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TREES

Consider a scenario where you are required to represent the directory structure of your operating system. The directory structure contains various folders and files. A folder may further contain any number of sub folders and files. In such a case, it is not possible to represent the structure linearly because all the items have a hierarchical relationship among themselves. In such a case, it would be good if you have a data structure that enables you to store your data in a nonlinear fashion.

DEFINITION:

A tree is a nonlinear data structure that represent a hierarchical relationship among the various data elements Trees are used in applications in which the relation between data elements needs to be represented in a hierarchy.

Each element in a tree is referred to as a node. The topmost node in a tree is called root.

Each node in a tree can further have subtrees below its hierarchy. Let us discuss various terms that are most frequently used with trees. Leaf node: It refers to a node with no children. Nodes E, F, G, H, I, J, L, and M are leaf nodes. Subtree: A portion of a tree, which can be viewed as a separate tree in itself is called a subtree.

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A subtree can also contain just one node called the leaf node. Tree with root B, containing nodes E, F, G, and H is a subtree of node A. Children of a node: The roots of the subtrees of a node are called the children of the node. o F, G, and H are children of node B. B is the parent of these nodes. Degree of a node: It refers to the number of subtrees of a node in a tree. Degree of node C is 1 Degree of node D is 2 Degree of node A is 3 Degree of node B is 4 Edge: A link from the parent to a child node is referred to as an edge. Siblings/Brothers: It refers to the children of the same node. Nodes B, C, and D are siblings of each other. Nodes E, F, G, and H are siblings of each other. Level of a node: It refers to the distance (in number of nodes) of a node from the root. Root always lies at level 0. As you move down the tree, the level increases by one.

Depth of a tree: Refers to the total number of levels in the tree. The depth of the following tree is 4. Internal node: It refers to any node between the root and a leaf node. Nodes B, C, D, and K are internal nodes. Example:

Consider the above tree and answer the questions that follow: a. What is the depth of the tree? b. Which nodes are children of node B? c. Which node is the parent of node F? d. What is the level of node E? e. Which nodes are the siblings of node H? f. Which nodes are the siblings of node D? g. Which nodes are leaf nodes? Answer: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 4 D and E C 2 H does not have any siblings The only sibling of D is E F, G, H, and I

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Strictly binary tree: A binary tree in which every node, except for the leaf nodes, has non-empty left and right children. Binary tree is a specific type of tree in which each node can have at most two children namely left child and right child. There are various types of binary trees: Strictly binary tree Full binary tree Complete binary tree

Full binary tree: A binary tree of depth d that contains exactly 2d 1 nodes. Depth d = 3 Total number of nodes = 2d 1 = 23 1 = 7

Complete binary tree: A binary tree with n nodes and depth d whose nodes correspond to the nodes numbered from 0 to n 1 in the full binary tree of depth k.

Linked representation of a binary tree:

It uses a linked list to implement a binary tree. Each node in the linked representation holds the following information: Data Reference to the left child Reference to the right child If a node does not have a left child or a right child or both, the respective left or right child fields of that node point to NULL.

Traversing a Binary Tree: You can implement various operations on a binary tree. A common operation on a binary tree is traversal. Traversal refers to the process of visiting all the nodes of a binary tree once. There are three ways for traversing a binary tree: Inorder traversal Preorder traversal Postorder traversal InOrder Traversal: In this traversal, the tree is visited starting from the root node. At a particular node, the traversal is continued with its left node, recursively, until no further left node is found. Then the data at the current node (the left most node in the sub tree) is visited, and the procedure shifts to the right of the current node, and the procedure is continued. This can be explained as:

1. Traverse the left subtree 2. Visit root 3. Traverse the right subtree (Left Data Right)

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Let us consider an example. The left subtree of node A is not NULL. Therefore, move to node B to traverse the left subtree of A. The left subtree of node B is not NULL. Therefore, move to node D to traverse the left subtree of B.

1 The left subtree of node D is NULL. Therefore, visit node D. Left subtree of H is empty. Therefore, visit node H.

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6 5 Right subtree of B is not empty. Therefore, move to the right subtree of B. Left subtree of E is empty. Therefore, visit node E.

10 9

10

11 The left subtree of node C has been visited. Therefore, visit node C.

12 Right subtree of C is not empty. Therefore, move to the right subtree of node C.

13 14

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Left subtree of G is not empty. Therefore, move to the left subtree of node G.

16 Visit node G.

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18

12

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Preorder Traversal In this traversal, the tree is visited starting from the root node. At a particular node, the data is read (visited), then the traversal continues with its left node, recursively, until no further left node is found. Then the right node of the recent left node is set as the current node, and the procedure is continued. This can be explained as: 1. Visit root 2. Traverse the left subtree 3. Traverse the right subtree PostOrder Traversal: In this traversal, the tree is visited starting from the root node. At a particular node, the traversal is continued with its left node, recursively, until no further left node is found. Then the right node of the current node (the left most node in the sub tree) is visited, and the procedure shifts to the right of the current node, and the procedure is continued. This can be explained as:

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1. Traverse the left subtree 2. Traverse the right subtree 3. Visit the root

BINARY SEARCH TREE An important application of binary trees is their use in searching. Let us assume that each node in the tree is assigned a key value. The property that makes a binary tree into a binary search tree is that for every node, X, in the tree, the values of all the keys in the left subtree are smaller than the key value in X, and the values of all the keys in the right subtree are larger than the key value in X. Notice that this implies that all the elements in the tree can be ordered in some consistent manner. In Figure 4.15, the tree on the left is a binary search tree, but the tree on the right is not. The tree on the right has a node with key 7 in the left subtree of a node with key 6 (which happens to be the root).

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FIND AN ELEMENT IN A TREE: To find an element in a Tree we check if the Tree structure T is exist or not. If it does not exist it returns NULL. If T is exist, then we can just return. Otherwise, if the key stored at T is x, we can return T. Otherwise, we make a recursive call on a subtree of T, either left or right, depending on the relationship of x to the key stored in T. The code is an implementation of this strategy. ypedef

tree_ptr find( element_type x, SEARCH_TREE T ) { if( T == NULL ) return NULL; if( x < T->element ) return( find( x, T->left ) ); else if( x > T->element ) return( find( x, T->right ) ); else return T; }

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Find_min and find_max: These routines return the position of the smallest and largest elements in the tree, respectively. To perform a find_min, start at the root and go left as long as there is a left child. Finally the left most node is the minimum element of the tree. The stopping point is the smallest element. The find_max routine is the same, except that branching is to the right child. The right most element is the maximum value.

Findmin: tree_ptr find_min( SEARCH_TREE T ) { if( T == NULL ) return NULL; else if( T->left == NULL ) return( T ); else return( find_min ( T->left ) ); } Findmax: tree_ptr find_max( SEARCH_TREE T ) { if( T != NULL ) while( T->right != NULL ) T = T->right; return T; }

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Insert:

The insertion routine is conceptually simple. To insert x into tree T, proceed down the tree as you would with a find. If x is found, do nothing (or "update" something). Otherwise, insert x at the last spot on the path traversed. To insert 5, we traverse the tree as though a find were occurring. At the node with key 4, we need to go right, but there is no subtree, so 5 is not in the tree, and this is the correct spot. Duplicates can be handled by keeping an extra field in the node record indicating the frequency of occurrence. This adds some extra space to the entire tree, but is better than putting duplicates in the tree (which tends to make the tree very deep). Of course this strategy does not work if the key is only part of a larger record. If that is the case, then we can keep all of the records that have the same key in an auxiliary data structure, such as a list or another search tree.

Since T points to the root of the tree and the root changes on the first insertion, insert is written as a function that returns a pointer to the root of the new tree. Lines 8 and 10 recursively insert and attach x into the appropriate subtree.

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Type Declarations: Struct treeNode { Int element: Struct TreeNode *left, *right; } Typedef struct treeNode *node; Typedef int ElementType; Node insert(ElementType, node) Node delete(Elementtype, node) void Findmin(node) void Findmax(node) void display(node, int); Syntax: Insertion

insert( element_type x, SEARCH_TREE T ) { if( T == NULL ) { /* Create and return a one-node tree */ T = (SEARCH_TREE) malloc ( sizeof (struct tree) if( T == NULL ) printf( " tree does not exist!!!" ); else { T->element = x; T->left = T->right = NULL; } } else if( x < T->element ) T->left = insert( x, T->left ); else if( x > T->element ) T->right = insert( x, T->right );

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/* else x is in the tree already. We'll do nothing */ return T; } /* Don't forget this line!! */

Delete:

As is common with many data structures, the hardest operation is deletion. Once we have found the node to be deleted, we need to consider three possibilities. Case I: Node to be deleted is the leaf node Case II: Node to be deleted has one child (left or right) Case III: Node to be deleted has two children If the node is a leaf, it can be deleted immediately. If the node has one child, the node can be deleted after its parent adjusts a pointer to bypass the node (we will draw the pointer directions explicitly for clarity). Notice that the deleted node is now unreferenced and can be disposed of only if a pointer to it has been saved. The complicated case deals with a node with two children. The general strategy is to replace the key of this node with the smallest key of the right subtree (which is easily found) and recursively delete that node (which is now empty). Because the smallest node in the right subtree cannot have a left child, the second delete is an easy one. Figure 4.24 shows an initial tree and the result of a deletion.

The node to be deleted is the left child of the root; the key value is 2. It is replaced with

the smallest key in its right subtree (3), and then that node is deleted as before.

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The code performs deletion. It is inefficient, because it makes two passes down the tree to find and delete the smallest node in the right subtree when this is appropriate. It is easy to remove this inefficiency, by writing a special delete_min function, and we have left it in only for simplicity. If the number of deletions is expected to be small, then a popular strategy to use is lazy deletion: When an element is to be deleted, it is left in the tree and merely marked as being deleted. This is especially popular if duplicate keys are present, because then the field that keeps count of the frequency of appearance can be decremented. If the number of real nodes in the tree is the same as the number of "deleted" nodes, then the depth of the tree is

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only expected to go up by a small constant (why?), so there is a very small time penalty associated with lazy deletion. delete( element_type x, SEARCH_TREE T ) { tree_ptr tmp_cell, child; if( T == NULL ) error("Element not found"); else if( x < T->element ) T->left = delete( x, T->left ); else if( x > T->element ) else { /* Go right */ T->right = delete( x, T->right ); /* Found element to be deleted */ if( T->left && T->right ) /* Two children */ /* Replace with smallest in right subtree */ tmp_cell = find_min( T->right ); T->element = tmp_cell->element; T->right = delete( T->element, T->right ); } else } tmp_cell = T; if( T->left == NULL ) child = T->right; if( T->right == NULL ) child = T->left; free( tmp_cell );

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/* Go left */

/* One child */

return child; } return T; } AVL Tree In a binary search tree, the time required to search for a particular value depends upon its height. The shorter the height, the faster is the search. However, binary search trees tend to attain large heights because of continuous insert and delete operations. Consider an example in which you want to insert some numeric values in a binary search tree in the following order: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 After inserting values in the specified order, the binary search tree appears as follows:

This process can be very time consuming if the number of values stored in a binary search tree is large.

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Now if you want to search for a value 14 in the given binary search tree, you will have to traverse all its preceding nodes before you reach node 14. In this case, you need to make 14 comparisons Therefore, such a structure loses its property of a binary search tree in which after every comparison, the search operations are reduced to half. To solve this problem, it is desirable to keep the height of the tree to a minimum. Therefore, the following binary search tree can be modified to reduce its height.

The height of the binary search tree has now been reduced to 4 Now if you want to search for a value 14, you just need to traverse nodes 8 and 12, before you reach node 14 In this case, the total number of comparisons to be made to search for node 14 is three. This approach reduces the time to search for a particular value in a binary search tree. This can be implemented with the help of a height balanced tree.

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A height balanced tree is a binary tree in which the difference between the heights of the left subtree and right subtree of a node is not more than one. In a height balanced tree, each node has a Balance Factor (BF) associated with it. For the tree to be balanced, BF can have three values: 0: A BF value of 0 indicates that the height of the left subtree of a node is equal to the height of its right subtree. 1: A BF value of 1 indicates that the height of the left subtree is greater than the height of the right subtree by one. A node in this state is said to be left heavy. 1: A BF value of 1 indicates that the height of the right subtree is greater than the height of the left subtree by one. A node in this state is said to be right heavy.

After inserting a new node in a height balanced tree, the balance factor of one or more nodes may attain a value other than 1, 0, or 1. This makes the tree unbalanced. In such a case, you first need to locate the pivot node. A pivot node is the nearest ancestor of the newly inserted node, which has a balance factor other than 1, 0 or 1. To restore the balance, you need to perform appropriate rotations around the pivot node.

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Insert operation in a height balanced tree is similar to that in a simple binary search tree. However, inserting a node can make the tree unbalanced. To restore the balance, you need to perform appropriate rotations around the pivot node. This involves two cases: When the pivot node is initially right heavy and the new node is inserted in the right subtree of the pivot node. When the pivot node is initially left heavy and the new node is inserted in the left subtree of the pivot node. Let us first consider a case in which the pivot node is initially right heavy and the new node is inserted in the right subtree of the pivot node. In this case, after the insertion of a new element, the balance factor of pivot node becomes 2. Now there can be two situations in this case: If a new node is inserted in the right subtree of the right child of the pivot node.(LL) If the new node is inserted in the left subtree of the right child of the pivot node.(RR) Consider the first case in which a new node is inserted in the right subtree of the right child of the pivot node.

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Single Rotation: The two trees in Figure 4.31 contain the same elements and are both binary search trees. First of all, in both trees k 1 < k 2. Second, all elements in the subtree X are smaller than k 1 in both trees. Third, all elements in subtree Z are larger than k 2. Finally, all elements in subtree Y are in between k 1 and k 2. The conversion of one of the above trees to the other is known as a rotation. A rotation involves only a few pointer changes (we shall see exactly how many later), and changes the structure of the tree while preserving the search tree property. The rotation does not have to be done at the root of a tree; it can be done at any node in the tree, since that node is the root of some subtree. It can transform either tree into the other. This gives a simple method to fix up an AVL tree if an insertion causes some node in an AVL tree to lose the balance property: Do a rotation at that node. The basic algorithm is to start at the node inserted and travel up the tree, updating the balance information at every node on the path. If we get to the root without having found any badly balanced nodes, we are done. Otherwise, we do a rotation at the first bad node found, adjust its balance, and are done (we do not have to continue going to the root). In many cases, this is sufficient to rebalance the tree. For instance, in Figure 4.32, after the

insertion of the in the original AVL tree on the left, node 8 becomes unbalanced. Thus,

we do a single rotation between 7 and 8, obtaining the tree on the right.

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Figure 4.32 AVL property destroyed by insertion of 6 1/2 , then fixed by a rotation

Let us work through a rather long example. Suppose we start with an initially empty AVL tree and insert the keys 1 through 7 in sequential order. The first problem occurs when it is time to insert key 3, because the AVL property is violated at the root. We perform a single rotation between the root and its right child to fix the problem. The tree is shown in the following figure, before and after the rotation:

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To make things clearer, a dashed line indicates the two nodes that are the subject of the rotation. Next, we insert the key 4, which causes no problems, but the insertion of 5 creates a violation at node 3, which is fixed by a single rotation. Besides the local change caused by the rotation, the programmer must remember that the rest of the tree must be informed of this change. Here, this means that 2's right child must be reset to point to 4 instead of 3. This is easy to forget to do and would destroy the tree (4 would be inaccessible).

Next, we insert 6. This causes a balance problem for the root, since its left subtree is of height 0, and its right subtree would be height 2. Therefore, we perform a single rotation at the root between 2 and 4.

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The rotation is performed by making 2 a child of 4 and making 4's original left subtree the new right subtree of 2. Every key in this subtree must lie between 2 and 4, so this transformation makes sense. The next key we insert is 7, which causes another rotation.

Double Rotation: The algorithm described in the preceding paragraphs has one problem. There is a case where the rotation does not fix the tree. Continuing our example, suppose we insert keys 8 through 15 in reverse order. Inserting 15 is easy, since it does not destroy the balance property, but inserting 14 causes a height imbalance at node 7.

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As the diagram shows, the single rotation has not fixed the height imbalance. The problem is that the height imbalance was caused by a node inserted into the tree containing the middle elements (tree Y in Fig. 4.31) at the same time as the other trees had identical heights. The case is easy to check for, and the solution is called a double rotation, which is similar to a single rotation but involves four subtrees instead of three. In Figure 4.33, the tree on the left is converted to the tree on the right. By the way, the effect is the same as rotating between k1 and k2 and then between k2 and k3.

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In our example, the double rotation is a right-left double rotation and involves 7, 15, and 14. Here, k3 is the node with key 7, k1 is the node with key 15, and k2 is the node with key 14. Subtrees A, B, C, and D are all empty.

Next we insert 13, which require a double rotation. Here the double rotation is again a right-left double rotation that will involve 6, 14, and 7 and will restore the tree. In this case, k 3 is the node with key 6, k 1 is the node with key 14, and k 2 is the node with key 7. Subtree A is the tree rooted at the node with key 5, subtree B is the empty subtree that was originally the left child of the node with key 7, subtree C is the tree rooted at the node with key 13, and finally, subtree D is the tree rooted at the node with key 15.

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If 12 is now inserted, there is an imbalance at the root. Since 12 is not between 4 and 7, we know that the single rotation will work.

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To insert 10, a single rotation needs to be performed, and the same is true for the subsequent insertion of 9. We insert 8 without a rotation, creating the almost perfectly balanced tree that follows.

Finally, we insert 81/2 to show the symmetric case of the double rotation. Notice that 81/2 causes the node containing 9 to become unbalanced. Since 81/2 is between 9 and 8 (which is 9's child on the path to 81/2, a double rotation needs to be performed, yielding the following tree.

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Example: Let us consider an example to insert values in a binary search tree and restore its balance whenever required. 50 Insert 50 40 30 60 55 80 10 35 32

Before rotation

After rotation

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Before Rotation

After rotation

After Rotation

35

Insert 10

Insert 35

*******

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