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Advance Placement World History Ch.

23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

1. The "crisis of legitimacy" that undermined colonial authority in Latin America was caused by: a. revolutionary ideas. b. the collapse of the imperial economy. c. Napoleon's invasion of Spain and Portugal. d. a peasant uprising that overthrew the Viceroyalty. e. the example of the American War for Independence against Britain. 2. The Junta Central was a political body established a. to organize the overthrow of colonial powers. b. in Mexico to maintain European domination. c. to coordinate many diverse revolutionary groups. d. to rule during the French occupation of Spain. e. to organize armed revolution in the United States. 3. The overthrow of the Venezuelan, Mexican, and Bolivian colonial governments was initially led by a. the uneducated peasantry. b. landowning creoles. c. local church leaders. d. slaves. e. the merchant class. 4. Who objected to the Junta Central in Spanish America? a. Loyalists to the king b. Loyalists to the nation of Spain c. Poor farmers d. Officials in the Catholic Church e. Indigenous workers 5. Simn Bolvar created Gran Colombia, which unified a. the peoples of all Spanish-speaking America. b. the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking territories. c. Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador into one nation. d. Central and South America into one coalition. e. Haiti, Antigua, and Brazil into one nation. 6. After awaiting the return of the Spanish king, Ferdinand IV, to the throne, loyalists were disappointed when he a. condemned the revolts in the colonies and reinstated the viceroy system. b. rewarded nobility from Spain with more land grants in Latin America. c. agreed to accept a constitution that was seen as "too liberal." d. agreed to stop supporting Catholic missions in Latin America. e. enforced lapsed taxes against the colonists. 7. The independence of Argentina was accomplished by: a. confederated armies of peasants and loyalists. b. mobilized English soldiers from the Napoleonic wars c. militarized merchants and ranchers. d. creoles from Uruguay e. gauchos and caudillos 8. Jose de San Martin's most effective troops were a. Spanish ex-patriots. b. former American convicts.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

c. former American cowboys. d. former Portuguese soldiers. e. former slaves. 9. In a. b. c. d. e. 1810, Spain's richest and most populous American colony was Venezuela. Brazil. Peru. Mexico. Bolivia.

10. When Napoleon Bonaparte deposed Spain's King Ferdinand IV, the colonial administrator in Mexico was overthrown because a. local radicals perceived him as being part of a tainted political system. b. local conservatives feared he would support the localist faction of Americanborn elites. c. there was tremendous disagreement on the form the junta should take. d. the viceroy declared himself dictator by authority of Napoleon. e. there was a slave revolt supported by Hidalgo. 11. The Mexican revolutionaries Jos Mara Morelos and Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla were a. lawyers. b. priests. c. military officers. d. labor union organizers. e. physicians. 12. Which of the following was NOT a significant precondition for revolution in Mexico? a. displacement of indigenous communities from their agricultural lands. b. rising unemployment in urban areas. c. crop failures and epidemics. d. collapse of the mercantilist system e. increased food prices with decreased productivity. 13. Morales, Hidalgo, and Iturbide were all radicals in the independence movements. All of them were a. elected to serve as officials in the new republic. b. outlaws who had to run to Bolivia to avoid arrest. c. supported by loyalist factions of local elites. d. executed. e. commended by Ferdinand IV. 14. Emperor Pedro I of Brazil published an article in which he called slavery a. our "peculiar institution." b. a "gift from God." c. the "soft underbelly of Latin America." d. the economic basis of the Brazilian nation. e. a "cancer eating away at Brazil." 15. Independence in Brazil first occurred when a. Bolivar overthrew the reign of King John VI after his return to Portugal. b. Emperor Pedro I declared Brazil a constitutional monarchy. c. juntas turned Brazil into a constitutional republic. d. the armies of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata freed the slaves, breaking the economic stronghold of Portugal.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

e. Francisco Garibaldi was elected as the president of Brazil in 1831. 16. The two areas in Latin America that retained monarchy (initially) were a. Mexico and Bolivia. b. Peru and Chile. c. Uruguay and Paraguay. d. Mexico and Brazil. e. Brazil and Argentina. 17 A significant difference in colonial political experiences is that the British colonies had a. experience with elections, political parties and factions. b. a constitution written by committee. c. peaceful coexistence with indigenous populations. d. a more advanced economic trade system than Spain. e. none of these. 18. One of the more significant problems facing Latin American independence movements was: a. racial divisions. b. how to incorporate the Catholic church. c. indigenous emphasis of matrilinear powers. d. making the transition to a capitalist economy. e. secularizing education and government. 19. Which of the following was not among the similarities shared by Venezuelan leader Jos Antonio Pez and American Andrew Jackson? a. They both rejected slavery as a socioeconomic system. b. They both had uneducated and poor beginnings. c. They both challenged constitutional limits to their power. d. They both were personalist leaders. e. They were both successful military leaders. 20. The Confederation of 1867 a. recognized that Britain had lost Canada in the War of 1812 with the United States, and they were forced to withdraw. b. was an Irish nationalist group that staged an invasion of Canada in that year. c. caused a split in political loyalty and a civil war between British and French Canadians. d. was a political accord that was reached between Canadians and Pontiac Indians over use of the Great Lakes (on the Canadian side). e. created the Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa. 21. The United States election of 1824 was controversial because: a. One of the four candidates for president had been incapacitated by a stroke but ran anyway. b. expansionist policies to the west dominated the political agenda. c. the popular vote was superseded by the electoral college. d. the provision for overturning slavery was narrowly defeated. e. the faction known as "war hawks" did not support their own candidate. 22. The unity of the United States was threatened by rivalries over issues such as a. narrow- or standard-gauge railroad tracks. b. the right to bear arms. c. women's suffrage. d. the mandatory draft laws.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

e. slavery. 23. US a. b. c. d. e. 24. In a. b. c. d. e. 25. To a. b. c. d. e. 26. In a. b. c. d. e. western expansion relied upon: popular support of the idea of Manifest Destiny. railroads. aggressive diplomacy warfare against the Mexican and Amerindian populations. all of these.

the nineteenth century, Mexico lost all but which of the following? Texas to the United States Arizona to the United States New Mexico to the United States California to the United States Florida to the United States settle Texas in northeastern Mexico, the Mexican government built a railroad to access the area. gave the land free to all its citizens. first moved out all Spanish people. invited Americans to come live there. abolished the tax on land for all residents. the 1820's, Argentina and Brazil fought each other for control of which state? Peru Uruguay Paraguay Tierra del Fuego the Archipelago Islands

27. A French army was driven out of Mexico by a. Benito Juarez. b. Simn Bolvar. c. Tupac Amaru II. d. Emperor Maximilian. e. Aldo Suarez. 28. After the American Revolution, Amerindians a. were no longer exploited. b. lost the territories previously promised by treaties with Britain c. peacefully coexisted with settlers moving westward. d. depended on the American government honoring their commitments of support from the Revolutionary War. e. were deported from the continent. 29. The Shawnee leader who created a large organized alliance of Amerindians of the Ohio River Valley and Great Britain was a. Pontiac. b. Crazy Horse. c. Tecumseh. d. Wetamoo. e. LeDuc Tho. 30. The Trail of Tears was the a. massacre of the Powhatan tribes along the Appalachian Trail.

Advance Placement World History Ch. 23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

b. route of the slave trade from the Carolinas to Mississippi and Alabama. c. southern name for the route of General Sherman in his destructive siege and burning of Charleston. d. exile to Texas of settlers who left to establish the Republic. e. forced resettlement of Cherokee, Creek, and Choctaw peoples. 31. The Plains Indians successfully resisted U.S. expansion in part because they a. had become skilled users of horses and firearms. b. had resistance to diseases, which the settlers did not have. c. used a legal system to their advantage. d. were far superior warriors. e. had adopted the techniques of nonviolent resistance. 32. Systematic resistance by Native Americans to U.S. government relocation is symbolized most by which event? a. Battle at the Alamo b. Battle of Little Bighorn c. Pottawatomie Creek Massacre d. Battle of Poltava e. Harper's Ferry Raid 33. One advantage that Amerindians in Argentina and Chile had in checking settlers' southern expansion was an unlimited food supply from a. guinea pigs. b. herds of wild cattle. c. buffalo. d. the goats and sheep of the pampas. e. all of these. 34. The Mapuche tribes were ultimately defeated in their attempt to resist the Chilean military campaigns because a. they practiced indigenous religion instead of converting to Catholicism. b. they practiced human sacrifice, alienating potential supporters. c. they were suspected of providing assistance in slave revolts, bringing down the wrath of both the government and the landowners. d. they could not withstand the superior modern weaponry imported from industrialized nations. e. they were on marginal lands that could not support the tribe, and the Chilean government starved them out. 35. The Caste War was a. a rebellion by the creoles and mestizos in Mexico against the caudillos. b. an independence movement by the Choctaw confederation. c. an alliance of the Plains tribes to resist western expansion. d. a popular uprising of Maya to take over the Yucatn e. a mutiny against British Raj in India in 1857. 36. People who wanted slavery to be outlawed were called a. deconstructionists. b. populists. c. luddites. d. libertarians. e. abolitionists. 37. An argument to end slavery was that it was

Advance Placement World History Ch. 23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

a. b. c. d. e. cheaper to turn African-Americans into dependent sharecroppers. immoral and violated universal human rights. leading to the overpopulation of African Americans. slowing down technological development. all of these.

38. One of the more vocal protestors of slavery came from which political faction? a. emancipated slaves such as Frederick Douglass. b. the Whig Party of Abraham Lincoln. c. The Seneca Falls convention of 1849 d. Southern Baptists. e. Socialist critics like Charles Fourier. 39. Despite emancipation of slaves in the United States, African Americans lived under harsh conditions, including a. a mandatory seven-day workweek. b. deportation to Liberia. c. laws that prohibited African Americans from practicing Christianity. d. "Jim Crow" laws that segregated public transportation, jobs, and schools. e. all of these. 40. The Paraguayan War helped to end slavery in Brazil because large numbers of slaves a. joined the Brazilian army in exchange for freedom. b. were liberated by foreign armies. c. temporarily controlled the Brazilian government. d. petitioned the pope to mediate for them. e. fled the country. 41. Caribbean settlers were not enthusiastic about independence from European imperial governments because they a. worried that disaster relief would not be provided. b. feared slave revolts. c. feared that trade would diminish. d. felt vulnerable to economic takeover by the United States. e. feared the rise of Caribbean tourism. 42. After the profitability of sugar plantations declined, the British a. focused on rum production. b. burned their crops to create an artificial shortage. c. planted opium instead. d. pushed for the end of slavery. e. None of these 43. Slavery lasted longest on the Caribbean islands of a. St. Lucia and Martinique. b. Haiti and Dominica. c. St. Barts and St. Croix. d. Turks and Caicos. e. Cuba and Puerto Rico. 44. France's support for slavery decreased after a. the Haitian Revolution. b. the writing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man. c. Napoleon conscripted slaves to fight his wars against Britain, promising

Advance Placement World History Ch. 23 1800-1890 economic Transformation

freedom in exchange for military service. d. sale of the Louisiana Territory reduced its need for plantation labor. e. the French economy focused more on wine production and handicrafts than industrialized manufacture. 45. Most of the immigrants from Asia after 1850 went to a. Peru. b. Canada. c. Cuba. d. the United States. e. Polynesia. 46. One of the more popular destinations for immigration by Europeans was: a. Canada b. Argentina c. Mexico d. Hawaii e. Australia 47. Canada decided to reduce Asian immigration in the 1880s by a. signing the Chinese Exclusion Act. b. enacting literacy and citizenship tests. c. using a quota system. d. imposing a head tax on Chinese immigrants. e. None of these 48. Canadian efforts to assimilate immigrants included a. complete relaxation of immigration laws. b. the discovery of penicillin to cure immigrant diseases. c. teaching patriotism and English in school. d. the adoption of all Romance languages as the official language. e. forcing immigrants to wear badges of ethnicity. 49. The modification of the language, customs, and behaviors of a group as a result of contact with people from another culture a. acculturation. b. maturation. c. revelation. d. indoctrination. e. calcification. 50. The Women's Rights Convention was held in a. Paterson, New Jersey. b. Seneca Falls, New York. c. Toronto, Canada. d. Washington, D.C. e. Boston, Massachusetts.