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# CONCRETE DESIGN AS PER ACI 318 PART-1

## By: Raheel Bashir

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INTRODUCTION This training course is designed to introduce you to the basic concepts for the design of Reinforced Concrete Structures as per ACI 318. These are presented here in very basic terms and may vary slightly in practice on an actual project.

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION
BASICS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN DESIGN FOR FLEXURE DESIGN FOR SHEAR CHECK FOR DEFLECTION CRACK CONTROL

## HOW CONCRETE CAN BE USED AS STRUCTURAL MATERIAL?

CONCRETE AS STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Plain Concrete Reinforced Concrete Prestressed Concrete Fibre Reinforced Concrete

## MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

Concrete Compressive Strength: Foundations ---- 3000 psi Beams, Slabs ---- 3500 - 5000 psi Columns ---- 4000 - 14000 psi Modulus of elasticity for wc between 90 and 155 is given by: Modulus of elasticity for normal weight concrete is given by: Modulus of rupture if given by:

## Crushing strain at extreme concrete compression fibre = 0.003.

STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
Beams Columns Slabs
Oneway Slab Twoway Slab Slabs with Other regular and irregular shapes

Foundation
Isolated Footings Combined footings Raft Strip Footing Piles

## Pedestals Corbels and Ledges

STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
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STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS
The basic criterion for strength is: Design Strength Required Strength Where, Design Strength = Reduced Capacity = Strength Reduction Factor ( f ) Nominal Strength Required Strength = Internal forces due to applied loading x Load Factor This decreases the strength by multiplying the nominal strength with the appropriate strength reduction factor f, which is always less than 1. This increases the required strength by using factored loads or the factored internal moments and forces.

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## STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTOR REQUIREMENT

The strength reduction of materials or elements is required because: Material strengths may differ from those assumed in design. Member dimensions may vary from those assumed, due to construction/fabrication tolerances. Assumptions and simplifications in design equations, such as use of the rectangular stress block and the maximum usable strain of concrete equal to 0.003, introduce both systematic and random inaccuracies. The use of discrete bar sizes leads to variations in the actual capacity of members. Calculated area of reinforcement has to be rounded up to match the area of an integer number of reinforcing bars.

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## STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS

The code permits a linear transition in f between the limits for tension-controlled and compression-controlled sections.

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## LOAD FACTOR REQUIREMENT

The load factors are required for possible overloading because: Magnitudes of loads may vary from those determined from building codes. Dead loads may vary because of: Variations in member sizes. Variations in material density. Structural and nonstructural alterations. Live loads can vary considerably from time to time and from building to building. Uncertainties exist in the calculation of load effects e.g. the assumptions of stiffnesses, span lengths and inaccuracies involved in structural modeling etc.

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SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS
The provisions for adequate strength do not necessarily ensure acceptable behavior of the member at service load levels. Therefore, the code includes additional requirements to provide satisfactory service load performance. For actions other than flexure, the detailing provisions in conjunction with the strength requirements are meant to ensure adequate performance at service loads. For flexural action, there are special serviceability requirements concerning short and long term deflections, distribution of reinforcement, crack control, and permissible stresses in prestressed concrete.

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U = 1.4(D + F) U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(L r or S or R) U = 1.2D + 1.6(L r or S or R) + (1.0L or 0.8W) U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L + 0.2S U = 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
Where, D = Dead Load E = Earthquake Load F = Fluid Load H = Soil Load L = Live Load Lr= Roof Live Load
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R = Rain Load S = Snow Load T = Loads due to temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement etc. U = Required Strength W = Wind Load

## STRENGTH DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS

1. Strain in reinforcement and concrete is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. 2. Maximum strain at extreme concrete compression fiber is eu= 0.003. 3. Stress in reinforcement fs below the yield strength fy is Es x es. For strains greater than fy/Es, stress in reinforcement is equal to fy. 4. Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in flexural calculations. 5. Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain shall be assumed to be of any shape that results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests. 6. Requirements of assumption 5 may be considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution as defined in ACI code.

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FLEXURAL STRENGTH
Using the equivalent rectangular stress distribution and assuming that the reinforcement yields prior to crushing of the concrete ( es > ey), the nominal moment strength Mn may be computed by equilibrium of forces and moments. or

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## BALANCED STRAIN CONDITIONS

A balanced strain condition exists at a cross-section when the maximum strain at the extreme compression fiber just reaches eu= 0.003 simultaneously with the first yield strain of es= ey= fy/Es in the tension reinforcement. This balanced strain condition is shown below:

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## COMPRESSION CONTROLLED SECTIONS

Sections are compression-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or less than the compression-controlled strain limit at the time the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003. The compression-controlled strain limit is the net tensile strain in the reinforcement at balanced strain conditions. For Grade 60 reinforcement, and for all prestressed reinforcement, it is permitted to set the compression-controlled strain limit equal to 0.002.

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## TENSION CONTROLLED SECTIONS AND TRANSITION

Sections are tension-controlled when the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005 just as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003. Sections with net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel between the compressioncontrolled strain limit and 0.005 constitute a transition region between compressioncontrolled and tension-controlled sections. Following Figure shows the stress and strain conditions at the limit for tensioncontrolled sections.

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## MAXIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR FLEXURAL MEMBERS

Since 2002, the code limits the maximum reinforcement in a flexural member (with axial load less than 0.1fcAg to that which would result in a net tensile strain et at nominal strength not less than 0.004. This compares to the former code limit of 0.75b which results in an et of 0.00376.

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## MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS

Members with cross-sections much larger than required for strength, for architectural or other reasons, could fail suddenly because of small amounts of tensile reinforcement. To prevent failure in such situations, a minimum amount of tensile reinforcement is specified. At every section of flexural members where tensile reinforcement is required,

Above requirements need not be applied if at every section the area of tensile reinforcement provided is at least one-third greater than that required by analysis. For structural slabs and footings, the flexural reinforcement cannot be less than that required for temperature and shrinkage.

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1. Where will be maximum bending moment for simple beams? 2. Where will be maximum shear force for simple beams? 3. Where will be maximum bending moment for cantilever beams? 4. Where will be maximum shear force for cantilever beams?

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Step 6:

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## DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR SHEAR

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5. Determine the required area of vertical stirrups Av or stirrup spacing S and check with maximum and minimum requirements as per Table shown on next slide.

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d d

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1. Where will be maximum deflection for simple beams? 2. Where will be maximum deflection for cantilever beams?

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CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
Deflections of beams and one-way slabs supporting loads commonly experienced in buildings will normally be satisfactory when the minimum thickness from following are met or exceeded. The designer should especially note that this minimum thickness requirement is intended only for members not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged by large deflections. For all other members, deflections need to be computed.

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## CHECK FOR DEFLECTION

1. Calculate immediate deflection by: Where, Ma = Support Moment for cantilever and mid span moment for simple and continuous beams l = Span Ec = Modulus of elasticity of concrete

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Sections

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## 3. Check the calculated values with allowable deflection given as under:

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CRACK CONTROL
The spacing of reinforcement closest to the tension face, s, shall not exceed that given by:

but not greater than 12(40,000/fs), where cc is the least distance from surface of reinforcement to the tension face. Calculated stress fs in reinforcement closest to the tension face at service load shall be computed based on the unfactored moment. It shall be permitted to take fs as 2/3fy. For Skin or side face reinforcement refer figure on next page.

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## BEAM DESIGN SUMMARY

Calculate external or applied loads (Dead Loads, Live Loads etc.) Perform Structural Analysis. Determine internal forces (Bending Moment, Shear Force, etc.) Design for internal forces (Bending Moment, Shear Force, etc.) Check for serviceability (Deflection, cracking etc.) Detail Reinforcement as per Detailing rules.

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THANK YOU

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