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-
COLOR STICK ENCODING LAYERS MASK LAYOUT ENCODING CIFLAYER
I
J n+ active)

ND
GREEN
I Thinox*
*Thinox = n-diff. +transistor channels
RED
I
I
Polysilicon

NP
I
1111111111111111111111
SLUE
Metal1
NM
J1
I
BLACK

Contact cut

NC
I
-
I
GRAY
NOT APPLICABLE Overglass
NG
nMOS
D
l
ONLY
Implant Nl
YELLOW
nMOS
Buried

ONLY

NB
BROWN
contact
FEATURE FEATURE (STICK) FEATURE (SYMBOL) FEATURE (MASK)
J: s t:
m

n-type
)
enhancement
.
mode transistor
D
G
S D
Transistor length to width ratio L: W should be shown.
G
I
L: W
l l:W

L: W
. w.
n-type depletion

-
-+-
[ g]
)
mode transistor

I
I
nMOS only s .. G D
Source, drain and gate labelling will not normally be shown.
i
COLOR PLATE 1(a) Encodings for a simple single metal nMOS process. (See Figure 3.1(a)
for nMOS monochrome encoding details.)
COLOR
GREEN
-
-
AEO
- -
BLUE
- -
BLACK
- -
GRAY
YELLOW
(STICK)
YELLOW
DARK
BLUE OR
PURPLE
BLACK
STICK ENCODING
-
-
-
Encoding as in
Color plate 1 (a)
-
,...
-
- - -
-
- - ~
green outline here for
clarity
Not shown on
diagram
I
I

Demarcation line
-
-
-
-
BROWN ....., ..... - iiiiiii ....
p-well edge is shown as
a demarcation line in
stick diagrams
BLACK X
LAYERS
r-n-diffuslon ....,
(h active)
~ Thltiox* ....I
Poly Ill leon
---
Metal1
- -
Contact cut
- -
Over glass
p-diffusion
(p+active)
p+mask
Metal 2
VIA
p-well
VDD or
Vss
contact
-
-
MASK LAYOUT ENOODING CIF LAYER
Thinox = n-dft. + p-dft. +
transistor ehannels
-
CAA
or
CNA
f- - -
- -
- - - -
Encoding as in
- - -
CPF
- -
Color plate 1 (a)
CMF
f- - - - - - - - -
cc
~ - - - - - - - -
COG
-
p+mask
CAA
or
CPA
either or
CPP
I I
CMS
rn
CVA
I . I
CPW
n t '[l!IJhlli'
cc
FEATURE
FEATURE (STICK) FEATURE (SYMBOL) FEATURE (MASK)
n-type enhancement
mode transistor
(as in
Color plate 1 (a))
Demarcation line
+
L: W
Transistor length to width ratio L:W may be shown.
p-type
enhancement
mode transistor
Demarcati on line
+
G
D
~
. . . . . . _
-
-
-
-
Note : p-type transistors are placed above and n-type below the demarcation line
G p+mask
COLOR PLATE 1 (b) Color encodings for a double metal CMOS p-well process. The same
well encoding and demarcation line is used for an n-well process. For
a p-well process, the n features are in the well. For an n-well process,
the p features are in the well. (See Figure 3.1{b) for CMOS monochrome
encoding details.)
COLOR
ORANGE
PINK
PALE
GREEN
STICK ENCODING
-,---1
<
Not separately encoded
Not separately encoded
LAYERS
Polysilicon 2
Bipolar npn
transistor
p-base of
bipolar npn
transistor
Buried
collector of
bipolar npn
transistor
MASK LAYOUT ENCODING CIF LAYER

. . ..............

CPS
See Color plate 6 Not
also Figure 3. 13(f) applicable
CBA
CCA
FEATURE FEATURE (STICK) FEATURE (SYMBOL)
FEATURE (MASK)
n-type
enhancement
poly. 2 transistor.
Demarcation line
Transistor length to width ratio L: W may be shown.
p-type
enhancement
poly. 2 transistor
Demarcation line
IQ:tai
s Fo
G
Note: p-type transistors are placed above and n-type below the demarcation line
npn bipolar
transistor
<
See Figure 3. 13(f)
and Color plate 6
COLOR PLATE 1 (c) Additional encodings for a double metal double poly. BiCMOS n-well
process. The same well encoding and demarcation line as in Figure
3.1 (b) is used for an n-well process. For a p-well process, the n features
are in the well. (See Color plate 6 for additional BiCMOS color encoding
details and see Figure 3.1(c) for monochrome encoding details).
1 :1
GND
4:1 nMOS inverter
Simple n-well based BiCMOS
inverter (stick diagram)
Simple symbolic notation
Transistors
n-channel
MOS
p-channel
MOS
npn
BiCMOS
rn-tr;,__ GREEN

.
0
1
0
___
..._.-- outl1ne
WIRES etc., as ior stick diagrams
1:1
p-well CMOS inverter
substrate
connection
Alternative design for an n-well based BiCMOS inverter
Simple n-well based BiCMOS inverter (symbolic
diagram)
COLOR PLATE 1 (d) Color stick diagram examples. (See Figure 3.1 (d) monochrome stick
diagrams and simple symbolic encoding.)
CMOS inverter liP & 0/P on polysilicon
Stick diagram
Vss
Color fill
Color outline
0 2 5 10 15
Lambda
I
I I I I..,
Lambda
0/P
Color hatching
Monochrome
COLOR PLATE 2 Example layout encodings.
Design rules for wires (interconnects) (ORBIT 2 I-'m CMOS)
Minimum
width
Thin ox
Min. separation as shown Minimum
width
n-diff. (nactive)
Metal1
diff.todiff.
_ n-diff. and p-diff. cannot cross or join S = 2.5 11..;;- metal
1
S Poly. todiff.


-
_ 1 11m separalton diff./poly.1 1.5
11
m sepn diff./poly. 2
2.51!m
Metal2 -
-;m
2.5 11m Po1
2
1..-. * - Poly. to poly.
_ ___;__ r--- Poly. 2 ...
2 11m ;1 - Metal 2 to metal 2
- ,:::J 2J!.m 3 I'm


:::=!E: 1 .5 11m min. overlap -- 3 !-'m
211m 211m
-- 1 .5 11m min.overlap ::::IE: tZ
Capacitors poly. 1 /poly. 2
Poly. 2 overlapping poly. 1 Poly. 1 overlapping poly. 2
Otherwise poly. 2 must not be coincident with poly. 1
Note: Where no separation is specified, wires may overlap or cross (e.g. metal may cross any layer). For p-well CMOS, n-diff.
wires can only exist inside and p-diff. wires outside p-well. For n-well CMOS, p-diff. wires can only exist inside and n-diff. wires
outside n-well.
Avoid coincident edges where metal 1 and metal 2 runs follow the same
path for> 25!-lm length (underlap metal1 edges by 0.8J1m).
Transistor related design rules (ORBIT 2 11m CMOS)
2 Minimum sizes and overlaps

Minimum overlap of
n-diffusion (n active)
beyond gate.
3
I-'m
min. width
Poly. 1 transistors
Minimum overlap of
2.51.._ p-diffusion (p active)
I-'m beyond gate.
All devices shown are
n-type. The same rules
apply for p-type.
2.5 11m min. sepn contact cut to
gate and overlap of diff.
COLOR PLATE 3 ORBIT 2 J.lm design rules (a) (b).
Rules for contacts and vias (ORBIT 2 f!m CMOS)
1. Meta11 to poly. 1 or poly. 2
Metal 1q'poly. 1
color representation+
I I I 2i!m
4flm
Sllffi

3 . Multiple contact cuts
S = 2 !.tiT1 min. separation
Alternative color separations
2. Metal 1 to n+ or p+ active (diff.)
4. Via metal 1 1 metal2
I I
t.51J.M
2!J.m

2 !J.m min. space from via to
Poly. 1 or 2 or active edge
1.IS1J.M 1.51J.M
5. Vias from metal 2 to metal1 and thence to other layers
1 .5 !.tiT1 / Via outside active to active edge
3 11M min. width ' 2.5 l 3 11M min. width
d ld I!J.m ld ld -- --- -
1.5
f 2!J.m
===== 1.5 !J.m
---- -l -
Via to via min.
Note that vias must not be placed over contacts.
COLOR PLATE 4 ORBIT 2 design rules (c).
2 11M min. space from vta
Inside poly. 1 or 2 or
active to edge
Rules for r.-well and V
00
and V
55
contacts (ORBIT 2 1-'ffi CMOS process)
n-well
V
00
and V
55
contacts
Sf.lm
5
2.5f.!m f..l.ffi
min.
3 !Am min. width
-Jiilool I.,._
Metal1 (hatohlng omitted
for clarity)
V
00
contact
ton-well. Note
that edges of well
and contact may
coincide.
n-well
n-well spacings and width
Rules for pad and overglass geometry (ORBIT 2 !Am CMOS)
min.
Top+
type features
100 urn----.]
-J 100 x 100 urn metal 1
1
901-'m
overglass
opening

90x90 !Am
aperture in
overglass
I 90f.'m II 75f.!mmin.
. ... I 20ym j 1 5 !Am min. metal
open1ng mm. lr overlap of overglass

Other rules and encodings:
Via overlap of pad 2 !Am
Pad to active separation 20 !Am minimum
Color encoding for overglass mask ... gray.
COLOR PLATE 5 ORBIT 2 IJ.m design rules (d) (e).
Special rules for BiCMOS transistors (ORBIT 2 1-1m CMOS)
Note : For clarity, layers have not been drawn transparent. Note that BCCD underlies the entire area and the
p-base underlies all within its boundary.
COLLECTOR EMITTER BASE OXIDE
Buried n+ subcollector (BCCD)
p+ connection to base
Cross-section through npn transistor (ORBIT 2 1-1m BiCMOS)
COLOR PLATE 6 ORBIT 2 Jlm design rules (f) .
Data
liP
Data
0/P
Note that the transistors
a and b also c and d have
been merged in the mask
layout.
__ ._ __ _. vss
0 1 0 1
(a) Symbol ic diagram
...
From liP or
from
preceding
bit cell
Data
liP
r 0'7
0 2 0 2 . "\.- I
Bounding box

,,.... ... ,.._ ________ 1-bit cell
(b) Derived mask layout
COLOR PLATE 7 1-bit CMOS shift register cell.
Symbolic diagram
8 A
I I I I I I
I I I I I I C I
I It I I I e
BiCMOS
. v . I;.{.; .. ; ... I.
t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I J I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
Mask layout
COLOR PLATE 8(a) A BiCMOS 2 input nand gate.
Symbolic diagram
B
I I I t I I I I I
B
A
8
A
I I
A
I I I I I t I t I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I V,
oo
Mask layout
COLOR PLATE 8(b) A BiCMOS 2 input nor gate.
-
-
Implant
(a) (ii) Mask layout
c (4:1)
(Source of inputs assumed as shown in stick diagram)
A
I I
Input source through
pass transistors
~ -
,,
!
l!
(b) (i) Sti ck diagram
A
(Optio
dema
line
_;. /w
nal )
rcation
B
- ~ .
"
(a) (i) Stick diagram
1:2
I-
0/P
i :l
GND
c
Input from an
Inverter output
-
1"1"'
0/P
-
-
~
-
Vss
COLOR PLATE 9(a) Three input nMOS nor gate; (b) two input CMOS (p-well) nor gate.
(a) Standard
cell layouts
Standard cells
TA.x11f..
(ii)
(b) Mask layout
Stick diagram
z
,,
-_,
COLOR PLATE 10 n-type pass transistor based 4-way MUX.
k
lo
:::
t
s,
'li..l
"
""'
"'
~ I
Whir . ..t. r:rm
...,.
ra.l
"'
s,
'"'
"
"'""
""'
.......
......
"
"
Mask layout
Note that the n and p switch
networks are identical-each
comprising 6 minimum size
contactltransistor structures
plus 1 long double transistor
switch.
Stick diagram
-
0/P
IMX n
'-...
Demarcation li ne
COLOR PLATE 11 CMOS transmission gate based 4-way MUX.
( v s a J n 6 ! . : : 1
a a s ) ) j : > O ( : > p u e ) J O J ) ! s e w z 3 1 V l d
: : . c : :
( . )
( . )
o g
( . )
c c o
( )

: 5
w
0
I I
( )
0
( . )
I O
t -
: : ; )
a . .
z
: : . c : :
1 8
1 0 0
( ) g
( . )
I I
l o 1 < . > ( . )