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Name: X.E. Phohlo Student number: 210523225 Subject: Human habitat The ancient cities have indeed shaped or influenced the modern cities in as far as development of cities is concerned. The town planners have made it a point that they stick on how ancient people designed their cities and they then improve on those. This essay will be analyzing how the cities actually were formed as well as how exactly the ancient cities of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Roman empire, Greece, China and renaissance influenced or shaped the modern cities. Cities originated when people of different countries migrated from places that are very far from facilities like sea for reasons lie that of trading, drinking and shopping centre. The reason for this migration was simply to buy and sell goods and services easily. Agriculture Most of the well known cities of the above mentioned countries were located near the seas which helped them a lot to boost their economies through the process of trade for example Greece and Mesopotamia which were surrounded by seas and these countries have built beautiful and big harbors today which are used to generate money. According to fisher and Harlan (1909) agriculture was very important in ancient cities although they did not have enough tools but they use their man-made like wood to dig and put seeds. However their seeds were not sharp in growing for example in Greece and Roman because the crops farmers grew and the animals they raised were what they ate since technology was not advanced. So in this instance agriculture did influence the modern cities of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Roman, Greece, China and Renaissance because they still grow crops for both subsistence and commercial and make maximum profits. Furthermore since farming requires water, most of the first cities were located near rivers or some source of water. People who lived in cities had time to concentrate on things other than food, for example they began inventing tools, weaving clothes, and building, teaching children

to read and write, and so on. As cities grew, people chose leaders to make rules so that everyone could work together peacefully. This marked the beginning of an organized governmental system. In short, a civilization is a group living within a designated area that makes advances in any fields of knowledge. Architecture Religion of peoples of ancient cities was the leading influences in the early cities building and architecture. However, what seemed to be influential is the way in which architectures design of houses including temples have got different significant, for example in Greece their land is hilly so they use to build their houses and temples on mountains where everyone could see since people of these cities were believing in going to church and they used as many pillars as possible during their construction period the reason why they use as many pillars as possible during their construction was the fact that their land was not flat, but today you find houses that are built in flat areas with pillars meaning people loved these designs. In other words architecture of the past did influence the architecture of different cities of the world today; as a result many European countries like China loved the pillars and use them as well. Even today many big buildings like temples and houses are built nicely with pillars in front. Lawrence, A.W. (1957) Greek architecture: The pelican history of art. Communication Another feature common to all ancient cities was the limited means of communication. Long distance transportation had to be by water, and cities had to be close to estuaries or situated in the valleys of navigable rivers, purpose of sanitation also required that they be accessible to flowing water. The Chaldeans and the Egyptians laid out their important cities in the valleys of the Euphrates and the Nile; while the great Greek and Roman cities were near to parts or had rivers flowing through them. All land communication being by road, the primitive condition of highways, and although these were developed to a comparatively high degree of excellence by the Romans. So the modern city has been made possible chiefly by the development of transportation

In the ancient cities they traded a lot which is the reason why these cities were located near the oceans, at that time there were no airplanes, trains, and trucks but they used their boats and ships to transport whatever that they wanted to transport at that point in time, and it was a bit cheaper since these ships were using coals not fuels and they were gaining a lot of money, this has influenced the modern cities to trade as well and in the modern cities they have improved the instruments which were used back in the day to trade for example ships now uses fuel which is a bit expensive but it is faster than the one which was used back in the day and in the modern cities they are using trucks, vans, airplanes which makes trade very smooth and faster.(Paul et. al, 1995:34). Layouts The layouts of ancient cities shows very important places in different places and different houses in different places for example houses for rich people alone, noble people as well as of peasants alone and they builds temples in the areas where there is no or little bit of noise for everyone to have access to the temple, these ancient citys layouts influenced modern cities a lot for example if you take a look at how houses have been classified in as far as income is concerned and they mostly used grid type of layout which is more than just an orthogonal pattern, the Grid is formed by the inter-section of two series of parallel lines and implies accorded to the public movement system, the are many reasons why these cities adopted grid planning firstly is the fact that grid pattern can derive from the order and discipline of military organization, it was also viewed as the simplest system for surveying and subdividing land and one that is easily implemented with the help of rope and ruler even by the most uncouth soldier or colonist. (Galantay, 1975: 22)

Location of cities The ancient cities were not just located in any land since the free land was huge but they chose specific areas where they can benefit from living at for example Greece, Mesopotamia and Egypt etc; the reasons include the fact that these countries at the time dependant a lot on farming so the land near the sea was fertile which allowed them to grow whatever crop that they like as long as that crop was legal and these cities used to exchange goods to one another , and through the ocean they can transport whatever that they have reap to other cities and get incentives, they wanted to protect themselves from the enemies, so if they are near the sea they can build the wall using mud so that it can be very difficult for the enemy to invade their cities and they can easily see the enemy coming and defend themselves as soon as possible and they liked living on mountains for example in Greece for defense purposes as well; these cities had a great influence on modern cities in as far as location is concerned for example Durban in South Africa is a very practical example whereby it is located near the ocean and it has one of the biggest harbor in Africa and it has became the tourist attraction as lot of people all over the world hence this city generate lot of money for the country just because of its location

Conclusion In conclusion one can surely say that the modern cities really benefited a lot from the ancient cities for example in the layouts, now modern cities have adopted Grid pattern for the fact that it make cities formal and neatly placed, modern cities has adopted the way in which they should locate their cities so that they can benefit from the location of their cities for example Durban in South Africa this has became tourist attraction and by so doing the country benefit a lot since tourists are taxed as well and most of them buy as many goods and services as possible, and modern cities had also inherited the transport which was used before and due to technology advancement of the present they have come up with new types of transport which includes trucks, airplanes, trains and small cars, all these types of transport makes the movement of people as well as the transportation of goods and services even more faster than

it was hundred years ago, from doing this research I found that if there were no ancient cities, current cities would have been struggling to be where they are today, hence ancient cities did influence the modern cities but in the positive manner.

References Brunch (1957) Greek architecture: The pelican history of art. Mumford L., 1961.The city in history. L. Knox, and Taylor, P.J. 1995. World cities in a world-system. Great Britain: Cambridge University of press. Galantay, E. (1975) New towns: Antiquity to the present. Doubleday Canada.