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RIO Unit 02- Biology

Ecology

1. An ecosystem is represented below. When will this ecosystem be self-sustaining?


(Evaluating)

A If the organisms labeled A outnumber the organisms labeled B.

B If the organisms labeled A are equal in number to the organisms labeled B.

C If the type of organisms represented by B are eliminated.

D If the materials cycle between the organisms labeled A and B.

2. A certain plant requires moisture, 3. Which is a biotic factor operating


oxygen, carbon dioxide, light, and within an ecosystem? (Knowing)
minerals in order to survive. What does
this statement show that a living A The type of climate in a given
organism depends on? (Organizing) region

A Biotic factors B The carnivores that consume other


animals
B Abiotic factors
C The amount of helium gas in the
C Symbiotic relationships air

D Carnivore-herbivore relationship D The rate of flow of water in a river


4. What is all of Earth's water, land, and A A community
atmosphere within which life exists
known as? (Knowing) B An ecosystem

C A biome

D The biosphere

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5. Which statement best describes some organisms in the food web shown below?
(Generating)

A Minnows and fish are primary consumers.

B Algae and floating plants are decomposers.

C Aquatic crustaceans are omnivores.

D Raccoons, fish, and ducks are secondary consumers.


6. In what form do most autotrophs store 8. Which waste product of a grasshopper
energy in? (Applying) may be retained and used in other
metabolic activities? (Applying)
A Starches
A Water
B Carbon dioxide
B Uric acid
C Water
C Carbon dioxide
D Nucleic acids
D Feces
7. Which life process is classified as
autotrophic in some organisms and
heterotrophic in other organisms?
(Knowing)

A Hormonal regulation

B Nutrition

C Anaerobic respiration

D Transport
9. Events that take place in a biome are shown in the diagram below. Which information
formation is represented in the diagram? (Analyzing)

A Respiration and photosynthesis are interrelated.

B Transpiration and condensation are related to the water cycle.

C Decomposers release a material that is acted on by other organisms.

D Predators and their prey are involved in many interactions.

10. An ecosystem, such as an aquarium, is self-sustaining if it involves the interaction


between organisms and a flow of energy. What else has to be present for the health of the
ecosystem? (Generating)

A Equal numbers of plants and animals

B more animals than plants

C Nutrient cycles

D Pioneer organisms
11. The graph below shows that changes in two populations of herbivores in a grassy
field. What is a possible reason for these changes? (Evaluating)

A All of the plant populations in this habitat decreased

B Population B competed more successfully for food than population A did

C Population A produced more offspring than population B did

D Population A consumed the members of population B

12. A scorpion stalks, kills, and then eats D Predator, autotroph, herbivore
a spider. Based on its behavior, which
ecological terms describe the scorpion? 13. Which organisms are not dependent
(Evaluating) upon other animals for food? (Knowing)

A Producer, herbivore, decomposer A Producers

B Producer, carnivore, heterotroph B Herbivores

C Predator, carnivore, consumer C Scavengers

D Primary consumers
14. Certain bacteria living in a human's A Animal parasitism
large intestine help to produce vitamin
K. What is this relationship an example B Plant parasitism
of? (Analyzing)
C Commensalism

D Mutualism

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15. Base your answer on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram illustrates the relationships between the organisms in a certain pond. In addition
to sunlight, what other factor is needed to make this a self-sustaining ecosystem?
(Generating)

A Producers

B Primary consumers

C Decomposers

D Higher order consumers

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16. What term would best describe all of 17. A rocky island appears as oceanic
the timber wolves, rabbits, and waters recede. Which of the following
vegetation in a particular region of forms of vegetation would probably
northern New York? (Organizing) appear first on the bare rocks? (Apply)

A Population A Lichens

B Community B Shrubs

C Genus C Pioneer trees

D Species D Shrubs
18. Of the following, which instrument
is most commonly used to observe the
external features of a grasshopper's
abdomen? (Knowing)

A Ultracentrifuge

B Microdissection instrument

C Dissecting microscope

D Electron microscope
20. What is the simplest grouping of
19. Which of the following more than one type of organism in the
descriptions of an ecosystem is biosphere? (Evaluating)
correct? (Organizing)
A A population
A Communities make up species,
B A community
which make up populations.
C An ecosystem
B Populations make up species,
D A species
which make up communities/

C Species make up communities,

which make up populations.

D Species are grouped in

populations, which make up

communities.
21. In the food chain above, what do the mushrooms represent? (Analyzing)

A Decomposers

B Producers

C Consumers

D Autotrophs

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22. What is the total amount of living 23. What term would describe a snake
tissue at a given trophic level known as? that eats a frog that has eaten an insect
(Knowing) that fed on a plant? (Applying)

A Organic mass A First-level producer

B Trophic mass B First-level- consumer

C Energy mass C Second-level consumer

D Biomass D Third-level consumer


24. What do the levels shown in the figure above represent? (Analyzing)

A The relative amounts of energy available at each level.

B The number of individual organisms at each level.

C That producers are made only of living organic matter.

D The danger of the organisms at each level.

25. What is most likely to be the limiting 26. Which of the following is NOT a
nutrient in a freshwater pond? part of the carbon cycle? (Integrating)
(Evaluating)
A Photosynthesis
A Phosphorus
B Transpiration
B Nitrogen
C Respiration
C Carbon
D Decomposition
D Potassium
27. Which of the following is the 29. Why do organisms need nutrients?
original source of almost all of the (Evaluating)
energy available in most ecosystems?
(Knowing) A In order to carry out essential life
functions.
A Carbohydrates
B In order to carry out nitrogen
B Water fixation.

C Sunlight C In order to utilize hydrogen and


oxygen.
D Carbon
D In order to recycle chemical
compounds.

28. Which organisms carry out the


majority of nitrogen fixation?
(Evaluating) 30. What is the rate at which organic
matter is created by producers in an
A Humans ecosystem? (Applying)

B Consumers A An algal bloom.

C Plants B A limiting nutrient.

D Bacteria C Primary productivity.

D Fertilization.
31. What is one difference between
primary and secondary succession?
(Organizing)

A Primary succession is slow, and 33. What slows the loss of the Earth’s
secondary succession is rapid. heat to space? (Integrating)

B Secondary succession begins on soil, A Radiation entering the atmosphere


and primary succession begins on newly
exposed surfaces. B Atmospheric gases

C Primary succession modifies the C Ocean currents


environment, and secondary succession
does not. D The biosphere

D Secondary succession begins with


lichens, and primary succession begins
with trees.

34. What are the average year-after-year


32. Which factor can influence continual
conditions of temperature and
change in an ecosystem? (Analyzing)
precipitation in a particular region
A Further disturbances referred to as? (Knowing)

B Introduction of a nonnative species A The region’s weather

C Long-term climate change B The region’s latitude

D All of the above C The region’s climate

D The region’s ecosystem


35. Which two biomes have the least 38. Which biome is characterized by
amount of precipitation? (Organizing) very low temperatures, little
precipitation and permafrost?
A Tropical rain forest and temperate (Organizing)
grassland
A desert
B Tropical savanna and tropical dry
forest B temperate forest

C Tundra and desert C tropical dry forest

D Boreal forest and temperate D tundra


woodland

39. Where can primary succession


36. What determines the chemistry of begin? (Integrating)
aquatic ecosystems? (Generating)
A On an abandoned farmland.
A Amounts of salts, nutrients and
dissolved oxygen in the water B On hardened lava.

B Number of consumers present in the C In a forest after a severe storm.


water
D In a forest after a fire.
C Amount of rainfall the water
receives

D Number of producers present in the


water.

40. Which are two ways that a


37. What does the range of a population population can decrease in size?
tell you that its density does not? (Evaluating)
(Applying)
A Immigration and emigration
A The number that live in that area
B Increased death rate and
B The areas inhabited by the immigration
population
C Decreased birth rate and emigration
C The births per unit area
D Emigration and increased birth rate
D The deaths per unit area
41. In Rwanda, there are more young A It has stopped growing.
children than teenagers, and more
teenagers that adults. What does this age B It will double in 30 years.
structure indicate about the population?
(Generating) C It has a steady growth rate.

D It will decrease in 30 years

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.
42. Which of the following is a density-
independent factor? (Organizing)

A Emigration

B Parasitism

C Earthquake

D Disease

43. What is the number of different


species in the biosphere referred to as?
(Knowing)

A Biodiversity

B Ecosystem Diversity

C Genetic Diversity

D Species Diversity

44. What happens to the concentration of


DDT as it travels up the food chain
through trophic levels? (Analyzing)

A It stays the same

B It decreases

C It increases

D It is eliminated