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Marketing Communications

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee


Introduction to Marketing MBA Berlin, 12 March 2013

Session 13 & 14: Creative Brief for Advertising

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Session 13 & 14

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising


Case: Nike Football: World Cup 2010 South Africa

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Product Positioning

Two aspects of positioning How is your company/product/service perceived. The process of choosing a positioning for a product (that the marketer does) The perceived position can be a function of chance

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

What is the make of car in these photos?

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Product Positioning

Two aspects of positioning How is your company/product/service perceived. The process of choosing a positioning for a product (that the marketer does) The perceived position can be a function of chance 1997 Princess Diana crash in Mercedes (not a safe car) The perceived position can be a function of competitor actions

New entrant Losec in beta blocker category: maximum acidity control Zantacs response only use Losec as a last resort

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Product Positioning

What do we mean? Positioning relative to other products Duracell lasts longer than Eveready Positioning relative to market needs Raid kills bugs dead Strategy behind it Is the promise clear? Should the promise be clear? Can it be delivered?

vs

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Singapore Airlines

Singapore Girl, what a great way to fly

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

The Singapore Girl: A great way to fly

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ecVPlKg56k&list=PL4E3749C1BC438A53

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Cathay Pacific

Arrive in Better Shape

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Swissair

Time is everything

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Time is Everything

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c4oRjQkceEU&playnext=1 &list=PL9208C5A349502752&feature=results_video

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Clarity of Promise versus Confidence in delivery


Singapore Airlines has had the same campaign for more than 30 years.
Emotional campaign Cannot be measured Intangible
The Singapore Girl
What's the benefit? Is it attractive? Is the benefit clear? Can it be measured? What type of benefit is it? Emotional vs. Functional (Show ads) Did it work? Comfort, service, (sex?) Yes for the target mkt (men) Not really Hard Emotional

Cathay Pacific
Feel better than other airlines? Yes Yes Yes with a survey Functional

Swiss Air

Cathay Pacific had to change campaigns


With Arrive in Better Shape
Better than competitors or better than when you boarded the plane? Any competitor becomes a benchmark External pressure from customers Internal pressure from employees Warmth We are a hub.. Asia is dynamic and successful

Arrive on time Yes Yes Yes Functional

New campaign Heart of Asia (mid 1990s)

Swissairs Time is everything had to change


Being on time is a fantastic benefit
You dont control it If you dont deliver, customer wont believe anything you say

Yes, touches you Running since 80s

No because too many ref. points.

Time not in their control

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Product Positioning

What do we mean? Positioning relative to other products Duracell lasts longer than Eveready Positioning relative to market needs Raid kills bugs dead Strategy behind it Is the promise clear? Should the promise be clear? Can it be delivered? Singapore Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Swissair Emotional or functional
12 March 2013 Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

vs

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Where does positioning have an impact during decision-making?


Are you in the category?
Potential customer

Extensive problem solving

Limited / routinized / habitual decisionmaking


Quick and easy

Activated need(s) / goal(s)

Slow and difficult

Generation of potential solutions

internal & external search larger number of options

internal search (memory) small number of options generated

Solution evaluation:
consideration value preference

internal and external search for product & supplier information more complex decision rules: e.g., weighted multi-attribute score

internal search (memory) simple decision rules (heuristics): habit (routine) "works best": best overall evaluation or performance on most important benefit price: lowest ("all the same") or highest (price=quality) price affect: best liked brand familiarity: best known others' preferences: e.g., opinion leader

Brand Choice

Utilization

Post purchase / utilization evaluation


Where are you in the category
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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

GENERATING POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

The Awareness Pyramid

Dominant Brand Top of Mind Brand Recall Brand Recognition Unaware of Brand
based on Aaker, 1991, p. 62

Dominant brand:
a brand that is the only brand recalled

Top-of-mind awareness
the first-named brand in an unaided recall task

Brand recall: unaided awareness Brand recognition: aided awareness


respondents are given a set of brand names from a given product class and asked to identify those that they have heard of before
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12 March 2013

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Solution Evaluation: Brands have links (emotional, to characteristics, and to behaviors)


Behavior (Habits, Routines)

Brand
Beliefs, thoughts (Cognition) Availability vs Accessibility of associations: available: present in the customer's mind accessible (association strength): how quickly and reliably do the associations come to mind? Breadth: does the customer have all three types of associations?
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Affect (Emotion, Feelings)

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Think about Apples iPod


Jason: an iPod fanatic who lives in Syracuse, NY

http://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action.html

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Solution Evaluation: Brands have links (emotional, to characteristics, and to behaviors)


Every night Jason plugs in the iPod to recharge it & hes listening to it before he walks outside in the morning.
Behavior (Habits, Routines)

Brand
On my 40 MB iPod I have 3514 songs
Beliefs, thoughts (Cognition) Affect (Emotion, Feelings)

I love my iPod. Its great

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

MANAGING ASSOCIATIONS
DEFINING TARGET ASSOCIATIONS Existing brand GAP?
small gap between actual and target associations: brand rebuilding big gap between current and target associations: low awareness: brand rebuilding high awareness: rebranding?

OTHER: competitors regulators researchers customers' experience media, etc.

MEASURING ACTUAL ASSOCIATIONS

BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS POSITIONING, CONDITIONING, PRACTICING MARKETING MIX Brand elements Product Price Communication Distribution
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12 March 2013

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

BUILDING ASSOCIATIONS

Develop Over time

Behavior (Habits, Routines)

Positioning

Brand

Conditioning

Beliefs, thoughts (Cognition)

Affect (Emotion, Feelings)

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

DEFINING TARGET BELIEFS: THE POSITIONING STATEMENT(S)

To

__________________________ __________________________

(Target customer) (Brand) (Category: WHAT is it? Suggests POPs = Points-of-Parity) (Purchase/use situations: WHEN to use?) (Customer/user positioning: for WHOM?) (PODs = Point(s)-of-Difference: WHY to prefer?) (Support for PODs: REASON WHY)

is a which is suitable/ appropriate for used by and offers because

__________________________

__________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Example from NFLD: Dominion Ale

To: Traditional Newfoundland (males 30-50): distrustful of mainlanders and proud of being from the Rock What: Dominion Ale Category: Regular lager beer (POP) When to use With good friends, in bars and at home Used by Beer drinkers who value both quality and Newfoundland tradition when they choose a beer And offers Quality and tradition like no other beer on the market Support one of only two major Newfoundland brands that are still available (POD) Carries name of original brewer (Bennett) and brewed continuously since 1827 (POD)

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Dominion Ale Positioning

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Generating and Evaluating Positioning Options

Customers
Valuable to customers? Across segments? Identify potential benefits and costs of product, by segment

Identify needs & their importance, by segment Identify unmet needs (GAPS)

Options
Deliverable? technically perceptually (believable/credible) Profitable?

Identify: PODs: Points-of-difference: +, POPs: Points-of-parity

Distinctive? POD? Sustainable?

Company
Product (& company) characteristics & perception (technical & perceptual position)
12 March 2013 Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Competitors
Identify competitors, by segment Characteristics & perception (technical & perceptual position)
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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Result of Positioning Efforts

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Building Associations

Law of self-persuasion Law of consistency Law of force Law of focus Law of novel redundancy

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

The Law of Self-persuasion Persuasion is strongest when customers make favorable elaborations/inferences on the basis of the information presented, or draw their own favorable conclusions inference: the customer forms a belief that goes beyond the information which is presented category:
Japanese SLR cameras Attitude toward category J SLR cameras are very good

The Rolls-Royce of cameras

PENTAX N5

halo-effect (evaluation-based inference)

similaritybased inference (analogy) high quality, prestigious


12 March 2013

optical quality
functional (causal) inference

autofocus good pictures

The Pentax N5 is very good


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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

The Law of Consistency

All marketing mix elements must contribute to the target associations.

TARGET ASSOCIATION(s)

Product Price Place

Promotion

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

The Law of Force Intense promotion builds strong associations (accessibility - high probability and speed of retrieval; top-of-mind presence) amount of repetition (power function) recency of repetition (exponential decay)

Accessibility (Strength)

PRACTICE
12 March 2013 Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

NO PRACTICE
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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

The Law of Focus

Brand

Attrib. 1

Attrib. 2 Brand Attrib. 1 Attrib. 3

THE LAW OF FOCUS: concentrate on a small number of associations focus builds strength focus avoids interference ("fan effect")

12 March 2013

Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

The Law of Novel Redundancy

Attitude

Frequency of exposure

THE LAW OF NOVEL REDUNDANCY: avoid wear out by finding new ways of communicating the associations Different executions Different contexts Different media

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Questions for Nike before World Cup 2010

What is the positioning of Nike before the World Cup? What does Nike want to achieve at the World Cup? What should Nike do ahead of the World Cup about
1. 2. 3. 4. Advertising Digital marketing Sustainability and Social responsibility?

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Nike Revenues 1994-2006/8

2006/8: $1.4 billion 1994: $40 million


Performance, Conservative Adidas

Nike

Fun, Creative

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Timeline of Nikes World Cup related efforts

November 30, 2009

February 24-25, 2010

May 20

May 22

June 9

June 10

June 11

June 21

July 11

Release of Write the Grand opening Launch of The World Cup kicks Nike announces Nike partnership with Innovation Write the Future of Nike Soweto Chance digital off (RED), Lace Event: Future released on TV Community based global Up. Save Lives Launch of commercial on during UEFA Football soccer talent Facebook Champions Training Centre search Nike League Final Mercurial Vapor Superfly II Roll out and exhibition of Nike Football+ Launch of Nike 2010 World Cup jerseys made from 100% recycled material

Nike Life World Cup Final Center, a Spain vs gigantic LEC Holland screen in downtown Joburg user submitted messages

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Nike for a Better World Recycled Jersey

Source: Nike Website

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Nike for a Better World Life Center Joburg

Source: Nike Website

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Brand rehab

The Economist, Apr 8th 2010

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

A Creative Brief: A document created by an Ad Agency for its client


Topic
1. Problem definition what is the problem or situation leading to the creation of the new ad campaign? 2. Marketing objectives 3. Target audience 4. Communication objectives

Detailed Examples
Market or consumer changes? Competition? Environmental factors? A change in strategy? Is the advertising designed to drive sales, share, profit or something else? Who is the target customer? How do they make decisions? How does communication affect behavior? Is it through brand awareness? Information gathering? Changing brand perceptions? Key customer benefit? How can we support the benefit? What should be the ads tone and manner?

5. Creative strategy

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Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Internet Advertising The ultimate marketing machine


Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted. The trouble is, I don't know which half. John Wanamaker

The worldwide advertising industry is likely to be worth $428 billion in revenues in 2006, according to ZenithOptimedia, a market-research firm. They send messages that reach the wrong audience or none at all$112 billion a year in America and $220 billion worldwide, or just over half of their total spending!
The Economist, 6 July 2006.
12 March 2013 Prof. Sumitro Banerjee

The Power of Social Networks as a means of communication.


The Economist, Jan 30- Feb 5, 2010.
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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Source: Evans (2009) JEP


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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Source: Evans (2009) JEP


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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Source: Evans (2009) JEP


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Marketing Communications: Creative Brief for Advertising

Thank you!

Photo

Sumitro Banerjee Associate Professor and the Ferrero Chair in International Marketing Sumitro.Banerjee@esmt.org +49 (0) 30 21231-1520

ESMT European School of Management and Technology Schlossplatz 1 10178 Berlin

3/12/13

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