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Judas Iscariot

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Judas Iscariot, Hebrew: ‫" יהודה איש־קריות‬Yehuda" Yəhûḏāh ʾΚ-qəriyyôṯ was, according to
the New Testament, one of the twelve original Apostles of Jesus. Among the twelve, he was
apparently designated to keep account of the "money bag" (Grk. γλωσσόκομον),[1] but he is most
traditionally known for his role in Jesus' betrayal into the hands of Roman authorities.[2]
His name is also associated with a Gnostic gospel, the Gospel of Judas, that exists in an early
fourth century Coptic text. Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as
many Gnostic sects, and has also been the subject of many philosophical writings, including The
Problem of Natural Evil by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by
Jorge Luis Borges.
The term Judas has entered many languages as a synonym for betrayer, and Judas has become
the archetype of the betrayer in Western art and literature. Judas is given some role in virtually all
literature telling the Passion story, and appears in a number of modern novels and movies.

Contents
[hide]
• 1 Etymology
• 2 Traditional Christian views
○ 2.1 Biblical narrative
 2.1.1 Death
• 3 Gospel of Judas
• 4 Criticism
○ 4.1 Theological questions
○ 4.2 Philosophical questions
○ 4.3 Modern interpretations
• 5 Representations and symbolism
○ 5.1 Hymnography
○ 5.2 Gospel of Barnabas
○ 5.3 Anti-Semitism
○ 5.4 Art and literature
• 6 See also
• 7 References
• 8 External links

[edit] Etymology
In the Greek New Testament, Judas Iscariot is called Ιούδας Ισκάριωθ (Ioúdas Iskáriōth) and
Ισκαριώτης (Iskariṓtēs). "Judas" (spelled "Ioudas" in ancient Greek and "Iudas" in Latin,
pronounced ˈyudas' in both) is the Greek form of the common name Judah (‫יהודה‬, Yehûdâh,
Hebrew for "God is praised"). The same Greek spelling underlies other names in the New
Testament that are traditionally rendered differently in English: Judah and Jude.
The precise significance of "Iscariot," however, is uncertain. There are two major theories on its
etymology:
• The most likely explanation derives Iscariot from Hebrew ‫איש־קריות‬, Κ-Qrîyôth, that is
"man of Kerioth." The Gospel of John refers to Judas as "son of Simon Iscariot" (John
6:71), implying that it was not Judas, but his father, who came from here.[3] Some
speculate that Kerioth refers to a region in Judea, but it is also the name of two known
Judean towns.[4]
• A second theory is that "Iscariot" identifies Judas as a member of the sicarii. [5] These
were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea.
However, many historians maintain that the sicarii only arose in the 40s or 50s of the 1st
century, in which case Judas could not have been a member.[6]
[edit] Traditional Christian views
[edit] Biblical narrative
Judas is mentioned in the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John and at the beginning of Acts of
the Apostles. Mark also states that the chief priests were looking for a "sly" way to arrest Jesus.
They determine not to do so during the feast because they were afraid that the people would riot;
instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. Satan enters Judas at this time, as
described by the Gospel of Luke.[7]
According to the account given in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag[8]
and betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver"[9] by identifying him with a kiss—"the
kiss of Judas"—to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to
Pontius Pilate's soldiers. These "pieces of silver" were most likely intended to be understood as
silver Tyrian shekels.
[edit] Death
There are two different canonical references to the remainder of Judas' life:
• The Gospel of Matthew says that, after Jesus' arrest by the Roman authorities (but before
his execution), the guilt-ridden Judas returned the bribe to the priests and committed
suicide by hanging himself. The priests, forbidden by Jewish law from returning the
money to the treasury, used it to buy the potter's field [10] in order to bury strangers. The
Gospel account [11] presents this as a fulfilment of prophecy.
• The Acts of the Apostles says that Judas used the bribe to buy a field, but fell down, and
burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama
or Field Of Blood.[12]
Another account was preserved by the early Christian leader, Papias: "Judas walked about in this
world a sad example of impiety; for his body having swollen to such an extent that he could not
pass where a chariot could pass easily, he was crushed by the chariot, so that his bowels gushed
out." [13]

Judas Iscariot 1891 by Nikolai Ge


Raymond E. Brown gave the contradictory accounts of the death of Judas as an example of an
obvious contradiction in the Bible texts: "Luke's account of the death of Judas in Acts 1:18 is
scarcely reconcilable with Matt 27:3-10."[14] This problem was one of the points that caused C. S.
Lewis, for example, to reject the view "that every statement in Scripture must be historical
truth".[15] Various attempts at harmonization have been tried since ancient times,[16] such as that
Judas hanged himself in the field, and afterwards the rope snapped, and his body burst open on
the ground,[17] or that the accounts of Acts and Matthew refer to two different transactions.[18]
Modern scholars tend to reject these approaches [19][20] stating that the Matthew account is a
midrashic exposition that allows the author to present the event as a fulfillment of prophetic
passages from the Old Testament. They argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the
thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judas's
death.[21]
Matthew's reference to the death as fulfilment of a prophecy "spoken through Jeremiah the
prophet" has caused some controversy, since it clearly paraphrases a story from the Book of
Zechariah (Zechariah 11:12-13) which refers to the return of a payment of thirty pieces of
silver.[22] Many writers, such as Augustine, Jerome, and John Calvin concluded that this was an
obvious error.[23] However, some modern writers have suggested that the Gospel writer may also
have had a passage from Jeremiah in mind,[24] such as chapters 18 (Jeremiah 18:1–4) and 19
(Jeremiah 19:1–13), which refers to a potter's jar and a burial place, and chapter 32 (Jeremiah
32:6-15) which refers to a burial place and an earthenware jar.[25]
[edit] Gospel of Judas
Main article: Gospel of Judas
During the 1970s, a Coptic papyrus[26] was discovered near Beni Masah, Egypt. This has been
translated and appears to be a text from the 2nd century A.D. describing the story of Jesus's death
from the viewpoint of Judas. The conclusion of the text refers (in Coptic) to the text as "the
Gospel of Judas" (Euangelion Ioudas).
According to a 2006 translation of the manuscript of the text, it is apparently a Gnostic account
of an arrangement between Jesus and Judas, who in this telling are Gnostically enlightened
beings, with Jesus asking Judas to turn him in to the Romans to help Jesus finish his appointed
task from God.[citation needed]
In December 2007, a New York Times op-ed article by April DeConick asserted that the
National Geographic's translation is badly flawed: 'For example, in one instance the National
Geographic transcription refers to Judas as a "daimon," which the society’s experts have
translated as "spirit." Actually, the universally accepted word for "spirit" is "pneuma" — in
Gnostic literature "daimon" is always taken to mean "demon."'[27] The National Geographic
Society responded that 'Virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are
addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions'.[28]
[edit] Criticism
[edit] Theological questions
Judas has been a figure of great interest to esoteric groups, such as many Gnostic sects, because
of the apparent contradiction in the idea of "the betrayal of God". The main questions seem to be
these:
• Did Judas exist in his time only to betray Jesus just to fulfill the prophecy?
• Why did Jesus allow Judas to betray him?
○ Was Jesus unable to prevent the betrayal?
○ Did Jesus willingly allow the betrayal to go ahead?
○ Did Jesus actively try to cause the betrayal to happen?
• Why is it that the 'villainy' of Judas becomes greater and more pronounced as one reads
from Mark to John?
Irenaeus records the beliefs of one Gnostic sect, the Cainites, who believed that Judas was an
instrument of the Sophia, Divine Wisdom, thus earning the hatred of the Demiurge. In the
Hebrew bible, the book of Zechariah, the one who casts thirty pieces of silver, as Judas does in
the Gospels, is a servant of God. His betrayal of Jesus thus was a victory over the materialist
world. The Cainites later split into two groups, disagreeing over the ultimate significance of
Jesus in their cosmology.
Origen knew of a tradition according to which the greater circle of disciples betrayed Jesus, but
does not attribute this to Judas in particular, and Origen did not deem Judas to be thoroughly
corrupt (Matt., tract. xxxv).
The early anti-Christian writer Celsus deemed literal readings of the story to be philosophically
absurd, especially because Jesus knew about the treason in advance, and told of it openly to all
the disciples at the Passover meal, as well as singling out who the traitor would be without
attempting to stop him.
The text of the Gospels suggests that Jesus both foresaw and allowed Judas' betrayal. In April
2006, a Coptic papyrus manuscript titled the Gospel of Judas (see above section) dating back to
200 AD, was translated into modern language, to add weight to the possibility that according to
early Christian writings, Jesus may have asked Judas to betray him[29].
[edit] Philosophical questions
Judas is also the subject of many philosophical writings, including The Problem of Natural Evil
by Bertrand Russell and "Three Versions of Judas", a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. They
both allege various problematic ideological contradictions with the discrepancy between Judas'
actions and his eternal punishment.
• If Jesus foresees Judas' betrayal, then it may be argued that Judas has no free will, and
cannot avoid betraying Jesus. If Judas cannot control the temptation of Satan to betray
Jesus(Luke 22:3-4 vs 1 Cor 10:13), then he is not morally responsible for his actions. The
question has been approached by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica, which
differentiates between foreknowledge and predestination, and argues that the
omnipotence of the divine is compatible with the existence of free will.
• If Judas is sent to Hell for his betrayal, and his betrayal was a necessary step in the
humanity-saving death of Jesus Christ, then Judas is punished for saving humanity. This
goes hand-in-hand with the "free will" argument, and Aquinas's Summa deals with the
issue of free will in demons and other beings instrumental in the life of Jesus that are
nevertheless damned.
• If Jesus only suffered while dying on the cross and then ascended into Heaven, while
Judas must suffer for eternity in Hell, then does Judas not suffer much more for the sins
of humanity than Jesus? Should his role in the Atonement be that much more significant?
As Borges puts it in "Three Versions of Judas":
"The ascetic, for the greater glory of God, degrades and mortifies the flesh; Judas did the same with the
spirit. He renounced honor, good, peace, the Kingdom of Heaven, as others, less heroically, renounced
pleasure."
• Does Jesus' plea, "Father forgive them, they know not what they do," (Luke 23:34) not
apply to Judas? Is Jesus atonement insufficient for Judas' sins?
• It has been speculated that Judas' damnation, which seems to be possible from the
Gospels' text, may not actually stem from his betrayal of Christ, but from the despair
which caused him to subsequently commit suicide. This position is not without its
problems since Judas was already damned by Jesus even before he committed suicide(see
John 17:12), but it does avoid the paradox of Judas' predestined act setting in motion both
the salvation of all mankind and his own damnation.
The damnation of Judas is not a universal conclusion. The Roman Catholic Church only
proclaims individuals' Eternal Salvation through the Canon of Saints. There is no 'Canon of the
Damned', nor any official proclamation of the damnation of Judas.

The Kiss of Judas, by Giotto di Bondone


[edit] Modern interpretations
Most Christians still consider Judas a traitor. Indeed the term Judas has entered many languages
as a synonym for betrayer.
However, some scholars[30] have embraced the alternative notion that Judas was merely the
negotiator in a prearranged prisoner exchange (following the money-changer riot in the Temple)
that gave Jesus to the Roman authorities by mutual agreement, and that Judas' later portrayal as
"traitor" was a historical distortion.
In his book The Passover Plot the British theologian Hugh J. Schonfield argued that the
crucifixion of Christ was a conscious re-enactment of Biblical prophecy and Judas acted with
Jesus' full knowledge and consent in "betraying" his master to the authorities.
In Martin Scorsese's film The Last Temptation of Christ, based on the novel by Nikos
Kazantzakis, Judas Iscariot's only motivation in betraying Jesus to the Romans was to help him,
as Jesus' closest friend, through doing what no other disciple could bring himself to do. It shows
Judas obeying Jesus' covert request to help him fulfill his destiny to die on the cross, making
Judas the catalyst for the event later interpreted as bringing about humanity's salvation. This
view of Judas Iscariot is reflected in the recently discovered Gospel of Judas.
In the novel, The Secret Magdalene by Ki Longfellow, Jude the Sicarii is not only the brother of
Jesus, but his twin. Longfellow makes him a double, a shadow, a psychic pairing, a brother who
shares equally in the fate of Jesus. Jesus sacrifices his life. Jude sacrifices his good name for all
time.
The book The Sins of the Scripture, by John Shelby Spong, investigates the possibility that early
Christians copied the Judas story from three Old Testament Jewish betrayal stories. He writes,
"...the act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian
writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by Gospel of Mark (3:19), who wrote in the
early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era". He points out that some of Gospels, after
the Crucifixion, refer to the number of Disciples as "Twelve", as if Judas were still among them.
In fact in Acts 1:21 Judas was replaced as one of the twelve from a choice of two candidates -
Matthias and Joseph (AKA Justus AKA Barsabbas). Following prayer in which they ask the
Lord's guidance, Matthias is chosen. Thus their number remains at twelve. He compares the three
conflicting descriptions of Judas's death - hanging, leaping into a pit, and disemboweling, with
three Old Testament betrayals followed by similar suicides.
Spong's conclusion is that early Bible authors, after the First Jewish-Roman War, sought to
distance themselves from Rome's enemies. They augmented the Gospels with a story of a
disciple, personified in Judas as the Jewish state, who either betrayed or handed-over Jesus to his
Roman crucifiers. Spong identifies this augmentation with the origin of modern Anti-Semitism.
Theologian Aaron Saari contends in his work The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot that Judas
Iscariot was the literary invention of the Markan community. As Judas does not appear in the
Epistles of Paul, nor in the Q Gospel, Saari argues that the language indicates a split between
Pauline Christians, who saw no reason for the establishment of an organized Church, and the
followers of Peter. Saari contends that the denigration of Judas in Matthew and Luke-Acts has a
direct correlation to the elevation of Peter. [31]
[edit] Representations and symbolism
[edit] Hymnography
In the Eastern Orthodox hymns of Holy Wednesday (the Wednesday before Pascha), Judas is
contrasted with the woman who anointed Jesus with expensive perfume and washed his feet with
her tears. According to the Gospel of John, Judas protested at this apparent extravagance,
suggesting that the money spent on it should have been given to the poor. After this, Judas went
to the chief priests and offered to betray Jesus for money. The hymns of Holy Wednesday
contrast these two figures, encouraging believers to avoid the example of the fallen disciple and
instead to imitate Mary's example of repentance. Also, Wednesday is observed as a day of fasting
from meat, dairy products, and olive oil throughout the year in memory of the betrayal of Judas.
The prayers of preparation for receiving the Eucharist also make mention of Judas' betrayal: "I
will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss,
but like the thief on the cross I will confess you."
[edit] Gospel of Barnabas
According to medieval copies of the Gospel of Barnabas, it was Judas, not Jesus, who was
crucified on the cross. It is mentioned in this work that Judas' appearance was transformed to that
of Jesus', when the former, out of betrayal, led the Roman soldiers to arrest Jesus who by then
was ascended to the heaven. This transformation of appearance was so identical that the masses,
followers of Christ, and even the Mother of Jesus, Mary, initially thought that the one arrested
and crucified was Jesus himself. The Gospel then mentions that after three days since burial,
Judas' body was stolen from his grave, and then the rumours spread of Jesus being risen from the
dead. When Jesus was informed in the third heaven about what happened, he prayed to God to be
sent back to the earth, and so he descended and gathered his mother, disciples, and followers and
mentioned to them the truth of what happened, and having said this he ascended back to the
heavens, and will come back at the end of times as a just king.
[edit] Anti-Semitism
Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby, espousing a purely mythological view of Jesus, suggests that in
the New Testament, the name "Judas" was constructed as an attack on the Judaeans or on the
Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Christ.[32] The English word "Jew"
is derived from the Latin Iudaeus, which, like the Greek Ιουδαίος (Ioudaios), could also mean
"Judaean". In the Gospel of John, the original writer or a later editor may have tried to draw a
parallel between Judas, Judaea, and the Judaeans (or Jews) in verses 6:70-7:1, which run like this
in the King James Bible:
6:70 Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil? 6:71
He spoke of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should betray him, being
one of the twelve. 7:1 After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk
in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him.
In Greek, the earliest extant language of the Gospels, the words Judas — Jewry — Jews run like
this: Ιούδας (Ioudas) — Ιουδαία (Ioudaia) — Ιουδαίοι (Ioudaioi). Whatever the original
intentions of the original writers or editors of the Gospel of John, however, some argue that the
similarity between the name "Judas" and the words for "Jew" in various European languages has
helped facilitate anti-Semitism. He has also been seen as parallel to Judah, son of Jacob, by such
writers as Charles Fillmore and John Shelby Spong.[citation needed]
[edit] Art and literature

Cathédrale Saint-Lazare, Autun. Judas hangs himself


Judas has become the archetype of the betrayer in Western culture, with some role in virtually all
literature telling the Passion story. In Dante's Inferno, he is condemned to the lowest circle of
Hell, where he is one of three sinners deemed evil enough that they are doomed to be chewed for
eternity in the mouths of the triple-headed Satan. (The others are Brutus and Cassius, who
conspired against and assassinated Julius Caesar.)
• Judas is the subject of one of the oldest surviving English ballads, dating from the 13th
century, Judas, in which the blame for the betrayal of Christ is placed on his sister.
• Edward Elgar's oratorio, The Apostles, depicts Judas as wanting to force Jesus to declare
his divinity and establish the kingdom on earth. Eventually he succumbs to the sin of
despair.
• Mikhail Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita, Judas is paid by the high priest of Judaea
to testify against Jesus, who had been inciting trouble among the people of Jerusalem.
After authorizing the crucifixion, Pilate suffers an agony of regret and turns his anger on
Judas, ordering him assassinated. The story-within-a-story appears as a counter-
revolutionary novel in the context of Moscow in the 1920s-1930s.
• In George R.R. Martin's short story "The Way of Cross and Dragon", a sect called the
Order of Saint Judas Iscariot promotes a gospel of "Saint Judas" which is quite different
than what is in the New Testament.
• Michael Moorcock's novel Behold the Man offers an alternative, sympathetic portrayal of
Judas. In the book, Karl Glogauer, the time traveler from the 20th Century who takes on
the role of Christ, asks a reluctant Judas to betray him in order to fulfill the biblical
account of the crucifixion.
• Playwright Stephen Adly Guirgis's 2004 play titled "The Last Days of Judas Iscariot"
imagines what might happen if the case of Judas was brought before an afterlife appeals
court.
• Judas is a main character in the rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar which portrays him as
disillusioned that Jesus' movement is becoming a cult of personality.
• In his song "With God On Our Side," Bob Dylan sings, "In a many dark hour, I've been
thinkin' about this. That Jesus Christ was betrayed by a kiss. But I can't think for you.
You'll have to decide, whether Judas Iscariot had God on his side."

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Judas Iscariot

[edit] See also


• Burning of Judas
• John the Baptist

[edit] References
1. ^ John 12:6, John 13:29
2. ^ Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:42, Luke 22:1, Luke 22:47, John 13:18,
John 18:1
3. ^ Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony,
Eerdmans (2006), page 106.
4. ^ New English Translation Bible, n. 11 in Matthew 11
5. ^ Bastiaan van Iersel, Mark: A Reader-Response Commentary, Continuum International (1998),
page 167.
6. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave: A
Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels v.1 pp. 688-92. New York:
Doubleday/The Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0-385-49448-3; Meier, John P. A
Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (2001). v. 3, p. 210. New York: Doubleday/The
Anchor Bible Reference Library. ISBN 0385469934
7. ^ "BibleGateway.com - Passage Lookup: Luke 22:3". BibleGateway.
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%2022:3&version=31. Retrieved on 2008-
06-21.
8. ^ John 12:6
9. ^ Matthew 26:14
10.^ (Greek, ton agron tou kerameōs, τὸν αγρὸν τοῦ κεραμέως)
11.^ Matthew 27:9-10
12.^ Acts 1:18
13.^ (Papias Fragment 3, 1742-1744)
14.^ Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p.114.
15.^ letter to Clyde S. Kilby, 7 May 1959, quoted in Michael J. Christensen, C. S. Lewis on
Scripture, Abingdon, 1979, Appendix A
16.^ E.g. Alfred Edersheim concluded, "there is no real divergence." Life and Times of Jesus the
Messiah, 5.xiv, 1883.
17.^ "Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Judas". christnotes.org.
http://www.christnotes.org/dictionary.php?dict=ebd&q=Judas. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
18.^ "The purchase of "the potter's field", Appendix 161 of the Companion Bible".
http://www.levendwater.org/companion/append161.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
19.^ Charles Talbert, Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary, Smyth & Helwys
(2005) p. 15.
20.^ Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary, Eerdmans (2004), page 703.
21.^ Reed, David A. (2005). ""Saving Judas"—A social Scientific Approach to Judas’s Suicide in
Matthew 27:3–10" (PDF). Biblical Theology Bulletin.
http://academic.shu.edu/btb/vol35/06Reed.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
22.^ Vincent P. Branick, Understanding the New Testament and Its Message, (Paulist Press, 1998),
pages 126-128.
23.^ Frederick Dale Bruner, Matthew: A Commentary (Eerdmans, 2004), page 710; Augustine, cited
in the Catena Aurea: "It might be then, that the name Hieremias occurred to the mind of Matthew
as he wrote, instead of the name Zacharias, as so often happens" [1]; Jerome, Epistolae 57.7:
"This passage is not found in Jeremiah at all but in Zechariah, in quite different words and an
altogether different order" [2]; John Calvin, Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists,
Matthew, Mark and Luke, 3:177: "The passage itself plainly shows that the name of Jeremiah has
been put down by mistake, instead of Zechariah, for in Jeremiah we find nothing of this sort, nor
any thing that even approaches to it." [3]
24.^ Donald Senior, The Passion of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1985), page
107-108; Anthony Cane, The Place of Judas Iscariot in Christology (Ashgate Publishing, 2005),
page 50.
25.^ See also Maarten JJ Menken, 'The Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 27,9-10', Biblica 83
(2002): 9-10.
26.^ "Judas 'helped Jesus save mankind'," BBC News Website, published 2006/04/07
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/world/americas/4882420.stm)
27.^ April D. Deconick, 'Gospel Truth', New York Times, 1 December 2007
28.^ Statement from National Geographic in Response to April DeConick's New York Times Op-Ed
"Gospel Truth"
29.^ Associated Press, "Ancient Manuscript Suggests Jesus Asked Judas to Betray Him," Fox News
Website, Thursday, April 06, 2006
30.^ Dirk Grützmacher: The "Betrayal" of Judas Iscariot : a study into the origins of Christianity
and post- temple Judaism. , Edinburgh 1998 (Thesis (M.Phil) --University of Edinburgh, 1999)
31.^ Saari, Aaron Maurice. The Many Deaths of Judas Iscariot: A Meditation on Suicide London:
Routledge, 2006.
32.^ Hyam Maccoby, Antisemitism And Modernity, Routledge 2006, p14

[edit] External links


• Judas Iscariot: Catholic Encyclopedia article published 1910
• Jewish Encyclopedia: Judas Iscariot
• "Death and Retribution: Medieval Visions of the End of Judas the Traitor" - 1997 lecture
by Dr Otfried Lieberknecht
• Gospel Truth
[show]
v•d•e
Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ — (See also Paul)