to the term. In this case, the teacher might say, I am looking for the groups that are ready. If the teacher observes groups demonstrating ready group behavior, they know that the students have it. If they do not, they know it is time to clarify the concept a bit further, and then test it later. The roles of both the teacher and students within the social contract may appear obvious. However, you might be surprised at the variation across students as to what they view as their role in the contract and what they view as yours. Students will likely bring in a composite of the roles that they adopted from past classes and their home life. Likewise, they will assign you a role that mirrors what they have experienced from others. Again, dont be disappointed or insulted. Be proactive. Clarify the student and teacher roles within your social contract. This will be an ongoing process. It will require public reminders such as, I am not going to come and fix the problems in your groups. You will need to work out your disagreements on your own. And private encounters, Steven, it is your responsibility to bring the necessary materials. Step 7 (ongoing): Foster Community Relations The social bonds will become stronger if they are supported by communal bonds. Your social contract may or may not imply the need for interdependence and a commitment to the common good, but nonetheless, building those qualities into the logic of the overall contract bring an added level of vitality to the classroom relationships. Applying the following three principles will go a long way in promoting the communal bonds in your class. Promote respect and be intolerant of disrespect Promote teamwork and mutual interdependence Show caring and pride in the groups accomplishments Each of these ideas is Examined in more detail in chapter 24.

Step 8 (recommended): Shift ownership of the contract from yourself to the collective No matter if your preference is for a more teacher-centered class (2-style orientation) or a more student centered class (1-style orientation), your contract will become stronger to the degree that the ownership of it resides with the students rather than the teacher. If the students continuously view the contract as something that you impose upon them, it will have a limited effect. However, if they view the contract as something that functions to make their class more effective and more emotionally safe, and they appreciate the feeling of responsibility that it promotes, it will grow in efficacy. One strategy that enhances student ownership of the social contract is the use of periodic class meetings to problem solve and modify the contract when necessary. Class meetings can be a very practical opportunity to resolve or clarify a component of the contract that does not seem to be working for either the students of the teacher. It also sends a message the contract is valuable enough to invest time in. To help promote ownership of the contract, it is useful to gradually shift the focus of your language from what kinds of behavior is expected to the value to ones self and the group when that behavior is exhibited. Especially if you are interested in developing a 1-style classroom, helping students appreciate the value of consideration, self-discipline, and personal responsibility are critical to promoting a living and internalized social contract. We will discuss class meetings and the pathway to a 1-style classroom in more depth in chapter 22. In the next chapter, we will explore the importance of developing logical and related consequences for social contract violations, and helpful guidelines for doing so. In chapter 13, we discuss steps for implementing consequences.

Managing Your Behavioral Covenant/Contract


1. Develop your Social Contract/Covenant Group Rules few, and stated positively student involvement/ownership evolving with changing needs

Positive expectations in this program/class we . . .

Expect what you can accept Teach and test your management

2. Foster Community Relations

Promote respect and be intolerant of disrespect Promote teamwork and mutual interdependence Show caring and pride in the groups accomplishments

3. Respond appropriately to contract violations

LEVEL I: Student(s) violates an expectation Be a communicator of the news (not the judge/police) NATURAL and RELATED consequence (not punishment) Consequences need to be CERTAIN and CONSISTENT Follow-up with a recognition of positive behavior

LEVEL II: Student disregards/disrespects the groups collectively developed covenant Avoid power struggles and hooks Broken Record - simply repeat the consequence Help them solve their problem Tough Love - dont give in, its no favor to them
Classroom Management Main Page - EDEL 414 - EDSE 415

TCM Table of Contents Classroom Management Resources School Climate John Shindler TCM Workshops

Transformative Classroom Management: Positive Strategies to Engage All Students and Promote a Psychology of Success
John Shindler Ph.D.

www.transformativeclassroom.com
Table of contents
Expanded Table of Contents
About the Book About the Author Acknowledgements

Part 1: Initial Stage: Assessing Where We Are and Raising Awareness


Chapter 1: Introduction to Transformative Classroom Management Chapter 2: Classifying Approaches to Classroom Management and Examining Effective Practice

Part 2: Exploring the Nature of Classroom Dynamics and Student Motivation


Chapter 3: Exploring the Fundamentals of the Classroom Climate Chapter 4: Intentionally Promoting Clear and Shared Expectations: The Cornerstone of Effective Classroom Management Chapter 5: Effective Technical Management: Promoting a Culture of Listening, Respect and Efficiency in the Classroom Chapter 6: Motivation Why Do Our Students Care? Chapter 7: Promoting a Success vs. a Failure Psychology

Part 3: Developing a Functional Democratic Classroom Society


Chapter 8: Creating a Classroom Social Contract and Social Bonds Chapter 9: Developing Logical Consequences (and Why to Avoid Using Punishments) Chapter 10: Implementing the Social Contract and Promoting Student Responsibility

Part 4: Good Teaching Practices lead to Good Management Outcomes


Chapter 11: The Transformative Classroom and the Instruction - Management Relationship Chapter 12: Effectively Managing the Cooperative Classroom

Part 5: When we need it: Remediation without Coercion


Chapter 13: A Win-Win Approach to Conflict Resolution and Power Struggles Chapter 14: Changing the Negative Identity Pattern and Success with Our more Challenging Students

Part 6: Adopting a Transformational Mindset

Chapter 15: Creating the 1-Style Classroom and Developing a Learning Community Chapter 16: The Transformative Mindset and Making Ones Thinking an Ally

Part 7: Online Articles


Online Article: Moving up from a 4-Style Approach to a 2 or 1-Style Approach Online Article: Examining the Use of Competition in the Classroom Online Article: Comparing Behavioral Assessment Systems and why Descending Levels Models (Checkmarks on the Board and Colored Cards) are not Effective Online Article: Outlining a Formal System for Assessing Quality of Process/Participation

Appendices
Appendix A : Question and Answer Appendix B: Cognitive Style Appendix C: Faulty Assumptions Appendix D: It works Appendix E: Situational Leadership Model Appendix F: Real World Appendix G: Teacher Authority Appendix H: Sources of Drama Appendix I: TYS School-Wide Program

http://cikgusuepkhas.blogspot.com/2012/07/contoh-pentaksiran-tingkah-laku.html CONTOH PENTAKSIRAN TINGKAH LAKU

Borang Pemerhatian dan Perekodan


Untuk melakukan pemerhatian tingkah laku ke atas murid, saya telah menyediakan borang yang akan diguna untuk melakukan soal selidik tingkah laku dan emosi muridmurid di kelas PKBP ini. Ianya terdiri daripada tingkah laku agresif seperti hiperaktif, suka memukul, mencubit, membaling benda, dan sebagainya. Tingkah laku pasif seperti mengasingkan diri, tiada keyakinan diri, memencilkan diri daripada aktiviti kumpulan dan sebagainya. Masalah sosial dan emosi seperti kelihatan sugul, suka berbohong, keluar daripada kelas tanpa izin guru, dan sebagainya. Serta masalah pembelajaran. Borang ini akan saya gunakan sebagai garis panduan untuk pemerhatian saya serta alat yang akan saya gunakan untuk merekod (pengukuran tingkah laku menggunakan skala pengkadaran).

CONTOH BORANG SOAL SELIDIK TINGKAH LAKU DAN EMOSI


NAMA : _______________________________ KELAS : _________________ JENIS KURANG UPAYA : _________________ TARIKH :______________

1. Selalu

2. Tiada

3. Kadang-kadang

BIL

Jenis Tingkah Laku

A. Agresif 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Hiperaktif Suka memukul Suka mencubit Cepat marah Suka berkelahi Suka bertumbuk Suka mencederakan diri sendiri Suka mencederakan orang lain Suka merosakkan harta sendiri Suka merosakkan harta orang lain Suka mengejek kawan atau orang lain Suka mengganggu kawan Suka memjerit-jerit Membaling benda-benda kepada kawan Membaling buku dan lain-lain alat ke atas meja / lantai Menggoyang-goyangkan badan Mengetuk-ngetuk di tempat duduk Menyanyi, bersiul, dan ketawa sendirian Menggunakan bahasa kesat Cuba menonjolkan diri untuk menarik perhatian

BIL

Jenis Tingkah Laku

B. Pasif 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Hipoaktif (berdiam diri) Mengasingkan diri / bersendirian Suka berkhayal Suka membebel / berleter seorang diri Tiada keyakinan pada diri sendiri. Selalu kata saya tidak boleh Mudah puas hati pada kerja yang kurang sempurna Tidak mahu mencuba sesuatu tugas baru yang dianggap susah Mempunyai pergerakan yang lambat Memencilkan diri daripada aktiviti berkumpulan Lambat dalam menjalankan tugas

BIL

Jenis Tingkah Laku

C. Masalah Emosi dan Sosial 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Suka menghisap jari Suka menggigit kuku Kelihatan sugul Merasa takut dan cemas Takut pada situasi baru Terlalu malu dan kurang bergaul Suka meminta perhatian Suka berbohong Suka mengambil barang orang

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Tidak suka berkawan Menyalahkan orang lain Keluar dari tempat duduk tanpa meminta izin guru Menggangu apabila guru bercakap Tidak boleh menerima orang baru dengan mudah Susah hendak bertenang dalam kelas selepas rehat Tidak memberi kerjasama pada orang lain Suka menceritakan perkara rekaan dan khayalan Tidak suka pada rancangan yang diatur Mengubah kerusi meja ke tempat lain tanpa izin Tidak bertindakbalas apabila berbual

BIL

Jenis Tingkah Laku

D. Masalah Pembelajaran (kognitif) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Kurang tumpuan perhatian Tidak boleh menyiapkan kerja-kerja Tidak boleh ikut arahan Kurang daya ingatan Kurang kefahaman Kurang daya taakulan Lambat menyiapkan kerja dan terpaksa digesakan Kerja comot, tidak lengkap, dan tidak sempurna Tidak cukup perbendaharaan kata apabila menerangkan sesuatu Tidak peka terhadap bising Tidak dapat menyesuaikan diri apabila terdapat bunyi bising

12. 13. 14. 15.

Kebersihan diri tidak memuaskan Tidak boleh menulis huruf sendiri Tidak tahu menulis nama sendiri Tidak boleh membuat kerja dengan sendiri

Borang 8.1 : Borang Soal Selidik Emosi dan Tingkah Laku

Phil 110: Social Contract Theory

May 26: Social Contract Theory


Last Day 1. J.S. Mill; laissez-faire; Adam Smith 2. Problems for utilitarianism; kinds of pleasure; rationality's role in economic decisions; government and private citizens; liberalism 3. Marx; structure of society; historic analysis 4. Socialist critique of capitalism; current affairs 1) Read 156-199; 2) Should there ever be affirmative action? When? Why? Why not?; 3) Answer question 3. on p. 198. Today 1. Political philosophy; concept of the state; anarchists 2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau; social contract theory 3. Pluralist theory of state 4. Racial critique of social contract; the racial contract 5. Affirmative action To do for next class - 1) Read pp. 200-253. 2) Prepare for the mid-term exam. 3) Decide on a topic for your final essay.

Introduction Political philosophy differs slightly from social philosophy although they share some important characteristics. In fact, political philosophy is most often considered a sub-part of social philosophy which introduces some new concepts: that of the state, ruling rights, institutions, and social contracts to name a few. In general it is the consideration of whether or not and why a state has the right to rule. What constitutes a state and the relationship between the state, other institutions in the state, and it's members. One of the more often discussed relationships is that of the social contract. The state What is a state? What are its identifying characteristics? It is not a geographical division, it is a social one. It is the sub-group of people in charge of creating and enforcing the laws to which a group of people are subject. That sub-group may be one person, as in the case of a monarchy or dictatorship or it may be a lot of people as in the case of a liberal democracy. The reasons for those people being power are varied. Can you think of examples? (hereditary rights, overthrown previous rulers, strongest member, elected) But the nature of the power is always quite similar. The have the power to force others, either physically or by threat of physical force, to abide by the laws which they uphold.

The reasons for the existence of a state (i.e. why they uphold those laws) can be varied; religious, safety, justice, promote a certain class, make money for itself. In this sense it is hard to define states in terms of a function they perform for those they rule. We cannot explain states in terms of their teleology (e.g. function of a heart is to pump blood). The easiest way to get a handle on what states are is to consider their two common characteristics. What are they? (use force to obtain obedience; are considered to have a right to rule). Threat of force includes threat of economic sanction, as well as the threat of military or police action. Is it necessary for force to be a part of statehood, or is it a contingent fact? This may depend on what we think of human nature. Of course, anyone who can employ force successfully is not considered a state. Rather, a state also lays claim to the right to issue laws, and make decisions for the group that is ruled. This, it seems, is not even conceivably a contingent fact. No matter who is in charge, if challenged with "Why do you get to make the decisions?" they will offer a response: "Because you told me to"; "Because I'm the strongest."; "Because it's my God given right". In sum, a state is: "a group of people who claim the right to enforce obedience to their commands within a territory and succeed in getting most of the people in the territory to accept that claim." Anarchism However, there are a group of philosophers who deny this right (there is always a group of philosophers around to deny something) - the are called anarchists. Despite the connections many of us have between anarchism and the punk movement, it is a serious political philosophy which the author of our text has written well known books on. Anarchists believe that no state has a right to rule. Wolff is surprised by the fact that most people accept this right. People tend to obey the law more that is warranted simply by threat of punishment. How, he asks, could the IRS collect all that tax money if everyone didn't believe they had right to collect it? Wolff puts the question of a state as: Does any group of persons ever have the right to command? Most would ask: When and why does a group have a right to govern? As an individual, Wolff can asks: Do I ever have an obligation to obey the commands issued by some group calling itself the state? Perhaps we can ask: Do I ever have an obligation to follow the laws created by those who govern me? Jean-Jacques Rousseau For a long time, the obligation to follow commands was thought to be conditional on a ruler performing the duty of ruling well. However, in the 16th and 17th

centuries, monarchs began to claim absolute (divine, often) power over his/her subjects. However, philosophers during the 'Enlightenment' (after the renaissance) thought that this was merely a form of slavery, a denial of human autonomy. However, many of these philosophers, like Jean-Jacques Rousseau felt that government was still necessary. Thus for him the question became: Is there a way in which I can be commanded by a state without giving up my autonomy and freedom? This was Rousseau's most important achievement, one that has lead many to claim (like Wolff) that he was the greatest political philosopher ever. Formulating a novel question which has lead to so much discussion is by no means an easy task, this was Rousseau's: Where shall we find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and the property of each associate, and by which every person, while uniting himself with all, shall obey only himself and remain as free as before? The social contract For many, including Rousseau, the answer to this question lies in the conception of a social contract. Like any contract, this is an agreement by members of society to act for their mutual benefit. The idea is legal one, but it has great significance when applied to society as a whole. Each member of society, is thought (in some manner) to have 'signed' this contract and continues to endorse it by remaining a member of the society for which the contract was drawn up. This is a compelling solution to the problem of legitimate authority. Why? It also provides a solution to Rousseau's problem. How? (The law-makers and the law-obeyers are the same set of people, thus we are, strictly speaking autonomous (self-governed)). One problem which arises with the social contract, is getting the co-operation of so many when it comes time to make laws. This, of course, is why we have elected representatives. However, Rousseau would accuse us of being so apathetic as to have given up our most basic freedom: that of self government. He would predict the downfall of the state of the United States of America if he were here today. Rousseau believes that the essence of sovereignty is the general will and that, by definition, if that will is not self-represented (i.e. by everyone) then it does not truly exist. What do you think? Can practical considerations convincingly override Rousseau's point? Is this another tension between theory and practice, like in the ethics sections? A second important problem is that of disagreement. Say we manage to convince everyone to show up on voting day, what if people disagree? How can we remain free if we subject ourselves to the will of others (even if there are more of them) with whom we disagree? Say that it is part of the social contract that we must obey the majority vote. In what sense can we still solve the second puzzle (that of

remaining free)? Rousseau's answer to the problem sounds puzzling (p. 168 bottom). In effect he says that if we are on the losing side of a vote, we were mistaken and if for some other reason, our side had won, we would have done what we were not 'willing' to do and would thus not be in a state of freedom. In fact, Rousseau says that a citizen must be forced to be free if they are not obeying the general will. What did Rousseau mean? (He meant that what I really want, by entering the contract, is the general good. If I vote against the majority, then I was simply mistaken about what the general will was. But I want the general good, as determined by the general will so in fact, I was simply wrong in my vote. If freedom is getting what you really want then you must be forced to be free by being forced to abide by the general will.) What is wrong with this argument? (This is: But is the general good really determined by the general will?)

Critique of social contract theory Americans should find most of this discussion familiar. For, in fact, the USA is the only country ever to be created with an explicit social contract, the Constitution. So perhaps here, more than anywhere else, it can be argued that the citizens really did willingly enter into a contract to obey the state. However, this is not true of any other country. How could social contract theory still be said to apply to them? Is the contract implicit? How could we tell? Can/should those countries draw up social contracts now? What if someone doesn't want to enter the new contract? This brings to light, the an important criticism of the contract: In what sense have I (as a later generation citizen) signed the contract of my forbearers? In other words, why should I abide by a contract which I, in effect, had nothing to do with? Those, like Locke, note that we can conceive of children as signing the contract when they become the age of legal adulthood. By staying in the country past this age, we can consider these new citizens to agree to the terms of the contract. This argument makes sense if there are other options for those who implicitly (or tacitly) sign the contract. If I am free to leave the USA and go somewhere with no such contract, or establish my own it seems like staying is a real choice. And, in fact, it was a choice in Locke's day. However, nowadays, it is not clear that new (hereditary) citizens really have that choice to make. There is no where they can go to avoid a social contract all together and/or start their own. Is there? The pluralist theory of state In some sense, the pluralist theory of state seems to be a rebellion against the highly theoretical nature of social contract discussions. Pluralists are somewhat pragmatic in their discussions. They tell us to look at how politics is actually done. There we see not a relation between the individual citizen and the state, but a

relation between groups. All of us are members of many groups -- a church, a university, a baseball team, a fraternity, an ethnic group or a family -- all of these groups have interests (sometimes conflicting) in political decisions made by the state. Furthermore, it is these groups, according to pluralists that hold the true allegiance of their members, states come only second (or third, fourth or fifth). Thus the decisions made are ones which represent the success of group struggles, not of struggles of individuals. Wolff suggests that the pluralists have an implicit problem with the ought/is distinction we encountered earlier. He notes that the pluralist description of government seems to be a lot the way government is, but asks if that is how it should be. The Founding Fathers seemed to think not. James Madison thought the Constitution would, in fact, undermine the effects of 'factions'. Interestingly, Wolff presents two points against social contract theory and for the pluralist ideas. However, Wolff doesn't seem to realize that (his previous hero) Rousseau's version of the social contract would side step each of the criticisms. What are those criticisms? They are: 1. Interest groups allow a voter voice to be heard between election years. 2. Interest groups allow voters to express the complexity, specificity and intensity of their interests, unlike the 'yes/no' vote does. How would Rousseau avoid the criticisms? It seems that Wolff has let the pragmatic considerations outweigh the theoretic ones, without letting us know that. Interestingly, the applied results have informed the meta results, just as in ethics. What is the problem with factions for Wolff? (Uneven distribution of resources needed to make factions successful, thus each person does not have an equal say). Examples: NRA, Greenpeace, trade unions, KKK, farmers, NOW (national organization for women). The Racial Contract Nina? What is the purpose of the social contract? (It is to provide a means for a large group to govern itself in a justified manner. It allows the group to accomplish things individuals couldn't). What is the justification of the social contract? (Agreement, explicit or implicit of the participants). What, according to Mills is the purpose of the social contract? (Camouflage for what is really going on. Notably, it was 'designed to conceal' the truth). What does he mean by racial contract? (An agreement by whites over nonwhites about how they will treat each other (but not nonwhites). Nonwhites are the objects, not subjects of this agreement. Clearly they can not participate in the contract.)

What arguments are there for Mills' position? 1) It's explicit in the Constitution, a slave is 3/5 of a free person. 2) It can be invisible. Segregation is an obvious part of American culture. Thus (?) racism is not anomalous, it is the norm. Mills claims that we should realize that humanism means only European and Americans are human. Is he suggesting that if everyone came over to make a contract equally, there would be no segregation? (This isn't the case in Canada). What do you think of the movie example Wolff uses? Are whites generally blind to racism? Were you 'shocked' by what Wolff had to say? Should such movies be banned? Are there movies that are the other way around (i.e. make London look foreign etc)? Can you see anything wrong with the racial contract critique? Is this critique a critique of the theory of the social contract? Is it a critique of theory or practice? Does this mean the social contract is bad philosophy? Can the philosophy be separated from the implementation? Do you notice anything familiar about Mills' critique? Is it Marxian? Or like the utilitarian critique which gave rise to the social contract? Affirmative action What is affirmative action as regards colleges? It is providing of incentive (as opposed to a simple removal of barriers) by means of setting a set of criteria that favors one group over another. It is supposed to rectify racial imbalances. Is AA reverse racism? Is it as morally wrong as whites claiming privileges? What about historical differences? Can we make a distinction between the problem and the solution? How? Is it undemocratic to 'un-level' the playing field? If so, does that matter? Do SAT scores fairly measure merit, objectively? What about shifting the policy to economically disadvantage people? Are you surprised by the example of the two young men in St. Louis? What do you think of the 'why me' objection? What do you think of Fish's claim that fairness must be judged historically? What do you think of Wilson's good/bad AA distinction? Given Fish's warnings, how should we read Wilson's claims about the admission policies of undergraduate universities? What are the costs to society of admitting AA groups to professional schools? Are there benefits to outweigh these costs? Do group quotas stigmatize legitimate achievements by members of AA groups as Sowell claims? Does this do more harm than good? How about the fact that white males can use AA as an excuse? Two wrongs don't make a right? What about the fact that 3/4 of AA students don't graduate - perhaps because they are in the 'wrong' schools? Is AA doing more harm than good?

What about the complaints of Chavez (a middle class Latin American)? Her son was given offers only because of race, is that bad? Is there really no other option? (leveling the field earlier). To do for next class 1) Read pp. 200-253. 2) Prepare for the mid-term exam. 3) Decide on a topic for your final essay.
http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~celiasmi/courses/old_courses/WashU/Phil110/class6.html

Social Contract, Proactive Discipline Help Science Students and their Teacher

SHARE ON EMAILEMAILMORE SHARING SERVICESSHARESHARE ON PRINTPRINT

Positive structures turn toughest group into happy learners

January 2, 2012 | by Janet Smith


FOR MIDDLE LEVEL

I teach science to seventh and eighth grade students. It seems that every year there is a class period in which learning suffers due to the behaviors of unengaged students. The time spent dealing with these behaviors is time lost; learning doesn't occur while discipline problems are being dealt with. In past years, much of my effort to lessen such disruptions was reactive. In essence, I allowed the tone of the class to become negative before responding, and it's very difficult to change a negative environment into a positive one. My goal this year has been to create a classroom environment in which students are respectful to each other and work cooperatively in all of my classes. My intention is to create a classroom that is comfortable, safe, and inclusive for all, so each student can perform to his or her maximum capacity. Self assessment I began by having every student in each class complete a Learning Preferences Selfassessment to determine how they learn best. I then posted chart papers around the room on which were questions about learning styles. Students moved from chart to chart, writing their names in appropriate spots in response to statements that fit their

learning styles, such as I need absolute quiet all the time; I learn the most when I work with a partner; I learn best by working with my hands; etc. This data was interesting and led us to a better understanding of how important it would be to acknowledge and respect differences. Social Contract Next, each class contributed to a "Science Class Social Contract," a document we all could use to help guide our behavior. I was impressed by the level of thought that students put into each item in our final contract. Everyone participated in the creation of potential rules, then we worked together across classes to narrow it to four or five. When we were ready to vote on whether to commit to the contract, we did so by consensus. All were on board! Students individually signed the contract in front of their classmates. They were proud! The Social Contract is prominently posted in the classroom. It reads: Respect Yourself and others The environment and property Remember the golden rule Positive Participation Be involved in class Acknowledge the rules Practice self control Open and Fun Environment Accept and encourage all ideas! Ease up! Tap your creativity! Responsibility Turn in your homework on time Be on time for class Be responsible for your thoughts, words, and actions We often refer to the Contract to clarify why behaviors are not acceptable. All we need to do is check any behavior against the Social Contract and see whether it supports it or tears at it. Of course, creating and referring to the Contract wasn't enough. Here's a rundown of the other practices I put into place: Take a break We designated a corner of the classroom where students visit when they are getting distracted and need to refocus. We've been calling it a "vacation" spot. Students have used this as a place to cool down when they are in an emotionally unsettled state or when they break a rule. The vacation spot has generated several discussions about self-control and recognizing how to regain it before a negative behavior escalates. These discussions

have helped students to understand that "taking a vacation" is not punitive, but rather a proactive way to self-manage. It's great to see a student get up during class, silently sit by the window for a few moments, and then return to his seat, ready to learn. Signal for silence It has always been a challenge to get students' full attention at the start of class or during an activity. I would ask them to listen or to give me their attention, but this often had no effect other than frustrating me, leading me to raise my voice. Now, I simply raise my hand and calmly wait for silence. I have been amazed at how this simple gesture quickly creates silence in our room and gives me the students' full attention. No yelling required! Modeling I have modeled much of what I expect of students. Students retain more when it has been demonstrated and reinforced. Since modeling several processes and generating with students why it should be the way I modeled it, they have become much more aware, and the distractions have been reduced. There have also been times when I have needed to remodel an expectation. I am noticing increased student awareness of the surroundings in general, and as a result, more courteous, respectful behavior. Social interaction I introduced Clock Buddies to assign work partners for activities that include social interaction. Students prepare Clock Buddies ahead of time, identifying a different partner for each hour of the day. When it is time to partner up, I simply say, "Find your 10 o'clock partner." Since I started using Clock Buddies to pair kids, I have seen and heard far fewer rolling of eyes, negative statements like "Ohhh, man," and so forth. In fact, what I see now is quite the opposite. When we need to pair up, the kids quickly locate their Clock Buddy sheets and are excited to see with whom they will be working. I see students paired with peers they would not seek out in other. This has had a significant effect on how students view and treat each other. Feedback shows improvement I wanted to know in some more objective way whether my work had paid off, so I created an anonymous questionnaire for students in all four classes. After analyzing the results, I found students felt accepted, listened to, and respected, and most felt class was sometimes fun. Most striking were the results of my second period class, the one I initially thought may prove to be my toughest: 87% agreed or strongly agreed that their opinions count in class 93% felt the behavior challenges occur with far less regularity than at the beginning of the year 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the class interacts well. As I review the student feedback, I can't help but feel pride and satisfaction. What I am striving to do well is have a positive impact on students' lives, and these results are concrete evidence that I am succeeding and am an effective educator.

Building on success In the future, I will refer to the Social Contract when things are going well, so students see that it's not there just to get us back on track. It's also there to invite us to climb as high as we can. When we're headed in the right direction, I will say so. The students have suggested painting the break corner with a calming and relaxing scene-a beach or mountaintop. This would be a good project for the students to work on themselves, continuing the spirit of self-motivation. Janet Smith teaches 7th and 8th graders science at Milton Middle School in Charlotte, Vermont. This article first appeared in Developmental Designs: A Middle Level Newsletter, Winter 2012.
http://www.originsonline.org/newsletters/winter-2012-dd/social-contract-proactive-discipline-helpscience-students-and-their

TAHAP TENGAH Saya mengajar sains kepada pelajar-pelajar gred ketujuh dan kelapan. Ia seolah-olah bahawa setiap tahun terdapat tempoh kelas di mana pembelajaran menderita akibat tingkah laku pelajar unengaged. Masa yang dihabiskan berurusan dengan tingkah laku ini adalah masa yang sudah hilang; pembelajaran tidak berlaku manakala masalah disiplin sedang diuruskan.

Dalam tahun-tahun yang lepas, banyak usaha untuk mengurangkan gangguan tersebut saya adalah reaktif. Pada dasarnya, saya dibenarkan nada kelas untuk menjadi negatif sebelum bertindak, dan ia adalah amat sukar untuk mengubah persekitaran negatif ke satu yang positif.

Matlamat saya tahun ini telah untuk mewujudkan persekitaran bilik darjah di mana pelajar menghormati antara satu sama lain dan bekerjasama dalam semua kelas saya. Niat saya adalah untuk mewujudkan bilik darjah yang selesa, selamat, dan inklusif untuk semua, jadi setiap pelajar boleh melakukan untuk kapasiti maksimum beliau.

Penilaian kendiri Saya mula dengan mempunyai setiap pelajar dalam setiap kelas melengkapkan Pilihan Pembelajaran Penilaian kendiri untuk menentukan bagaimana mereka belajar dengan lebih baik. Saya kemudian posted kertas carta di seluruh bilik yang soalan mengenai gaya pembelajaran. Pelajar berpindah dari carta carta, menulis nama-nama mereka di kawasan-kawasan yang sesuai sebagai tindak balas kepada kenyataan yang sesuai dengan gaya pembelajaran mereka, seperti saya perlu mutlak tenang sepanjang masa, saya belajar yang paling apabila saya bekerja dengan rakan kongsi, saya belajar dengan lebih baik dengan bekerja dengan tangan saya; dll Data ini adalah menarik dan membawa

kita kepada pemahaman yang lebih baik bagaimana penting ia akan mengakui dan menghormati perbezaan.

Kontrak Sosial Seterusnya, setiap kelas menyumbang kepada "Kontrak Kelas Sains Sosial," dokumen kita semua boleh gunakan untuk membantu membimbing kelakuan kita. Saya kagum dengan tahap pemikiran bahawa pelajar yang dimasukkan ke dalam setiap perkara dalam kontrak akhir kami. Semua orang mengambil bahagian dalam penciptaan peraturan berpotensi, maka kita bekerja bersama-sama di seluruh kelas untuk merapatkan kepada empat atau lima.

Apabila kita telah bersedia untuk mengundi sama ada untuk melakukan kontrak, kita berbuat demikian oleh konsensus. Semua berada di atas kapal! Pelajar secara individu menandatangani kontrak di hadapan rakan sekelas mereka. Mereka bangga! Kontrak Sosial jelas diberikan di dalam kelas. Ia berbunyi:

Hormat Diri sendiri dan orang lain Alam sekitar dan harta Ingat peraturan keemasan

Penyertaan Positif Terlibat di dalam kelas Mengakui peraturan Amalan kawalan diri

Persekitaran terbuka dan Fun Terima dan menggalakkan semua idea! Kemudahan! Ketuk kreativiti anda!

Tanggungjawab

Hidupkan dalam kerja rumah anda pada masa Jadi pada masa untuk kelas Bertanggungjawab untuk pemikiran, kata-kata anda, dan tindakan

Kita sering merujuk kepada Kontrak untuk menjelaskan mengapa tingkah laku yang tidak boleh diterima. Semua yang perlu kita lakukan adalah memeriksa apa-apa tingkah laku terhadap Kontrak Sosial dan lihat sama ada ia menyokong atau air mata di dalamnya. Sudah tentu, mencipta dan merujuk kepada Kontrak tidak mencukupi. Berikut adalah buruk amalan-amalan lain yang saya meletakkan ke tempat:

Berehat Kami ditetapkan sudut bilik darjah di mana pelajar melawat apabila mereka semakin terganggu dan perlu fokus. Kami telah memanggil ia "bercuti" spot. Pelajar telah menggunakan ini sebagai tempat untuk menyejukkan apabila mereka berada dalam keadaan resah emosi atau apabila mereka melanggar peraturan.

Tempat percutian telah menjana beberapa perbincangan tentang kawalan diri dan mengiktiraf bagaimana untuk mendapatkan semula sebelum tingkah laku negatif escalates. Perbincangan ini telah membantu pelajar untuk memahami bahawa "mengambil bercuti" tidak punitif, tetapi cara yang proaktif untuk mengurus sendiri. Ia adalah baik untuk melihat pelajar semasa kelas, senyap duduk di tepi tingkap untuk beberapa saat, dan kemudian kembali ke tempat duduknya, bersedia untuk belajar.

Isyarat untuk berdiam diri Ia sentiasa menjadi cabaran untuk mendapatkan perhatian penuh pelajar pada permulaan kelas atau semasa aktiviti. Saya akan meminta mereka untuk mendengar atau untuk memberikan saya perhatian mereka, tetapi ini selalunya tidak mempunyai kesan lain daripada mengecewakan saya, membawa saya untuk meninggikan suara saya. Kini, saya hanya mengangkat tangan saya dan tenang menunggu senyap. Saya telah kagum bagaimana ini isyarat mudah cepat mencipta kesunyian di bilik kami dan memberikan saya perhatian penuh pelajar. Tiada menjerit diperlukan!

Model

Saya telah dimodelkan banyak daripada apa yang saya harapkan daripada pelajar. Pelajar mengekalkan lebih apabila ia telah menunjukkan dan diperkukuhkan. Sejak beberapa proses permodelan dan menjana dengan pelajar mengapa ia harus menjadi cara saya dimodelkan, mereka telah menjadi lebih sedar, dan gangguan telah dikurangkan. Terdapat juga kali apabila saya telah diperlukan untuk merombak jangkaan. Saya perasan pelajar meningkatkan kesedaran persekitaran secara umum, dan hasilnya, lebih sopan, tingkah laku menghormati.

Interaksi sosial Saya memperkenalkan Teman Jam untuk menetapkan rakan kerja untuk aktiviti-aktiviti yang termasuk interaksi sosial. Pelajar menyediakan Teman jam mendahului masa, mengenal pasti rakan kongsi yang berbeza bagi setiap jam pada hari tersebut. Apabila ia adalah masa untuk rakan kongsi, saya hanya mengatakan, "Cari rakan kongsi pukul 10 anda."

Sejak saya mula menggunakan Teman Jam untuk anak-anak sepasang, saya telah melihat dan mendengar bergolek jauh kurang mata, kenyataan negatif seperti "Ohhh, manusia," dan sebagainya. Malah, apa yang saya lihat sekarang adalah sebaliknya. Apabila kita perlu pasangan, anak-anak cepat mencari kepingan Buddy jam mereka dan teruja untuk melihat dengan siapa mereka akan bekerja. Saya melihat pelajar yang berpasangan dengan rakan-rakan mereka tidak akan mencari di lain-lain. Ini mempunyai kesan yang ketara kepada bagaimana pelajar melihat dan melayan satu sama lain.

Maklum balas menunjukkan peningkatan Saya ingin tahu dalam beberapa cara lebih objektif sama ada kerja saya telah berhasil, jadi saya mewujudkan soal selidik tanpa nama untuk pelajar-pelajar di semua empat kelas. Selepas menganalisis keputusan, saya mendapati pelajar berasa diterima, mendengar, dan dihormati, dan yang paling kelas dirasai kadang-kadang menyeronokkan. Paling menarik ialah keputusan kelas tempoh kedua saya, saya pada mulanya berfikir boleh membuktikan untuk menjadi yang paling sukar: 87% bersetuju atau sangat bersetuju bahawa pendapat mereka mengira dalam kelas 93% merasakan cabaran tingkah laku berlaku dengan kekerapan yang jauh lebih rendah daripada pada awal tahun 92% bersetuju atau sangat bersetuju bahawa kelas berinteraksi dengan baik.

Seperti yang saya mengkaji maklum balas pelajar, saya tidak boleh membantu tetapi berasa kebanggaan dan kepuasan. Apa yang saya berusaha untuk berbuat baik adalah mempunyai kesan

positif kepada kehidupan pelajar, dan keputusan ini adalah bukti kukuh bahawa saya berjaya dan saya seorang pendidik yang berkesan.

Bangunan atas kejayaan Pada masa akan datang, saya akan merujuk kepada Kontrak Sosial apabila perkara berjalan dengan baik, jadi pelajar melihat bahawa ia tidak ada hanya untuk mendapatkan kita kembali di landasan yang betul. Ia juga ada untuk menjemput kami untuk mendaki setinggi kita boleh. Apabila kita sedang menuju ke arah yang betul, saya akan berkata demikian.

Pelajar-pelajar telah mencadangkan lukisan sudut berehat dengan adegan menenangkan dan santai pantai atau puncak gunung. Ini akan menjadi projek yang baik kepada pelajar untuk bekerja pada diri mereka sendiri, meneruskan semangat diri motivasi.

Kerja Pendidikan Sosial: Jurnal Antarabangsa Jilid 20 , Terbitan 2 , 2001

Malay

Penterjemah penafian

Pembelajaran kontrak di dalam kelas: Alat untuk memperkasakan dan akauntabiliti


Maaf, anda tidak mempunyai akses kepada artikel ini. Bagaimana untuk mendapatkan akses:
Mengesyorkan kepada pustakawan anda bahawa pembelian institusi anda akses kepada penerbitan ini.

Within current journal

Entire site

Home > List of Issues > Table of Contents > Learning contracts in the classroom: Tools for empowerment and accountability Browse journal View all volumes and issues Current issue Latest articles Most read articles Most cited articles Authors and submissions Subscribe Journal information News & offers

Social Work Education: The International Journal Volume 20, Issue 2, 2001

English

Translator disclaimer

Learning contracts in the classroom: Tools for empowerment and accountability


Sorry, you do not have access to this article. How to gain access:

Recommend to your librarian that your institution purchase access to this publication.

Log in
If you already have an individual subscription, please log in using your Taylor & Francis Online ID to gain access.

Email Address

Password

Remember Me

Sign in

Forgot password Register Shibboleth

OpenAthens

Purchase options

Price *

Permanent access to this issue USD 234.00

Article Purchase
Add to cart

USD 37.00

*Local tax will be added as applicable


DOI: 10.1080/02615470120044347 Catherine M. Lemieux pages 263-276

Publishing models and article dates explained Version of record first published: 25 Aug 2010 Article Views: 68 Preview

Access Options

This paper describes the results of a study investigating learning contracts as tools for empowerment and accountability. Students ( N = 100) enrolled in five, graduate-level courses completed a brief instrument measuring key concepts of empowerment. In each class students' mean, final scores, based on first and final drafts of assignments were compared. Students felt they had decision-making power, and reported a sense of personal responsibility for their learning experience. They also demonstrated significant improvements in performance ( p < 0.0001) after revising their assignments. The findings suggest that learning contracts are an effective tool for responsibly sharing power and promoting better performance outcomes.

Download full text

Log masuk
Jika anda sudah mempunyai langganan individu, sila log masuk menggunakan Taylor & Francis Online ID untuk mendapat akses.
Alamat E-mel

Password

Ingat Saya

Log masuk

Lupa kata laluan

Daftar Semboyan OpenAthens

Pembelian pilihan Harga *


Akses Tetap isu ini USD 234,00

Pembelian Perkara
Tambah ke cart

USD 37,00

* cukai Tempatan akan ditambah sebagai terpakai

DOI: 10.1080/02615470120044347 Catherine M. Lemieux

muka surat 263-276


Model Penerbitan dan tarikh artikel menjelaskan Versi rekod pertama diterbitkan: 25 Ogos 2010 Perkara Views: 68 Preview

Akses Pilihan

Kertas kerja ini menerangkan hasil kajian menyiasat kontrak pembelajaran sebagai alat untuk memperkasakan dan kebertanggungjawaban. Pelajar (N = 100) mendaftar dalam lima, kursus siswazah peringkat siap instrumen ringkas mengukur konsep utama memperkasakan. Dalam bermakna setiap pelajar kelas ', skor akhir, berdasarkan draf pertama dan akhir tugasan telah dibandingkan. Pelajar merasakan mereka mempunyai kuasa membuat keputusan, dan melaporkan rasa tanggungjawab peribadi untuk pengalaman pembelajaran mereka. Mereka juga menunjukkan peningkatan yang ketara dalam prestasi (p <0.0001) selepas menyemak tugasan mereka. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa kontrak pembelajaran adalah alat yang berkesan untuk tanggungjawab berkongsi kuasa dan mempromosikan hasil prestasi yang lebih baik.

Muat turun teks penuh

Berkaitan

Tambah ke senarai pendek Link Muat Citation Mengesyorkan kepada: Seorang rakan

Halaman pratonton Pertama


Tutup Muat turun teks penuh Klik untuk meningkatkan saiz imejKlik untuk mengurangkan saiz imej

Maklumat Rujukan Petikan Cetakan semula & kebenaran

Details

Versi rekod pertama diterbitkan: 25 Ogos 2010

Pengguna juga membaca


o

Memperkenalkan Pembelajaran Kontrak: Satu Cara fleksibel untuk BelajarGeoff Anderson, et al. 1996 Pembelajaran KontrakJanice E. Parsons, et al. 1992 Kesan Penggunaan Pembelajaran Kontrak bagi Prestasi Pelajar dalam Teknologi PerguruanAnthony Williams, et al. 1999