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1 ELECTRICITY & ELECTRONICS Electrical Quantities & SI Units Electrical Charge (Q) In electrical circuits conduction is generally due

to the movement of electrons. Therefore the basic unit of electrical charge could be expressed by the charge possessed by a single electron, this is known as the 'electronic charge'. This electronic charge is too small to be of practical use; therefore the SI unit of charge is the Coulomb (C). 1 Electron charge = 1.6 x 10-19 Coulombs Therefore 1 Coulomb is the charge possessed by (1.6 x 10-19)-1 electrons = 6.25 x 1018 electrons. The formal definition of the Coulomb is given below: Definition. The Coulomb is the quantity of charge which passes any section of conductor in 1 second, when a current of 1 Ampere is flowing. Charge Q = I t Coulombs Where ' I ' = current in Amperes and ' t ' = time in seconds

Electric Current (I) From the above equation, current is the rate of flow of electrical charges, therefore: I = dQ/dt Amperes Therefore a current of 1A is equivalent to 6.25 1018 electrons passing each point in a circuit every second. The definition of the Ampere is based upon its magnetic effects, and is defined as follows: Definition. One Ampere is the steady current which when flowing in two infinitely long, straight, parallel conductors of negligible cross sectional area, 1 metre apart in a vacuum, causes each conductor to exert a force of 2 x 10-7 Newtons on each metre of the other. Note: This definition will be returned to when discussing electromagnetism

Potential difference (pd). In an electrical circuit electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy for example, heat being generated by the movement of electrical charges. In order to move these charges, a difference in electrical potential is required. Electrical charges in a circuit are assumed (by convention) to move from a point of high potential to a point of low potential. ie positive to negative. When an object receives a charge of electricity, its potential is increased. Current will flow when a point of high potential is connected, by a conductor to a point of lower potential.

Potential difference is the force which produces current flow. The SI unit of pd is the VOLT (V).

Definition. Electrical potential is defined as the energy required to move each Coulomb of electricity. A potential difference of 1 Volt = 1 Joule / Coulomb

Electromotive force (e.m.f. (E)). Batteries and generators are sources of e.m.f. They are able to maintain their terminals at different potentials. A battery uses chemical energy to produce an emf, whilst a generator converts mechanical energy into an emf through the medium of magnetic and electric fields. The unit of emf is also the Volt.

Electrical Energy (W). From the definition of potential difference an equation for electrical energy can be obtained. Energy W = VQ , But Q = I t Therefore, Electrical Energy W = V I t Joules (be careful this isnt the same W as in Watt below ) Power (P) If energy is defined as the ability to 'do work', power is the rate of 'doing work' or expending energy. The SI unit of power is the Watt (W).

VIt t

Therefore Electrical Power P = V I Watts

3 Resistance (R) When the same pd is applied across different materials, different values of current will flow. The opposition to the movement of electrical charges is known as resistance. The SI unit of resistance is the Ohm ( ). Definition. If a pd of 1volt is applied between two points in a circuit and a current of 1Ampere flows. The resistance between these two points is 1 Ohm.

Therefore Resistance R =

V I

The above relationship is generally expressed as Ohms Law, which states ' the current in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the applied potential and inversely proportional to the resistance provided the temperature remains constant. Current I =

V R

Amperes

4 Worked examples. 1. In the circuit shown below, calculate a) the current taken from the supply, and b) the power consumed by the resistor. R
100

V = 25 V

a) Current I =

V 25 , therefore I = = 0. 25A R 100

b ) Power P = VI , therefore P = 25 0. 25 = 6. 25W Alternatively power can be calculated using the formulae P = I2 R Watts since voltage V = I R , therefore P = (I R).I = I2 R.

2.

A 5 resistor dissipates 20W of power when 30C of charge is moved in ' t ' seconds. Calculate: a) the current, b) the time for which the current flows. c) the energy converted and d) the potential difference across the resistor. a) Power P = I 2 R , I = P 20 = = 2A R 5

b) Charge Q = It , t =

Q 30 = = 15 sec onds I 2

c) Energy converted W = VIt or Pt Joules W = 20 15 = 300J d) Potential V = IR , V = 2 5 = 10V

5 DC Circuit Theory Resistors in Series and Parallel. Resistors can be connected in many different and often complex combinations. By applying 'Ohms Law' and a little logic the most complex resistor network can be simplified to a single resistor. The simplest of these combinations is the series circuit. i) Resistors in Series. R1 + V1 R2 + V2 R3 + V3 -

In the above circuit the current through each resistor is the same. This current must produce a voltage drop across each resistor with the polarity shown, since current flows from a point of high potential to a point of low potential, ie. from positive to negative. Applying Ohms law to resistor R1, then pd V1 = I.R1 Volts. Similarly, the corresponding equations for pd's V2 and V3. V2 = I.R2 Volts and V3 = I.R3 Volts

The sum of the voltage drops across each resistor must equal the supply voltage V. This supply voltage V can also be obtained using Ohms law, V = I Rs , where Rs is the value of a single resistor that can replace R1, R2 and R3. Since the supply voltage V = V1 + V2 + V3 Volts, this can be written in terms of the sum of the 'I R' voltage drops.

i.e. I Rs = I R1 + I R2 + I R3 Volts

The current I is a common factor throughout the sequence and will therefore cancel. Hence the total resistance of the series circuit is; Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

6 ii) Resistors in Parallel.

I1 I2 I3 IT

R1 R2 R3

V In the above circuit the voltage across each resistor is the same, and is equal to the supply voltage V. The current through each resistor will obey Ohms law. Applying Ohms law to resistor R1, then current I1 =
V Amperes R1

and the corresponding equations for currents I2 and I3. I2 = V/R2 Amperes and I3 = V/R3 Amperes

The sum of the currents through each individual resistor must equal the total current taken from the supply ' IT '. V This total current can also be obtained using Ohms law, I T = Amperes RP Where RP is the value of a single resistor that can replace the parallel resistors R1, R2 and R3. Since the total current IT = I1 + I2 + I3 Amperes, this can be written in terms of V the sum of the individual values. R

i.e V V V V = + + Amperes R P R1 R 2 R 3 The voltage V is a common factor throughout the sequence and will therefore cancel. Hence the total resistance of the parallel circuit can be calculated as shown below. 1 1 1 1 = + + R P R1 R 2 R 3

7 Where the parallel circuit contains only two parallel resistors, the equivalent resistance product of the parallel branch can be found directly using the formulae. sum

RP =
Worked Examples. R1 I1 1. 9 I2 I3 IT R2 12 R3 18

R1 R 2 R1 + R 2

For the circuit shown calculate: a) The total circuit resistance. b) The current taken from the supply. c) The current I2. d) The power developed in resistor R1. e) The value of series resistor required to reduce the supply current to 1.5A.

V = 12 V a) To find overall resistance use the formulae

1 1 1 1 = + + R P 9 12 18 1 1 1 1 = + + R P R1 R 2 R 3

the lowest common multiple is 36, therefore

R 1 4+3+ 2 9 1 9 36 = = if = then P = = 4 RP 36 36 R P 36 1 9 Equivalent parallel circuit resistance RP = 4 Alternatively where no simple LCM exists the value of RP can be found using the reciprocal button ( 1/x ) on your calculator. 1 1 1 1 = + + = 0.111 + 0.0833 + 0.0555 = 0.25 R P 9 12 18 RP = 1 = 4 0.25
V 12 = RP 4

b) The current taken from the supply Is = c) The current I2 =

Is = 3A

V 12 , therefore current I 2 = 1 A = R2 12

8 d) Let the power developed in resistor R1 be P1 , where P1 = V. I1 Watts and current I1 =

V 12 , therefore I1 = 1.333 A = R1 9

Power P1 = 12 x 1.333 , therefore P1 = 16 W Alternatively Power P1 can be calculated using P1 = e) V2 122 = = 16 W R1 9

If the new current to be taken from the 12V supply IT2 is to be 1.5A, then the V 12 , therefore RP2 = 8 new value of equivalent resistance R P 2 = = I S2 1.5 But RP2 = RP + Rs , where Rs is the value of the additional series resistor. Rs = RP2 - RP = 8 - 4 , therefore Rs = 4

2.

For the circuit shown below, calculate the following: a) The resistance of the circuit. b) The current taken from the supply. c) The total power dissipated in the circuit. d) The pd across resistor R3. e) The value of resistance to be connected in parallel with the circuit in order to increase the supply current to 2A. R1 70
I

R2 60

R3 50 V3

V = 240 V a) Total series resistance RS = R1 + R2 + R3 = 70 + 60 + 50 , RS = 180 b) Current taken from the supply I =
V 240 , therefore I = 1.333A = R S 180

c) The total power dissipated P = VI = 240 x 1.333 , therefore P = 320 W d) Let the pd across resistor R3 be V3, where V3 = I R3 = 1.333 x 50 therefore V3 = 66.67 V

9 e) If the new value of supply current IT = 2A , where IT = I + Ip , as shown below, then Ip = IT - I = 2 - 1.333 , therefore Ip = 0.67 A. I = 1.33A IP IT 2A RS 180 RP the value of parallel resistor V 240 , RP = = I P 0. 67 therefore Rp = 360

V = 240 V

10

Self Assessment Questions. 1. For the parallel circuit shown calculate: i) the equivalent resistance of the circuit , ii) the current through each resistor, iii) the total power taken from the supply and iv) the value of an additional series resistor and its power rating if the current taken from the supply is to be limited to 5A. [Ans 12.5 , 5A, 2.5A, 0.5A , 800W, 7.5 , 187.5W] I1 I2 I3 IT R1 20 R2 40 R3 200

V = 100 V

R1 2. For the series circuit shown, calculate: i) the total resistance of the circuit , ii) the supply current , I iii) the power dissipated in resistor R2 and iv) the value of parallel resistance required to increase the supply current to 6A. [Ans 120, 2A, 160W, 60] 50

R2 40

R3 30 V3

V = 240 V

11

Applications of Series and Parallel Resistors 1.The Potential Divider Two resistors connected in series across a supply as shown below, enables the supply voltage to be split in the same proportion as the values of resistance. This provides a convenient method of 'tapping' off a lower voltage from a fixed supply voltage and is often used in transistor biasing circuits I + R1 V R2 V2 V1

The current through each resistor is the same, where I =

V R1 + R2 A

Also voltage V1 = I.R1 and Pd V2 = I.R2 , combining the two sets of equations

V1 = V

R1 R1 + R 2

and

V2 = V

R2 R1 + R 2

The voltage across each resistor is in direct proportion to the ratio of the resistances.

Note: The potential divider equation works for any number of resistors in series.

Vn = V

Rn R1 + R 2 + R n

12 2. The Current Divider I + I1 V R1 I2 R2

This circuit can be used to split the current taken from the supply into distinct proportions. This circuit can be used as a SHUNT to extend the range of an ammeter. With the same voltage across each resistor, the greatest current will flow through the lowest value resistor. Therefore the currents through each resistor will be in inverse proportion to the ratio of the resistances, as shown in the proof below.

Current I1 =

A

For two parallel resistors R P =

I1 = I

R2 R1 A , and I 2 = I R1 + R 2 R1 + R 2

Note: The current divider equation only works for two parallel resistors.

Foundation Year: Electricity and Electronics Circuit Theory PROBLEM SHEET 1

1.

A 1.2k resistor when connected across a dc supply takes a current of 2mA. Determine a) the value of supply voltage and b) the power consumed. A 2.5 resistor dissipates 10W of power when connected to a dc supply. Calculate the values of (a) supply current and (b) voltage.

2.

a) What is the pd between two points in a circuit if 200 J of electrical energy are changed into heat energy when 25 Coulombs of electrical charge pass. b) If this change takes place in 10 seconds, calculate; i) the current, and ii) the power dissipated.

4.

What is the pd across an immersion heater element which changes 3.6 x 103J of electrical energy into heat every second and takes a current of 15 A.

5. R1 8 R2 12 R3 24 IT For the parallel circuit shown calculate: i) the equivalent resistance of the circuit , ii) the total supply current, iii) the total power taken from the supply, iv) the power dissipated in resistor R3.

V = 24 V

Problem sheet 1 (continued) 6. For the series circuit shown below calculate: i) the total resistance of the series circuit, ii) the supply current, iii) the pd across resistor R2 and iv) the value of parallel resistance required if the overall circuit resistance is to be 20. R1 R2 R3 10
I

25 V2

15

V = 100 V

7.

For the circuit shown below, calculate the currents I1, I2 and IT without finding the overall resistance of the circuit. R1 I1 9 I2 IT R2 3

V = 4.5 V

8. For the circuit shown below, determine a) the ammeter reading and b) the value of resistor R. R1 A 6 3A R2 5 R 11.5 A + V -