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MC0076 Q. What do you understand by Information processes data?

Ans :- MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the managem information which is used by management for decision making.

A management information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall inte covering the application of people, documents, technologies, and pr accountants to solving business problems such as costing a product, service Management information systems are distinct from regular information syste analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the org term is commonly used to refer to the group of information manage automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Sy Executive information systems.

This involved large amount of data and its processing. Since then the comm the scientific applications for which the computer were mainly intended system which helps in providing the management of an organization with in management for decision making.

The Basic characteristics of an effective Management Information System are

Management-oriented: The basic objective of MIS is to provide information in the organization for decision making. So an effective MIS should start i management needs, mission and goal of the business organization. It ma goals of an organization. The MIS is such that it serves all the levels of man i.e. top, middle and lower level.

Management directed: When MIS is management-oriented, it should be d because it is the management who tells their needs and requirements mo else. Manager should guide the MIS professionals not only at the stag

development, review and implementation stages so that effective system s the whole exercise in making an effective MIS.

Integrated: It means a comprehensive or complete view of all the sub syst company. Development of information must be integrated so that all the information sub systems should be worked together as a single entity. T because it leads to retrieval of more meaningful and useful information.

Common data flows: The integration of different sub systems will lead to a c further help in avoiding duplicity and redundancy in data collection, st example, the customer orders are the basis for many activities in an organ cashing, etc. Data is collected by a system analyst from its original sour utilizes the data with minimum number of processing procedures and production output documents and reports in small numbers and eliminates will lead to elimination of duplication that simplify the operations and prod system.

An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. Queries are formal statements strings in web search engines. In information retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in the collect query, perhaps with different degrees An object is an entity that is represented by information in a database. User queries are matched against the application the data objects may be, for example, text documents, images,[6] audio,[7] mind maps[8] or videos. Often stored directly in the IR system, but are instead represented in the system by Most IR systems compute a numeric score on how well each object in the database match the query, and rank th ranking objects are then shown to the user. The process may then be iterated if the user wishes to refine the query

MC0077

Q. Describe the Structural Semantic Data Model (SSM examples?

A data model in software engineering is an abstract model that describes how data are repre formally define data elements and relationships among data elements for a domain of interes "A data model is a wayfinding tool for both business and IT professionals, which uses a se explain a subset of real information to improve communication within the organization and stable application environment." A data model explicitly determines the structure of applications of data models include database models, design of information systems, and e data models are specified in a data modeling language. Communication and precision are data model important to applications that use and exchange data. A data model is the med from different backgrounds and with different levels of experience can communicate with the terms and rules on a data model can be interpreted only one way and are not ambiguou referred to as a data structure, especially in the context of programming languages. Data m function models, especially in the context of enterprise models.

A semantic data model in software engineering is a technique to define the meaning interrelationships with other data. A semantic data model is an abstraction which defines ho real world. A semantic data model is sometimes called a conceptual data model. The lo management system (DBMS), whether hierarchical, network, or relational, cannot total conceptual definition of data because it is limited in scope and biased toward the implem DBMS. Therefore, the need to define data from a conceptual view has led to the develo techniques. That is, techniques to define the meaning of data within the context of its inte illustrated in the figure. The real world, in terms of resources, ideas, events, etc., are symbol stores. A semantic data model is an abstraction which defines how the stored symbols relate must be a true representation of the real world

Data modeling in software engineering is the process of creating a data model by applyin using data modeling techniques. Data modeling is a technique for defining business r sometimes called database modeling because a data model is eventually implemented in a da

The figure illustrates the way data models are developed and used today. A conceptual data data requirements for the application that is being developed, perhaps in the context of an a normally consist of entity types, attributes, relationships, integrity rules, and the definitions as the start point for interface or database design

Data architecture is the design of data for use in defining the target state and the subsequen

state. It is usually one of several architecture domains that form the pillars of an e architecture.

A data architecture describes the data structures used by a business and/or its applications storage and data in motion; descriptions of data stores, data groups and data items; and mapp qualities, applications, locations etc.

Essential to realizing the target state, Data architecture describes how data is processed, stor It provides criteria for data processing operations that make it possible to design data flows a the system.

Q. What are differences in Centralized and Distribute Systems? List the relative advantages of data distrib

A distributed database is a database that is under the control of a central d (DBMS) in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. It may b located in the same physical location, or may be dispersed over a network of interc

Collections of data (e.g. in a database) can be distributed across multiple phy database can reside on network servers on the Internet, on corporate intrane company networks. The replication and distribution of databases improves datab worksites.

To ensure that the distributive databases are up to date and current, there are tw duplication. Replication involves using specialized software that looks for change Once the changes have been identified, the replication process makes all the d replication process can be very complex and time consuming depending on distributive databases. This process can also require a lot of time and computer other hand is not as complicated. It basically identifies one database as a ma database. The duplication process is normally done at a set time after hours. distributed location has the same data. In the duplication process, changes to t allowed. This is to ensure that local data will not be overwritten. Both of the proces

in all distributive locations.

Besides distributed database replication and fragmentation, there are many othe technologies. For example, local autonomy, synchronous and asynchronous distr These technologies' implementation can and does depend on the needs sensitivity/confidentiality of the data to be stored in the database, and hence the p spend on ensuring data security, consistency and integrity. Basic architecture A database User accesses the distributed database through:

Local applications; Applications which do not require data from other sites. Global applications: Applications which do require data from other sites.

A distributed database does not share main memory or disks.

A centralized database has all its data on one place. As it is totally different from d data on different places. In centralized database as all the data reside on one pl can occur, and data availability is not efficient as in distributed database. Let m distributed database, it will clear the difference between centralized and distributed

Advantages of Data Distribution

The primary advantage of distributed database systems is the ability to share and

efficient manner.

Data sharing and Distributed Control:

If a number of different sites are connected to each other, then a user at one site that is available at another site. For example, in the distributed banking system, i branch to access data in another branch. Without this capability, a user wishin branch to another would have to resort to some external mechanism for su mechanism would, in effect, be a single centralized database.

The primary advantage to accomplishing data sharing by means of data distribut retain a degree of control over data stored locally. In a centralized system, the central site controls the database. In a distributed system, there is a global datab for the entire system. A part of these responsibilities is delegated to the local da site. Depending upon the design of the distributed database system, each loc different degree of autonomy which is often a major advantage of distributed datab

Reliability and Availability:

If one site fails in distributed system, the remaining sited may be able to continue are replicated in several sites, transaction needing a particular data item may fin failure of a site does not necessarily imply the shutdown of the system.

The failure of one site must be detected by the system, and appropriate action m the failure. The system must no longer use the service of the failed site. Finally, w is repaired, mechanisms must be available to integrate it smoothly back into the sy

Although recovery from failure is more complex in distributed systems than in a ce most of the systems to continue to operate despite failure of one site, results in inc is crucial for database systems used for real-time applications. Loss of access to d may result in the loss of potential ticket buyers to competitors.

Speedup Query Processing:

If a query involves data at several sites, it may be possible to split the query into subq in parallel by several sites. Such parallel computation allows for faster processing of a in which data is replicated, queries may be directed by the system to the least heavily

Ethical Issues
In general, many ethical and global issues of Information Technology apply to e-business. So, what e-commerce? Lets list some of the ethical issues spawned with the growing field of e-commerce. Web tracking

E-businesses draw information on how visitors use a site through log files. Analysis of log file mea

service or installing software that can pluck relevant information from files in-house. Companies t

tracking software and cookie analysis. Programs such as cookies raise a batch of privacy concerns. T cutters, Spam Butcher, etc which can provide users some control over the cookies.

PCs hard disk, and any time you revisit a website, the computer knows it. Many smart end use

The battle between computer end users and web trackers is always going on with a range of a cookies. To detect and remove spyware specially designed programs like Ad-Aware are present.

software such as Privacy Guardian, My Privacy, etc can protect users online privacy by erasing b

collects and combines Internet browsing history of users and sends it to servers. The battle goes on! Privacy

Most Electronic Payment Systems knows the identity of the buyer. So it is necessary to protec Electronic Payment System.

A privacy issue related to the employees of company is tracking. Monitoring systems are installed in

and other web activities in order to identify employees who extensively use business hours for non-

activities performed by a buyer can be tracked by organizations. For example, reserving railwa

purpose can be tracked. Many employees dont want to be under the monitoring system even while a

As far as brokers and some of the company employees are concerned, E-Commerce puts them in da from their jobs. The manner in which employees are treated may raise ethical issues, such as how to offer retraining programs. Disintermediation and Reintermediation Intermediation is one of the most important and interesting e-commerce issue related to loss intermediaries are (i) Matching and providing information. (ii) Value added services such as consulting.

The first type of service (matching and providing information) can be fully automated, and this serv

and portals that provide free services. The value added service requires expertise and this can Disintermediation.

phenomenon by which Intermediaries, who provide mainly matching and providing information

The brokers who provide value added services or who manage electronic intermediation (also kno surviving but may actually prosper, this phenomenon is called Reintermediation.

The traditional sales channel will be negatively affected by disintermediation. The services requ commerce are provided by the web as new opportunities for reintermediation. The factors that

enormous number of participants, extensive information processing, delicate negotiations, etc. Th more predictable.

Legal Issues

Where are the headlines about consumers defrauding merchants? What about fraud e-commerc

sophistication have grown even faster than the Internet itself. There is a chance of a crime over the committed over the internet. Lets discuss the legal issues specific to e-commerce. Fraud on the Internet E-commerce fraud popped out with the rapid increase in popularity of websites. It is a hot issue

not know each other and cannot even see each other. During the first few years of e-commerce

merchants. The swindlers are active mainly in the area of stocks. The small investors are lured by the way for financial criminals to have access to many people. Other areas of potential fraud include bogus investments. Copyright

stock promoters. Auctions are also conductive to fraud, by both sellers and buyers. The availability o

The copyright laws protect Intellectual property in its various forms, and cannot be used freely. It i property in E-Commerce. For example, if you buy software you have the right to use it and not the

rights are with the copyright holder. Also, copying contents from the website also violates copy right Domain Names

The competition over domain names is another legal issue. Internet addresses are known as domain

top level name is qburst.comor microsoft.com. A second level name will be qburst.com/blog. Top

by a central non-profit organization which also checks for conflicts or possible infringement of trade 2001 after several upper level names were added to com.

companies having similar names competing over the same domain name. The problem of domain

Another issue to look out for is Cybersquatting, which refers to the practice of registering domain n higher prices.

Security features such as authentication, non-repudiation and escrow services can protect the sellers

One needs to be careful while doing e-commerce activities. The need to educate the public about th e-commerce is highly important from a buyer as well as seller perspective.