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# Discussions: 1. Describe the position versus time plot of the Graph screen.

Why does the distance begin at a maximum and decrease as the cart moves up the inclined plane? The position versus time graph is plotted on as a positive parabola; it starts at the maximum and reaches the minimum and goes back to maximum. The position time graph shoes the distance away from the reference point. In this case, the reference point is the sensor. The distance at the starting point, is the furthest distance away from the sensor, therefore making the number the largest (or the maximum). As the cart goes up the incline plane, the distance is shorter, eventually reaching the minimum. This occurs because the cart will reach its potential distance before rolling back down the incline plane due to acceleration. As it rolls down, it will meet the same distance as when the cart rolled up. 2. Choose three spots from your sketch of displacement time graph, half way up, middle, and half way down. Draw the tangent lines and calculate their slopes. Please show your calculation. What do these slopes represent? Choose [down] as + Half way up: (0.9,0.2); (0.3,0.45) Vinst= slope= =-0.417m/s = 0.417 m/s [up] Middle: (0.5,0.4); (1.2,0.4) Vinst= slope= =0 Half way down: (1.0,0.2); (1.5,0.375) Vinst= slope= =0.35 m/s [down]

The slopes represent the instantaneous velocity at the given points by creating a tangent line, and calculating the slopes. However, each instantaneous velocity tells something different. The instantaneous velocity for half way up shows the velocity going up, which is actually a negative slope. It is a negative slope because it is starting below the reference point, but as it goes up to the reference point, it is getting closer. Therefore, the position versus time graph will start at a maximum furthest away from the reference point, but at it moves up the incline plane, it gets closer the reference point (sensor) therefore being at a closer distance. This is the reason why the velocity on the way up would be negative. During the instantaneous velocity at the middle, it would result to zero. This would occur because during the middle, the cart would reach its potential, making the velocity to a complete stop at a very split second. The tangent line created was a straight horizontal line, parallel

to the x-axis therefore making the slope zero. The instantaneous velocity for half way down shows the velocity of the cart going back down the incline plane. This is a positive slope because it is starting at the close to the reference point, but then going away. As it goes down, it is further and further away from the reference point; eventually making it back to the maximum; therefore making the slope on the way down, positive.

3. Describe the velocity versus time plot. Should this graph be a straight line? Why or why not? The velocity versus time graph is plotted as a positive slope starting from the 4th quadrant. The positive slope is not 100% linear due to the imperfections of the human force. However, the slope is roughly a linear line. This makes the y-axis value (velocity) start as negative. The motion towards the sensor as negative because it is ratio between the position and time is a negative slope therefore making the velocity negative for a given period of time. However, the negative velocity does not actually represent a negative speed; it represents the cart going up the incline plane. In this case the positive slope is going down the incline plane. At one point the velocity reaches 0, this occurs because when the cart reaches its potential distance, the cart stops for a split second. This graph should be a straight line because the velocity is continuously increasing even though it is going in different direction. The velocity is increasing towards one direction, therefore creating a positive slope (positive acceleration). This positive acceleration means that the acceleration is accelerating downwards. 4. Compare the calculations in discussion #2 to the data in velocity time graph, do they agree? The calculations in #2 do agree with the graph. It agrees with the graph because while going up the incline plane, the velocity is negative, and during the given time that its going up, the velocity during the same time is negative. The calculation of the instantaneous velocity also matches the velocity on the graph for the given time. At the middle point, the velocity does reach 0. After the velocity of 0, the velocity becomes positive (which is when the cart is rolling back down the plane). The velocity going down is positive, and the instantaneous velocity during half of going down also matches the velocity for the given time. 5. Describe the acceleration versus time plot of the Graph display. Should this graph be a horizontal line? Why or why not? The acceleration versus time graph is roughly a horizontal line with a slope of zero. It ranges from 0.8 to 1.4. Even though it should be a constant acceleration, due to human error, and the sources of error, the numbers vary by a little. The reason that it should be a horizontal line is because the velocity increases, but the change in velocity over the time period is the acceleration. Therefore making the ratio between the velocity and time the same at each time therefore making the acceleration the same number. 6. How does the acceleration determined in the plot of velocity compare to the average value of acceleration from the plot of acceleration? The acceleration determined by the plot in velocity is specific acceleration during that specific time. The acceleration can vary during each time interval with little differences,

or even very large differences. Even in uniformly accelerated motion, the acceleration during each time interval can be different due to sources of error. The average acceleration from the plot of the acceleration is the average of all the acceleration points plotted onto the graph. 7. Calculate the initial speed of the cart using kinematic equations with any of the measured data. Please show your calculation. Given: A=9.8sin t=1.3s d=0 Required: Vi =9.8sin7.5 =1.28 m/s Analysis: d=vi(t)+1/2a(t) Solution : 0=Vi(1.3)+1/2(1.28)(1.3) 0=Vi(1.3)+1.0816 -1.0816=1.3Vi -0.832m/s=Vi

Conclusion: In the end, the results of the lab were based on the relationship between position, velocity and acceleration for motion in a straight line. The value of was measured before starting the experiment. was measured to be 7.5; therefore making the accepted value of acceleration to be a=gsin ; a=9.8sin7.5; a=1.28 m/s.During the conduction of the lab, the results of the position time graph was a positive parabola. The reason this occurred is due to the relationship of the position and the time. While going up the ramp, the cart will pass points along the ramp, and while going back down, the cart will pass these same points again. However, going up the ramp, the distance away from the sensor is getting smaller, eventually until it reaches its potential, get goes down the ramp, which makes the cart further away again; creating a positive parabola. With a parabola, the distance between each point is getting closer and closer together while going up the ramp, but getting further and further while going down the ramp; this is due to the velocity. This made my hypothesis correct because the graph has a positive parabola with the repetition of a position while going up, and coming back down the ramp. The velocity time graph was a positive slope starting at a point with a negative y-axis, but moving to positive y-axis. The reason this occurred is due to the relations to the position time graph. In this scenario, the positive is [downwards]; making the velocity increasing in a positive manner. This means that velocity is pulling the cart down as soon as it begins. This also makes sense because the ratio between the position and time is increasing a constant number, meaning a positive increase in velocity as well. Also, while going up the ramp, the slope of the position time graph is negative, explaining the negative velocity in the beginning; a positive slope while going down, explaining the positive velocity during the second time period. This made my hypothesis correct because the graph had a positive linear slope which started negative and the increase in velocity shows the acceleration. The acceleration time graph was a straight horizontal line with a slope of zero at a positive yaxis. Again, the positive in this scenario is [downward] meaning that the acceleration is always downward. The acceleration does not increase or decrease because the acceleration shows the constant increase of the velocity. The velocity increases by the same amount every time for ever

time interval, making the acceleration a constant number. This made my hypothesis correct because the graph had a horizontal straight line with a slope of zero with no increase in acceleration because then it would not be considered uniformly accelerated motion. Going back to accepted value of acceleration, which was a=1.28 m/s, however the average acceleration taken from the graph is a=1.1m/s; this creates a 13% error which can be due the sources of errors. Sources of Error: Measurement of the angle the incline is not exact when measured with a protractor, therefore making the acceleration not exact The cart being pushed is not pushed in an exact straight line therefore making the position versus time graph also not exact. If the cart is being pushed a slight angle, it is travelling more distance The push of the cart will not end exactly 15cm before the sensor which is should, therefore not giving the most accurate results Initial force from the cart push is not 100% accurate, which is the reason velocity versus time graph is not a straight linear line, which also results for the reason that acceleration changes. During the starting and ending point of the sensor, the data is taken away because it is not relevant. However, the actual start and end point are arbitrarily assumed. Therefore making the initial position not being the same as the final position.