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High school curriculum. Developed by Leon County Schools, Exceptional Student Education
Department, through the Curriculum Improvement Project, a special project, funded by the
State of Florida, Department of Education, Bureau of Instructional Support and Community
Services, through federal assistance under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA)

High school curriculum. Developed by Leon County Schools, Exceptional Student Education
Department, through the Curriculum Improvement Project, a special project, funded by the
State of Florida, Department of Education, Bureau of Instructional Support and Community
Services, through federal assistance under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA)

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Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services Florida Department of Education 2002

This product was developed by Leon County Schools, Exceptional Student Education Department, through the Curriculum Improvement Project, a special project, funded by the State of Florida, Department of Education, Bureau of Instructional Support and Community Services, through federal assistance under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Part B.

Copyright State of Florida Department of State 2002 Authorization for reproduction is hereby granted to the State System of Public Education as defined in Section 228.041(1), Florida Statutes. No authorization is granted for distribution or reproduction outside the State System of Public Education without prior approval in writing.

Mathematics 3

Course No. 1205070

written by Linda Walker edited by Sue Fresen

http://www.leon.k12.fl.us/public/pass/

Curriculum Improvement Project Sue Fresen, Project Manager Leon County Exceptional Student Education (ESE) Ward Spisso, Director of Exceptional Education and Student Services Diane Johnson, Director of the Florida Diagnostic and Learning Resources System (FDLRS)/Miccosukee Associate Center Superintendent of Leon County Schools William J. Montford School Board of Leon County Maggie Lewis, Chair Joy Bowen Dee Crumpler J. Scott Dailey Fred Varn

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ................................................................................................... ix

Unit Focus ................................................................................................................... 1 Vocabulary ................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 11 Lesson One Purpose .................................................................................................... 12 Reading, Writing, and Using Large Numbers in Problem Solving................... 12 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 14 Real Data.................................................................................................................... 15 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 16 Ratios .......................................................................................................................... 17 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 18 Rounded Numbers ................................................................................................... 21 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 22 Lesson Two Purpose .................................................................................................... 41 Prime Numbers ........................................................................................................ 41 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 42 Square of a Number and Perfect Squares ............................................................. 43 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 44 Square Root of a Number ........................................................................................ 45 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 47 Power of a Number .................................................................................................. 49 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 50 Place Value: Whole Numbers and Decimals ........................................................ 52 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 53 Pythagorean Theorem ............................................................................................. 58 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 59 Lesson Three Purpose ................................................................................................. 77 Using Percent in Problem Solving ......................................................................... 77 Practice ....................................................................................................................... 79 Lesson Four Purpose ................................................................................................. 103 Judging Calculations.............................................................................................. 103 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 104 Order of Operations ............................................................................................... 107 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 109

Unit Focus ............................................................................................................... 125 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................... 127 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 133 Lesson One Purpose .................................................................................................. 134 Measuring Rectangular Prisms ............................................................................ 134 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 135 Volume of Rectangular Prisms ............................................................................. 136 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 137 Lesson Two Purpose .................................................................................................. 161 Cylinders ................................................................................................................. 161 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 162 Surface Area of a Cylinder .................................................................................... 165 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 166 Lesson Three Purpose ............................................................................................... 177 Volume of a Prism .................................................................................................. 177 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 178 Lesson Four Purpose ................................................................................................. 188 Applying Knowledge of Measurement .............................................................. 189 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 190

Unit Focus ............................................................................................................... 203 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................... 207 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 219 Lesson One Purpose .................................................................................................. 220 Basic Terms of Geometry....................................................................................... 221 Parallel and Perpendicular Lines ......................................................................... 221 Opposite and Adjacent Sides ................................................................................ 222 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 223 Circles ....................................................................................................................... 224 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 225 Angles ...................................................................................................................... 226 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 228 Naming Different Size Angles .............................................................................. 229 Triangles .................................................................................................................. 229 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 231 Parts of Triangles .................................................................................................... 232 Area .......................................................................................................................... 233 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 234

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Pythagorean Theorem ........................................................................................... 240 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 243 Lesson Two Purpose .................................................................................................. 254 Solid Figures ........................................................................................................... 254 Similarity ................................................................................................................. 258 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 261 Finding Unknown Lengths of Similar Figures .................................................. 268 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 270 Lesson Three Purpose ............................................................................................... 279 Problem Solving ..................................................................................................... 279 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 281 Pairs of Angles ........................................................................................................ 284 Angles Formed by Intersecting Lines ................................................................. 285 Angles in Circles ..................................................................................................... 287 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 288 Lesson Four Purpose ................................................................................................. 294 Properties and Relations of Geometric Shapes .................................................. 294 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 296 Tessellations ........................................................................................................... 298 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 300 Coordinate Grid or System ................................................................................... 304 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 306 Transformations ...................................................................................................... 308 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 310 Rotations or Turns .................................................................................................. 311 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 314 Flips or Reflections ................................................................................................. 316 Symmetry ................................................................................................................ 317 Types of Symmetry: Reflectional, Rotational, and Translational .................... 318 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 319

Unit Focus ............................................................................................................... 329 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................... 331 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 339 Lesson One Purpose .................................................................................................. 340 Using Critical Thinking Skills to Discover Patterns and Relationships ......... 340 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 341 Pascals Triangle ..................................................................................................... 350 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 351

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Lesson Two Purpose .................................................................................................. 370 Solving Real-World Problems Using Algebraic Equations .............................. 370 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 371 Simplifying and Solving Equations ..................................................................... 384 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 387 Lesson Three Purpose ............................................................................................... 397 Exploring Exponential Growth and Exponential Decay .................................. 397 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 401

Unit Focus ............................................................................................................... 423 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................... 425 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 433 Lesson One Purpose .................................................................................................. 434 Using Geometry, Measurement, and Probability .............................................. 435 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 436 Lesson Two Purpose .................................................................................................. 483 Analyzing Data Using Range and Central TendencyMean, Median, and Mode................................................................................................................. 483 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 485 Data Displays .......................................................................................................... 487 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 490 Lesson Three Purpose ............................................................................................... 509 Gathering and Recording Data ............................................................................ 509 Generating Meaningful Survey Questions ......................................................... 510 Samples and Sample Types ................................................................................... 512 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 514 Characteristics of Mathematicians ....................................................................... 518 Practice ..................................................................................................................... 519

Appendix A: Mathematics Reference Sheet ....................................................... 523 Appendix B: Graph Paper ..................................................................................... 525 Appendix C: Index ................................................................................................. 527 Appendix D: References ........................................................................................ 531

viii

Acknowledgments

The staff of the Curriculum Improvement Project wishes to express appreciation to the content writer and reviewers for their assistance in the development of Mathematics 3. We also wish to express our gratitude to educators from Leon, Sarasota, and Volusia county school districts for the initial Parallel Alternative Strategies for Students (PASS) Building General Math Skills. Content Writer Linda Walker, Mathematics Teacher Cobb Middle School Resource Teacher Connected Mathematics Leon County Schools Tallahassee, FL Copy Editor Deborah Shepard, National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Certified English Teacher Lincoln High School President, National Board Certified Teachers of Leon County Tallahassee, FL

Review Team Sally Andersen, National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Certified Mathematics Teacher Swift Creek Middle School Co-President, Leon County Council of Mathematics Teachers (LCTM) Tallahassee, FL Steven Ash, National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) Certified Mathematics Teacher Mathematics Curriculum Developer Leon County Schools Tallahassee, FL Marilyn Bello-Ruiz, Project Director Parents Educating Parents in the Community (PEP) Family Network on Disabilities of Florida, Inc. Clearwater, FL

ix

Steven Friedlander, Mathematics Teacher Lawton Chiles High School Vice President, Leon County Council of Mathematics Teachers (LCTM) Tallahassee, FL Debbie Gillis, Mathematics Teacher Department Chair Okeechobee High School Treasurer, Florida Council of Teachers of Mathematics (FCTM) Okeechobee, FL

Review Team continued Mark Goldman, Professor Tallahassee Community College Past President, Leon Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (ACLD) Parent Representative, Leon County Exceptional Student Education (ESE) Advisory Committee Tallahassee, FL Edythe M. MacMurdo, Mathematics Teacher Department Chair Seminole Middle School Plantation, FL Daniel Michalak, Mathematics Teacher Discovery Middle School Orlando, FL William J. Montford Superintendent of Leon County Schools Executive Board of Directors and Past President, Florida Association of District School Superintendents Tallahassee, FL Milagros Pou, Multicultural Specialist Parent Educating Network (PEN) Parent Training Information Center of Florida Clearwater, FL Pamela Scott, Mathematics Resource Teacher FCAT Mathematics Development Team Test Development Center Tallahassee, FL Cliff Sherry, Exceptional Student Education Teacher Raa Middle School Tallahassee, FL Dr. Grayson Wheatley, Mathematics Professor Florida State University Author and Publisher Mathematics Learning Tallahassee, FL Joyce Wiley, Mathematics Teacher Department Chair Osceola Middle School President, Pinellas Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) Seminole, FL

Production Staff Sue Fresen, Project Manager Rachel McAllister, Graphic Design Specialist Curriculum Improvement Project Tallahassee, FL

x

This unit emphasizes how numbers and number operations are used in various ways to solve problems.

Unit Focus

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations Associate verbal names, written word, and standard numerals with decimals, numbers with exponents, numbers in scientific notation, radicals, and ratios. (A.1.3.1) Understand the relative size of decimals, numbers with exponents, numbers in scientific notation, radicals, and ratios. (A.1.3.2) Understand concrete and symbolic representations of rational numbers in real-world situations. (A.1.3.3) Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms, including integers, fractions, decimals, percents, scientific notation, exponents, and radicals. (A.1.3.4) Understand and use exponential and scientific notation. (A.2.3.1) Understand and explain the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, including the inverse relationship of positive and negative numbers. (A.3.3.1) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers, including the appropriate application of the algebraic order of operations. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3)

Use estimation strategies to predict results and to check the reasonableness of results. (A.4.3.1) Use concepts about numbers, including primes, factors, and multiples, to build number sequences. (A.5.3.1) Measurement Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4) Geometry and Spatial Relations Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Algebraic Thinking Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships, and functions through models. (D.1.3.1) Data Analysis and Probability Understand and apply the concepts of range and central tendency (mean). (E.1.3.2)

Taxi Driver

reads a meter that records the fare to be paid keeps a record of fares, mileage, and tips receives a fixed amount per shift and all tips

Vocabulary

Study the vocabulary words and definitions below. ascending order ............................. moving from lower to higher chart ................................................. see table common factor ............................... a number that is a factor of two or more numbers Example: 2 is a common factor of 6 and 12. consecutive ..................................... in order Example: 6, 7, 8 are consecutive whole numbers and 4, 6, 8 are consecutive even numbers. cube ................................................. the third power of a number Example: 43 = 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 data .................................................. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes decrease ........................................... to make less denominator ................................... the bottom number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts a whole was divided into Example: In the fraction 2 3 the denominator is 3, meaning the whole was divided into 3 equal parts. descending order .......................... moving from higher to lower

difference ........................................ the result of a subtraction Example: In 16 - 9 = 7, 7 is the difference. digit ................................................. any one of the 10 symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 divisible .......................................... a number is divisible by another number if, after dividing, the remainder is zero divisor ............................................. a number by which another number, the dividend, is divided Example: In 7) 42 , 42 7, 42 7 , 7 is the divisor. even number .................................. any whole number divisible by 2 Example: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 exponent (exponential form) ...... the number of times the base occurs as a factor Example: 23 is the exponential form of 2 x 2 x 2. The numeral two (2) is called the base, and the numeral three (3) is called the exponent. factor ................................................ a number or expression that divides exactly another number Example: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, and 20 are factors of 20. fraction ............................................ any number representing some part of a a whole; of the form b Example: One-half written in fractional form is 1 2.

hypotenuse ..................................... the longest side of a right triangle; the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle increase ........................................... to make greater

hy

leg

po

te

nu

se

leg

integers ........................................... the numbers in the set { , -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, } irrational number .......................... a real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two numbers Example: 2 leg ..................................................... in a right triangle, one of the two sides that form the right angle

leg

leg

mean (or average) .......................... the arithmetic average of a set of numbers multiples ......................................... the numbers that result from multiplying a given number by the set of whole numbers Example: The multiples of 15 are 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, etc. numerator ....................................... the top number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts being considered Example: In the fraction 2 3 , the numerator is 2.

odd number .................................... any whole number not divisible by 2 Example: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 pattern (relationship) ................... a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc.; also called a relation or relationship; may be described or presented using manipulatives, tables, graphs (pictures or drawings), or algebraic rules (functions) Example: 2, 5, 8, 11...is a pattern. Each number in this sequence is three more than the preceding number. Any number in this sequence can be described by the algebraic rule, 3n - 1, by using the set of counting numbers for n. percent (%) ..................................... a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 Example: The ratio is written as a whole number followed by a percent sign, such as 25% which means the ratio of 25 to 100. perfect square ................................ a number whose square root is a whole number Example: 25 is a perfect square because 5 x 5 = 25. power (of a number) ..................... an exponent; the number that tells how many times a number is used as a factor Example: In 23, 3 is the power. prime factorization ....................... writing a number as the product of prime numbers Example: 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 = 23 x 3

prime number ................................ any whole number with only two factors, 1 and itself Example: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc. product ............................................ the result of a multiplication Example: In 6 x 8 = 48, 48 is the product. Pythagorean theorem ................... the square of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the leg squares of the legs hypotenuse c a (a and b), as right angle measures shown in the b leg exactly 90 degrees () equation c2 = a2 + b2 quotient ........................................... the result of a division Example: In 42 7 = 6, 6 is the quotient. ratio .................................................. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities 3 Example: The ratio of 3 to 4 is 4 . remainder ....................................... the whole number left after one number is divided by another number

quotient 4 R 4 divisor 5 ) 24 dividend 20 remainder

rounded number ........................... a number approximated to a specified place Example: A commonly used rule to round a number is as follows. If the digit in the first place after the specified place is 5 or more, round up by adding 1 to the digit in the specified place ( 461 rounded to the nearest hundred is 500). If the digit in the first place after the specified place is less than 5, round down by not changing the digit in the specified place ( 441 rounded to the nearest hundred is 400). scientific notation ......................... a shorthand method of writing very large or very small numbers using exponents in which a number is expressed as the product of a power of 10 and a number that is greater than or equal to one (1) and less than 10 Example: The number is written as a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10, such as 7.59 x 105 = 759,000. It is based on the idea that it is easier to read exponents than it is to count zeros. If a number is already a power of 10, it is simply written 1027 instead of 1 x 1027. square (of a number) .................... the result when a number is multiplied by itself or used as a factor twice Example: 25 is the square of 5.

square root (of a number) ............ one of two equal factors of a number Example: 7 is the square root of 49. standard form ................................ a method of writing the common symbol for a numeral Example: The standard numeral for five is 5. sum .................................................. the result of an addition Example: In 6 + 8 = 14, 14 is the sum. table (or chart) ............................... an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns whole number ............................... any number in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }

Introduction

Welcome to PIAT! (Putting It All Together) In the past, you have done the following in mathematics: memorized basic facts learned procedures tried different problem-solving strategies made discoveries worked with many math concepts All of the work we do in mathematics makes it easier to apply this knowledge in our everyday lives. We will extend our knowledge as we use it wisely in this text, which features problem-solving opportunities. Sometimes you may run for a purpose, such as catching a bus or making a play in an important game. Sometimes you may run for exercise. Sometimes you may run for fun. We sometimes do warm-up exercises before we run. We will do likewise in this text. We will also follow the progress of five teams in the Putting It All Together (PIAT) classroom. You will be able to judge the strengths and weaknesses of the five teams. Such study may make better mathematicians out of us, just as it could if we were studying teams of runners to improve our own running abilities.

11

Associate verbal names, written word names, and standard numerals with decimals, numbers with exponents, numbers in scientific notation, radicals and ratios. (A.1.3.1) Understand the relative size of decimals, numbers with exponents, numbers in scientific notation, radicals, and ratios. (A.1.3.2) Understand and explain the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, including the inverse relationship of positive and negative numbers. (A.3.3.1) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculators. (A.3.3.3)

Lets look at the teams being formed in the PIAT (Putting It All Together) classroom. Team 1: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) This team doesnt have a lot of confidence but is willing to try. Word problems in mathematics have always seemed like mountains to them, and mountains are tough to climb. Getting started is the hardest part. Once they begin, they often accomplish more than they thought they could. Can problems become hills instead of mountains for them?

Team 1

12

Team 2: The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) They specialize in finding more than one way to solve problems and confidently share the way less likely to be used by their other classmates. They like problem solving just as some people like crossword puzzles. Can we profit from looking at more than one way to do a problem? Can they profit from not being so over-confident that they stay interested in how others solved the problem?

Team 2

Team 3: The RSG Team (Get Ready, Get Set, Go) This team likes to race. Who gets the answer first? Is there a short cut? They like to finish and sit around wondering what is taking their classmates so long. Can they gain respect for problem solving as drivers gain respect for sharp curves? Can their goal become Score More in the same way drivers strive to Arrive Alive?

Team 3

Team 4: The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) They sometimes think a problem says something it doesnt say. They sometimes skip over something important that it does say. They often read the problem quickly and begin work without a careful focus. What strategies might they begin to use to improve their problem solving?

Team 4

Team 5: The SBS Team (Slow but Sure) They dont work with great speed but can usually solve many of the problems they face. Their slowness concerns them when taking tests or participating in math competitions. They could benefit from looking at other strategies used by their classmates. They dont want to trade speed for accuracy, but they want to reduce the time they spend solving problems.

Team 5

13

Practice

Answer the following using complete sentences. 1. Write a few sentences about your strengths and weaknesses in problem solving. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Considering the strengths and weakness you have, name your team.

The

initials

Team (

14

Real Data

To warm up for the problems in the next practice, study the following. Printed sources such as newspapers often use fewer zeroes in their data by using phrases such as Sales in Billions. They do not use whole numbers. To write $16.6 billion as a whole number, we must understand that it means the following. 16.6 times 1 billion or 16.6 x 1,000,000,000 A scientific calculator will provide a product of 1.66 x 1010 or calculator shorthand for that amount similar to 1.66 e10. Scientific notation lets us write large numbers and small numbers as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10. (See chart on page 52) The next several practices featured in this lesson deal with real data and contain large numbers. Reading and writing large numbers is important if we are to understand and solve such problems.

15

Practice

Complete the following by finding the products. 1. 16.6 x 1 = 2. 16.6 x 10 = 3. 16.6 x 100 = 4. 16.6 x 1,000 = 5. 16.6 x 10,000 = 6. 16.6 x 100,000 = 7. 16.6 x 1,000,000 = 8. 16.6 x 10,000,000 = 9. 16.6 x 100,000,000 = 10. 16.6 x 1,000,000,000 = 11. Describe any patterns you observe. __________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 12. Write in words the product of 16.6 x 1,000,000,000 on the lines provided. billion, million

(Interesting fact: The number above is the amount of sales, in dollars, of chocolate in the United States in a recent year.)

16

Ratios

Comparisons are often made using ratios. A fraction can be used to show a ratio. In a ratio, the numerator shows the part of a group you are focusing on, and the denominator shows either the rest of the group or the whole group. For example, if there are 30 students in a class and 12 of them are girls, the following would be true.

12 30

or

2 5

The ratio of girls to class members is 12 to 30, or 6 to 15, or 2 to 5. The ratio of girls to boys is 12 to 18, or 6 to 9, or 2 to 3. If the two numbers being compared in the ratio have a common factor, the ratio can be simplified. This was done in the ratios of girls to class members and girls to boys. Sometimes, it is desirable to express a ratio as 1 to some amount. Example: The ratio of girls to boys is 12 to 18 or 1 to 1.5. Now you know that there is 1 girl to every 1.5 or 1 1 2 boys.

12 girls

to

18 boys

17

Practice

Complete the following.

Ratio of Girls to Boys Ratio of Girls to Boys 5 to 15 75 to 100 30 to 60 1,000 to 1,500 80 to 60 79 to 53 1,000,000 to 2,500,000 Simplified Ratio of Girls to Boys

18

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. common factor data denominator factor fraction numerator ____________________ 1. pattern power (of a number) product ratio scientific notation whole number information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes any number in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 } a shorthand method of writing very large or very small numbers using exponents in which a number is expressed as the product of a power of 10 and a number that is greater than or equal to one (1) and less than 10 the result of a multiplication an exponent; the number that tells how many times a number is used as a factor the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities a number that is a factor of two or more numbers a number or expression that divides exactly another number any number representing some part of a a whole; of the form b

____________________ ____________________

2. 3.

____________________ ____________________

4. 5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________

8.

____________________

9.

19

____________________ 10.

the bottom number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts a whole was divided into the top number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts being considered a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc.; also called a relation or relationship

____________________ 11.

____________________ 12.

20

Rounded Numbers

Numbers are rounded for a variety of reasons. You have worked with rounded numbers and you have rounded numbers for a particular purpose in the past. For example: If the population of Leon County, Florida is 215,338 it might be rounded in the following ways: to the nearest ten as 215,340 .................... because 38 is closer to 40 than 30 to the nearest hundred as 215,300 .......... because 338 is closer to 300 than 400 to the nearest thousand as 215,000 ......... because 5,338 is closer to 5,000 than 6,000 to the nearest ten-thousand as 220,000 .. because 15,338 is closer to 20,000 than 10,000 If we were asked to round it to the nearest million, the rounded population would be zero because 220,000 is less than one-half million. Heres a clever way a football player once thought to use rounding numbers to help out his teams quarterback. That day there were thousands of fans in the stands. The team member saw how nervous the quarterback appeared to be and said, Dont sweat itrounded to the nearest million, there is no one here.

21

Practice

Complete the following.

Rounding Numbers Number 987,654 123,456 555,555 111,111 999,999 Rounded to Nearest 10 Rounded to Nearest 100 Rounded to Nearest 1,000 Rounded to Nearest 10,000

22

Practice

Answer the following. In a recent year, annual sales of chocolate were approximately $60 billion. Countries with the greatest sales of chocolate are reported in the table.

Countries with Greatest Sales of Chocolate Country United States United Kingdom Germany Russia Japan France Brazil Sales in Billions of Dollars $16.6 $6.5 $5.1 $4.9 $3.2 $2.1 $2.0

1. The table is reprinted below, and the heading for the Sales in Billions of Dollars has been changed to Sales in Dollars. Complete the table by writing the correct amounts for each country.

Countries with Greatest Sales of Chocolate Country United States United Kingdom Germany Russia Japan France Brazil Sales in Dollars

23

2.

Which form of the table would you prefer to use? _____________ _________________________________________________________ Why? ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

3. Sales in the United States were higher than any other country. What is the positive difference between the sales in the United States and the other six countries combined? (Remember: Positive difference requires the smaller number to be subtracted from the larger number.) Hint: First, add the sales in dollars of the six countries under the United States. Then subtract the sales in dollars of the United States (smaller number) from the total of the six other countries (larger number). _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

24

Practice

Answer the following. The following information was reported in a travel magazine in a recent year.

Ratios of Visitors to Population of Eight World Locations Ratio of Visitors to Population Location per Year Palm Springs, California Shanghai, China Puerto Montt, Chile Nimes, France Cape Verde, Africa Antwerp, Belgium Toyko, Japan Houston, Texas 3 million to 45,000 1.5 million to 13.5 million 50,000 to 110,000 550,000 to 138,000 400,000 to 54,000 477,000 to 1.5 million 12 million to 460,000 1.8 million to 19.8 million

1. In this table, the magazine used different ways to write numbers. The table is reprinted for you. Use the numbers written in words in the original table above to write the missing numbers in standard form in the table below.

Ratios of Visitors to Population of Eight World Locations Location Palm Springs, California Shanghai, China Puerto Montt, Chile Nimes, France Cape Verde, Africa Antwerp, Belgium Toyko, Japan Houston, Texas Ratio of Visitors to Population per Year to 45,000 to 50,000 to 110,000 550,000 to 138,000 400,000 to 54,000 477,000 to to 460,000 to

25

2. In which locations did the number of visitors exceed the population? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 3. The ratio 550,000 to 138,000 can also be written as 3.99 to 1 (because 550,000 divided by 138,000 equals 3.99 rounded to the nearest hundredth). This tells us that Nimes had approximately 4 visitors for each resident, rounded to the nearest whole number. Rewrite the ratios for the locations identified in number 2 so that they tell the approximate number of visitors for each resident. Round answers to the nearest whole number. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Write the ratios from number 3 in ascending order from smallest to largest (most visitors per resident). _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 5. The third largest ratio is .

26

Practice

Answer the following. The total population of the world in 1997 was reported as five billion, eight hundred fifty-two million or 5,852,000,000. The 10 countries with the greatest populations were as follows.

10 Countries with the Greatest Populations in 1997 Country China India United States Indonesia Brazil Russia Pakistan Japan Bangladesh Nigeria 1997 Population as Reported Rounded to Nearest Thousand 1,221,592,000 967,613,000 267,955,000 209,774,000 164,511,000 147,987,000 132,185,000 125,717,000 125,340,000 107,129,000 1997 Population Rounded to Nearest Million 1,222,000,000 968,000,000 268,000,000 210,000,000 165,000,000 148,000,000 132,000,000 126,000,000 125,000,000 107,000,000

Notice that the populations above were rounded to the nearest thousand and also rounded to the nearest million. 1. What were the least amount of increase and the greatest amount of increase occurring when populations were rounded up from the nearest thousand to the nearest million? Least increase was (country) Greatest increase was (country) with (amount) with (amount) . .

27

2. What were the least amount of decrease and the greatest amount of decrease occurring when populations were rounded down from the nearest thousand to the nearest million? Least decrease was (country) Greatest decrease was (country) with (amount) with (amount) . .

3. The ratio of the populations of the United States to China could be reported as 267,955,000 to 1,221,592,000 or 1 to how many?

4. The ratio of the populations of the United States to Japan could be reported as 267,955,000 to 125,717,000 or to 1. 5. For which two countries is the ratio of populations closest to 10 to 1?

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a number approximated to a specified place ______ 2. an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns ______ 3. a method of writing the common symbol for a numeral ______ 4. the result of a subtraction E. rounded number ______ 5. moving from lower to higher F. standard form ______ 6. to make less ______ 7. to make greater G. table A. ascending order B. decrease C. difference D. increase

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Practice

Answer the following. Some of the 10 largest cities in the United States in 1996 had increases in their populations from 1950. Some had decreases. 1. In the final column of the table, record the amount of increase or decrease. If the population increased, precede the amount with a plus sign (+). If it decreased, precede it with a minus sign (-).

1950 and 1996 Populations of the 10 Largest Cities in the United States City, State New York, New York Los Angeles, California Chicago, Illinois Houston, Texas Philadelphia, Pennsylvania San Diego, California Phoenix, Arizona San Antonio, Texas Dallas, Texas Detroit, Michigan 1996 7,380,906 3,553,638 2,721,547 1,744,058 1,478,002 1,171,121 1,159,014 1,067,816 1,053,392 1,000,272 1950 7,891,957 1,970,358 3,620,962 596,163 2,071,605 334,387 106,818 408,442 434,462 1,849,568 Amount of Increase or Decrease

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Practice

Answer the following. 1. The 10 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA) in the world with the greatest population are shown in the table below.

Ten Metropolitan Areas in the World with the Greatest Population City, Country Tokyo, Japan Mexico City, Mexico Sao Paulo, Brazil New York City, United States Bombay, India Shanghai, China Los Angeles, United States Calcutta, India Buenos Aires, Argentina Seoul, Korea Population 27,000,000 16,562,000 16,533,000 16,332,000 15,138,000 13,584,000 12,410,000 11,923,000 11,802,000 11,609,000

Write three statements of comparison of the data. For example: The population of Shanghai, China is approximately

1 2

Unit 1: Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations 31

2. How could the population column have been headed to eliminate the need for the final three zeroes in each of the numbers? ______ _________________________________________________________

32

Practice

Answer the following. The five states with the highest populations are shown in the table below. 1. In the third column, enter the population rounded to the nearest million. The first one has been done for you. 2. In the fourth column, enter the population as required by the heading of the column. The first one has been done for you.

Five States with the Highest Population in the United States State 1997 Population as Reported 32,268,301 19,439,337 18,137,226 14,653,945 12,019,661 1997 Population Rounded to the Nearest Million 32,000,000 1997 Population in Millions 32 million million million million million

The numbers in the practices on pages 23, 25, 27, and 31 were obviously rounded. This is often true for data displayed in tables, and we want to be aware of it. Consider the effect of rounding as you answer the next question. 3. If the number reported as 4,000,000 has been rounded to the nearest million, what is the smallest the actual number could have been?

33

Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: Serinas salary is between $42,400 and $42,500 and is a whole number in dollars (no cents). If the hundreds, tens, and units digits are in ascending order, how many possibilities exist for her salary? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: The last three digits could be 401 up to 499. That is 99 choices. Feedback from the Coach: Read the problem again. What information is provided? What are you asked to find? Try the problem again. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets write all the numbers from 400 to 500. Well each write 25 numbers in sequence. (They decided who would write which 25.) 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500

The team then read the question again and eliminated 400 and 500 since the salary is between the two amounts. The team then discussed the requirement that the hundreds, tens, and units digits must be in ascending order, which means smallest to largest. They agreed to find all numbers in their list that met this requirement. They found that the list from 401 to 424 had none. The list from 425 to 449 had none. Wow, why did we do all that work!

36

They found that the list from 450 to 475 had the following: 456, 457, 458, 459, 467, 468, 469. They found that the list from 475 to 499 had the following: 478, 479, 489. They recorded the following solution. There are 10 possibilities for Serinas salary. We know this is true because we tried every possibility. Feedback from the Coach: After thinking about the requirement of ascending order, how could some of the earlier steps in reaching a solution have been skipped? Can you think of another salary range for which your solution would work? How? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

37

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: This is a trick question. There is only one possibility! 456. It is the only number where the digits are consecutive numbers in ascending order. Feedback from the Coach: Can you show me the word, consecutive, in the problem? Does ascending order require that numbers be consecutive? Try the problem again. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We know it cannot be 400 or 500. We know if the digits are in ascending order, they get bigger. If the hundreds digit has to be 4, then the tens can be 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. But 9 wont work because the tens has to be bigger than the units, and there would be no digit bigger than 9. Lets try 45 : 456, 457, 458, 459 Lets try 46 467, 468, 469 Lets try 47 478, 479 :

Wow! Look at the pattern! We found 4 possibilities, then 3, then 2, and now there will be only one.

38

4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 10 possibilities. Feedback from the Coach: Do you think the pattern would be similar if the salary was between $40,200 and $40,300? How is it similar, and how is it different? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

39

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns ______ 2. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes ______ 3. the result of a multiplication ______ 4. a number approximated to a specified place ______ 5. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities ______ 6. a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc.; also called a relation or relationship ______ 7. any one of the 10 symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 ______ 8. in order D. pattern A. consecutive

B. data

C. digit

E. product

F. ratio

G. rounded number

H. table

40

Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms, including integers, fractions, decimals, percents, scientific notation, exponents, and radicals. (A.1.3.4) Understand and use exponential and scientific notation. (A.2.3.1) Understand and explain the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals. (A.3.3.1) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concepts about numbers, including primes, factors, and multiples, to build number sequences. (A.5.3.1) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships, and functions through models. (D.1.3.1)

Prime Numbers

13 13 1

13 is a prime number.

A prime number has two and only two factors, 1 and itself. This means a prime number can only be divided evenly (not producing a remainder) by 1 and by itself. The number 13 is a prime number because the only factors of 13 are 1 and 13. (Remember: Zero and 1 are not prime numbers. The only even number that is a prime number is 2.)

41

Practice

A list of the prime numbers less than 100 is partially made for you. Complete it by filling in each missing prime number on the line provided. 2, 3, 29, 31, 61, , 7, , , 71 , , , , 43, , 83, , 17, 19 , , , 59, , 97

After you check your answers, use this list to practice quick recognition of the prime numbers less than 100 to save time in the future. Note: A number that students often list in error is 51. It is not prime because 3 times 17 is 51.

42

The square of a number is the result when a number is used as a factor twice. 25 is the square of 5 52 = 5 x 5 = 25

A perfect square is a number whose square root is a whole number. A perfect square is the product when an integer (...-2, -1, 0, 1, 2...) is multiplied by itself. A perfect square also has a square root that is a whole number. 25 is the square of 5 and a perfect square because it is the product of an integer multiplied by itself, 5 times 5, and its square root 5 is a whole number.

Number Square 1 1 2 4 3 9 4 16 5 25 6 36 7 49 8 64 whole number perfect square

Numbers in the second row are called perfect squares. Perfect squares each have a square root that is a whole number.

43

Practice

Square each number by multiplying it by itself. Write the correct answer on the line provided. 1. 12 = 2. 82 = 3. 152 = 4. 222 = 5. 22 = 6. 92 = 7. 162 = 8. 232 = 9. 32 = 10. 102 = 11. 172 = 12. 242 = 13. 42 = 14. 112 = 15. 182 = 16. 252 = 17. 52 = 18. 122 = 19. 192 = 20. 62 = 21. 132 = 22. 202 = 23. 72 = 24. 142 = 25. 212 =

These perfect squares will be used often in your high school and college classes in mathematics and science. After you check your answers, it would be good for you to memorize them just as you memorized multiplication facts earlier.

44

The square root of a number, N, is the number that when multiplied by itself gives a product of N. The square root of 25 is 5 because when 5 is multiplied by itself, the product is 25. 25 = 5 because 5 x 5 = 25 If a whole number is not a perfect square, its square root is not a whole number. For example: The square root of 5, written as 5 , is approximately 2.236. If you multiply 2.236 by 2.236, you get 4.999696, not 5. are approximate. (You may also We use ~ ~ instead of = when the numbers . = use the almost equal to symbol .)

5~ ~ 2.236

How to Find Square Roots If a number is not a perfect square, you can do the following to find its approximate square root. You can use a calculator. For example:

50 ~ ~ 7.071

On a calculator enter 50 .

% x + _

Note: Some calculators may require you to enter the your teacher if you are not sure.

45

You can use a book with a table of squares and square roots. For example:

Squares and Square Roots for Numbers 1-5 Number Square Square Root 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 9 16 25 1.000 1.414 1.732 2.000 2.236

You can also use a method for approximating the square root of a number to the nearest tenth by guessing. For example:

40

Say you make a guess of 6. 62 = 36 6.52 = 42.25 6.32 = 39.69 6.42 = 40.96 too small too big too small too big

Since 39.69 is closer to 40 than 40.96 is, then 40 to the nearest tenth is 6.3. On a calculator or in a table of squares and square roots, 40 ~ ~ 6.325so you see that approximating the square root to the nearest tenth works very well.

46

Practice

Find the square root of the following.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

100 = 144 = 1 =

12. 9

13. 64 = 14. 289 = 15. 196 = 16. 324 = 17. 81 = 18. 361 = 19. 529 = 20. 625 = 21. 441 = 22. 400 =

These square roots will also be used often in your high school and college mathematics and science classes. Knowing them will help you.

47

Practice

Answer the following. It should be noted that the square root of 2 is not a whole number. We know that 1 x 1 = 1 and that 2 x 2 = 4. The number 2 lies between 1 and 4. We therefore know that the square root of 2 is greater than 1 but less than 4. Complete the table below.

Square Roots The square root of 27 55 125 86 12 69 200 600 350 is greater than 5 but less than 6

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Power of a Number

The power of a number is written as an exponent. The exponent is the number that tells how many times a number is used as a factor. The power of a number can be written as a product of equal factors with an integer exponent. For example: 25 can be written as 52, or 5 to the second power. 5

2

exponent base 25

The base is the repeated factor. The exponent tells the number of repetitions.

16 8 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

5 25 = 5

5

2

The number 16 can be written as 24, or 2 to the fourth power. The number 16 can also be written as 42 or 4 to the second power or 4 squared.

16 = 24

You may also try upside down dividing. In this method we begin dividing by the smallest prime number that is a factor of the original number. We continue the process until the last quotient is 1. For example:

The smallest prime number factor of 2000 is 2. The smallest prime number factor of 1000 is 2. The smallest prime number factor of 500 is 2. The smallest prime number factor of 250 is 2. The smallest prime number factor of 125 is 5. The smallest prime number factor of 25 is 5. The smallest prime number factor of 5 is 5.

The prime factorization of 2000 includes each of these prime divisors: 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 x 5 x 5 = 24 x 53.

49

Practice

Complete the following. 1. 23 =

2. 34 =

3. 53 =

4. 64 =

5. 35 =

6. 502 =

7. 23 + 52 =

8. 43 + 32 =

9. 25 + 73 =

50

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. even number exponent integers perfect square prime number remainder square (of a number) square root (of a number)

____________________

1.

the whole number left after one number is divided by another number any whole number with only two factors, 1 and itself Example: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc. one of two equal factors of a number a number whose square root is a whole number the numbers in the set { , -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, } the result when a number is multiplied by itself or used as a factor twice any whole number divisible by 2 Example: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 the number of times the base occurs as a factor

____________________

2.

____________________ ____________________

3. 4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________

8.

51

Place value tells you the value of each digit in a number. In our number system, each place has 10 times the value of the place to its right. The chart below shows how powers of 10 are related to place value. Each place value to the left is 10 times the place value to the right.

Place Value of Whole Numbers and Decimals

hundred millions

hundred thousands

ten thousands

thousands

hundreds

millions

1,000,000,000

100,000,000

10,000,000

1,000,000

100,000

10,000

tenths

1,000

100

10

109

108 107

106

100

1 101

1 102

1 103

whole-number part

decimal point

decimal part

52

0.001

0.1

0.01

thousandths

ten millions

billions

hundredths

tens

Practice

Answer the following. A friend is thinking of a 3-digit number. The hundreds digit is greater than 5, the tens digit is greater than 4 but less than 8, and the units digit is the smallest prime number. How many numbers could the friend be thinking of? (Refer to the chart on the previous page as needed for place value of specific digits.) Mathematical Terms 3-digit number hundreds digit tens digit units digit prime number Solve the Problem 1. The hundreds digit could be , or 2. The tens digit could be . 3. The units digit is 4. There are . choices for the hundreds digit, . , , or , ,

choices for the tens digit, and one choice for the units digit.

53

5. Use the information on the previous page to solve the problem. Show your work or explain in words how you solved it. Answer:__________________________________________________ Work or explanation: ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

54

Practice

Answer the following. How many perfect squares less than 300 are multiples of 9? (Hint: Use your answers to the practice on page 44 to find perfect squares that are multiples of 9.) Mathematical Terms perfect squares multiples square (of a number) Solve the Problem 1. Show your work or explain in words how you solved it. Answer:__________________________________________________ Work or explanation: ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

55

Extend Opportunities to Learn 2. Make a list of the perfect squares less than 300 that are multiples of 9 and write each as a square of a number. The first one is written for you. a. b. c. d. e. 3. If you were asked to identify the next perfect square that is a multiple of 9, what would it be? 4. If the original question was re-written to ask for the number of perfect squares less than 900 that were multiples of 9, what would the answer be? 9 = 32

56

Practice

Answer the following. The number 100 can be written as the sum of a 1-digit prime number and a 2-digit prime number. What is the product of these prime numbers? (Hint: You can use your answers to the practice on page 42 to find a 1-digit prime number and a 2-digit prime number whose sum equals 100.) Mathematical Terms sum 1-digit prime number 2-digit prime number product prime number Solve the Problem 1. Show your work or explain in words how you solved it. Answer:__________________________________________________ Work or explanation: ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

57

Pythagorean Theorem

We use a property in our study of geometry called the Pythagorean theorem. The Pythagorean theorem is an important property of right triangles. The theorem was named in honor of the Greek mathematician Pythagoras. The longest side of a right triangle is called the hypotenuse. To find the length of the hypotenuse (c) when you know the lengths of the two other sides (a and b), you can use the Pythagorean theorem. Pythagorean theorem: The square of the length of the hypotenuse (c2) is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs (a2 + b2). c2 = a2 + b2

hypotenuse c

The Pythagorean theorem tells us that the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides of a right triangle will always be equal to the square of the longer side. The shorter sides (a and b) are often referred to as the legs of a right triangle. The side opposite the right angle is referred to as the hypotenuse (c). The hypotenuse is always the longest side. To find the length of the hypotenuse, the square root of the sum of a2 and b2 must be found. If the sides of a triangle have lengths a, b, and c, such that c2 = a2 + b2, then the triangle is a right triangle. Mathematical Terms Pythagorean theorem right triangle hypotenuse sum square (of a number) legs (of a right triangle) square root

58

Practice

Answer the following. The lengths of the shorter sides, a and b, are provided. You will find the sum of the squares of their lengths. You will then determine the length of the longer side, c, which is also called the hypotenuse. (Hint: The square root function key on a calculator is helpful when we deal with larger numbers.) 1. Complete the table below.

Using the Pythagorean Theorem Length of Leg a 3 8 6 5 27 33 a2 9 Length of Leg b 4 15 8 12 36 56 b2 16 a2+ b2 9+16=25 Length of Hypotenuse 5

Note: All of the lengths in the table were whole numbers because the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides was a perfect square. In the next problem, that will not be the case. Example: The two shorter sides of a right triangle are each 1 inch in length. 12 + 1 2 = 1 + 1 = 2 There is no whole number that can be multiplied by itself to produce a product of 2. The calculator used by the writer gave this result: 1.414213562. We can see that this decimal number does not terminate. It does not repeat. It is therefore an irrational number. An irrational number cannot be expressed as a ratio of two numbers.

59

2. The distance from home plate to first base is 90 feet, and the distance from first base to second base is also 90 feet. These can represent the two legs of an isosceles right triangle. (Remember: An isosceles triangle has two congruent sides and two congruent angles. Congruent means the same size and shape.) The distance from home plate to second base can represent the hypotenuse of the right triangle. Find the distance from home plate to second base. Round your answer to the nearest whole number. Show all your work.

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90

fe

et

90 fe et

3. A building is 30 feet tall, and an extension ladder is to be used to reach the top of the building. The base of the ladder is positioned 11 feet away from the base of the building. If the ladder is to reach the top of the building, what is the minimum whole number of feet it must be? (Hint: Think of the height of the building as one leg of a right triangle and the distance from the building to the base of the ladder as the other leg. The length of the ladder represents the length of the hypotenuse of the right triangle.) Round your answer to the nearest whole number. Show all your work.

length of ladder = hypotenuse

30 feet

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Practice

Use the list below to label the figure and to answer the following. One or more terms will be used more than once. hypotenuse leg Pythagorean right side

1.

3.

b 2.

5. The triangle above is called a 6. The equation c2 = a2 + b2 represents the 7. The hypotenuse is always the longest triangle.

62

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. hypotenuse irrational number leg multiples Pythagorean theorem right triangle sum

____________________

1.

in a right triangle, one of the two sides that form the right angle the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs the numbers that result from multiplying a given number by the set of whole numbers the result of an addition a real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two numbers the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle a triangle with one right angle

____________________

2.

____________________

3.

____________________ ____________________

4. 5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

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Practice

Answer the following. What is the mystery number? It is a prime number between 500 and 600. When the mystery number is divided by 2, 5, or 10, there is a remainder of 1. If one is added to the tens digit, the sum is a power of 2. If 1 is subtracted from the hundreds digit, the result is a power of 2. The sum of the digits is 13. Mathematical Terms prime number divided remainder hundreds digit sum power tens digit 1. The mystery number is .

2. If I check this with the facts in the problem: The number is between 500 and 600. (yes or no)

Powers of 2 that are 1-digit numbers are 1, 2, 4, and 8 and if you add 1 to my tens digit, the sum is one of those powers. (yes or no) If you subtract 1 from my hundreds digit, the difference is one of those powers. (yes or no) (yes or no)

64

Practice

Answer the following. Student A wants to share Student Bs locker and asks for the combination. Student B gives him a set of clues. Use them to determine the combination. The three whole numbers in the combination are greater than or equal to zero and less than or equal to 39. The first number is a prime number greater than 31. The second number has nine factors including 1 and itself. If you reverse the digits of the product of the square of 3 and the cube of 2, you have the third number. (Remember: The cube is the third power of a number. For example: 43 = 4 x 4 x 4 = 64.) Mathematical Terms greater than equal less than prime number factors digits product square cube The combination to the locker is , , .

65

Practice

Answer the following. What is the mystery telephone number including area code? The area code is a 3-digit number. The digits are consecutive odd numbers written in descending order from higher to lower. The 3-digit number is divisible by 3 but not by 5 or 9. The first three digits of the telephone number represent the number that is the square of the largest prime number less than 37. The last four digits are even numbers less than 5. If read from right to left, they read the same as when read left to right. The mean or average of the numbers is 3. The two digits in the center positions are multiples of the digits in the outer positions. Mathematical Terms 3-digit 7-digit consecutive odd numbers descending order divisible square prime number even numbers mean (or average) multiples The 3-digit area code and 7-digit telephone number is .

66

Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: The number 46,656 is a perfect square, and it has many factors. Mariah wants to know how many of those factors are perfect squares. What is the answer to Mariahs question? How did you get it? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

67

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: 46,656 is a perfect square because 216 x 216 = 46,656. Every number is a factor of itself. We know that 16 is a perfect square. Does 16 go into 46,656? Yes. Then it would count as another one. That makes two. We know that 1 is a perfect square, and 1 goes into 46,656. We have another one. That makes three. If 4 goes into the number named by the last two digits of a number, then 4 goes into the number. Does 4 go into 56? Yes4 is a perfect square, so we have another one and that makes four. If 9 goes into the sum of the digits of a number, 9 goes into the number. The sum of the digits of 46,656 is 27. Does 9 go into 27? Yes9 is a perfect square, so we now have five. We have 1, 4, 9, 16, and 46,656. What about 25? No. The number 46,656 does not end in zero or five, so 25 is not a factor. This could take all day! Lets settle for five! Feedback from the Coach: The five factors you have found are a good start. You are using a lot of the math you have learned in the past. You might continue checking other square numbers using a calculator and a list of perfect squares. You might consider other ways to tackle the problem. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We know that the square root of 46,656 is 216. To find all the factors of a number we only have to consider trial divisors up to the square root of the number. We dont have to check every number from 1 to 216 because were only looking for factors that are square numbers. We could make list of square numbers up to 216. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169, 196 We know that if we divided 46,656 by the perfect square and get a whole number, then the perfect square is a factor. We can then use our calculator. Or we can use a list of perfect squares to see if the whole number quotient, which is the second member of the factor pair, is also a perfect square. 1 x 46,656 Both are perfect squares1 is the square of 1, and 46,656 is the square of 216. 4 x 11,664 Both are perfect squares4 is the square of 2, and 11,664 is the square of 108. 9 x 5,184 Both are perfect squares9 is the square of 3, and 5,184 is the square of 72. 16 x 2,916 Both are perfect squares16 is the square of 4, and 2,916 is the square of 54. 25 No, although 25 is a perfect square, 46,656 is not divisible by 25, so 25 is not a factor. 36 x 1,296 Both are perfect squares36 is the square of 6, and 1,296 is the square of 36.

69

49 No, 49 is not a factor. 64 x 729 Both are perfect squares64 is the square of 8, and 729 is the square of 27. 81 x 576 Both are perfect squares81 is the square of 9, and 576 is the square of 24. 100 No, 100 is not a factor of 46,656. 121 No, 121 is not a factor of 46,656. 144 x 324 Both are perfect squares144 is the square of 12, and 324 is the square of 18. 169 No, 169 is not a factor. 196 No, 196 is not a factor. We found 16 factors that are perfect squares. Feedback from the Coach: Your work is well organized. How do you know that you have found all the factors that are perfect squares? Try checking 225, 256, 289, 324. Do you really need to check 324, or is it already in your list? What would be the next perfect square factor after 324? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

70

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets find the prime factorization of 46,656 and see if it helps us. 46,656 2 x 23,328 2 x 2 x 11,664 2 x 2 x 2 x 5,832 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2,916 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1,458 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 729 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 243 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 81 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 27 2x2x2x2x2x2x3x3x3x3x9 2x2x2x2x2x2x3x3x3x3x3x3 Wow! We have six factors of 2 and six factors of 3. That is 26 x 36. We know the following. 20 is 1 22 is 4 24 is 16 26 is 64 32 is 9 34 is 81 36 is 729 These are all perfect squares, and they are factors of 46,656.

71

Lets try the following. 22 x 32 or 4 x 9 which is 36 22 x 34 or 4 x 81 which is 324 22 x 36 or 4 x 729 which is 2,916 Are these perfect squares? Yes. 36 is the square of 6, 324 is the square of 18, and 2,916 is the square of 54. Lets try the following. 24 x 32 or 16 x 9 which is 144 24 x 34 or 16 x 81 which is 1,296 24 x 36 or 16 x 729 which is 11,664 Are these perfect squares? Yes. 144 is the square of 12, 1,296 is the square of 36, and 11,664 is the square of 108. Lets try the following. 26 x 32 or 64 x 9 which is 576 26 x 34 or 64 x 81 which is 5,184 26 x 36 or 64 x 729 which is 46,656 Are these perfect squares? Yes. 576 is the square of 24, 5,184 is the square of 72, and 46,656 is the square of 216.

72

If we try odd powers of 2 such as 23, we find 8 is not a perfect square nor is 25 or 32. Do we have them all? From smallest to largest (reading left to right), they would be the following. 1; 36; 324; 2,916; 4; 64; 576; 5,184; 9; 81; 729, 11,664; 16; 144; 1,296; 46,656

If we paired them up we would have the following. 1 4 9 16 36 64 81 144 x x x x x x x x 46,656 11,664 5,184 2,916 1,296 729 576 324

These factor pairs all give a product of 46,656. Each factor is a perfect square. Looking at the list, we can see that 25 and 49 are missing. When we check them, they are not factors of 46,656. We think we have them all. Feedback from the Coach: Your work is well organized. Youve applied a lot of concepts and skills from the past. Do you think that the product of any two square numbers will always be a square number? Can you give additional examples when this is true or at least one counter-example to show it is false? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

73

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Why would you pick such a high number? Why not a number like 144? 2 3 4 6 8 9 12 x x x x x x x 72 48 36 24 18 16 12

That is all the factors of 144. The factors that are perfect squares are the following. 1, 4, 9, 16, 36, and 144. Even if we start this work with 46,656, we wont finish before the bell on the last day of school! Well at least try. 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 12 16 18 24 27 32 x 46,656 x 23,328 x 15,552 x 11,664 x 7,776 x 5,832 x 5,184 x 3,888 x 2,916 x 2,592 x 1,944 x 1,728 x 1,458 36 48 54 64 72 81 96 108 144 162 192 216 243 x 1,296 x 972 x 864 x 729 x 648 x 576 x 486 x 432 x 324 x 288 x 243 x 216 x 192

Hey! We found them all243 x 192 is the same as 192 x 243. Well, it may not be the last day of school, but by the time we check to see which are perfect squares, it will be! We know our squares up to 144, so that makes part of it easy. If we use the square root key on the calculator or a list of perfect squares, maybe we really will finish.

74 Unit 1: Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Feedback from the Coach: Youve done a lot of work, and it will yield the solution to the problem. How could you have used your list of perfect squares to reduce the amount of work you have done? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

75

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. writing a number as the product of prime numbers Example: 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 = 23 x 3 ______ 2. the result of a division ______ 3. a number by which another number, the dividend, is divided ______ 4. the arithmetic average of a set of numbers ______ 5. a number is divisible by another number if, after dividing, the remainder is zero ______ 6. any whole number not divisible by 2 Example: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 ______ 7. moving from higher to lower ______ 8. the third power of a number ______ 9. any whole number divisible by 2 Example: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 I. quotient A. cube B. descending order C. divisible D. divisor E. even number F. mean (average) G. odd number H. prime factorization

76

Associate verbal names, written word, and standard numerals with decimals, numbers with exponents, numbers in scientific notation, radicals, and ratios. (A.1.3.1) Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms, including fractions, decimals, and exponents. (A.1.3.4) Understand and explain the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, including the inverse relationship of positive and negative numbers. (A.3.3.1) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use estimation strategies to predict results and to check the reasonableness of results. (A.4.3.1) Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4) Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships, and functions through models. (D.1.3.1)

PercentsSpecial-Case Ratios The problems in the next practice deal with percent (%). Percent is a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100. The ratio is written as a whole number followed by a percent sign. We know that 7% means the ratio of 7 to 100. 7% = 7 to 100

77

Changing Decimals to Percents (%) To change a decimal to a percent, we multiply the decimal by 100 (or move the decimal two places to the right) and add the percent sign. For example, the decimal 0.07 is equal to 7%.

0.07 x 100 = 0.07. = 7%

Changing Fractions to Decimals and Decimals to Percents To change a fraction to a decimal and then to percent, we first change it to a decimal by dividing the numerator by the denominator. We then change the decimal to a percent.

1 For example, the fraction 4 is equivalent to 0.25 because when 1 is divided by 4, the quotient is 0.25. The decimal 0.25 is equivalent to 25%.

Equivalent Forms

1 4

0.25 = 4 ) 1.00

Percent

Fraction Decimal

7 100 25 100

7% 25%

0.07 0.25

If the division ends or terminates with a remainder of zero, like with the decimal .25 above, the quotient is called a terminating decimal. However, if a remainder of zero cannot be obtained, the digit in the quotient repeats. The quotient is called a repeating decimal. A repeating decimal has 1 or more digits that repeat. The digit or group of digits that repeats infinitely in a repeating decimal is called the repetend. You could continue to divide forever! For example, look at 20 3. The decimal 6.66 is a repeating decimal. Use a bar or line across the top of the digit that repeats. 6.66 = 6.6 The answer is between 6.6 and 6.67. 6.66... 3 ) 20.000 18 20 18 20 18 2 The digit 6 repeats forever. The same remainder repeats forever.

78

Practice

Answer the following. Universities and colleges in Georgia with the greatest number of Hope Scholarship students find that many of these students are unable to maintain a B average or better as freshmen and become ineligible for the scholarship as sophomores. Using the data provided, determine the percentage of Hope Scholarship students entering in 1998-1999 and still eligible for Hope Scholarships in 1999-2000 in the five schools listed. Round your answer to the nearest whole.

Universities and Colleges in Georgia with Greatest Number of Students with Hope Scholarships 1998-2000 University/College University of Georgia Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia State University State University of West Georgia Georgia Perimeter College Number of Hope Number of Hope Scholarship Scholarship Freshmen 1998-1999 Sophomores 1999-2000 3,936 1,578 1,522 1,472 1,101 2,283 542 472 309 263

50 would represent 50 returned as sophomores in 1999-2000, the fraction 100 the part returning. If the percentage is asked for, the fraction should be changed to an equivalent decimal (0.50), and the decimal to an equivalent percent, (50%).

50 100 = .50

= 50%

79

2. If we express our work in number 1 as a fraction, then as a decimal, and finally as a percent, the problem is solved. Round the percent to the nearest whole number. fraction: decimal: percent:

total number of sophomores total number of freshmen

80

Practice

Answer the following. If the sale of chocolates in the United States accounted for $16.6 billion of the total $60 billion in the world, what percentage of sales occurred in the United States? Round your answer to the nearest percent. 1. Write $16.6 billion in standard form. _________________________ 2. Write $60 billion in standard form. ___________________________ 3. Two fractions might be considered.

16.6 billion 60 billion

or your answer in

number 1 and number 2 written as a fraction. Change your fraction to a decimal number. Round to nearest hundredth. _______________________________________________ 4. Now change your decimal number to a percent to solve the problem. Explain in words why your solution is reasonable. _____________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

81

Suppose the amounts had been 16.6 million (instead of billion) out of 60 billion. And suppose you repeated the procedures used in numbers 1-4 with these amounts. What conjecture (statement of opinions or educated guess) might you make based on these two situations? 5. My conjecture is __________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ . Complete the following to check your conjecture. 6. 16.6 million in standard form _______________________________ 7. 60 billion in standard form__________________________________ 8. Write

16.6 million 60 billion

_________________________________________________________ 9. Change your fraction to a decimal number. Stop when you get to a repeating digit. ___________________________________________ Hint: If the fraction is partially simplified by dividing the numerator and denominator by 100,000, the work is more manageable whether you use paper and pencil or a calculator. 10. Now change your decimal number to a percent to solve the problem. Round to digit preceding the repeating decimal. _________________________________________________________

82

11. My original conjecture (was/was not) correct because __________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ .

83

Practice

Answer the following. Of the one million people of voting age in the city of Democracy, 76 percent are registered to vote. Of those registered, 42 percent voted in the most recent election. The winning candidate for mayor received 53 percent of the votes. How many votes did the winning candidate get? The numbers in this problem make it fairly easy to produce an estimate. We know that 76% is about We know that 42% is about We know that 53% is about

3 4 2 5

1 2

1 2

If such an article was in the paper, the reader might try an estimate just to better grasp how many people in the voting age population elected the new mayor.

3 4 1 5 1 2

2 5

is 300,000.

Wow! The winning candidate got 53% of the vote. That 53% represents about 150,000 votes. If 53% of the one million people eligible to register to vote had done so, the 53% would have been 530,000. However, only 76% of the one million people are registered to vote. And only 42% voted. Therefore, how many votes did the winning candidate get if he received 53% of the votes? Solve the problem using numbers that have not been rounded. Show all your work.

84

Practice

Answer the following. The following data was reported on residential recycling in Tallahassee, Florida. Which categories of items, if any, experienced a minimum 50% increase in the 10-year period?

Residential Recycling in Tallahassee, Florida Year 1989-90 1998-99 Aluminum 37 tons 88 tons Tin 117 tons 184 tons Glass 801 tons 353 tons Newspaper 1,664 tons 3,726 tons Plastic 93 tons 266 tons

Percent increase - the increase in an amount expressed as a percent of the original amount. A 100% increase means the amount of increase is equal to the original amount. The original amount has doubled. A 50% increase means the amount of increase is half the original amount. The original amount is now 1 1 2 times as great. To find the percent of increase, do the following. Find the amount of increase. Find what percent the amount of increase is of the original amount. The amount of aluminum increased from 37 tons to 88 tons. The amount of increase was 51 tons.

There are a number of ways to think about this. Answer each one as you think through the solution. 1. What is

1 2

85

Unit 1: Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

2. What is 50% of 37? Is the amount of increase at least this much? (yes, no)

51 ? Round the 3. What are the decimal and percent equivalents to 37 decimal to the nearest thousandths. Round the percent to the nearest whole number.

% (yes, no)

The following words could be translated into an equation and the equation solved. 51 is what percent of 37?

Yes, aluminum did experience at least a 50% increase over a 10-year period. 4. Which of the other categories also experienced a percent increase of at least 50% over a 10-year period? _________________________________________________________

glass:

86

newspaper:

plastic:

Percent decrease - the decrease in an amount expressed as a percent of the original amount. A 100% decrease is a total loss. A 50% decrease means whatever it was, its half gone.

of decrease percent of decrease = amount original amount

To find the percent of decrease, do the following. Find the amount of decrease. Find what percent the amount of decrease is of the original amount. 5. In the data presented in this practice on page 85, a decrease is noted in the glass category. What was the percent of decrease in the recycling of glass? Discuss with others why this might have occurred. .

87

Practice

Answer the following. A part-time employee at a grocery store is given a 3.2% pay increase with a new salary of $7.74 per hour. What was the hourly rate before the pay increase? The new salary represents the salary before the pay raise plus an additional 3.2%, or 100% of the previous salary plus 3.2% of that amount as a pay raise, for a total of 103.2%. If we let B represent the amount before the increase, 103.2% of B would be $7.74. 1. Write this as an equation. (Hint: Change the percent to a decimal.) _________________________________________________________ 2. Solve the equation. Show all your work.

88

The number of home games for Florida State Universitys baseball team in 2000 was 34, and the mean cost for season ticket holders for each game was $3.04. At the end of the season, the Boosters noted many needed facility improvements and sent surveys to the season ticket holders regarding possible price increases. The survey asked about the likelihood of future ticket purchases if the mean price were increased to $4.00, to $5.00, to $6.00, or to $7.00. Find the percent increase for each.

$5. A L L 00

BA SE B

Round to the nearest whole number. The first one has been done for you. 3. An increase from $3.04 to $4.00 would represent a 32 increase. Gather information to set up the equation. original price of ticket = $3.04 suggested price = $4.00 increase in price = $4.00 - $3.04 = $.96 equation and solution

amount of increase = .96 = .315 = 32% 3.04 original amount

percent

4. An increase from $3.04 to $5.00 would represent a increase. 5. An increase from $3.04 to $6.00 would represent a increase. 6. An increase from $3.04 to $7.00 would represent a increase.

percent

percent

percent

$5. B A L L 00

BA

FS

SE

FS

89

Practice

Answer the following. 1. School uniform slacks and shirts are on sale. The $25 slacks can be purchased at a 15% discount. The $18 shirt can be purchased at a 20% discount. What will be the total cost of one pair of slacks and one shirt during the sale? Answer: Show all your work.

2. Demonstrate another way to solve this problem. Show all your work.

90

3. A photograph 6 inches by 4 inches was reduced to make a smaller photograph. Each dimension was decreased by 50%. The area of the smaller photograph was what fractional part of the area of the original photograph? Answer: Show all your work.

91

Practice

Answer the following. A store specializing in clothes for all sports prices each item at 130% of what the item cost the store. The price the store pays for an item is called the wholesale price. The price the store charges the customer is called the retail price. The 130% represents the amount the store paid for the item (100%) and an additional 30% to cover the cost of operating the store at a profit. Complete the following table to show what the retail price should be for each wholesale price. Round your answers to the nearest cent.

Clothing Retail Prices Wholesale Price $12.00 $20.00 $54.00 $29.50 $46.75 $17.50 $99.99 Retail Price (wholesale price + 30% or 130% of wholesale price)

92

Practice

Answer the following. Some students enjoy looking for shortcuts or mental math strategies to make calculations as easy as possible. Complete the following table.

Amounts Saved on Percentages off Original Price Original Price $ 25.00 $ 40.00 $ 75.00 $100.00 Amount Saved Amount Saved Amount Saved Amount Saved Amount Saved at 10% off at 20% off at 30% off at 40% off at 50% off $5.00 $12.00 $30.00 $50.00

1. What patterns do you see? __________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. What might be an easy way to use mental arithmetic to determine savings at a 40% discount? _________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Discuss your answer with others and see if they have a strategy different from yours.

93

Practice

Answer the following. Sales tax varies from state to state. At the time this was written, the state of Oregon had no sales tax, while the sales tax in the capital city of Florida was 7%. In other places, youre likely to find a number of different rates. Complete the following table to show how sales tax impacts the total cost of items of different prices.

Cost of Item with Tax Cost of Item without Tax $ 5.00 $ 25.00 $ 125.00 $ 625.00 $3,125.00 $3,156.25 $656.25 Cost of Item with 1% Tax Cost of Item with 3% Tax $5.15 $26.75 Cost of Item with 5% Tax Cost of Item with 7% Tax

94

Practice

Answer the following. Its time for Team Problem Solving again. Get ready, get set, go! You and the teams from pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. One team will be used more than once. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: Dexters grandparents hope he will go to college. During Dexters 7th grade year, they make an investment of $10,000 to earn 10% interest annually. If Dexter goes to college, the money will be used for college expenses. If he doesnt, his grandparents will use it for their retirement. What will the value of the investment be at the end of five years? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

95

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets make a table to keep our data organized.

Value of Investment Value of Beginning Interest Investment as of Year Earned Year Begins 1 2 3 4 5 $10,000 $11,000 $12,100 $13,310 $14,641 $1,000 $1,100 $1,210 $1,331 $1,464.10 Value of Investment as Year Ends $11,000 $12,100 $13,310 $14,641 $16,105.10

The investment will have a value of $16,105.10 at the end of five years. Feedback from the Coach: Does the amount of interest earned remain constant year after year? Is this a linear relationship? If we graphed the data, would the result be a line? Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

96

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: $10,000 x 0.10 = $1,000.00 ................... interest for first year $10,000 + $1,000 = $11,000.................. total in account $11,000 x 0.10 = $1,100.00 ................... interest for second year $11,000 + $1,100 = $12,100.................. total in account $12,100 x 0.10 = $1,210.00 ................... interest for third year $12,100 + $1,210 = $13,310 ................. total in account $13,310 x 0.10 = $1,331.00 ................... interest for fourth year $13,310 + $1,331 = $14,641 ................. total in account $14,641 x 0.10 = $1,464.10 ................... interest for fifth year $14,641 + $1,464.10 = $16,105.10 ....... total in account at end of 5 years. Feedback from the Coach: How could the product of a number and 0.10 be done mentally? Could this have saved some work and steps in problem solving? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

97

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: If the interest is 10%, they will get $1,000 each year for five years. The interest will be $5,000. They will have their $10,000 plus $5,000 for a total of $15,000. That was so easy. Did we do it right? Well 10% for 5 years is like 50%, 50% is like Theyll make

1 2 1 2

Were right. Whats taking everyone else so long? Feedback from the Coach: What happens to the $1,000 interest for the first year? Does it go into the account? Does it also earn interest during the second year? If so, how does this impact your work? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

98

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We need to multiply 0.10 times 10,000 five times. 10,000 x 0.10 = 1,000 10,000 x 0.10 = 1,000 10,000 x 0.10 = 1,000 10,000 x 0.10 = 1,000 10,000 x 0.10 = 1,000 In five years they have $5,000. Feedback from the Coach: How much did they start with? If they now have $5,000, did they lose money? If the interest each year goes into the account, how does that effect the interest the following year? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

99

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We know that at the end of each year, they will have what they started with plus the interest they earned. If we multiply 10,000 by 1.10, that is like 100% of what they started with and 10% of that amount in interest. Lets use our calculators to do it this way. 10,000 x 1.10 = 11,000 11,000 x 1.10 = 12,100 12,100 x 1.10 = 13,310 13,310 x 1.10 = 14,641 14,641 x 1.10 = 16.105.10 Hey! I bet we can do it faster than that if we just keep multiplying the last answer by 1.10. Lets try this. 10,000 x 1.10 x 1.10 x 1.10 x 1.10 x 1.10 = 16,105.10 Hey! It worked. If we wanted it for 10 years, we could just keep multiplying by 1.10! Feedback from the Coach: What would you do with your calculators if the interest rate was 6% per year? 9.5% per year? How much less would there be in the account at the end of 5 years if the interest had been 9.5% per year? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

100

1 10 1 10 1,000 1

of 10,000 is

1 10

10,000 10

= 1,000

The interest for the first year is 1,000. When we add that to 10,000 we get 11,000.

1 10

of 11,000 is

1 10

11,000 1

11,000 10

= 1,100

The interest for the second year is 1,100. When we add that to 11,000 we get 12,100.

1 10

of 12,100 is

1 10

12,100 1

12,100 10

= 1,210

The interest for the third year is 1,210. When we add that to 12,100, we get 13,310. Wow! I see a pattern! 1,000, 1,100, and 1,210. The interest increased 100 the second year, 110 the third year Ill bet it will increase 120 the fourth year. Lets try it and see.

1 10

of 13,310 is

1 10

13,310 1

13,310 10

= 1,331

Well, we tried. The pattern almost worked. Back to our original plan. The interest for the fourth year is 1,331. When we add that to 13,310, we get 14,641.

1 10

of 14,641 is

1 10

14,641 1

14,641 10

= 1,464.10

The interest for the fifth year is 1,464.10. When we add that to 13,310, we get 16,105.10. That is what would be in the account at the end of five years. It didnt double, but there is more than 1 1 2 times as much as they started with.

Unit 1: Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations 101

1 10

1 10

1 10

1 10

calculator for this!!! Feedback from the Coach: Which do you prefer working with, 1 multiplying by 10 or its decimal equivalent of 0.10? How are these like dividing by 10? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

102

Understand concrete and symbolic representations of rational numbers in real-world situations. (A.1.3.3) Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms, including integers, fractions, decimals, exponents. (A.1.3.4) Understand and use exponential and scientific notation. (A.2.3.1)

Understand and explain the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, including the inverse relationship of positive and negative numbers. (A.3.3.1) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers, including the appropriate application of the algebraic order of operations. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Understand and apply the concepts of range and central tendency (mean). (E.1.3.2)

Judging Calculations

In this lesson, we will use our common sense to judge calculations as correct and reasonable or as incorrect and unreasonable. We will review the order of operations, and we will work some problems requiring a variety of skills.

order of operations

parenthesis .......................................Please power ..................................................Pardon multiplication or division ................My Dear addition or subtraction ..................Aunt Sue

103

Practice

Answer the following. 1. A cellular telephone company has one plan that charges $10 per month and 15 cents for every minute the cell phone is used. The customer uses the phone for 30 minutes the first month. Consider the following two calculations and indicate which is correct and why. $10.00 + $0.15 x 30 = $10.15 x 30 = $304.50 The monthly bill should be for $10.00 + $0.15 x 30 = $10.00 + $4.50 = $14.50 because __________

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ . 2. A cube has six faces, and each one is a square. A formula for finding the surface area of a cube is 6e2 where e represents the measure of an edge. Two students are trying to find the surface area of a cube with an edge measure of 4 units. Consider the following two calculations and indicate which is correct and why. 6e2 = 6x4x4= 24 x 4 = 96 The surface area of the cube is 6e 2 = 6 x 42 = 242 = 576 square units because

104 Unit 1: Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

3. Two students are sharing an apartment while in college, and their rent is $400 per month. They may deduct $20 from the rent for each time they mow the grass. During June, they mowed three times. Which of the following calculations is correct for the rent owed and why? $400 $20 x 3= $400 $60 = $340 The correct amount of rent is $400 $20 x 3 = $380 x 3 = $1,140 because ____________

105

4. Four students are sharing the cost of a party for which the expenses are as follows.

Party Costs Items Food Party favors Invitations Soft drinks Cost $56.00 $14.00 $ 6.00 $12.00

Which of the following calculations is correct for the amount each should pay and why? $56 + $14 + $6 + $12 4 = $56 + $14 + $6 + $3 = $79 The amount each should pay is

56 + 14 + 6 + 12 4

= 88 = 22

4

because __________

106

Order of Operations

The four problems in the previous practice help us make sense of the appropriate order of operations and the need for parentheses at times in moving from words to equations. Although you have previously studied the rules for order of operations, here is a quick review. Rules for Order of Operations 1. If there are parentheses, we perform operations in the parentheses first. 2. We then find the value of any number raised to a power or work with exponents. 3. We then complete any multiplication or division as they occur, left to right. 4. We then complete any addition or subtraction as they occur, left to right. Please note the or in multiplication or division and in addition or subtraction in steps 3 and 4. This tells you that if multiplication occurs before division, do it first. If division occurs before multiplication, do it first. The same is true for addition and subtraction. The words, from left to right are very important words. Sometimes a silly sentence helps to remember the order of operations. Try this oneor make up one of your own. parenthesis ................................. Please power .......................................... Pardon multiplication or division ........ My Dear addition or subtraction ............ Aunt Sally If we are working to simplify expressions provided, we apply these rules.

107

If we are working with problem solving, it is important to write the equation in a way that clearly expresses the content of the problem and follows the rules for order of operations. Review problems 1-4 in the previous practice as you think about this. Evaluating the following expressions will also help you review the order of operations discussed in the previous practice. For example, evaluate the following when x = 3. 2x + 5 = 2(3) + 5 = 6+5= 11 6 2 + 7 + 3x = 6 2 + 7 + 3(3) = 62+7+9= 4+7+9= 11 + 9 = 20

I replaced x with 3. I multiplied first. I added or subtracted as they occurred, left to right.

108

Practice

Answer the following. Find the value of the following when x = 5

1. 3x 5 =

2. 3(x 5) =

3. (20 3)x =

4. 20 3x =

5. 100 3x2 =

6. (100 3x)2 =

7. 25 (3x + 4) =

8. 25 3x + 4 =

9. (6x - 3) 9 =

10. 6x - 3 9 =

Unit 1: Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations 109

Choose one of the expressions in numbers 1-10. 11. Create a word problem for which it could be used to solve. _____ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

110

Practice

Answer the following. Calculators may be used, but each step in your problem solving should be shown. 1. A cereal company offered 100 airline miles credit for each box of cereal purchased. If a person ate one box of cereal each week and 25,000 miles were required to earn a free round-trip flight, how many years would it take to earn the free flight? Round your answer to the nearest year. Answer: Show all your work.

2. On a quiz show, a contestant wins $100 if the first question is answered correctly. The amount doubles for each successive question answered correctly. If a contestant correctly answers 10 consecutive questions, what is the sum of his winnings? Answer: Show all your work.

111

3. In 1967 about 450 eagle pairs were believed to exist in the lower 48 states and the bird was declared an endangered species. In 1995 the status was changed from endangered to threatened. More than 100,000 pairs are now believed to be present. What is the smallest whole number that 450 can be multiplied by to get a product of 100,000 or more? Answer: Show all your work.

4. Charles Schulz, creator of the Peanuts comic strip, drew and wrote approximately 18,000 strips over a 50-year period. What was his mean number of strips per year?

112

5 5. In the decimal equivalent for 11 , what is the repetend, or digit or group of digits of the decimal that repeats continually?

6. A portion of a number line is divided into four equal parts. The first of the five tick marks shows a value of 0.2304, and the last of the five tick marks shows a value of 0.4304. What value does the second tick mark represent?

0.2304

0.4304

113

B

BA BS AE T I SB EA L L TC K EB A IC KT L ET L

8. What decimal number is three-eighths of the way between 0.875 and 0.876?

0.876

114

L L LL L LB LA B B A L LA L A A A B B ES B A ES B ES A B B A E L ES A B A L A S B B T S T T ES A E T E E B A E T B E K K IT C IT K L C T B IT C E K EL I C ES I E K T C IT A K C BL K E TA CT IK T BS C CI A ET AL T K I B T ET LL

B A

L L A T B E KE S IV T

L L LL AE B A A BS E T E T BE S TI KC K IC T

7. A season ticket for 30 home baseball games at a university sold for $105, and a season ticket for 7 home football games sold for $161. By what amount did the mean cost of a football game exceed that of a baseball game?

B A S TI EB V K BA L E TA S L EB TI VK ALL ET

9. The cost of a school lunch increased from $1.50 to $1.95. What was the percent of increase? Answer: Show all your work.

10. Johns diet allows him 30 grams of carbohydrates at snack time. If the chips he chooses have 24 grams of carbohydrates per ounce, how many ounces, at most, may John have? Answer: Show all your work.

115

11. The average distance from Earth to the sun is 9.3 x 107 miles, while the average distance from Pluto to the sun is 3.6 x 109. These distances are expressed in scientific notation. What is the positive difference in these distances? Express your answer in standard form. Answer: Show all your work.

12. The diameter of the Earth is 7,926 miles and the diameter of the sun is 864,000 miles. What would be a reasonable estimate of how many times greater the diameter of the sun is than the Earth? Explain how you made your estimate. Answer: Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

116

Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: It is reported that a Russian woman gave birth to 69 children in 27 different pregnancies, none of which were single births. If sets of twins were born 4 times as often as quadruplets and the number of times triplets were born exceeded the number of times quadruplets were born by 3 how many times were quadruplets born? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your solution: Show all your work.

117

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: twins - 4 times as often as quadruplets triplets 3 more than quadruplets Lets guess and check: If quadruplets were born 1 time, then triplets would be 1 + 3 or 4 times, and twins would be 1 x 4 or 4 times. 1 time quadruplets 4 times twins 4 times triplets total That is not enough. Lets try 2 times for quadruplets, triplets would be 2 + 3 or 5 and twins would be 2 x 4 or 8 times. 2 times for quadruplets 5 times for triplets 8 times for twins total = 8 children = 15 children = 16 children = 39 children = 4 children = 8 children = 12 children = 24 children

Were getting closer. Lets try 3 times for quadruplets. 3 times for quadruplets 6 times for triplets 12 times for twins total = = = = 12 18 24 54 children children children children

118

Were even closer. It must be 4 times for quadruplets! 4 times for quadruplets 7 times for triplets 16 times for twins total = = = = 16 21 32 69 children children children children

Quadruplets were born 4 times. Feedback from the Coach: If you were to do this problem again, would you increase the guess for quadruplets by one each time or would you choose a different guess based on the results of your first guess and the target number of 69? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

119

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Since the whole problem is based on the number of times quadruplets were born, well let x represent that number.

Possible Births Number of times quadruplets born = x Number of times twins born = 4x Number of times triplets born = x + 3 Number of quadruplets = 4x Number of twins = 2(4x) Number of triplets = 3(x+3)

We know the Russian woman had 69 children so 4x + 2(4x) + 3(x+3) 4x + 8x + 3x + 9 15x + 9 15x x = = = = = 69 69 69 60 4

Lets see if this works out in the problem. She had quadruplets 4 times so that is 16 children. She had twins 4 times as often as quadruplets, so that is 32 children. She had triplets 3 times more than quadruplets, or 7 times, so that is 21 children. 16 + 32 + 21 = 69 Yes! She had quadruplets 4 times. Feedback from the Coach: Look at the equation you wrote to solve the problem. 4x + 2(4x) + 3(x+3) = 69 If you replace each x with 4, is the equation true?

120

121

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets start with 69 children and see how many times she could have quadruplets. 69 divided by 4 = 17. If she had quadruplets 17 times that would be 68 children. Since she had some triplets and twins, that wont work. Lets let her have twins once and triplets once; that is 5 children. She could then have 64 more children. Does 4 go into 64 evenly? Bingo. She has quadruplets 16 times for 64 children, twins once for 2 children, and triplets once for 3 children. 64 + 2 + 3 = 69. It works!

She had quadruplets 16 times. Feedback from the Coach: What problem could you write to make your solution a valid one? How would your problem be different from the one you were given? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

122

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Can we find a pattern to help us solve the problem? Lets make a table.

Possible Births Number of Number of Times for Twins Times for Number of Total Triplets Number of Number of (4 Times as Number Number of Times for Many as of Twins Children Quadruplets Quadruplets (3 More Than Triplets Times for Times for Quadruplets) Quadruplets) 1 2 3 4 4 8 12 16 4 5 6 7 12 15 18 21 4 8 12 16 8 16 24 32 24 39 54 69

There is a pattern. The total number of children increases by 15 for every set of quadruplets. Neat! She had quadruplets 4 times. Feedback from the Coach: Using your pattern, how many children would she have had if criteria remained the same but she had 7 sets of quadruplets? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

123

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities ______ 2. a number approximated to a specified place ______ 3. the result of a multiplication ______ 4. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes ______ 5. an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns ______ 6. a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 ______ 7. any whole number with only two factors, 1 and itself Example: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, etc. ______ 8. any whole number not divisible by 2 Example: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 A. data

B. odd number

C. percent (%)

D. prime number

E. product

F. ratio

G. rounded number

H. table

124

Unit 2: Measurement

This unit emphasizes how estimation and measuring are used to solve problems.

Unit Focus

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations Understand the relative size of fractions and decimals. (A.1.3.2) Understand the structure of number systems other than the decimal system. (A.2.3.2) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtractions, multiplication and division of rational numbers, including the appropriate application of the algebraic order of operations. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Measurement Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding surface area and volume of rectangular solids and cylinders. (B.1.3.1) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding rates, distance, time, and angle measures. (B.1.3.2) Understand and describe how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affects its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. (B.1.3.3) Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4)

Use direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare given characteristic in either metric or customary units. (B.2.3.1) Solve problems involving units of measure and converts answers to a larger or smaller unit within either the metric or customary system. (B.2.3.2) Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving estimates of length, areas, and volume in either customary or metric system. (B.3.3.1) Select appropriate units of measurement. (B.4.3.1) Select and use appropriate instruments and techniques to measure quantities. (B.4.3.2) Geometry and Spatial Relations Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining to, regular and irregular geometric shapes in three dimensions. (C.1.3.1) Algebraic Thinking Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships, and functions through models, such as manipulatives, tables, expressions, and equations. (D.1.3.1)

Architect

often makes scale models of projects uses measuring techniques to determine dimensions of designs and plans

Vocabulary

Study the vocabulary words and definitions below. angle ................................................ the shape made by two rays extending from a common endpoint, the vertex; measures of angles vertex are described in degrees ()

area (A) ............................................ the inside region of a two-dimensional figure measured in square units Example: A rectangle with sides of four units by six units contains 24 square units or has an area of 24 square units. base (b) ............................................ the line or plane upon which a figure is thought of as resting

base base height base

base

si de

side

base

center of a circle ............................ the point from which all points on the circle are the same distance central angle (of a circle) .............. an angle whose vertex is at the center of a circle circle ................................................ the set of all points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center circumference (C) .......................... the perimeter of a circle; the distance around a circle

circumference

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127

congruent ( ~ = ) ................................ figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size cubic units ...................................... units for measuring volume cylinder ........................................... a three-dimensional figure with two parallel congruent circular bases Example: a can degree () ......................................... common unit used in measuring angles diameter (d) .................................... a line segment from any point on the circle passing through the center to another point on the circle

diameter

difference ........................................ the result of a subtraction Example: In 16 - 9 = 7, 7 is the difference. face ................................................... one of the plane surfaces bounding a threedimensional figure

edge

face

formula ........................................... a way of expressing a relationship using variables or symbols that represent numbers grid ................................................... a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines

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Unit 2: Measurement

height (h) ......................................... a line segment extending from the vertex or apex (highest point) of a figure to its base and forming a right angle with the base or basal plane

h h

length (l) ......................................... a one-dimensional measure that is the measurable property of line segments mean (or average) .......................... the arithmetic average of a set of numbers parallel ( ) ...................................... being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect percent (%) ..................................... a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 Example: The ratio is written as a whole number followed by a percent sign, such as 25% which means the ratio of 25 to 100. perimeter (P) .................................. the length of the boundary around a figure; the distance around a polygon pi () ................................................. the symbol designating the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, with an approximate value of either 3.14 or 22 7 prism ............................................... a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with congruent, polygonal bases and lateral faces that are all parallelograms

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129

product ............................................ the result of a multiplication Example: In 6 x 8 = 48, 48 is the product. quotient ........................................... the result of a division Example: In 42 7 = 6, 6 is the quotient. radius (r) ......................................... a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to a point on the circle or sphere; (plural: radii) rectangle ......................................... a parallelogram with four right angles rectangular prism .......................... a six-sided prism whose faces are all rectangular Example: a brick rounded number ........................... a number approximated to a specified place Example: A commonly used rule to round a number is as follows. If the digit in the first place after the specified place is 5 or more, round up by adding 1 to the digit in the specified place ( 461 rounded to the nearest hundred is 500). If the digit in the first place after the specified place is less than 5, round down by not changing the digit in the specified place (441 rounded to the nearest hundred is 400).

diameter radius

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Unit 2: Measurement

scale model ..................................... a model or drawing based on a ratio of the dimensions for the model and the actual object it represents Example: a map side ................................................... the edge of a two-dimensional geometric figure Example: A triangle has three sides. square .............................................. a rectangle with four sides the same length square units .................................... units for measuring area; the measure of the amount of an area that covers a surface sum .................................................. the result of an addition Example: In 6 + 8 = 14, 14 is the sum. surface area .................................... the sum of the areas of the faces of the (of a geometric solid) figure that create the geometric solid vertex ............................................... the common endpoint from which two rays begin or the point where two lines intersect; the point on a triangle or pyramid opposite to and farthest from the base; (plural: vertices); vertices are named clockwise or vertex counterclockwise side

si d e

de si

e sid

side

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131

volume (V) ...................................... the amount of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units Example: Both capacity and volume are used to measure empty spaces; however, capacity usually refers to fluids, whereas volume usually refers to solids. whole number ............................... any number in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 } width (w) ........................................ a one-dimensional measure of something side to side

w l l w

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Unit 2: Measurement

Unit 2: Measurement

Introduction

This unit emphasizes how estimation and measurement are used to solve problems. How big? How small? How long? How short? How far? How high? How low? How much? How deep? How hot? How cold? How dry? How wet? How soft? How hard? How strong? How weak? How fast? How slow? How dark? How light? If the list continued, what might you ask? Things that can be measured surround us! Think of ways you used measurement yesterday. It is fairly easy to think of ways you have used measurement in other classes such as music, art, science, home economics, business education, and social studies. It is more difficult to think of a class in which measurement was totally absent! This particular unit will have a major focus on packaging, but there will be some side trips. The lessons presented may enable you to contribute to a better world environmentally.

How high?

How?

How slow?

Unit 2: Measurement

133

Lesson One Purpose Understand the structure of number systems other than the decimal system. (A.2.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding surface area and volume of rectangular solids. (B.1.3.1) Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4) Select and use appropriate instruments and techniques to measure quantities. (B.4.3.2) Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining to, regular and irregular geometric shapes in three dimensions. (C.1.3.1)

As we become increasingly environmentally aware, we often notice that the packaging for a product may use more packaging than necessary for eye appeal and convenience in using. We will consider five products in this lesson. Well look at current packaging and possible alternatives to reduce waste in packaging. The packages in this lesson will all be rectangular prisms.

g spa

het

ti

BU

Volume (V) is the amount of space a solid contains. Volume is measured in cubic units. Since all of the measurements are in inches in the next set of practices, make a one cubic inch model to help you visualize during problem solving. A model is provided for you on the following page.

TT

U T

ER

T E

134

Unit 2: Measurement

BUTTER

Practice

Use the example below to create a cubic inch, or a three-dimensional figure with six faces. Trace or use a copy provided by your teacher. Cut, fold, and tape the square units together to make the cubic inch.

step 1 step 2 step 3 step 4

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135

Each of the boxes used in this lesson are rectangular prisms. Finding the area (A) of the base (b) of the prism, which is a rectangle, helps us visualize the number of cubic units that cover the base forming the first layer. The height (h) tells us how many of these layers will completely fill the prism. In the formula for volume (V) of a rectangular prism, V= l x w x h, the product of the length (l) and width (w) represents the number of cubic units needed for the bottom layer. We multiply that product by the height, which represents the number of layers, to get the total volume. (Remember: The volume of a rectangular prism is length times width times height, V = lwh.) Study the following. The rectangular prism below has the base shown and has a height of six. So 15 unit cubes (the length of 5 unit cubes times the width of 3 unit cubes) are needed to fill the bottom layer.

The rectangular prism described above will have a volume of 90 cubic units because six layers with 15 cubes in each layer are needed to fill the prism.

136

Unit 2: Measurement

Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. Use your cubic inch model from page 135 and the model of the rectangular prism on page 136 to help visualize each description. A box of stuffing mix measures 1.75 inches deep, 5 inches wide, and 8 inches high. 1. On a sheet of paper, draw a rectangle measuring 1.75 inches by 5 inches to represent the bottom of the box. 2. How many cubic inches will be needed to fill the bottom layer of this box? 3. You have found the number of cubic inches needed to fill one layer. If the box is 8 inches high, it will require 8 layers of cubic inches to fill it. How many cubic inches will be needed to fill the box? 4. The volume of the box is cubic inches.

A box of cereal measures 2.75 inches deep, 8.25 inches wide, and 12 inches high. 5. On a sheet of paper, draw a rectangle measuring 2.75 inches by 8.25 inches to represent the bottom of the box. 6. How many cubic inches will be needed to fill the bottom layer of this box?

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137

7. You have found the number of cubic inches needed to fill one layer. If the box is 12 inches high, it will require 12 layers of cubic inches to fill it. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the box?

cubic inches.

138

Unit 2: Measurement

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with congruent, polygonal bases and lateral faces that are all parallelograms ______ 2. the line or plane upon which a figure is thought of as resting ______ 3. the inside region of a twodimensional figure measured in square units ______ 4. the amount of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units ______ 5. a six-sided prism whose faces are all rectangular F. rectangular prism ______ 6. a parallelogram with four right angles ______ 7. units for measuring volume G. volume (V) A. area (A)

B. base (b)

C. cubic units

D. prism

E. rectangle

Unit 2: Measurement

139

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. face formula height (h) length (l) product square units width (w)

___________________________ 1. units for measuring area; the measure of the amount of an area that covers a surface ___________________________ 2. one of the plane surfaces bounding a three-dimensional figure ___________________________ 3. the result of a multiplication ___________________________ 4. a one-dimensional measure of something side to side

w l l w

___________________________ 5. a one-dimensional measure that is the measurable property of line segments ___________________________ 6. a way of expressing a relationship using variables or symbols that represent numbers ___________________________ 7. a line segment extending from the vertex or apex (highest point) of a figure to its base and forming a right angle with the base or basal plane

140

Unit 2: Measurement

Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. A box of crackers measures 4.25 inches deep, 9.75 inches wide, and 4.5 inches high. 1. On a sheet of paper, draw a rectangle measuring 4.25 inches by 9.75 inches to represent the bottom of the box. You may use grid paper to make a scale model or drawing, if you prefer. (See copies of two different grid-sized papers in Appendix B) 2. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the bottom layer of this box? 3. You have found the number of cubic inches needed to fill one layer. If the box is 4.5 inches high, it will require 4.5 layers of cubic inches to fill it. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the box?

cubic inches.

A box of cookies measures 2.25 inches deep, 6 inches wide, and 9.25 inches high. 5. On a sheet of paper, draw a rectangle measuring 2.25 inches by 6 inches to represent the bottom of the box. You may use grid paper to make a scale drawing, if you prefer.

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141

6. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the bottom layer of this box? 7. If the box is 9.25 inches high, how many cubic inches are needed to fill the box? 8. The volume of the box is cubic inches.

A box of pasta measures 2.5 inches deep, 5 inches wide, and 8.75 inches high.

A S T A P

9. On a sheet of paper, draw a rectangle measuring 2.5 inches by 5 inches to represent the bottom of the box. You may use grid paper to make a scale drawing if you prefer. 10. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the bottom layer of this box? 11. If the box is 8.75 inches high, how many cubic inches are needed to fill the box? 12. The volume of the box is cubic inches.

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Unit 2: Measurement

Practice

Answer the following. The box of stuffing mix measured 1.75 inches deep, 5 inches wide, and 8 inches high. You drew a rectangle 1.75 inches by 5 inches for number 1 in practice on page 137 to represent the bottom of the box of stuffing mix. 1. On a sheet of paper, draw a rectangle 5 inches by 8 inches to represent the front of the box and another rectangle 1.75 inches by 8 inches to represent one side of the box. 2. To determine the surface area of the box, you must find the area of each of its six faces. The box has a top and a bottom, a front and a back, and two sides. Find the following areas. 1.75 by 5 = 5 by 8 = 1.75 by 8 = square inches for the bottom square inches for the front square inches for the side

3. The sum of the areas of the bottom, front, and side is square inches. Twice the sum would allow for the top, back, and other side, since they are congruent ( ~ = ) to the bottom, front, and side. Twice the sum is 4. The surface area is square inches. square inches.

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143

5. A new box of stuffing mix might measure 4.125 inches deep, 4.125 inches wide, and 4.125 inches high. The volume of this box rounded to the nearest whole number is cubic inches.

Since all three dimensions are the same, the new box is a cube. Each of the six faces of the cube is a square with a side measure of 4.125 inches. The area of one of these square faces is square

inches (rounded to the nearest tenth). Therefore, the surface area of this box would be the sum of the areas of all six faces or square inches (rounded to the nearest whole number). 6. The volume of the new box is almost the same as the first box, but the surface area of the new box is the first box. square inches less than

144

Unit 2: Measurement

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. any number in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 } ______ 2. figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size ______ 3. the result of an addition ______ 4. the sum of the areas of the faces of the figure that create the geometric solid ______ 5. a model or drawing based on a ratio of the dimensions for the model and the actual object it represents ______ 6. a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines ______ 7 a number approximated to a specified place C. rounded number A. congruent (~ =)

B. grid

D. scale model

E. side

F. sum

G. surface area

H. whole number

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145

Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. The box of cereal measured 2.75 inches deep, 8.25 inches wide, and 12 inches high. You drew a rectangle 2.75 inches by 8.25 inches for number 5 in practice on page 137 to represent the bottom of the box of cereal. 1. On a sheet of paper, make a scale drawing of a rectangle 8.25 inches by 12 inches to represent the front of the box and another rectangle 2.75 inches by 12 inches to represent one side of the box. 2. To determine the surface area of the box, you must find the area of each of its six faces. The box has a top and a bottom, a front and a back, and two sides. Find the following areas. 2.75 by 8.25 = 8.25 by 12 = 2.75 by 12 = square inches for the bottom square inches for the front square inches for the side

3. The sum of the areas of the bottom, front, and side is square inches. Twice the sum would allow for the top, back, and other side, since they are congruent to the bottom, front, and side. Twice the sum is 4. The surface area is square inches. square inches.

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Unit 2: Measurement

5. A new box of cereal might measure 6.5 inches deep, 6.5 inches wide, and 6.5 inches high. The volume of this box is inches. The surface area is square inches. cubic

6. The volume of the new box is almost the same as the first box, but the surface area of this box is first box. The box of crackers measured 4.25 inches deep, 9.75 inches wide and 4.5 inches high. You drew a rectangle 4.25 inches by 9.75 inches for number 1 in practice on page 141 to represent the bottom of the box of crackers. 7. On a sheet of paper, make a scale drawing of a rectangle 9.75 inches by 4.5 inches to represent the front of the box and another rectangle 4.25 inches by 4.5 inches to represent one side of the box. 8. To determine the surface area of the box, you must find the area of each of its six faces. The box has a top and a bottom, a front and a back, and two sides. Find the following areas. 4.25 by 9.75 = 9.75 by 4.5 = 4.25 by 4.5 = square inches for the bottom square inches for the front square inches for the side square inches less than the

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147

9. The sum of the areas of the bottom, front, and side is square inches. Twice the sum would allow for the top, back, and other side, since they are congruent to the bottom, front, and side. Twice the sum is 10. The surface area is square inches. square inches.

11. A new box of crackers might measure 5.6 inches deep, 5.6 inches wide, and 5.6 inches high. The volume of this box is cubic inches. The surface area is square inches.

12. The volume of the new box is almost the same as the first box, but the surface area of this box is first box. square inches less than the

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Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. The box of cookies measured 2.25 inches deep, 6 inches wide and 9.25 inches high. You drew a rectangle 2.25 inches by 6 inches for number 5 in practice on page 141 to represent the bottom of the box of cookies. 1. On a sheet of paper, make a scale drawing of a rectangle 6 inches by 9.25 inches to represent the front of the box and another rectangle 2.25 inches by 9.25 inches to represent one side of the box. 2. To determine the surface area of the box, you must find the area of each of its six faces. The box has a top and a bottom, a front and a back, and two sides. Find the following areas. 2.25 by 6 = 6 by 9.25 = 2.25 by 9.25 = square inches for the bottom square inches for the front square inches for the side

3. The sum of the areas of the bottom, front, and side is square inches. Twice the sum would allow for the top, back, and other side, since they are congruent to the bottom, front, and side. Twice the sum is 4. The surface area is square inches. square inches.

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5. A new box of cookies might measure 5 inches deep, 5 inches wide, and 5 inches high. The volume of this box is cubic inches. The surface area is inches. 6. The volume of the new box is almost the same as the first box, but the surface area of the new box is the first box. square inches less than square

The box of pasta measured 2.5 inches deep, 5 inches wide, and 8.75 inches high. You drew a rectangle 2.5 inches by 5 inches in practice for number 9 on page 142 to represent the bottom of the box of pasta.

A S T A P

7. On a sheet of paper, make a scale drawing of a rectangle 5 inches by 8.75 inches to represent the front of the box and another rectangle 2.5 inches by 8.75 inches to represent one side of the box. 8. To determine the surface area of the box, you must find the area of each of its six faces. The box has a top and a bottom, a front and a back, and two sides. Find the following areas. 2.5 by 5 = 5 by 8.75 = 2.5 by 8.75 = square inches for the bottom square inches for the front square inches for the side

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9. The sum of the areas of the bottom, front, and side is square inches. Twice the sum would allow for the top, back, and other side, since they are congruent to the bottom, front, and side. Twice the sum is 10. The surface area is square inches. square inches.

11. A new box of pasta might measure 4.8 inches deep, 4.8 inches wide, and 4.8 inches high. The volume of this box is inches. The surface area is square inches. cubic

12. The volume of the new box is almost the same as the first box, but the surface area of the new box is the first box. square inches less than

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151

Practice

Answer the following. For each of the five original boxes in the previous practices, a new box that was a cube was considered. The surface area for a cube is conveniently found since all six faces have the same number of square inches. Six times the area of one face will be the surface area of the cube. In your own words, explain why the surface area decreased when we went from an original package to a cube with the same, or almost the same, volume. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to Unit 1 pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: The box of cereal addressed in the previous practices of this lesson had a width of 2.75 inches, a length of 8.25 inches, and a height of 12 inches. The volume of the box was 272.25 cubic inches. Students were asked to find new boxes with the same, or almost the same, volume but with less surface area. They were asked to find alternatives other than the cube explored in the previous practices. Now, you are asked to do the following. Verify that the volume of the suggested new packaging is within 5 cubic units of the original volume. Put the packages in order from least surface area to greatest surface area.

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Package dimensions to be considered in cubic units. a. 8 by 4.25 by 8 b. 8.25 by 4.25 by 7.875 c. 6 by 5.625 by 8

d. 6.25 by 5.5 by 8 Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: 1(a) Circle the correct answer. If b is chosen, justify your answer. a. All are within 5 cubic units of the original volume which was 272.25 cubic inches. b. All are not within 5 cubic units of the original volume because is not within 5 cubic units of the original volume which was 272.25 cubic inches. 1(b) List packages (a, b, c, and d above) in order of surface areas from least to greatest. , Show all your work. , ,

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Team members all agree to take one package, find its volume and surface area, and report back to team. a. Volume = 272; Surface area = 264 b. Volume = 276.1171875; Surface area = 267 c. Volume = 270; Surface area = 235.5 d. Volume = 256.75; Surface area = 275 Okay.... d is the one that is not within five units of the original volume. In order: c, a, b, d Feedback from the Coach: Since each of you did one, why dont each of you do another one and compare your answer with the original answer. If there are differences, work them out. Be sure you dont confuse surface area with volume. Also, be careful not to reverse digits in numbers as you share answers. Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Finding the volume is easy since all we have to do is find the product of the dimensions or the measurements of length, width, and height. Lets work on the surface area first! Think of looking at a package from a corner. Its shaped like a Y. The stem of the Y is like the height of the package and the two edges on the top of the package are like the length and width.

len

gth

height

wid

th

4.25

If we put the dimensions on the Y, it is easy to see how to find the surface area. Look at how I see it with a Y.

8 x 8 = 64

64 34 +34 132

132 x2 264

8 8 x 4.25 = 34 4.25

8 4.25 x 8 = 34

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Lets all try each of these and compare answers. Surface areas: a. 264 b. 267 c. 253.5 d. 256.75 To put these in order from least to greatest: c, d, a, b Now for the easy part! Lets check the volumes. a. 272 b 276

c. 270 d. 275 All are within 5 cubic units. Feedback from the Coach: The Y is a powerful visual aid for finding surface area of a rectangular prism. Could you use your Y to write a formula or a rule for finding surface area? Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Since the all statement comes first, it is probably correct, so lets not even check volume. Now, when the cube was the new package, it had less surface area. So which of the packages is closest to a cube? C or Dboth have dimensions pretty close together. Which is most unlike a cube? A Lets toss a coin for C and D. Heads its C, tails will be D. Okay: In order: D, C, B, A Feedback from the Coach: Making assumptions about which statement comes first shows you are thinking ahead. Making guesses about packages and their dimensions shows you are applying what you have learned about a cube. Now go back and test your assumptions and guesses by applying the math skills you used in the previous practices. Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets all work together to find the area and surface area for the first one. Then well see if were ready to divide up the work on the others. For the volume, we find the number of cubic units to fill the bottom layer. 8 x 4.25 = 34 It takes 34 cubic units for the bottom layer; we need 8 layers since the height is 8. 34 x 8 = 272 cubic units With the dimensions of 8 by 4.25 by 8, we multiply the 8 by the 4.25, the 8 by the 8, and the 4.25 by the 8. 8 x 4.25 = 34 8 x 8 = 64 4.25 x 8 = 34 We add these and double the sum. 2 (34 + 64 + 34) =2 (132) = 264 cubic inches Do we all understand? Wait. How did we know what to multiply by what? The dimensions 8 by 4.25 by 8 are like the length, width, and height. We multiply the length by the width to get the bottom, the length by the height to get the front, and the width times the height to get the side. Then we doubled the sums to include the back, top, and other side. lxw lxh wxh

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Okay, now we all understand and can divide up the work. All members work the others, compare and conclude the following. None is more than 5 off on the volume. Order: c, d, a, b Feedback from Coach: Taking time to make sure each member of the team understands and can complete the task correctly is an important part of team work and problem solving. You are all to be commended for making each member comfortable enough to ask for help and in giving help. Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Understand the structure of number systems other than the decimal system. (A.2.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding surface area and volume of cylinders. (B.1.3.1) Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4) Select and use appropriate instruments and techniques to measure quantities. (B.4.3.2) Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining to, regular geometric shapes in three dimensions. (C.1.3.1)

Cylinders

All of the containers in the first lesson were prisms. We will look at cylinders in this lesson. Most cans are cylinders. Paper towel rolls, mailing tubes, and drain pipes are also cylinders.

base

base A cylinder is a three-dimensional figure that has two identical circular bases. These bases are congruent and parallel ( ). A cylinder has one curved surface and two curved edges. It does not have a vertex.

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Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. A can of bread crumbs has a diameter (d) of 3.5 inches and a height of 6.75 inches. (Remember: The diameter is a straight line that passes through the center of a circle and divides the circle exactly in half.)

diameter

1. On a sheet of paper, draw a circle with a diameter of 3.5 inches to represent the bottom of the can. 2. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the bottom layer of this can? You may make a scale drawing on grid paper. Then the full square units and part square units could be counted for an approximation or the formula for area of a circle could be used. (Remember: To find the area of a circle, you need to diameter know its radius (r). The radius of a circle is 1 2 of the radius diameter. The formula for area of a circle is A = r2. The symbol stands for pi, and pi is approximately equal to 3.14 or 22 7 . Also remember: r2 is the radius times itself, in other words, r2 = r x r.) Answer: 3. If the can is 6.75 inches high, how many cubic inches are needed to fill the can? You found the number of cubic inches necessary for the bottom layer. If the height is 6.75, then 6.75 layers would be needed. Answer: 4. The volume of the can is cubic inches.

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A can of oats has a diameter of 4 inches and a height of 7 inches. 5. On a sheet of paper, draw a circle with a diameter of 4 inches to represent the bottom of the can. 6. How many cubic inches are needed to fill the bottom layer of this can? You may make a scale drawing on grid paper. Then the full square units and part square units could be counted for an approximation, or the formula for area of a circle (A = r2) could be used. (See tip under number 2 on previous page) Answer: 7. If the height of the can is 7 inches, how many cubic inches would be needed to fill the can? Answer: 8. The volume of the can is cubic inches.

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Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. A can of chocolate milk mix has a diameter of 5 inches and a height of 8.5 inches. 1. On a sheet of paper, draw a circle with a diameter of 5 inches to represent the bottom of the can. You may make a scale drawing on grid paper if you prefer. 2. How many cubic inches would be needed to fill the bottom layer of this can? Answer: 3. If the height of the can is 8.5 inches, how many cubic inches would be needed to fill the can? Answer: 4. The volume of the can is cubic inches.

A can of grated cheese has a diameter of 2.75 inches and a height of 6 inches. 5. On a sheet of paper, draw a circle with a diameter of 2.75 inches to represent the bottom of the can. You may make a scale drawing on grid paper if you prefer. 6. How many cubic inches would be needed to fill the bottom layer of this can? Answer: 7. If the height of the can is 6 inches, how many cubic inches would be needed to fill the can? Answer: 8. The volume of the can is cubic inches.

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The surface area of a cylinder requires some visualization. If we want to cover a cylinder with gift wrap, leaving no holes and no overlap, we might first cut two circles for the top and bottom of the cylinder. You drew one to model the bottom of a can in the two previous practices. If you doubled the area of the circle for the top or the bottom of the cylinder, you would know the number of square inches of gift wrap needed to cover both the top and the bottom.

circumference

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Think of holding a can of soup in your hand and removing the wrapper. You would have a rectangular piece of paper in your hand. The length would be the circumference (C) of the can of soup, and the width would be the height of the can.

On the following page is a model of a flat pattern for a cylinder. Here are some formulas you may need for practices in this lesson. Use the formula A = r2 to find the area of circular base. Use the formula A = lw to find the area of the rectangular paper to cover the curved surface. Then add the areas to find the surface area total.

Unit 2: Measurement

height

165

Practice

Use the example below to create a cylinder. Trace or use a copy provided by your teacher for you to cut, fold, and tape.

step 1 diameter height step 2 step 3 step 4 diameter height

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Practice

Answer the following. The can of bread crumbs had a diameter of 3.5 inches and a height of 6.75 inches. To find the surface area, we need to find the area of the circle forming the bottom or base of the cylinder and double it to include the top. We then need to find the circumference of the circular base to determine the length of the rectangle that wraps around the cylinder. A string could be wrapped around the circle and then measured, or the formula for circumference of a circle could be used. (Note: If you choose to measure with a string, you could create a 3-dimensional cylinder to scale.)

top base

radius

6.75 height

bottom base

bottom base

radius

Circumference (C) = pi () times diameter (d) C = d or Circumference (C) = 2 times pi () times radius (r) C = 2r Circumference is the distance (d) or perimeter (P) around a circle. Look at the can of bread crumbs above. The width of the rectangle is the same as the height of the cylinder. 1. Area of circular base with a diameter of 3.5 inches = square inches.

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2. Circumference of circle =

inches.

3. Area of rectangle: circumference times height = square inches. This is the same as length (circumference of circle unrolled) times width (height of cylinder). 4. Surface area = area of circular base area of circular base + area of rectangle square inches The can of oats had a diameter of 4 inches and a height of 7 inches. 5. Area of circular base with a diameter of 4 inches = square inches. 6. Circumference of circle = inches. square

7. Area of rectangle: circumference times height = inches. 8. Surface area = area of circular base area of circular base + area of rectangle

square inches

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Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. The can of chocolate milk mix had a diameter of 5 inches and a height of 8.5 inches. 1. Area of circular base with a diameter of 5 inches = square inches. 2. Circumference of circle = 3. Area of rectangle = inches. square inches.

4. Surface area = area of circular base area of circular base + area of rectangle square inches The can of grated cheese had a diameter of 5 inches and a height of 6 inches. 5. Area of circular base with a diameter of 5 inches = square inches. 6. Circumference of circle = 7. Area of rectangle = 8. inches. square inches.

Surface area = area of circular base area of circular base + area of rectangle square inches

Unit 2: Measurement

169

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. _____ _____ 1. the point from which all points on the circle are the same distance 2. the length of the boundary around a figure; the distance around a polygon 3. the symbol designating the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, with an approximate value of either 3.14 or 22 7 4. the perimeter of a circle; the distance around a circle 5. a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to a point on the circle or sphere 6. the set of all points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center 7. a line segment from any point on the circle passing through the center to another point on the circle 8. the common endpoint from which two rays begin or the point where two lines intersect 9. being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect A. center of a circle

B. circle

_____

C. circumference (C)

_____ _____

D. cylinder

E. diameter (d)

_____

F. parallel ( )

_____

G. perimeter (P)

_____

H. pi ()

_____

I. radius (r)

_____ 10. a three-dimensional figure with two parallel congruent circular bases

J. vertex

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Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to Unit 1 pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: A farmer has 50.24 feet of wire fence that is 4 feet high. He wants to enclose an area to place hay. If he makes an area that is square, each side of the square would be feet in length.

If he makes an area that is circular, the diameter of the circle would be feet in length.

Hay could be piled up to a height of 4 feet in either enclosure. Find the volumes of each, the cylinder and the prism, to determine which would allow the most space for hay storage (Refer to Unit 2, Lesson 1 for the volume of a prism.) Support your answer with your work. Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think.

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Your Solution: 1. a. Each side of the square will be b. The diameter of the circle will be c. The volume of the square prism will be d. The volume of the cylinder will be e. The Show all your work. Team: ___________________________________________________________ holds more hay. feet in length. feet in length. cubic feet. cubic feet.

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Teams Discussion and Solution: The square will be the easiest, so lets do it first. 50.24 divided by 4 is 12.56 12.56 x 12.56 = 157.7536 That is how many cubic feet will fit on the bottom layer. Its 4 feet tall, so 4 x 157.7536 = 631.0144 cubic feet. If r2 = 50.24, then we need to divide 50.24 by 3.14. That gives us 16. If r2 is 16, then r is 4. The bottom layer would be 42 times pi or 50.24. Wow, we had this answer to begin with....Why did we do all that work? If the bottom layer holds 50.24 cubic feet, then 4 times that is 200.96. The square holds 3 times more. Feedback from the Coach: Are we using the wire to cover the ground? No. Then how are we using it? Were using it to make the circle. What is that called? Is it the area or the circumference? What is the formula for area of the circle? What is the formula for circumference of the circle? Go back and reconsider your work. Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets just reason this out. A circle fits inside a square, so the square has to be bigger. This is no problem! Feedback from the Coach: Draw a square and inside it draw a circle. Let the square have a side measure of 1. What is its perimeter? 4 units Correct.

1 unit

1 unit

If the square has a side measure of 1, what is the diameter of the circle? 1 If the diameter of the circle is 1, what is the circumference? 3.14 Is that the same as 4? Remember that the perimeter of the square is 50.24 and the circumference of the circle is 50.24. Try again! Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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1 unit

1 unit

Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets try this with 2 pieces of paper. Fold one sheet into fourths and tape it together. Well roll the other into a circle and tape it. Lets fill the cylinder shape with some of the Styrofoam filler from the storage cabinet. Now lets see if it will fill the square prism shape. Wow, it overflows. The cylinder holds more. Lets figure out why. 50.24 divided by 4 is 12.56, so the square base is 12.56 feet on each side, and the prism is 4 feet high. The volume is 631.0144. 50.24 divided by 3.14 is 16. If the diameter is 16, the radius is 8. 82 times pi () = 200.96. That means 200.96 cubic units fit on the first layer. With 4 layers, the volume is 803.84. That is a lot more space for hay. 803.84 631.0144 = 172.8256 or about 173 cubic feet more. Feedback from the Coach: Id love to see you take two more sheets of paper and fold one into thirds making the sides of a triangular prism, and one into sixths, making a hexagonal prism. Use the same filler to compare volumes. Perhaps you could help the class do your experiment. Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: If the sides of the square are 50.24, then the bottom layer can hold 2,524.0576 cubic feet. If it is 4 feet tall, then 4 layers of 2,524.0576 would make 10,096.23 cubic feet. If the circle has a diameter of 50.24, then the radius is 25.12. The bottom layer would hold 1,981.3852 cubic units, and 4 layers of 1,981.3852 is 7,924.5408 cubic units. The squared enclosure will hold the most hay. Feedback from the Coach: How much of the wire did the farmer have? 50.24 feet Can he enclose a square area if he uses all the wire on one side? Can the diameter be 50.24 feet if the wire must go all the way around the circular enclosure? Read carefully and try again. Your formulas and work are accurate. Consider the dimensions used. Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Understand the relative size of fractions and decimals. (A.1.3.2) Understand the structure of number systems other than the decimal system. (A.2.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding surface area and volume of rectangular solids. (B.1.3.1) Understand and describe how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affects its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. (B.1.3.3) Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving estimates of length, areas, and volume in either customary or metric system. (B.3.3.1) Select appropriate units of measurement. (B.4.3.1) Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships, and functions through models, such as manipulatives, tables, expressions, and equations. (D.1.3.1)

Volume of a Prism

In this lesson, we will consider how changing one of the dimensions, two of the dimensions, or all of the dimensions affects the volume of a prism.

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Practice

Answer the following. 1. Complete the following table.

Possible Dimensions of a Prism Volume Volume Length Width in Height in Cubic Length Width in Height in Cubic in Units Units in Units Units in Units Units in Units Units 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 30 30 30 30 30 4 6 8 10 1 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 60

2. When the length was multiplied by 2, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 3. When the length was multiplied by 3, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 4. When the length was multiplied by 4, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 5. When the length was multiplied by 5, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 6. When the length was multiplied by 1 2 , the volume was times as great as the original volume.

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Practice

Answer the following. 1. Complete the following table.

Possible Dimensions of a Prism Length Width in Height Volume Length Width in Height Volume in Cubic in Cubic in Units Units in Units in Units Units in Units Units Units 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 30 30 30 30 30 4 6 8 10 1 6 9 12 15 1.5 5 5 5 5 5 120

2. When the length and width were multiplied by 2, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 3. When the length and width were multiplied by 3, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 4. When the length and width were multiplied by 4, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 5. When the length and width were multiplied by 5, the volume was times as great as the original volume. 6. When the length and width were multiplied by

1 2

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179

Practice

Answer the following. 1. Complete the table.

Possible Dimensions of a Prism Volume Volume Length Width in Height Length Width in Height in Cubic in Cubic in Units Units in Units in Units Units in Units Units Units 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 30 30 30 30 30 4 6 8 10 1 6 9 12 15 1.5 10 15 20 25 2.5 240

2. When the length, width, and height were multiplied by 2, the volume was times as great as the original volume.

3. When the length, width, and height were multiplied by 3, the volume was times as great as the original volume.

4. When the length, width, and height were multiplied by 4, the volume was times as great as the original volume.

5. When the length, width, and height were multiplied by 5, the volume was times as great as the original volume.

1 2

6. When the length, width, and height were multiplied by volume was

, the

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Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on page 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to Unit 1 pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: A box of detergent now sells for $3.60. Its dimensions are 2.5 inches by 8 inches by 12 inches. The company would like to make a smaller box, a larger box, and one super large box. It would like to keep the price per cubic unit consistent. If the dimensions of the smaller box are 1.25 inches by 4 inches by 6 inches, what should the price be and why? If the dimensions of the larger box are 5 inches by 8 inches by 12 inches, what should the price be and why? If the dimensions of the super large box are 5 inches by 16 inches by 24 inches, what should the price be and why? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think.

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Your Solution: 1a. For the smaller box the price should be because _____

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ b. For the larger box the price should be because ______

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ c. For the super large box the price should be because _

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: The volume of the original box would be 2.5 x 8 x 12 which is 240 cubic inches. If the cost was $3.60, then 3.60 divided by 240 is 0.015 per cubic inch. The volume of the small box would be 1.25 x 4 x 6 which is 30 cubic inches. 30 times 0.015 is 0.45. It should cost $0.45. The volume of the large box would be 5 x 8 x 12 which is 480 cubic inches. 480 times 0.015 is 7.2. It should cost $7.20. The volume of the super large box would be 5 x 16 x 24 which is 1920 cubic inches. 1920 times 0.015 is 28.8. It should cost $28.80. The reason for each cost is charging 0.015 for each cubic inch no matter what size box is purchased. Feedback from the Coach: Look at relationships among the dimensions and areas in this problem and in the previous parts of this lesson. Can you find a pattern? Could you write a rule for how changes in dimensions effect area? Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: The small box is half as large as the original box, so it should cost half as much. One-half of $3.60 is $1.80. It should cost $1.80 The large box doubled one dimension and left the others alone. That makes the new box 1 1 3 times as large. 1

1 3

It should cost $4.80. The super large box doubled all the dimensions, so it will be twice as big. Two times $3.60 is $7.20. It should cost $7.20. Feedback from the Coach: What is the volume of the original box? What is the volume of the small box? What is the difference between the two boxes? Is the volume of the small box 1 2 the volume of the large box? Do you want to revisit your answers? Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: The small box is half as large, and half of $3.60 is $1.80. We know that a package half as big usually cost more than half as much, so lets charge $2.00 for this one. The large box doubled one dimension. That will make it twice as big. Twice $3.60 is $7.20. We know the price is usually less when you buy more, so lets charge $7.00. The super large box doubled 3 dimensions, so it will be 6 times as big. Six times $3.60 is $21.60. We should charge less since it is super big, so lets charge $20.00. Feedback from the Coach: Read the problem again. What does the word consistent mean? Start with one cube with dimensions of 1 by 1 by 1 and volume of 1. Double one dimensionthe length or width or height. What is the volume? Double two dimensions. What is the volume? Double three dimensions. What is the volume? When you doubled 1 dimension, the volume was When you doubled 2 dimensions, the volume was When you doubled 3 dimensions, the volume was times as great. times as great. times as great.

Unit 2: Measurement 185

Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets get some cubes from the cabinet and see if we can make this easier. Lets build a cube that is 2 by 2 by 2 and let it represent the original box. That takes 8 cubes. If we cut each dimension in half, we get a 1 by 1 by 1. That takes 1 cube which is

1 8

the original.

1 8

If the small box has each dimension cut in half, then it must be the original.

as big as

We cant build with 2.5 cubes to be sure, so lets try a 2 by 8 by 12. Wow, we need more cubes! We need 192. Okay. We have our 2 by 8 by 12. Lets make it half as wide, so instead of 2, it will be 1 unit wide. Wow, that took away half of our cubes. We now have 96 cubes. Now, lets make what is left one-half as high. That takes one-half of the 96! We now have 48. Lets make what is left one-half as long. That takes one-half of the 48! Were down to 24 cubes. Is 24 really

1 8

of 192?

1 8

Since the 2 by 2 by 2 worked as well as the big one, lets just use it to model the next problem. There probably are not enough cubes in the cabinet to build bigger and bigger. The large box doubles one dimension only.

186 Unit 2: Measurement

Instead of a 2 by 2 by 2 using 8 cubes, lets build a 4 by 2 by 2. It uses 16 cubes which is twice as many. We should charge twice as much or $7.20. For the super large, each dimension doubles. Instead of the 2 by 2 by 2 using 8 cubes, we need a 4 by 4 by 4 which will use 64 cubes. That is 8 times as many. This price should be 8 times $3.60 or $28.80. Think a minute! We would have needed 8 times 192 cubes to build this one! That is 1,536 cubes. Yeah, and that didnt include them all. Remember, the box in the problem was 5 by 16 by 24. That would have taken 1,920 cubes. That means 1920 must equal 8 times the original volume. Lets check this. 2.5 x 8 x 12 = 240 240 x 8 = 1,920. Were right! Feedback from the Coach: What would happen if we tripled 1 dimension? 2 dimensions? 3 dimensions? Can you write a rule? Your Suggestions to the Team: ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Understand the structure of number systems other than the decimal system. (A.2.3.2) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtractions, multiplication and division of rational numbers, including the appropriate application of the algebraic order of operations. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding surface area and volume of cylinders. (B.1.3.1) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding rates, distance, time, and angle measures. (B.1.3.2) Use direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare in given characteristic in either metric or customary units. (B.2.3.1) Solve problems involving units of measure and converts answers to a larger or smaller unit within either the metric or customary system. (B.2.3.2)

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In this lesson, knowledge of measurement will be applied as you solve problems. The first five problems deal with data from the Glacier Park Lodge in Montana. Glacier Park Lodge was built in 1912 in Montana. Sixty columns support the verandas or porches and form a colonnade in the lobby. A colonnade is a series of columns set at regular intervals, usually supporting the base of a roof structure. Each column is a log from gigantic Douglas fir or cedar trees. The trees were probably 500 to 800 years old when cut, and all the logs still retain their bark. Mule teams dragged the logs from the railhead to the building site. Each has a diameter of 36 to 42 inches, a height of 40 feet, and a weight of approximately 15 tons.

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189

Practice

Answer the following. Refer to Appendix A in this book for the formulas and equivalent measures as needed. Show all your work. When a calculator is used, show the problem entered and the calculators result. 1. Each flat car on a train held two of these timbers. What was the weight, in pounds, of the load for a flat car? Answer:

2. What is the minimum or smallest circumference of a column to the nearest inch? Round your answer to the nearest inch. Answer:

3. What is the maximum or greatest possible circumference of a column? Round your answer to the nearest inch. Answer:

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4. If the diameter of a column is 42 inches, the height is 40 feet, and the weight is 15 tons, what is the mean or average weight per cubic foot to the nearest pound? Answer:

5. If the lodge accommodates 500 people and is open from April 30 through September 30, what is the maximum number of people that can be accommodated for two-night stays in one season? Answer:

(Remember: There is an old rhyme to help remember the number of days in each month. Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November. All the rest have 31, except the second month alone. It has 28 so fine, til Leap Year brings it 29.)

y rda Satu day Fri

Sunday

Friday

Saturday

82

9 15 11 16 117 10 8 1 9 22 23 24 17 25 16 29 4 30 2 23 30

4 2 3 3 9 12 10

4 11 18 25

5 12 19 26

6 13 20 27

7 14 21 28

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Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. Refer to Appendix A in this book for formulas and equivalent measures as needed. Show all your work. When a calculator is used, show the problem entered, and the calculators result. A pizza with a radius of 6 units is divided into 3 slices. The measures of two of the central angles, or the angles in the circle between two radii (plural for radius), are 80 degrees () and 130 degrees. What is the area, to the nearest square inch, covered by the largest slice? (Remember: The number of degrees in a circle is 360 degrees.) 1. If 80 degrees are used in one slice and 130 degrees in another, then degrees remain for the 3rd slice.

2. The 3rd slice is the largest, and it represents part in lowest terms) of area covered by the pizza.

(fractional

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3. The area covered by the largest slice is rounded to the nearest square inch.

square inches

1 mile. The A taxi company charges a base amount of $1.60 plus $0.25 per 8 distance from the airport to a hotel is 13.25 miles. Two passengers will share the fare equally. What amount will each passenger owe?

4. There are 8 one-eighth mile segments or parts in one mile, so there are times 13.25 in 13.25 miles.

5. Each of those segments costs $0.25, and $0.25 times the number of mile segments is .

1 8

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193

6. The base charge of $1.60 must be added to that amount to find the total fare, and that sum is .

7. The total fare must be divided by 2 since the fare is being shared by two people, and that quotient is .

1 8

mile is

per

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Practice

Answer the following. On a long walk, a walker averaged 4 miles per hour for the first 4 miles, 3 miles per hour for the next 5 miles, and 2 miles per hour for the last mile. What was the total amount of time, in minutes, for the walk? (Note: A rate of 5 miles per hour (mph) means that if a rate of 5 mph is maintained for one hour, a distance of 5 miles has been traveled.) 1. At a rate of 4 mph, 2. At a rate of 3 mph, 3. At a rate of 2 mph, miles would be covered in one hour. miles would be covered in one hour. miles would be covered in one hour. hour or

4. At a rate of 4 mph, 1 mile would be covered in minutes. 5. At a rate of 3 mph, 1 mile would be covered in minutes. 6. At a rate of 2 mph, 1 mile would be covered in minutes. 7. Solve the problem. Answer: Show all your work.

hour or

hour or

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195

Practice

Read the item above each section to answer the following in that section. Refer to Appendix A in this book for formulas and equivalent measures as needed. More than 2,000 giant jellyfish, up to 2 feet in diameter, were seen clustering in an area the size of a football field in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2000. If a football field measures 120 yards long and 160 feet wide, what percent (%) of the area would 2,000 jellyfish, each with a diameter of 2 feet, cover? Express your answer to the nearest whole number percent. Show all your work. 1. The area of the football field would be square feet.

2. The area covered by one jellyfish with a diameter of 2 feet would be square feet. Use 3.14 for pi.

3. The area covered by 2,000 jellyfish with a diameter of 2 feet would be square feet.

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4. The area covered by the 2,000 jellyfish is percent of the area of a football field. Round your answer to the nearest whole percent.

The Trail of Cedars in Glacier National Park winds through a forest that has not experienced a fire in almost 500 years. One particular cedar tree appeared much larger than the other cedars to a group of visitors. Three adults, whose heights were 6 feet 1 inch, 5 feet 8 inches, and 5 feet 5 inches spread their arms around the tree. With a mighty stretch, their fingertips met. If their arm spans are the same as their heights, what is the diameter of this cedar? Express your answer to the nearest inch. Show all your work. 5. The total heights of the three people was inches. feet

Courtesy of Linda Walker

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197

7. If their arm spans are the same as their heights, then the circumference of the tree was inches.

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. the arithmetic average of a set of numbers ______ 2. a line segment from any point on the circle passing through the center to another point on the circle ______ 3. the shape made by two rays extending from a common endpoint, the vertex ______ 4. common unit used in measuring angles ______ 5. the result of a division ______ 6. a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 ______ 7. an angle whose vertex is at the center of a circle F. percent (%) A. angle

D. diameter (d)

E. mean

G. quotient

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199

Practice

Use the list below to complete the following statements.

___________________________ 1. the amount of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units ___________________________ 2. the sum of the areas of the faces of the figure that create the geometric solid ___________________________ 3. a model or drawing based on a ratio of the dimensions for the model and the actual object it represents ___________________________ 4. the line or plane upon which a figure is thought of as resting ___________________________ 5. a three-dimensional figure with two parallel congruent circular bases ___________________________ 6. the perimeter of a circle; the distance around a circle ___________________________ 7. the result of a subtraction

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a one-dimensional measure of something side to side

w l l w

A. cubic units

B. height (h)

______ 2. a one-dimensional measure that is the measurable property of line segments ______ 3. any number in the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4 }

C. length (l)

D. rounded number ______ 4. a number approximated to a specified place ______ 5. a line segment extending from the vertex or apex (highest point) of a figure to its base and forming a right angle with the base or basal plane ______ 6. units for measuring volume ______ 7. units for measuring area; the measure of the amount of an area that covers a surface ______ 8. a rectangle with four sides the same length ______ 9. the edge of a two-dimensional geometric figure G. square units E. side

F. square

H. whole number

I. width (w)

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Unit 3: Geometry

This unit emphasizes geometry, the branch of mathematics that deals with points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids.

Unit Focus

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations Associate verbal names, written words, and standard numerals with fractions, radicals, and ratios. (A.1.3.1) Understand concrete and symbolic representations of rational and irrational numbers in real-world situations. (A.1.3.3) Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms including integers, exponents, and radicals. (A.1.3.4) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving ratios and proportions. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use estimation strategies to predict results and to check the reasonableness of results. (A.4.3.1) Measurement Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding perimeter, area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional shapes. (B.1.3.1) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding angle measures. (B.1.3.2) Understand and describe how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affects its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. (B.1.3.3)

Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4) Use direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare a given characteristic in customary units. (B.2.3.1) Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving estimates of measurements, including length and area. (B.3.3.1) Geometry and Spatial Relations Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining to, regular and irregular geometric shapes in two and three dimensions. (C.1.3.1) Understand the geometric concepts of congruency, similarity, and transformations, including flips, slides, and turns. (C.2.3.1) Predict and verify patterns involving tessellations (a covering of a plane with congruent copies of the same pattern with no holes and no overlaps, like floor tiles). (C.2.3.2) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Identify and plot ordered pairs in all four quadrants of a rectangular coordinate system (graph) and apply simple properties of line. (C.3.3.2) Algebraic Thinking Describe relationships through expressions and equations. (D.1.3.1) Create and interpret tables, equations, and verbal descriptions to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2) Represent problems with algebraic expressions and equations. (D.2.3.1)

Aerial Photographer

uses special equipment to take photographs from the airthe photographs are a scale model of what is actually on land and can be used to make maps for travel, to study soil erosion and water pollution, or can be used for military purposes

Vocabulary

Study the vocabulary words and definitions below. acute angle ...................................... an angle with a measure of less than 90 acute triangle ................................. a triangle with three acute angles adjacent angles .............................. two angles having a common vertex and sharing a common side

A D C

adjacent sides ................................. sides that are next to each other and share a common vertex altitude ............................................ see height

angle ................................................ the shape made by two rays extending from a vertex common endpoint, side the vertex; measures of angles are described in degrees () area (A) ............................................ the inside region of a two-dimensional figure measured in square units Example: A rectangle with sides of four units by six units contains 24 square units or has an area of 24 square units. axes (of a graph) ............................ the horizontal and vertical number lines used in a rectangular graph or coordinate grid system as a fixed reference for determining the position of a point; (singular: axis)

si de

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base (b) ............................................ the line or plane upon which a figure is thought of as resting

base

base

base

bisect ................................................ to cut or divide into two equal parts center of a circle ............................ the point from which all points on the circle are the same distance central angle (of a circle) .............. an angle that has the center of the circle as its vertex circle ................................................ the set of all points in a plane that are all the same distance from a circumference given point called the center circumference (C) .......................... the perimeter of a circle; the distance around a circle

A

30 C 2 4 60

congruent (~ = ) ................................. figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size coordinate grid or system ............ network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines especially designed for locating points, displaying data, or drawing maps coordinates ..................................... numbers that correspond to points on a graph in the form (x, y)

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corresponding angles and sides .. the matching angles and sides in similar figures cylinder ........................................... a three-dimensional figure with two parallel congruent circular bases Example: a can decagon ........................................... a polygon with 10 sides degree () ......................................... common unit used in measuring angles diagonal (of a polygon) ................ a line segment that joins two vertices of a polygon but is not a side of the polygon diameter (d) .................................... a line segment from any point on the circle passing through the center to another point on the circle edge ................................................. the line segment where two faces of a solid figure meet

edge

diag

ona

diameter

face

S P endpoint ......................................... either of two points S and P are marking the end of a line endpoints segment

equilateral triangle ....................... a triangle with three congruent sides and three congruent angles face ................................................... one of the plane surfaces edge bounding a threedimensional figure

face

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factor ................................................ a number or expression that divides exactly another number Example: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, and 20 are factors of 20. flip ................................................... a transformation that produces the mirror image of a geometric figure; also called a reflection formula ........................................... a way of expressing a relationship using variables or symbols that represent numbers grid ................................................... a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines height (h) ......................................... a line segment extending h h h from the vertex or apex (highest point) of a figure to its base and forming a right angle with the base or basal plane heptagon ......................................... a polygon with seven sides hexagon ........................................... a polygon with six sides hypotenuse ..................................... the longest side of a right triangle; the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle

hy

leg

po

te

nu

se

leg

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Unit 3: Geometry

intersect ........................................... to meet or cross at one point intersection ..................................... the point at which two lines meet isosceles right triangle ................. a triangle with one right angle and two equal sides isosceles triangle ........................... a triangle with at least two congruent sides and two congruent angles leg ..................................................... in a right triangle, one of the two sides that form the right angle

leg

leg

length (l) ......................................... a one-dimensional measure that is the measurable property of line segments line ................................................... a straight line that is endless in length line of symmetry ........................... a line that divides a figure into two congruent halves that are mirror images of each other

line of symmetry

line segment ................................... a portion of a line that has a B defined beginning and end A Example: The line segment AB is between point A and point B and includes point A and point B. measure (m) of an angle ( ) ....... the number of degrees () of an angle

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211

nonagon .......................................... a polygon with nine sides number line .................................... a line on which numbers can be written or visualized obtuse angle ................................... an angle with a measure of more than 90 but less than 180 obtuse triangle ............................... a triangle with one obtuse angle octagon ............................................ a polygon with eight sides opposite sides ................................ sides that are directly across from each other ordered pairs .................................. the location of a single point on a rectangular coordinate system where the digits represent the position relative to the x-axis and y-axis Example: (x, y) or (3, 4) origin ............................................... the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis in a coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0,0) parallel ( ) ...................................... being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect

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parallel lines .................................. two lines in the same plane that never meet; also, lines with equal slopes parallelogram ................................. a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides pentagon ......................................... a polygon with five sides perimeter (P) .................................. the length of the boundary around a figure; the distance around a polygon perpendicular ( ) ......................... forming a right angle

A

perpendicular bisector (of a segment) ................................ a line that divides a line segment in half and meets the segment at right angles perpendicular lines ....................... two lines that intersect to form right angles

C B

AB is a perpendicular bisector of CD

plane ................................................ an undefined, two-dimensional (no depth) geometric surface that has no boundaries specified; a flat surface point ................................................ a location in space that has no length or width

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polyhedron ..................................... a three-dimensional figure in which all surfaces are polygons prism ............................................... a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with congruent, polygonal bases and lateral faces that are all parallelograms

product ............................................ the result of a multiplication Example: In 6 x 8 = 48, 48 is the product. proportion ...................................... a mathematical sentence stating that two ratios are equal Example: The ratio of 1 to 4 equals 1 25 = 100 . 25 to 100, that is 4 pyramid ........................................... a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with a single base that is a polygon and whose faces are triangles and meet at a common point (vertex)

Pythagorean theorem ................... the square of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the hypotenuse leg squares of the legs c a (a and b) right Example: a2 + b2 = c2 b leg angle

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quadrant ......................................... any of four regions formed by the axes in a rectangular coordinate system

Quadrant II

Quadrant I

radius (r) ......................................... a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to a point on the circle or sphere; (plural: radii)

diameter

ratio .................................................. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities 3 Example: The ratio of 3 to 4 is 4 . ray .................................................... a portion of a line that begins at a point and goes on forever in one direction rectangle ......................................... a parallelogram with four right angles rectangular prism .......................... a six-sided prism whose faces are all rectangular Example: a brick reflection ......................................... see flip regular polygon ............................. a polygon that is both equilateral (all sides the same length) and equiangular (all angles the same measure) right angle ...................................... an angle whose measure is exactly 90

ra di us

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215

right triangle .................................. a triangle with one right angle rotation ............................................ a transformation of a figure by turning it about a center point or axis; also called a turn Example: The amount of rotation is usually expressed in the number of degrees, fixed point such as a 90 rotation. scale factor ...................................... the ratio between the lengths of corresponding sides of two similar figures scalene triangle .............................. a triangle with no congruent sides side ................................................... the edge of a twodimensional geometric figure Example: A triangle has three sides.

de si

sid e

side

similar figures ............................... figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size slide ................................................. to move along in constant contact with the surface in a vertical, horizontal, or diagonal direction; also called a translation solid ................................................. see solid figures

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solid figures ................................... three-dimensional figures that completely enclose a portion of space Example: rectangular solid and a sphere square .............................................. a rectangle with four sides the same length straight angle ................................. an angle whose measure is exactly 180

180

135

supplementary angles .................. two angles, the sum of which is exactly 180

45

surface ............................................. the boundary of a three-dimensional figure tessellation ..................................... a covering of a plane with congruent copies of the same shape with no holes and no overlaps Example: floor tiles transformation ............................... an operation on a geometric figure by which another image is created Example: Common transformations include flips, slides, and turns. translation ...................................... see slide trapezoid ......................................... a quadrilateral with just one pair of opposite sides parallel

base leg altitude base leg

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217

triangle ............................................ a polygon with three sides; the sum of the measures of the angles is 180

turn .................................................. see rotation vertex ............................................... the common endpoint from which two rays begin or the point where vertex side two lines intersect; the point on a triangle or pyramid opposite to and farthest from the base; (plural: vertices); vertices are named clockwise or counterclockwise

si d

vertical angles ................................ the opposite angles formed when two lines intersect

volume (V) ...................................... the amount of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units Example: Both capacity and volume are used to measure empty spaces; however, capacity usually refers to fluids, whereas volume usually refers to solids. x-axis ................................................ the horizontal ( plane ) axis on a coordinate

x-coordinate ................................... the first number of an ordered pair y-axis ................................................ the vertical ( ) axis on a coordinate plane y-coordinate ................................... the second number of an ordered pair

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Unit 3: Geometry

Introduction

Geometric figures surround us! following. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. z. Do you believe that? Consider the

small atom crystalline solids honeycomb of the bee snowflakes seeds on sunflowers sea shells web of a spider shapes found in flowers rings when a rock is thrown in water starfish stained glass windows sun moon cross-section of a tree art wallpaper giftwrap fabrics used in clothing floor coverings wheel covers on automobiles copy machines to enlarge and reduce size indirect measure pine cones bridge designs building designs It is your turn to name something!

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Understand concrete and symbolic representations of irrational numbers in real-world situations. (A.1.3.3) Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms including integers, exponents, and radicals. (A.1.3.4) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving ratios and proportions. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use estimation strategies to predict results and to check the reasonableness of results. (A.4.3.1) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding area of two-dimensional shapes. (B.1.3.1) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding angle measures. (B.1.3.2) Construct, interpret, and use scale drawings to solve real-world problems. (B.1.3.4) Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving estimates of measurement, including length and area. (B.3.3.1) Understand the basic properties, of and relationships pertaining to, regular and irregular geometric shapes in two dimensions. (C.1.3.1) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1)

220

Unit 3: Geometry

Geometry is all about the space around us and the objects and shapes in that space. Geometry is the part of mathematics that has to do with the measurements, properties, and relationships of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. To prepare for the practices in this unit, lets examine some of the basic terms.

A B D

C

Lines AB and CD will never intersect or meet at one point. They are parallel lines. Line AB is parallel ( ) to line CD.

AB

CD

E G F H

They form right angles where they meet. Segments of perpendicular lines can also be perpendicular. Line EF is perpendicular ( ) to line GH.

EF GH

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221

A perpendicular bisector divides a line segment in half. It meets the segment at right angles. Line LM is perpendicular ( ) to line segment JK. Line LM splits line segment JK into two congruent parts. Line LM is the perpendicular bisector of line segment JK. LM JK

A

J M

Opposite sides are directly across from each other. Side AB is opposite or directly across from side CD. The opposite sides do not share a vertex.

Adjacent sides are next to each other and share a common vertex. Side AB is adjacent or next to side BC. These adjacent sides share vertex B.

A D

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. adjacent sides intersect opposite sides parallel ( ) parallel lines perpendicular ( ) perpendicular bisector perpendicular lines vertex

____________________

1.

being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect two lines in the same plane that never meet forming a right angle two lines that intersect to form right angles sides that are directly across from each other sides that are next to each other and share a common vertex a line that divides a line segment in half and meets the segment at right angles to meet or cross at one point the common endpoint from which two rays begin or the point where two lines intersect; the point on a triangle or pyramid opposite to and farthest from the base

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

____________________

7.

____________________ ____________________

8. 9.

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223

Circles

A circle is a set of points in which all points are the same distance from a given point. That point is called the center of a circle. circumference (C) - the distance around a circle or the perimeter (P) of a circle diameter (d) - a line segment that passes through the center of a circle to another point on a circle center of a circle - the point from which all points on a circle are the same distance radius (r) - any line segment from the center of a circle to a point on a circle Circles have their own name for perimeter. The perimeter of a circle is called the circumference. The diameter is twice, or two times, the radius.

cir

cu

m fere nc e (

C)

diameter (d)

r) s( diu ra

center of a circle

circle

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a line segment from any point on the circle passing through the center to another point on the circle ______ 2. a portion of a line that has a defined beginning and end C. circumference (C) ______ 3. a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to a point on the circle or sphere ______ 4. the distance around a polygon E. line segment ______ 5. the perimeter of a circle ______ 6. the point from which all points on the circle are the same distance ______ 7. the set of all points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center F. perimeter (P) A. center of a circle

B. circle

D. diameter (d)

G. radius (r)

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Angles

The sides of an angle are formed by two rays ( ) extending from a common endpoint called the vertex. The symbol indicates an angle. Naming an Angle You can name an angle in three ways.

A 3 E

vertex

si

side

B

180 360

use a three-letter name in this order: point on one ray; vertex; point on other ray, such as BAE or EAB use a one-letter name: vertex, if there is only one angle with this vertex in the diagram, such as A use a numerical name if the number is within rays of the angle, such as 3 Measuring an Angle The measure (m) of an angle ( ) is described in degrees (). When you turn around to face backward, you could say you did a 180. An angle is a turn around a point. The size of an angle is the measure of how far one side has turned from the other side. 0 90 180 360 = = = = no turn right-angle turn straight backward back facing forward again

90

0 = no turn

90 = right-angle turn

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de

Using Protractors to Measure Angles Protractors are marked from 0 to 180 degrees in both a clockwise manner and a counterclockwise manner. We see 10 and 170 in the same position. We see 55 and 125 in the same position. If we estimate the size of the angle before using the protractor, there is no doubt which measure is correct.

0 80 10

0 80 10

110 70

se

clo ck wi

60

12

50 13

40 14 0

150 30

60 20 1

10 170

0 180

50

90

0

0

70

60 12 0

13 0

0

11 0

50

40

30

20

14

15

co u

nte

rc

160

c lo

i se kw

10 170

0 180

90

When using a protractor, make sure the vertex is lined up correctly and that one ray ( ) passes through the zero measure. A straightedge is often helpful to extend a ray for easier reading of the measure.

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. angle ( ) degree () endpoint measure (m) of an angle ( ) ray ( ) side vertex

1. 2. 3.

common unit used in measuring angles the number of degrees () of an angle the common endpoint from which two rays begin or the point where two lines intersect either of two points marking the end of a line segment a portion of a line that begins at a point and goes on forever in one direction the edge of a two-dimensional geometric figure the shape made by two rays extending from a common endpoint, the vertex

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

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Angles are named for the way they relate to 90 degrees and 180 degrees. acute angle right angle = < 90 = 90

obtuse angle = > 90 and < 180 straight angle = 180 Angle Relationships Two angles that have the same angle measure are congruent ( ~ = ). Either angle can fit exactly over the other angle. angle ABC is congruent to DEF

A B 130 D C E 130

= ABC ~

DEF

Triangles

Classifying Triangles Triangles are classified in two different ways. Triangles are classified either by the measure of their angles or the measure of their sides. However, no matter how a triangle is classified, the sum of the measures of the angles in a triangle is 180 degrees. Triangles classified by their angles are called right triangles, acute triangles, or obtuse triangles.

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Triangles measured by the lengths of their sides are called equilateral triangles, isosceles triangles, or scalene triangles based on their number of congruent sides.

So, all triangles may be classified by their angles (acute, right, or obtuse), by their sides (equilateral, isosceles, scalene), or both. See the chart below.

Classification Equilateral Isosceles Scalene Triangles Acute Right

< 90 = 90

Obtuse

> 90 and <180

For example, as you see in the above chart, a right triangle may be either isosceles or scalene, but it is never acute, equilateral, or obtuse.

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. ______ 1. < 90 ______ 2. = 90 ______ 3. > 90 and < 180 ______ 4. = 180 A. acute angle B. obtuse angle C. right angle D. straight angle

has one right angle all angles are acute has one obtuse angle

______ 8.

A. equilateral triangle

______ 9.

B. isosceles triangle

______ 10.

C. scalene triangle

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Parts of Triangles

The height (h), or altitude, of a triangle is a line segment that starts at any vertex and is perpendicular ( ) to the opposite side of the triangle called the base (b). The same triangle can have three different height and base pairs. However, the product of the height and base will always be the same.

vertex height (h) vertex Q base (b) R height (h) side vertex S S R base (b) Q

Special Names for Sides of Triangles The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle are called legs. The third side is the base. The words hypotenuse and leg are used to describe the sides of right triangles.

base

leg

leg

The legs are the two shorter sides se nu of a right triangle. The legs e t po are always adjacent to (next hy to) the right angle.

leg

leg

leg opposite S

hy

po

te

nu

se

Naming Triangles

leg adjacent to S

To name a triangle, or any other figure, name the vertices in either clockwise or counterclockwise order. Vertices are often in alphabetical order. The symbol indicates a triangle. The first two triangles above could be called QRS, RSQ, SQR or QSR, SRQ, RQS.

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Area

Area (A) is the number of square units a two-dimensional figure contains. Area is measured in square units.

figure triangle A= formula

1 2

example

12 10 20 16

bh

A=

1 2

(20)(10)

10

rectangle

A = lw

A = 20 square units

8

trapezoid

A=

1 2

h (b 1 + b2 )

A=

6 16

1 2

(6)(8 + 16)

parallelogram

A = bh

4 11 31 2

A = 44 square units

7 A = (22 7 )( 2 ) 2

circle

A = r2

A = 38

1 2

square units

Key

A = area b = base

7

h = height

w = width

r = radius

= pi Use 3.14 or 22

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. area (A) base (b) congruent (~ =) height (h) or altitude hypotenuse leg product triangle

____________________

1.

a polygon with three sides; the sum of the measures of the angles is 180 a line segment extending from the vertex or apex (highest point) of a figure to its base and forming a right angle with the base or basal plane the line or plane upon which a figure is thought of as resting the result of a multiplication the longest side of a right triangle; the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle in a right triangle, one of the two sides that form the right angle the inside region of a two-dimensional figure measured in square units figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size

____________________

2.

____________________

3.

____________________ ____________________

4. 5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________

8.

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Practice

Answer the following. Some circus performers were arguing about how well their acts could be seen in the circus tent. The ring, or circle, in the center of the tent was preferred by everyone. When performers were assigned a ring to the right or left of the center ring, there was much discontent. The circus manager hired a designer to design a new performing area that revolved or turned around a central point. The new design would allow three stages to revolve around the center ring. A net could be raised above a circular area of the revolving stage in the center of the tent when the trapeze artists were performing. A circle is provided on the following page. Your task, in numbers 1-3, is to complete the drawing of the new performing area for the circus according to the criteria provided by the designer. You will need these drawings for all of the practices in Lesson One. 1. The radii (plural of radius) labeled a and g represent one-half the length (l) of each of two adjacent sides of a square. Complete the square having a vertex at the center of the circle. 2. The radius labeled f represents part of the hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle. The radius labeled e represents one-half the length of one of the congruent legs of this isosceles right triangle. Complete the right triangle having a vertex at the center of the circle. 3. The radius labeled c represents part of the altitude of an isosceles triangle with a base of six units. Extend the radii labeled c, b, and d to complete the isosceles triangle with a base of six units.

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235

a b g f e o d c

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Practice

Use your drawing of the new performing area for the circus in the previous practice to complete the following. 1. Write True if the statement is correct for the square you have drawn. Write False if the statement is not correct. __________ a. __________ b. __________ c. __________ d. Each side of the square has length of 6 units. Opposite sides are congruent and parallel. Adjacent sides are perpendicular. One of the four vertices is located at the center of the circle. The circle bisects, or divides into two equal parts, two of the sides of the square. All angles are congruent. All angles are obtuse angles. The sum of the measures of the angles is 360 degrees.

__________ e.

2. Write True if the statement is correct for the isosceles triangle you have drawn. Write False if the statement is not correct. __________ a. __________ b. __________ c. The altitude bisects the base of the isosceles triangle. The altitude is perpendicular to the base. The length of a side of the square drawn on radii a and g is the same as the length of the base of the triangle.

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The three angles of the triangle are acute angles. The two base angles are congruent. The sum of the measures of the angles is 360 degrees. One of the three vertices is located at the center of the circle. The altitude formed by the radius c bisects the angle formed by radii b and d.

__________ h.

3. Write True if the statement is correct for the isosceles right triangle you have drawn. Write False if the statement is not correct. __________ a. __________ b. __________ c. __________ d. __________ e. The circle bisects one of the legs of this triangle. The circle does not bisect the hypotenuse of this triangle. Each of the two congruent legs is 6 units in length. One of the legs is perpendicular to the other leg. The length of the hypotenuse is greater than the length of a leg. The side opposite to the largest angle is the longest side. The sum of the measures of the angles is 180 degrees. The measure of each of the base angles is 45 degrees. There is one obtuse angle.

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Circle the letter of the correct answer. 4. The circus manager made a quick estimate of the areas of the four performing areasthe circle, square, isosceles triangle, and isosceles right triangle. The manager ordered the areas from largest to smallest. Which of the following orders is the most likely to result from her estimate? a. circle, square, isosceles right triangle, isosceles triangle b. square, circle, isosceles right triangle, isosceles triangle c. isosceles triangle, isosceles right triangle, circle, square d. square, isosceles right triangle, circle, isosceles triangle 5. When the trapeze artists are performing above the center ring, the parts of the square stage and the triangular stages that are shared with the circle should not be used. The manager made another quick estimate of the unshared areas of the square and triangles and ordered the areas from largest to smallest. Which of the following orders is the most likely to result from her estimate? a. isosceles triangle, isosceles right triangle, square b. isosceles right triangle, isosceles triangle, square c. square, isosceles right triangle, isosceles triangle d. square, isosceles triangle, isosceles right triangle

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Pythagorean Theorem

Farmers in ancient Egypt wanted to make square (90) corners for their fields. In about 2000 B.C., they discovered a magic 345 triangle that would help them do this. Workers took a rope, knotted it into 12 equal spaces, and formed it into a loop.

Next they took three stakes and stretched the rope around them to make a triangle that had sides of 3, 4, and 5 units of equal space.

The side of 5 units was what we call the hypotenuse, and the angle opposite it equaled 90. The angle opposite the longest side was always a square cornera right angle (see above).

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The ancient Greeks learned this trick from the Egyptians. Between 500 and 350 B.C., a group of Greek philosophers called the Pythagoreans studied the 345 triangle. They learned to think of the triangles sides as the three sides of three squares (see to the right). They generalized this to apply to any right triangle. This general statement became the Pythagorean theorem. The Pythagorean theorem: In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs.

c b a

a2 + b2 = c2

hy

leg

po

te

nu

se

leg

The Pythagorean theorem tells us that, in a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs.

If the lengths of the legs are represented by a and b and the length of the hypotenuse is represented by c, then a2 + b2 = c2. a2 + b2 = c2 32 + 42 = 52 9 + 16 = 25

hy

te 5 nus e

po

te

nu

hy

po

se

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241

Using the Pythagorean Theorem If you know the lengths of two sides of a right triangle, you can find the length of the hypotenuse or third side. Example 1: A right triangle has legs with unit measures of 6 and 8. What is the unit measure of the hypotenuse or third leg? In this right triangle, the lengths of the legs are 6 units and 8 units, and the length of the hypotenuse is not known. We can use the formula to determine the length of the hypotenuse. a2 + b2 62 + 82 36 + 64 100

hy

6 leg

po

?

te

nu

se

8 leg

100

10

The hypotenuse has a length of 10 units. Example 2: A right triangle has legs with measures of 5 and 8. What is the measure of the hypotenuse or third side? a2 + b2 52 + 82 25 + 64 89 89 = c2 = c2 = c2 = c2 = c2

hy po ten ? use

5 leg

8 leg

We know that 92 = 81 and 102 = 100. W e know c must be a number between 9 and 10. Our calculator is a quick source for the approximate square root of 89 ( 89 ). When using it, the result is 9.433981132, and this is approximate. For our purposes, a value rounded to the nearest tenth will be sufficient. The approximate ( ~ ~ )length of c in this right triangle is 9.4 units. 9.4 ~ ~c The hypotenuse has length of 89 units or 9.4 units.

242

Unit 3: Geometry

Practice

Complete the following. 1. Use the formula a2 + b2 = c2, the Pythagorean theorem. Determine the length of the hypotenuse in the isosceles right triangle portion of the new performing area for the circus you drew in the first practice if the legs are each 6 centimeters in length. _________________________________________________________

3 2. The radius labeled c represented 5 of the altitude of the isosceles triangle. If the length of the radius is 3, what is the length of the altitude?

_________________________________________________________

3. Use the formula to determine the length of a diagonal of the square if each side is 6 centimeters in length. _________________________________________________________

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4. What is the relationship between the areas of the square and the isosceles right triangle? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 5. Complete the table on the following page by mentally determining between which two consecutive whole numbers the square root lies and then using your calculator to get the approximate value.

Approximate Values of Square Roots Square Root Expression Value Lies between ___ and ___ Approximate Value

22 14 27 39 57 68 85 99 140 110

4 and 5

4.7

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Unit 3: Geometry

6. The table provides measures of a and b, representing legs of right triangles. Find the length of c, the hypotenuse, for each right triangle.

Dimensions of Right Triangles Length of a 16 units 20 units 5 units 72 units 133 units 8 units Length of b 25 units 21 units 12 units 65 units 156 units 15 units Length of c

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245

Practice

Answer the following. Compare your drawings made in the first practice, the performing area at the circus with the one below. Without using a tool to measure, provide the measure of each of the following angles and explain how you arrived at your answer. Note that the point in the center of the circle is labeled o. Your answers should be based on your knowledge of geometry. These are not to be estimates from visual inspection.

a b g f e o c d

1. The measure of

aog is

_________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ .

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4. The measure of

cod is

_________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ . 9. The sum of the measures of goa is aob, bod, doe, eof, fog, and

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ . 10. If the measure of aog is 90 degrees, then the sector, or part of the

90 360

or

1 4

or

Unit 3: Geometry 247

Using appropriate formulas for area, to find the area of each of the following. Round your answer to the nearest tenth. Refer to the Mathematics Reference Sheet in Appendix A of this book for formulas for finding area. 11. The area of the square is 12. The area of the circle is Use 3.14 for pi (). 13. The area of the isosceles triangle is 14. The area of the isosceles right triangle is centimeters. square centimeters. square centimeters.

15. Use your answers to numbers 11-14 to check your answer to number 4 in the practice on page 239 which was based on estimates. Make revisions if necessary.

248

Unit 3: Geometry

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. bisect formula isosceles right triangle length (l) ____________________ 1. Pythagorean theorem square sum

the square of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (a and b) Example: a2 + b2 = c2 to cut or divide into two equal parts the result of an addition a triangle with one right angle and two equal sides a rectangle with four sides the same length a one-dimensional measure that is the measurable property of line segments a way of expressing a relationship using variables or symbols that represent numbers

____________________________________

2. 3. 4.

____________________ ____________________

____________________ ____________________

5. 6.

____________________

7.

Unit 3: Geometry

249

Practice

Answer the following. The teams are shouting, No more practice, no more practice, give us a problem, give us a problem! This will be a bit different from some of the previous problems, but it represents problem solving in the real-world. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: The rotating platform, with three stages extending from the center of the circle, allows several acts to take place at the same time. There is a safety rule, however, that does not allow the area shared with the circle by the three stages on the rotating platform to be used when the trapeze artists are performing above the center ring. A safety net raised over the circle provides safety for the trapeze artists. The net blocks the circular area from use by the performers on the other three components of the stage. The stage performers often complain that this rule leaves them about half of their full area. They feel this is unfair. The stage performers also think it is unfair that some stages are smaller than others.

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Unit 3: Geometry

You are the manager of the circus and have told the performers to put their concerns in writing. You have agreed to investigate, consider, and meet with them. Trapeze Artist Comments to Manager The trapeze artists are unhappy about area designation. They want the entire circle to be used only by them. The points they present to the manager are as follows: a. The area of the square located outside our circle is greater than the area of our circle. Those performers should not have that much area plus part of our circle too! b. The part of the two triangular areas together located outside our circle are almost as large as our circle. When those performers use parts of our circle they have more than we do. c. The other performers remind the manager that the trapeze artists have the entire circle anytime they are performing and the other performers use limited space. The trapeze artists should be concerned when they are not performing and others are performing. d. The trapeze artists want the manager to do away with shared areas. They want My area, Your area, but no Our area. If you were the manager, how would you respond to the performers? Remember to do your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

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251

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: You used the term, Mine, Yours, and Ours and made it sound a bit sour. We changed it a bit more and liked it when it said Yours, Ours, and Mine this new order sounds mighty fine! Practice saying that 50 times and remember to be unselfish, no matter how much or how little you have. Feedback from the Coach: Your play on words may be fun and your reminder to be unselfish is noteworthy. Your response needs more hard facts and actual data to support them. Reconsider. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: You are correct when you say the area of the stage devoted to the square is greater than the area of the circle when the area shared with the circle is included. We can see that the circle would fit inside the square with area left over in each of the four corners. One only has to look, however, to see that when the square gives up the area shared with the circle, it is no longer larger. Look at the two sections of area given up by the equilateral triangular stage from practice on pages 235-236. This stage gives up two sections of area, and the square only gives up one!

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Unit 3: Geometry

A quick look also verifies that the combined areas of the two triangles, including the shared portions with the circle, are greater than the area of the circle. Another quick look makes me call it a tie when the shared areas are not included. My bottom line for you is that your act is up in the air, so what does the amount of area of the stage matter to you as long as your safety net is in place? Feedback from the Coach: The performers would appreciate more than a quick look from you to confirm or deny their claims. The area on the stage does matter when the trapeze artists act is up in the air. Managers Response The manager met with the performers on the three stages which revolve. They had worked out area amounts and agreed with the idea of all performing area belonging to the audience. They will wait on the managers proposal for staging assignments. However, they suggest that number of performers, size of animals involved in some acts, and time allotment for performances also be considered. The manager still has a lot of work to do, but perhaps each group of performers sees a bigger picture now than before. The manager sums it all up this way: Sometimes what can be counted is more important than what cannot be counted. Sometimes what cannot be counted is more important than what can be counted. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving ratios and proportions. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding perimeter, area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional shapes. (B.1.3.1) Understand and describe how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affect its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. (B.1.3.3) Use direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare a given characteristic in customary units. (B.2.3.1) Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining to, regular and irregular geometric shapes in two and three dimensions. (C.1.3.1) Understand the geometric concepts of congruency and similarity. (C.2.3.1) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Represent problems with algebraic expressions and equations. (D.2.3.1)

Solid Figures

Solid figures are three-dimensional figures that completely enclose a portion of space. Solid figures with flat surfaces are called polyhedrons. A prism and a pyramid are polyhedrons. A prism and a pyramid are named according to their bases.

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Unit 3: Geometry

Describing Solid Figures Some geometric terms used to describe solid figures are face, base, edge, and vertex. A face is a flat surface of a solid figure.

vertex face

base A base is one of the two parallel and congruent faces upon which a solid figure edge is thought of as resting.

An edge is the line segment at which two faces of a solid figure meet. A vertex is a corner point of a solid figure. Rectangular Prism A rectangular prism has six faces. Each face on a rectangular prism is a rectangle.

A base C G D E B face H F A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H are all vertices

Remember: A prism is a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron). A prism has congruent, polygonal bases, and lateral faces that are all parallelograms. Remember: Parallelograms are quadrilaterals (four-sided polygons) with two pairs of parallel sides.

quadrilateral

parallelogram

Note: The parallelograms that are a square or a rectangle also have sides that are perpendicular. The perpendicular sides form right angles.

rhombus

rectangle

square

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255

Types of Prisms A prism is named according to the shape of its base. There are many different kinds of prisms.

Prisms Example Name of Polyhedron Shape of Bases Number of Lateral Faces 3

triangular prism

triangle

rectangular prism

rectangle

pentagonal prism

pentagon

hexagonal prism

hexagon

octagonal prism

octagon

256

Unit 3: Geometry

Pyramids A pyramid is a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with a single base that is a polygon and faces that are triangles.

vertex lateral face edge base

Types of Pyramids A pyramid is named according to the shape of its base. There are many different kinds of pyramids.

Pyramids Example Name of Polyhedron Shape of Base Number of Lateral Faces 3

triangular pyramid

triangle

square pyramid

square

hexagonal pyramid

hexagon

octagonal pyramid

octagon

Unit 3: Geometry

257

Cylinders A cylinder is a three dimensional figure. A cylinder has two parallel and congruent circles as bases. It has one curved surface, two curved edges, and no vertices.

lateral surface

base

Similarity

The concept of similarity in geometry will be reviewed and explored in this lesson. Similar figures are alike in a very specific way. They have the same shape. They have corresponding (matching) angles that are congruent. They have corresponding sides that are proportional in length. They may or may not have the same size or be in the same position. The two octagons shown here are similar figures.

A H B C Q G F E P M D L J K

258

Unit 3: Geometry

JQP. Compare

HAB and

QJK. Corresponding

Compare the length of segment HG and segment QP. Compare the length of segment AB and segment JK. Each side in the larger figure is twice the length of its corresponding side in the smaller figure. This means the sides are in proportion and have equivalent ratios. The ratio between the lengths of corresponding sides of two similar figures is called the scale factor. It is also interesting to note that when two figures are similar and dimensions are doubled, the area of the larger is four times as great as the area of the smaller. If we had two similar rectangular prisms such that the length, width, and height of the larger prism were each twice the length, width, and height of the smaller prism, the volume (V) of the larger would be eight times as great as the volume of the smaller.

rectangular prisms

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259

Figures That Are Always Similar Example Description

all circles

all squares or regular quadrilaterals all regular hexagons or any two regular polygons* that have the same number of sides

*A polygon is regular if all sides are equal and all its angles are equal, such as equilateral triangles ( ), regular quadrilaterals ( ), regular pentagons ( ), regular octagons ( ), regular heptagons ( ), regular nonagons ( ), regular decagons ( ), etc.

Regular Polygons

45 45 45 45

all 45 - 45 - 90 triangles

60 30

60 30

all 30 - 60 - 90 triangles

260

Unit 3: Geometry

Practice

Use rectangle ABCD provided on the following page to complete the following. 1. Draw a rectangle that is similar to rectangle ABCD with a scale factor of 2. (The length and width are twice as long.) 2. Draw a rectangle that is similar to rectangle ABCD with a scale factor of 3. 3. Draw a rectangle that is similar to rectangle ABCD with a scale factor of 1.5. 4. Draw a rectangle that is similar to rectangle ABCD with a scale factor of 0.5. 5. Draw a rectangle that is not similar to rectangle ABCD and explain why it is not similar. _______________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 6. Rectangle ABCD would fit inside the rectangle drawn in number 1 times. 7. Rectangle ABCD would fit inside the rectangle drawn in number 2 times. 8. Rectangle ABCD would fit inside the rectangle drawn in number 3 times. 9. All of rectangle ABCD would not fit inside the rectangle drawn in number 4, but (fractional part) of it would.

Unit 3: Geometry

261

262

Unit 3: Geometry

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. cylinder edge face octagon parallelogram pyramid rectangle rectangular prism

____________________

1.

E A base C G D B

____________________ ____________________

2. 3.

a polygon with eight sides a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides

parallelogram square rectangle rhombus

____________________

4.

one of the plane surfaces bounding a three-dimensional figure a parallelogram with four right angles the line segment where two faces of a solid figure meet a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with a single base that is a polygon and edge whose faces are triangles and meet at a common point (vertex)

vertex lateral face

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

base

____________________

8.

Unit 3: Geometry

263

Practice

Use the list below to label the following two figures. Write the correct term on the line provided. base edge face pyramid rectangular prism vertex

Figure 1 1. 2. 3. 4.

Figure 2

Figure 1 is a 5.

Figure 2 is a 6.

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a three-dimensional figure in which all surfaces are polygons ______ 2. the ratio between the lengths of corresponding sides of two similar figures ______ 3. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities ______ 4. a mathematical sentence stating that two ratios are equal ______ 5. a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with congruent, polygonal bases and lateral faces that are all parallelograms ______ 6. the matching angles and sides in similar figures ______ 7. figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size ______ 8. the amount of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units A. corresponding angles and sides

B. polyhedron

C. prism

D. proportion

E. ratio

F. scale factor

G. similar figures

H. volume (V)

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Practice

Use triangle FGH provided on the following page to complete the following. 1. Draw a triangle that is similar to triangle FGH with a scale factor of 2. 2. Draw a triangle that is similar to triangle FGH with a scale factor of 3. 3. Draw a triangle that is similar to triangle FGH with a scale factor of 1.5. 4. Draw a triangle that is similar to triangle FGH with a scale factor of 0.5. 5. Draw a triangle that is not similar to triangle FGH. Explain why it is not similar.____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 6. The area of the triangle drawn in number 1 is great as the area of triangle FGH. 7. The area of the triangle drawn in number 2 is great as the area of triangle FGH. times as

times as

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Pairs of corresponding sides in similar figures have equal ratios. These two rectangles are similar. Find w using what we know about similarity.

9 6

12

first rectangle second rectangle 6 = 2 3 9 Write ratio in lowest terms.

first rectangle second rectangle 2 = 12 w 3

2xw 2xw

2w 2

= 3 x 12 = 36 = 36 2 = 18

The unknown length is 18. We can see that the scale factor is 1.5 because the short side of the small rectangle has length of 6 units and the short side of the larger rectangle has length of 9 or 1.5 times 6. The length of the side w must be 1.5 times 12 or 18.

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Indirect Measurement If you cannot measure a length directly, you can sometimes use similar triangles to make an indirect measurement. Example: The triangles formed by the pole, the tree, and their shadows are similar.

height of tree h

1. Identify two corresponding ratios. ratio of shadows: 10 to 30 ratio of heights: 5 to h 2. Set up a proportion. shadow of pole shadow of tree 3. Solve the proportions.

1.5 x x = 7.5 x 2 1.5 x x = 15 1.5x = 15 1.5 1.5 x = 10 Find cross products. Solve for x. Divide each side by 1.5. Answer is the height of the flagpole is 10 meters.

10 = 5 h 30

We can see that the scale factor is 3 because the shadow of the tree is 3 times as long as the shadow of the pole. The tree will be 3 times as tall as the pole or 3 times 5 or 15 feet.

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Practice

Use the sets of similar figures below. Find the length of the side labeled x.

6 1. x = 3 4.5 x

5 2.5 2. x = 3 x

4 3. x = 4

x 5

4. x = 4

3 6

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Practice

Solve the following. 1. Many copy machines allow the user to enlarge or reduce the size of the sheet of print being copied. If a sheet of note paper measuring 3 inches by 5 inches is copied with enlargement of 150 percent (%) of its current size, what will the dimensions of the enlarged copy be? Answer:

2. A sheet of print measures 8 inches by 10 inches, and the machine is programmed to reduce it by 50 percent. The reduced copy is then used to make a further reduction in size of 50 percent. What is the size of the final copy after the two reductions? Answer:

8 inches

10 inches

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3. Tameca is trying to enlarge a print on a sheet of paper measuring 8.5 inches by 11 inches. She wants to enlarge the print to the greatest extent possible so that the length and width of the enlargement are fully accommodated on a sheet measuring 11 inches by 17 inches. When setting the copy machine for the percent enlargement desired, what should she enter? Answer:

4. Alonzo is estimating the height of a flagpole using the concept of similar figures. He lets the flagpole and its shadow represent two legs of a right triangle. He lets a meter stick and its shadow represent two legs of a similar right triangle as shown in the illustration below. Using his measurements, find the height of the flagpole.

flagpole

centimeters.

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Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: Alonzo went snow skiing for the very first time and now has a photograph of himself on skis measuring 4 inches by 6 inches. He takes it to a do it yourself photo enlargement shop. Their machines will make copies measuring 5 by 7, 8 by 10, 12 by 16, 16 by 24, and 24 by 30. (All measures represent inches.) The cost for enlargements is 10 cents per square inch of the finished picture. If the size selection he makes does not represent a rectangle similar to his original photograph, the enlargement will not be acceptable because parts of the original may be cut off. The stores policy is if the user made the selection, the unacceptable print must be paid for.

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1. What is the maximum amount Alonzo will spend if he starts with 5 by 7 enlargement and keeps trying larger options until he gets a satisfactory print? 2. What is the minimum amount he will spend if he selects a size that will produce a satisfactory enlargement the first time? Remember to do your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: He will go for the biggest one, which is 24 by 30. The area of the picture will be 720 square inches. It will cost $72.00. That may sound like a lot for a picture, but it is a very big one, and it was his very first time to go snowskiing. He would never start with the 5 by 7, so there is no need to try all of those. Feedback from the Coach: For the enlargement to be 24 inches wide, a scale factor of 6 would be needed. A scale factor of 6 would require a length of how many inches? Might the snow skis be cut out of the picture? Take another look at your calculation of area, whether you used a calculator or paper and pencil. Also, remember to respond to the problem as it is written. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: If the photo is 4 by 6, then enlargements could be 8 by 12, 12 by 18, 16 by 24, 20 by 30, 24 by 36, etc. For the width to be 5, wed need a scale factor of 1.25. That would make the length, 6 x 1.25 or 7.5, so the 5 by 7 will almost work but not quite. For the width to be 8, wed need a scale factor of 2. That would make the length 6 x 2 or 12, so the 8 by 10 will not work. For the width to be 12, wed need a scale factor of 3. That would make the length 6 x 3 or 18, so the 12 by 16 will not work. For the width to be 16, wed need a scale factor of 4. That would make the length 6 x 4 or 24, so the 16 by 24 will work. For the width to be 24, wed need a scale factor of 6. That would make the length 6 x 6 or 36, so the 24 by 30 will not work. Lets make a table for cost.

Cost for Enlargements Dimensions 5 by 7 8 by 10 12 by 16 16 by 24 24 by 30 Area 35 square inches 80 square inches 192 square inches 384 square inches 720 square inches Cost $ 3.50 $ 8.00 $19.20 $38.40 $72.00

The minimum cost would be $38.40 because that is the cost of the only enlargement similar to the original. The maximum cost would be $3.50 + $8.00 + $19.20 + $38.40 for a total of $69.10. This assumes he stops making enlargements when he gets the 16 by 24, which works.

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Feedback from the Coach: Your work is thorough, and your conclusions are reasonable. Try thinking of the dimensions of the original photograph as a ratio of 4 to 6 which could be simplified to a ratio of 2 to 3. For each 2 units in the width, there must be 3 units in the length. This can be another way to test the dimensions of the enlargements to determine similarity. Try writing the ratio for each enlargement size in its simplest form. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We know that the 4 by 6 could have dimensions doubled, tripled, etc. to make it larger. Lets make a list. 4 8 12 16 by 6 by 12 by 18 by 24

The area is length times width so 16 by 24 = 384. Each square inch is 10 cents, so 384 times 10 cents is 3840 cents or $38.40. That is his minimum cost. Now, lets find the areas of the smaller ones and add it to 384. 4 by 6 8 by 12 2 by 18 16 by 24 = = = = 24 96 216 384

The sum is 720 so the cost would be $72.00 if he made all four. That is his maximum cost.

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Feedback from the Coach: You understand the problem and how to solve it. When you made your list of similar rectangles, however, you used that list for sizes to determine maximum costs instead of the actual sizes of 5 by 7, etc. Revise your work for maximum cost based on correct sizes. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: The maximum cost would be the area of each picture multiplied by 10 cents per square inch. (5 x 7 + 8 x 10 + 12 x 16 + 16 x 24 + 24 x 30) x 0.10 = $141.10 The length is 2 units longer than the width in the 4 by 6 photograph. The length is 2 units longer than the width in the 8 by 10 enlargement, so it will be similar. The cost of the 8 by 10 is 8 x 10 x 0.10 or $8.00. That is the minimum cost. Feedback from the Coach: Does the problem say that he tries every enlargement? That will impact your maximum cost. You also need to review your definition for similar. It will impact your minimum cost. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Associate verbal names, written word names and standard numerals with fractions, radicals, and ratios. (A.1.3.1) Understand concrete and symbolic representations of rational numbers in real-world situations. (A.1.3.3) Select the appropriate operation to solve problems involving ratios and proportions. (A.3.3.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding perimeter and area. (B.1.3.1) Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining, to regular and irregular geometric shapes in two dimensions. (C.1.3.1) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1)

Problem Solving

Problem solving will be featured in this lesson. Assistance will be provided in some problems but not all. Problems are not supposed to be easy. If what you try first doesnt work, examine what youve done and try again. Keep trying and thinking about strategies to help solve the problem. The following are some problem solving guidelines, strategies, and skills. You may have other suggestions to add. Problem Solving Guidelines Read the problem over until it makes sense. Think of a strategy to try. Try your strategy. If one strategy doesnt work, try another. Check your solution to be sure it makes sense.

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Problem Solving Strategies estimate, check, revise work backward make a table, a chart, a graph, or an organized list make a model or a diagram use similar numbers look for a pattern write an equation Problem Solving Skills

work backward estimate, check, revise

find needed information take notes ignore unneeded information use logical reasoning use more than one strategy

find needed information

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Practice

Answer the following. 1. Equilateral triangle ACE below has a perimeter of 18 units. It will be cut into four congruent triangles as shown. Each of the four smaller triangles is similar to triangle ACE. What is the sum of the perimeters of the four smaller triangles? Explain in words how you solved the problem. Answer: Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Hint: Review, if necessary, the terms: equilateral triangle, perimeter, congruent, and similar.

A

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2. Sebastian and Selina were working together. They wondered if the area of a semicircle (exactly half of a circle) with a diameter the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle would be equal to the areas of semicircles with diameters the lengths of the legs of the right triangle. If it is true for squares drawn on the three sides, they think it should be true for semicircles. Complete the work they started below. What did they determine about their conjecture (statement of opinion or educated guess)? Explain in words the outcome of their conjecture.

a a b

c b

If a 2 + b 2 = c 2,

does

1 2

(a 2 )+

1 2

(b 2) =

1 2

(c 2)?

1 2

x 3.14 x 32 + +

1 2

x 3.14 x 42 =

1 2

x 3.14 x 52

= =

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3. A 4 x 4 x 4 cube is cut into 8 congruent smaller cubes. Give the dimensions of each of the smaller congruent cubes. Here are some possible ways to solve the problem. You might enjoy building a 4 x 4 x 4 cube from unit cubes and actually dividing it into 8 congruent smaller cubes. You might try the guess and check strategy. To check, you would want to compare the combined volumes of the 8 smaller cubes with the volume of the original 4 x 4 x 4 cube. You might divide the volume of the original 4 x 4 x 4 cube by 8 to find the volume of each of the 8 smaller cubes. You would then determine the dimensions of a smaller cube. You might consider the effect of doubling the dimensions or halving the dimensions on the volume of the cube. You might try to solve the problem in some other way. Answer: Show all your work.

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Pairs of Angles

Sometimes you can classify a pair of angles by the sum of their measures. Supplementary Angles If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180, then the two angles are supplementary angles. If two angles form a straight line, then they are supplementary angles.

120 60 1 2 2 = 180 S

75 P m S+m

105

m 1+m

P = 180

Complementary Angles If the sum of the measures of two angles is 90, then the angles are complementary angles.

40 1 m 2 2 = 90 50 S m S + m P = 90 P

1+m

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When two lines intersect, they meet at one point. The two lines form four angles. These four angles form two types of angle pairs: vertical angles and adjacent angles.

1 1 4 3 2 2 3 4

The two angles that are opposite or directly across from each other are called vertical angles. Vertical angles do not share a common side. 1 and 2 and 3 are vertical angles. 4 are also vertical angles.

Vertical angles are congruent or equal. This means the measures of 1 and 3 are the same. And the measures of 2 and 4 are also the same. 1~ = ~ 2= 3 4

Vertical Angles 1 and 2 and 3 4 Supplementary Angles 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 2 3 4 1

The two angles that are adjacent angles or next to each other form adjacent supplementary angles. Supplementary angles share a common side. Two supplementary angles measure a total of 180.

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If two supplementary angles measure a total of 180, then 1 and 2 form a straight line, and 1 and 2 are supplementary angles. The measures of 1 and 2 = 180. What other angles form supplementary angles? 2 and 3 and 4 and 3 are supplementary angles. 4 are supplementary angles. 1 are supplementary angles.

8 7 50 5 6

1 4 3 2

Notice how if you know the measure of just one of these angles, you can figure out the measures of other three. Example: If

You know that 5 and 7 are vertical angles. You also know that vertical angles are congruent or equal to each other. 50 So, if then 5 = 50 7 = 50.

5 8 7 50 6

You know that 5 and 6 are supplementary angles. You also know that the sum of two supplementary angles are equal to 180. So, if then 5 = 50 6 = 180- 50 = 130 6 = 130. 8.

50 5 8 7 50 6

130

You can use what you know about vertical angles being congruent. So, if then 6 = 130 8 = 130.

50 5 130 8 7 50 6 130

Or, you can use what you know about the sum of two supplementary angles equaling 180. So, if 7 and 8 or if 5 and 8 are supplementary angles, then 8 = 180 - 50 = 130. Either way you would be correct.

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Angles in Circles

A central angle is an angle whose vertex is at the center of the circle. Central angles are formed by intersecting diameters or radii.

center diameter

radius

A circle has 360. So, adding all the measures of all the central angles in any circle gives a sum of 360.

40

starting here

60 30 50

50 30 60 40

50 + 40 + 60 + 30 + 50 + 40 + 60 + 30 = 360

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Practice

Answer the following. Use the figure below to determine the measures of angles a, b, c, d, and e without using a measuring device.

80

150 a c d e

degrees because it is

supplementary to an angle of measure 150 degrees. 2. The measure of angle b is degrees because it is

supplementary to an angle of measure 80 degrees. 3. The measure of angle c is the angles of a triangle is degrees because the sum of degrees. When we subtract

the measure of angles a and b from that sum, we get the measure of angle c. 4. The measure of angle e is angle c are a pair of vertical angles. degrees because angle e and

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Practice

Answer the following. 1. The Precision Pizza Cutting Machine can be programmed to cut slices into specified sizes. A customer requested two small slices determined by 40 degree angles from the center of the circular pizza with a diameter of 12 inches. She requested two medium slices to be determined by 60 degree angles from the center. She wants the remainder of the pizza cut into two large congruent slices. What fractional part of the pizza remains for the two larger slices? Answer:

40 40 60 60

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2. Another customer asked for one-fourth of a pizza to be cut into two slices so that the ratio of the central angles determining the two slices was 5 to 1. What is the measure of the angle determining the smaller of the two slices? a. One fourth of a pizza would be determined by a right angle with a measure of b. degrees.

If the ratio of the angles formed by the two slices is 5 to 1, that means that for every 5 degrees in the angle formed by the larger slice, there will be 1 degree in the angle formed by the smaller slice. The measure of the angle determining the smaller of the two slices is degrees.

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3. Triangle ABC below is an isosceles triangle with a measure of 25 units on each of two sides. The base of the triangle is 14 units in length. Another isosceles triangle, triangle DEF, is to be drawn. The area of this triangle is to be the same as the area of triangle ABC. What is the length of one of the two congruent sides in triangle DEF? Round your answer to the nearest unit. Answer: Hint: The Pythagorean theorem can be used to find the height of triangle ABC. Use it to solve the problem.

25

25

7 14

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4. It is true that the sum of the lengths of the two shorter sides of a triangle must be greater than the length of the longest side, or a triangle cannot be formed. If the lengths of three sides of a triangle are whole numbers, and two shortest sides have lengths of 7 units and 18 units, what is the number of units in the greatest possible perimeter? a. The sum of the lengths of the two shorter sides is units. This sum must be greater than the length of the longest side. (True or False) c. The length of the longest side could range from 19 units to units. d. The greatest possible perimeter is units.

b.

5. A circular spinner to be used in a game is divided into 5 pie-shaped sections. Four sections are congruent, and one section has twice the area of one of the four congruent sections. Determine the number of degrees in the central angle of the larger section. Then make a model of the spinner using the circle provided below Hint: If four sections are to be congruent, and the fifth section is to be twice as large, then you might think of dividing the spinner into six equal parts and erasing one radius to allow two parts to become one larger part.

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. two angles, the sum of which is exactly 180 ______ 2. the opposite angles formed when two lines intersect ______ 3. an angle that has the center of the circle as its vertex ______ 4. two angles, the sum of which is exactly 90 ______ 5. to meet or cross at one point ______ 6. two angles having a common vertex and sharing a common side A. adjacent angles

C. complementary angles

D. intersect

E. supplementary angles

F. vertical angles

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Understand the basic properties of, and relationships pertaining to, regular and irregular geometric shapes in two dimensions. (C.1.3.1) Understand the geometric concepts of transformations including flips, slides, and turns. (C.2.3.1) Predict and verify patterns involving tessellations (covering of a plane with congruent copies of the same pattern with no holes and no overlaps). (C.2.3.2) Identify and plot ordered pairs in all four quadrants of a rectangular coordinate system graph and apply simple properties of lines. (C.3.3.2) Describe relationships through expressions and equations. (D.1.3.1) Create and interpret tables, equations, and verbal descriptions to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2)

You have worked with regular polygons in the past. You also have likely discovered a way to determine the sum of the measures of the angles for a given polygon. We know that the sum of the measures of the angles in 60 any triangle is 180 degrees. We also know that in a 60 60 regular triangle, which is called an equilateral triangle, regular triangle all angles are congruent and each has a measure of 60 + 60 + 60 = 180 60 degrees. From one vertex in a square, one diagonal can be drawn, and it divides the square into two triangles. The sum of the measures of the angles in a square is 360 degrees, and each angle has a measure of 90 degrees.

na l

di

o ag

90 90 90 90

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From one vertex in a pentagon, two 108 diagonals can be drawn which divide 108 108 the pentagon into three triangles for a 108 108 total of 540 degrees. Each angle will have a measure of 108 pentagon degrees if the pentagon is a 108 + 108 + 108 + 108 + 108= 540 regular pentagon (all sides are equal and all angles are equal). The sum of the measures of the angles in any pentagon is 540 degrees. The five angles may or may not be congruent.

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Practice

Answer the following. Complete the table below summarizing information about the number of sides and angles, the sum of angle measures, and the measure of single angles of regular polygons.

Dimensions of Regular Polygons Regular Polygon equilateral triangle square pentagon hexagon heptagon octagon nonagon decagon Number of Sides 3 4 5 Number of Angles 3 4 5 Sum of Angle Measures 180 degrees 360 degrees 540 degrees Measure of One Angle 60 degrees 90 degrees 108 degrees

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a polygon that is both equilateral (all sides the same length) and equiangular (all angles the same measure) ______ 2. a line segment that joins two vertices of a polygon but is not a side of the polygon ______ 3. a polygon with five sides D. hexagon ______ 4. a polygon with six sides ______ 5. a polygon with seven sides ______ 6. a polygon with nine sides ______ 7. a polygon with 10 sides E. nonagon A. decagon

C. heptagon

F. pentagon

G. regular polygon

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Tessellations

Look at the honey bees in their beehive. Each hexagon shape in the beehive is a cell in which the bees store honey. This pattern of hexagons is an example of a tessellation. A tessellation is a covering or tiling of a plane (a two-dimensional surface) by congruent copies of the same shape. The shape must be repeated and fit together so that there are no holes and no overlaps between shapes. Tessellations can be formed by combining translations (slides), rotations (turns), and reflections (flips) of images. In the beehive above, each cell is a regular hexagon. A regular polygon is a polygon with all sides the same length and all angles the same measure. It is both equilateral and equiangular. A regular polygon with six sides is a regular hexagon. A regular tessellation uses congruent regular polygons of only one kind. There are three regular polygons that tessellate: squares, equilateral triangles, and hexagons.

squares

equilateral triangles

hexagons

All the vertices of the figures fit right next to each other around a point. The sums of the angles around any one point equal 360 degrees.

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A semiregular tessellation uses congruent regular polygons of more than one kind. There are eight semiregular tessellations, two of which use mirror images of each other.

Variations of these regular polygons can also tessellate. If you change one side and then change the opposite side to match in the same way, the shape will tessellate. Example: Change a square to make a new tessellation. start with a square change one side copy the change to the opposite side

Other shapes can be used in tessellations. The Dutch artist Maurits Cornelis Escher (1898-1972) became famous for the unusual shapes he used in tessellations. There are some shapes that do not tessellate. Example: congruent regular pentagons

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Practice

Answer the following. Equilateral triangles will tessellate a plane. All their vertices fit right next to each other around a point. Each angle measures 60 degrees, and 60 is a factor of 360. (It divides 360 evenly.) It takes six equilateral triangles to surround a point, and 60 x 6 = 360.

equilateral triangles

1. Name the other two regular polygons that will tile or tessellate the plane. Tell how many of the polygons will be required to surround a point. a. will tile a plane because is a factor of 360. It will take of these to surround a point. b. will tile a plane because is a factor of 360. It will take of these to surround a point.

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2. For each of the patterns for tessellations provided, indicate the measure of each of the angles and find the sum of the angles to verify that it is 360 degrees each time. a. a= + ;b= + ;c= + ;d= =

b d

b.

a= e= + =

;b=

;c=

;d=

c b d a e

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c.

a= e= + =

;b

;c=

;d=

c b d a e

d.

a= +

;b= +

;c= =

a c

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Practice

Draw a square on a piece of paper. From one edge of the square, cut an interesting design (see example below). Tape the design that was cut to the opposite edge of the square. Your new figure should tessellate the plane. Do the same with a parallelogram.

Draw a square.

example

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A coordinate grid or system is a two-dimensional system used to locate points in a plane. A coordinate grid or system has a horizontal ( ) number line (x-axis) and a vertical ( ) number line (y-axis). These two number lines or axes of a graph intersect or meet at the origin. The coordinates at the intersection of the origin are (0, 0.) The axes form four regions or quadrants. However, the origin and the axes are not in any quadrant.

vertical number line (y-axis) SECOND QUADRANT 5 4 3 2 1 horizontal number line (x-axis) -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 THIRD QUADRANT -4 -5 FOURTH QUADRANT origin 1 2 3 4 5 FIRST QUADRANT

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To locate ordered pairs or coordinates such as (5, 4) on a coordinate system, do the following. start at the origin (0, 0) of the grid locate the first number of the ordered pair or the x-coordinate on the x-axis ( ) then move parallel ( ) to the y-axis and locate the second number of the ordered pair or the y-coordinate on the y-axis ( ) and draw a point

y 5 4 3 2 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 x 1 2 3 4 5 (5, 4)

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. axes (of a graph) coordinates coordinate grid intersection number line ordered pair origin quadrant

1. 2. 3.

the first number of an ordered pair the second number of an ordered pair any of four regions formed by the axes in a rectangular coordinate system the point at which two lines meet numbers that correspond to points on a graph in the form (x, y) the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis in a coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0,0) the horizontal and vertical number lines used in a rectangular graph or coordinate grid system as a fixed reference for determining the position of a point the vertical ( ) axis on a coordinate plane the horizontal ( plane ) axis on a coordinate

____________________ ____________________

4. 5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________ ____________________

8. 9.

____________________ 10.

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____________________ 11.

the location of a single point on a rectangular coordinate system where the digits represent the position relative to the x-axis and y-axis Example: (x, y) or (3, 4) network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines especially designed for locating points, displaying data, or drawing maps

____________________ 12.

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Transformations

Geometers sometimes create new geometric figures by moving a figure according to a set of rules. When each point on the original figure can be paired with exactly one point on the new figure, and vice versa, a transformation results. The new figure is called the image. Transformations include slides or translations, rotations or turns, and flips or reflections. Slides or Translations If you draw a figure on a piece of paper and slide it a certain distance in a certain direction, you have modeled a slide, or translation. If you move it again the same distance and in the same direction, you continue the translation. The distance and direction define the slide. When you use a coordinate grid, an ordered pair provides this information. Example: You can slide a figure by moving it along a surface. The slide may be in a vertical ( ), horizontal ( ), or diagonal ( ) direction.

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Unit 3: Geometry

In a slide or translation, every point in the figure slides the same distance and in the same direction. Use a slide arrow to show the direction of the movement. The slide arrow has its endpoint on one point of the first figure and its arrow on the corresponding point in the second figure.

y

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 F F 4 5 6 7 8 9 H G H G E E 1 1 2 3 4 The slide arrow shows that the slide moves figure EFGH 4 units right and 1 unit down.

The figure to be moved is labeled with letters EFGH. It has moved 4 units to the right and 1 unit down. The transformed image (the second figure) is labeled with the same letters and a prime sign (). You read the second figure E prime, F prime, G prime, H prime.

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Practice

Complete the following. 1. Perform a translation on the triangle below using the ordered pair (6, 5) to define the translation. Choose a vertex of the triangle. From that point on the coordinate grid, move the triangle 6 units to the right; then 5 units up. This will be the location for the vertex chosen on the image. Repeat this process for the remaining two vertices.

y-axis 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x-axis -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 A -1 0 -1 -2 B C -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

translation (6, 5)

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Rotations or Turns

If you draw a triangle on a sheet of paper, place a dot on the paper. Using your pen or pencil, rotate the page about the point. You are modeling a rotation or turn. Points in the original figure turn a specific number of degrees about a fixed center point. The center of rotation, the direction of rotation (clockwise or counterclockwise), and the number of degrees define a rotation. Examples: You can rotate a figure by turning the figure around a point. The point can be on the figure, or it can be some other point. This point is called the turn center or point of rotation.

F E

N K J N M L

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Measuring Degree of Rotation around a Point Figures can be rotated around a point. The rotation leaves the figure looking exactly the same. Use a protractor to measure the angle of rotation. On page 227 of this unit, you saw how protractors measure angles. You saw that protractors are marked from 0 to 180 degrees in a clockwise manner, as well as a counterclockwise manner. You saw that 10 and 170 are in the same position. You also saw that 55 and 125 are in the same position.

ck

60

12

i se

80 10 0 70 110

0 80 10

90

70

60 12

11 0

50 13 0

c lo

50

40

13

30

14

15

20

terclockwis oun e

40

14

16

30

150

60 20 1

10 170

10 170

vertex

ray

0 180

0 180

Whether you are using a protractor to measure an angle or to measure the degree of rotation around a point, you use similar strategies. To measure the degree of rotation around a point, do the following. Place the center of the protractor on the point of the rotation. Line up the 0 degree mark with the start of the rotation. Use a straightedge to extend the line for easier reading of the measure. Rotate the figure and mark the place the rotated figure (the new image) matches the original figure. Extend the line with a straightedge and note the degree on the protractor. The point of rotation represents the vertex of the angle. The ray through 0 degrees lines up with a point on the original figure. The ray through its corresponding point on the image passes through the measure of the angle of rotation.

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Note that the measure of the angle of rotation for the first figure below is 90 degrees, and the second figure below is 180. When you rotate a figure, you can describe the rotation by giving the direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the angle that the figure is rotated around the point of rotation. The amount of rotation is expressed in the number of degrees it was rotated from its starting point.

start of rotation

end of rotation

start of rotation

end of rotation

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Practice

Complete the following. Perform a rotation on the triangle provided below using the point provided and turning the figure 120 degrees in a clockwise direction.

y-axis 9 8 7 6 A 5 4 C B point of rotation -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 3 2 1X -1 0 -1 -2 1 2 3 4 5 x-axis 6 7

a. Let the center of rotation be point X, which is shown on the grid. b. Lightly sketch angle AXA so that its measure is 120 degrees in a clockwise direction. Make sure segments AX and AX are congruent. c. Lightly sketch angle BXB so that its measure is 120 degrees in a clockwise direction. Make sure segments BX and BX are congruent. d. Lightly sketch angle CXC so that its measure is 120 degrees in a clockwise direction. Make sure segments CX and CX are congruent.

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e. Connect points A, B, and C to form the image of triangle ABC. This is the image of triangle ABC under a rotation of 120 degrees about point X. (Remember: The labeled letter A is read A prime, B is read B prime, and C is read C prime.)

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Flips or Reflections

When you draw a triangle on a sheet of paper, place the edge of a mirror on your paper and look at the image of the triangle in your mirror. You are modeling a flip or reflection. A line of reflection defines a reflection. The line of reflection, called a flip line, is a perpendicular bisector of any line segment connecting a point on the original figure to its corresponding point on the reflected figure. A perpendicular bisector is a line that divides a line, line segment, ray, or plane in half and meets the segment at right angles (see page 222). Example: The reflection you see in a mirror is the reverse image of what you are looking at. In geometry, a reflection is a transformation in which a figure is flipped over a line. That is why a reflection is also called a flip. You flip the figure over a line. Each point in a reflection image is equidistant (the same distance) from the line of reflection as the corresponding point in the original figure.

right angle symbol G F line of reflection or flip line is a perpendicular bisector

equidistant H

equidistant s H

F and F are both 2 units from the line s. G and G are both 4 units from the line s. H and H are both 4 units from the line s.

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Symmetry

If a figure can be folded along a line so that it has two parts that are congruent and match exactly, that figure has line symmetry. Line symmetry is often just called symmetry. The fold line is called the line of symmetry. A figure can have no lines of symmetry,

line of symmetry

Suppose triangle EFG below is reflected over line FH. The image of E is G. The image of G is E. And the image of F is F itself. The entire triangle corresponds with its reflection image. The triangle is symmetric with respect to line FH. It has line symmetry.

F

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A figure can have reflectional symmetry. If a figure has at least one line of symmetry, a figure has reflectional symmetry. Once split, one side is the mirror image or reflection of the other. It is even possible to have more than one line of reflectional symmetry. A figure can have turn symmetry or rotational symmetry. If a figure can rotate about its center point to a position that appears the same as the original position, it has turn or rotational symmetry. The amount of rotation is usually expressed in degrees. A figure can have translational symmetry. If a figure can slide on a plane (or flat surface) without turning or flipping and have its opposite sides stay congruent, it has translational symmetry. The distance and direction of the slide are important. Which figures on the previous page do you think have reflectional symmetry? Which have turn or rotational symmetry? Which one could have translational symmetry? Remember: Lines of symmetry lines do not have to be horizontal ( ) or vertical ( ). Lines of symmetry can also be diagonal ( ).

A B D C A

A B D C B D C

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Practice

Complete the following. Perform a reflection on the triangle provided below using the line of reflection provided.

y-axis 7 6 A 5 4 C B 3 2 1 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7

line of reflection

x-axis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. factor flip line of symmetry ____________________ perpendicular bisector rotation slide 1. tessellation transformation

a covering of a plane with congruent copies of the same shape with no holes and no overlaps a transformation that produces the mirror image of a geometric figure; also called a reflection to move along in constant contact with the surface in a vertical, horizontal, or diagonal direction; also called a translation a transformation of a figure by turning it about a center point or axis; also called a turn a number or expression that divides exactly another number an operation on a geometric figure by which another image is created a line that divides a line segment in half and meets the segment at right angles a line that divides a figure into two congruent halves that are mirror images of each other

____________________

2.

____________________

3.

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________

8.

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Practice

Match each illustration with the most correct term. Write the letter on the line provided.

______ 1.

fixed point

A. reflection or flip

______ 2.

B. rotation or turn

______ 3.

C. translation or slide

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Practice

Complete the following. Problem Solving 1. Juanita started with parallelogram ABCD in Quadrant II of a coordinate grid as shown below. She performed the first reflection over the y-axis which placed the image in Quadrant I.

y-axis Second Quadrant (Quadrant II) 6 5 4 A B 3 2 D -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 C -2 1 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 Third Quadrant (Quadrant III) -5 -6 Fourth Quadrant (Quadrant IV) B A 1 C 2 C 3 4 D 5 D 6 7 8 x-axis 9 10 B A First Quadrant (Quadrant I)

She then performed a second reflection over the x-axis which placed the new image in Quadrant IV. She then posed three questions for her partner to answer. You will represent her partner and respond to the three questions. a. Will the third reflection over the y-axis result in the figure I started with in Quadrant II? Explain. Answer: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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b. The image in Quadrant IV looks like a translation of the original figure in Quadrant II. What do you think? Explain. Answer: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ c. What would happen if I did the same series of reflections with a right triangle? Use the right triangle below to carry out this investigation and answer Juanitas question. Did the image in Quadrant IV result in a translation from Quadrant II? Answer: _____________________________________________

x-axis Second Quadrant (Quadrant II) 6 5 4 3 2 1 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 Third Quadrant (Quadrant III) -5 -6 Fourth Quadrant (Quadrant IV) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y-axis First Quadrant (Quadrant I)

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2. Juan enjoyed the questions posed by Juanita, his partner. He decided to share a problem he worked on below with her.

y-axis Second Quadrant (Quadrant II) 6 5 4 A B 3 2 D -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 C -2 1 -1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 Third Quadrant (Quadrant III) -5 -6 D A Fourth Quadrant (Quadrant IV) 1 C 2 3 4 B 5 6 7 8 9 x-axis 10 First Quadrant (Quadrant I)

Juan reflected geometric shapes over the x-axis and over the y-axis. He decided to draw a line that represented all points where x and y had the same values such as (0,0), (1,1), (2,2), (-1, -1), (-2, -2) and so on. The equation for this line is y = x. The image that resulted from his reflection over the line y = x looked a bit strange to him. Juanita tried the same task so they could compare results. They agreed to connect each vertex on their original figure with its corresponding point on the image with a line segment. They would then verify that the line of reflection, y = x, was the perpendicular bisector of each of those segments. a. Complete their task on the coordinated grid above.

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b. Juan and Juanita decided to make a table of the coordinates for the vertices of the original figure and its image. Complete the table for the coordinates of the vertices in the original figure and from the image resulting from a reflection over the line of y = x.

Coordinates of Vertices Vertex on Original figure A Coordinates (-4, 3) ( ( ( ) ) ) Vertex on Image A Coordinates ( ( ( ( ) ) ) )

c. What did Juan and Juanita discover about the ordered pairs? Answer: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. base (b) cylinder edge face pyramid rectangular prism vertex

____________________

1.

the common endpoint from which two rays begin or the point where two lines intersect the line or plane upon which a figure is thought of as resting a three-dimensional figure with two parallel congruent circular bases a six-sided three dimensional prism whose faces are all rectangular a solid with a single base that is a polygon and whose faces are triangles that share a common vertex one of the plane surfaces bounding a threedimensional figure the line segment where two faces of a solid figure meet

____________________

2.

____________________

3.

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. an angle with a measure of more than 90 but less than 180 ______ 2. figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size ______ 3. a polygon with four sides and two pairs of parallel sides ______ 4. forming a right angle ______ 5. the longest side of a right triangle; the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle ______ 6. being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect ______ 7. the distance around a polygon ______ 8. the amount of space occupied in three dimensions and expressed in cubic units ______ 9. a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to a point on the circle or sphere ______ 10. an angle that has the center of the circle as its vertex ______ 11. a line that divides a figure into two congruent halves that are mirror images of each other A. congruent ( ~ =) B. hypotenuse C. obtuse angle D. parallel ( ) E. parallelogram F. perpendicular ( )

A. central angle

B. line of symmetry

C. perimeter (P)

D. radius (r)

E. volume (V)

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This unit emphasizes how patterns of change and relationships are used to describe and summarize information with algebraic expressions or equations to solve problems.

Unit Focus

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms. (A.1.3.4) Understand and use exponential notation. (A.2.3.1) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers and decimals to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculators. (A.3.3.3) Use concepts about numbers to build number sequences. (A.5.3.1) Algebraic Thinking Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships, and functions through models, such as tables, graphs, and equations. (D.1.3.1) Create and interpret tables, graphs, equations, and verbal descriptions to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2) Represent and solve real-world problems graphically and with algebraic expressions and equations. (D.2.3.1) Use algebraic problem-solving strategies to solve real-world problems involving linear equations. (D.2.3.2) Data Analysis and Probability Organize and display data. (E.1.3.1)

Postal Clerk

weighs letters and packages uses postal rate table information to determine cost based on weight, size, and distance of destination

Vocabulary

Study the vocabulary words and definitions below. associative property ...................... the way in which three or more numbers are grouped for addition or multiplication does not change their sum or product Example: (5 + 6) + 9 = 5 + (6 + 9) or (2 x 3) x 8 = 2 x (3 x 8) commutative property .................. the order in which any two numbers are added or multiplied does not change their sum or product Example: 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 or 4 x 7 = 7 x 4 coordinate grid or system ............ network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines especially designed for locating points, displaying data, or drawing maps data .................................................. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes decay factor .................................... the constant factor that each value in an exponential decay pattern is multiplied by to get the next value Example: 625, 125, 25, 5, 1each value is 1 5 the previous value. decay rate ........................................ the constant rate at which an exponential function decreases difference ........................................ the result of a substraction Example: In 16 - 9 = 7, 7 is the difference.

331

distributive property .................... for any real numbers a, b, and x, x(a + b) = ax + bx equation ......................................... a mathematical sentence that equates one expression to another expression Example: 2x = 10 exponent (exponential form) ...... the number of times the base occurs as a factor Example: 23 is the exponential form of 2 x 2 x 2. The numeral two (2) is called the base, and the numeral three (3) is called the exponent. exponential decay ......................... a pattern of decrease in which each value decreases by a fixed amount at regular intervals exponential growth ...................... a pattern of increase in which each value increases by a fixed amount at regular intervals expression ....................................... a collection of numbers, symbols, and/or operation signs that stand for a number Example: 4r2; 3x + 2y; 25 formula ........................................... a way of expressing a relationship using variables or symbols that represent numbers function ........................................... a relation in which each value of x in a given set is paired with a unique value of y; can be described by a rule, a table, or a graph

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graph ............................................... a drawing used to represent data Example: bar graphs, double bar graphs, circle graphs, and line graphs grid ................................................... a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines growth factor .................................. the constant factor that each value in an exponential growth pattern is multiplied by to get the next value Example: 1, 5, 25, 125, 625each value is 5 times the previous value. growth rate ..................................... the constant rate at which an exponential function increases interest-bearing account .............. an account for which an agreed upon rate of interest is paid intersection ..................................... the point at which two lines meet labels (for a graph) ........................ the titles given to a graph, the axes of a graph, or the scales on the axes of a graph like terms ........................................ terms that have the same variables and the same corresponding exponents Example: In 5x2 + 3x2 + 6, 5x2 and 3x2 are like terms.

333

linear equation .............................. an equation whose graph is a line; an algebraic equation in which the variable quantity or quantities are in the first power only and the graph is a straight line Example: 20 = 2(w + 4) + 2w; y = 3x + 4 maximum ........................................ the largest amount or number allowed or possible minimum ........................................ the smallest amount or number allowed or possible nonlinear equation ....................... an equation whose graph is not a line ordered pair .................................... the location of a single point on a rectangular coordinate system where the digits represent the position relative to the x-axis and y-axis Example: (x, y) or (3, 4) origin ............................................... the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis in a coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0, 0) outcome ........................................... a possible result of a probability experiment parallel ( ) ...................................... being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect

334

Pascals triangle ............................. a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each number is the sum of the pair of numbers above it Example: Row 0 1

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 1 1 5 1 4 10 1 3 6 1 2 3 4 10 5 1 1 1 1 1

pattern (relationship) ................... a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc.; also called a relation or relationship; may be described or presented using manipulatives, tables, graphics (pictures or drawings), or algebraic rules (functions) Example: 2, 5, 8, 11...is a pattern. Each number in this sequence is three more than the preceding number. Any number in this sequence can be described by the algebraic rule, 3n - 1, by using the set of counting numbers for n. percent (%) ..................................... a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 Example: The ratio is written as a whole number followed by a percent sign, such as 25% which means the ratio of 25 to 100. point ................................................ a location in space that has no length or width positive numbers .......................... numbers greater than zero power (of a number) ..................... an exponent; the number that tells how many times a number is used as a factor Example: In 23, 3 is the power.

335

product ............................................ the result of a multiplication Example: In 6 x 8 = 48, 48 is the product. quadrant ......................................... any of the four regions formed by the axes in a rectangular coordinate system relationship (relation) .................. see pattern rounded number ........................... a number approximated to a specified place Example: A commonly used rule to round a number is as follows. If the digit in the first place after the specified place is 5 or more, round up by adding 1 to the digit in the specified place ( 461 rounded to the nearest hundred is 500). If the digit in the first place after the specified place is less than 5, round down by not changing the digit in the specified place ( 441 rounded to the nearest hundred is 400). rule ................................................... a mathematical expression that describes a pattern or relationship, or a written description of the pattern or relationship scales ................................................ the numeric values assigned to the axes of a graph sum .................................................. the result of an addition Example: In 6 + 8 = 14, 14 is the sum.

Quadrant II

Quadrant I

336

table (or chart) ............................... an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns value (of a variable) ...................... any of the numbers represented by the variable variable ........................................... any symbol that could represent a number x-axis ................................................ the horizontal ( plane ) axis on a coordinate

x-coordinate ................................... the first number of an ordered pair y-axis ................................................ the vertical ( ) axis on a coordinate plane y-coordinate ................................... the second number of an ordered pair

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Introduction

Algebraic thinking helps us describe patterns of change in words, tables, expressions, equations, and graphs. Cause-and-effect relationships are important in our everyday lives. We may link the relationship of rate of speed and time required to travel calories consumed and weight temperature and altitude changing dimensions and area or volume amount of study and grade earned rate of gratuity and quality of service age and height foot length and height The list could continue for a long time. The work you do in this unit will help you become a better solver of problems in everyday use of mathematics. It will also support your work in high school mathematics and science courses. You will likely see connections between what you are doing now and what you have done in the past in mathematics.

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Describe a wide variety of patterns and relationships through models. (D.1.3.1) Create and interpret tables and verbal descriptions to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2) Organize and display data. (E.1.3.1)

This lesson will deal with interesting patterns. The path taking you to the solution will likely contribute to your critical thinking skills.

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Practice

Answer the following. In the illustrations on the following page, you will see a series of squares. The sides of the squares measure from 1 to 5 units. At the lower left corner of each square is the letter B, for begin. At the upper right corner of each square is the letter E, for end. For each square, how many ways are there to get from B to E if you move horizontally ( ) or vertically ( ), travel the minimum distance, and do not retrace your steps? The 2 x 2 square below is done for you to make sure you understand the task.

E E E E E E

There are 6 paths moving vertically and horizontally from B to E that travel the minimum distance and that do not retrace steps.

The six 2 x 2 squares above show each of the six possible paths to get from B to E. The 2 x 2 square on the right shows one persons analysis of paths. At each intersection, the number of paths to get from B to that intersection is shown. Before you proceed with the other squares, be sure you can verify each of those numbers on the 2 x 2 square on the right. If you cannot, get some assistance.

1 1 3 2 1 6

E

3 1

Hint: You should also realize that the 2 x 2 square gives you a head start on the 3 x 3 square.

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Determine the number of possible paths to get from B to E on each of the following squares. If you need to, look back at the number of possible paths on the 2 x 2 square on the previous page. Then complete the table on the next page. Extra area on the grid paper is provided for your use.

1x1 2x2 3x3 4x4

E B B

B

5x5

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Complete the table below after you have figured out the number of paths for each of the different size squares on the previous page.

Possible Number of Paths Size of Square 1x1 2x2 3x3 4x4 5x5 6 Number of Paths from B to E

When you have worked on this problem for more than 30 minutes without distractions, please put it away. Solutions may become clearer and easier to solve after doing other problems in this lesson.

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Practice

Answer the following. One family has six children, all of them boys. Another family has four children, all of them girls. And another family has two children, a daughter and a son. Think about some of the families you know. If a family has six children and they are all boys, the possible outcome is B, B, B, B, B, B.

If a family has four children and they are all girls, the outcome is G, G, G, G.

If a family has two children and one is a girl and one is a boy, the outcomes could be G, B or B, G.

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Number of Children 1 2

Birth Order B G BB BG GB GG BBB BBG BGB GBB BGG GBG GGB GGG

4 girls

345

2. A family with three children has 2 girls and 1 boy. If the boy is born first, the birth order would be BGG. If the boy is born second, the birth order would be order? . What is another possible birth This would create outcomes for a

family with 2 girls and 1 boy. 3. The total number of possible outcomes for a family with three children is .

4. If a family with four children has 2 girls and 2 boys, how many outcomes are possible? 5. The total number of possible outcomes for a family with four children is .

6. The total number of outcomes for families with one to four children is 2, 4, 8, .

7. Based on this emerging pattern, predict the number of possible outcomes for a family with five children. 8. What would be the likelihood of 6 boys out of a family with six children?

346

Practice

Answer the following. 1. Tait flips a coin four days in a row to decide whether to wear tennis shoes or sandals. Heads results in tennis shoes (T) and tails results in sandals (S). Use the table below to find all possible outcomes. The table has been started for you. One outcome would be to get tails four days in a row and wear sandals (S) every day.

Wearing Tennis Shoes or Sandals Monday S Tuesday S Wednesday S Thursday S

347

2. Compare your results to the results in the previous practice about families with four children. How might you explain this in words? Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 3. Mrs. Mio is giving her students a pop quiz that will have three true or false statements. Before she writes the questions, she makes up answer keys. To do this she cuts two strips of paper. On one strip Mrs. Milo writes true, on the other she writes false. She places the two strips of paper into a hat. Mrs. Milo then draws an answer of true or false from the hat. She writes that answer down and puts the strip back into the hat. She does this a total of 3 times. If the answers she draws say True, True, True, she writes 3 true statements for the quiz. In the table below, fill in all the possible answer keys for her quiz.

Possible True or False Statements Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3

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4. How is this problem like, or different from, a family with 3 children or tossing a coin 3 times? Explain in words. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

349

Pascals Triangle

Pascals triangle is a triangular arrangement of numbers. Each number is the sum of the pair of numbers above it. Each row has 1 as its first and last number. Other numbers are produced by adding the two numbers directly to the left and right in the row above.

Row 0 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 1 1 9 1 8 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 10 15 21 35 28 56 1 3 1

1 1 2 3 6 4 10 5 20 15 6 1 1 1 1 1

35 21 7 1 70 56 28 8 1 1

36 84 126 126 84 36 9

The pattern is named for Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Pascal did not invent this pattern, and he was not the first to study it. However, he was the first to use it in probability studies.

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Practice

Answer the following. Only a part of the special triangle known as Pascals triangle is provided in this problem. Look for patterns and respond to the following questions.

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 Row 10 Row 11 1

left side

1 1 1 3 4 5 10 15 21 35 6 2

1 1 3 4 10 5 20 15 1

right side

1 1 1 1 8 7 6

1 1 6 1

28 56

35 21 7 1 70 56 28 8 1

1. Start with the number 1 at top left. Let your eyes move down and to the left. What pattern do you see? be in the first position on the next row? 2. Start with the number 1 at top left. Let your eyes move down and to the right. What pattern do you see? What number What number would

would be in the next to the last position on the next row? What number would be in the next to last position on Row 11?

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3. Start with the number 1 at top right. Let your eyes move down and to the right. What pattern do you see? would be in the last position on the next row? 4. Start with the number 1 at top right. Let your eyes move down and to the left. What pattern do you see? be in the second position on the next row? number would be in the second position on Row 11? 5. Start with the number 1 on the left side of the second row and let your eyes move down and to the right. What pattern do you see? What number would be in the third from the last position on the next row? 6. Start with the number 1 on the right side of the second row and let your eyes move down and to the left. What pattern do you see? What number would be in the third position on the next row? 7. Start with the number 1 on the left of the first row. Let your eyes move down and to the right. Does each number you see indicate the row number? 8. Start with the number 1 on the right of the first row. Let your eyes move down and to the left. Does each number you see indicate the row number? What number would What What number

352

9. The sum of the two numbers on the first row is 1 + 1 or 2. The sum of the numbers on the second row is 1 + 2 + 1 or 4. Complete the table below.

Sums on Rows Row 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Sum of Numbers on the Row

10. Look at your table above. Compare the numbers in the fourth row of that table with the work you did in the practice on page 347 in number 1 about wearing tennis shoes or sandals. When a coin is tossed four days in a row: How many outcomes result in 4 heads? How many outcomes result in 3 heads and 1 tail? How many outcomes result in 2 heads and 2 tails? How many outcomes result in 1 head and 3 tails? How many outcomes result in 4 tails? How do these numbers compare with the 4th row in Pascals triangle? _________________________________________________

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11. Compare the numbers in the fourth row with the work you did in the practice on page 345 in number 1 about children in a family. When 4 children are born in a family: How many outcomes result in 4 girls? How many outcomes result in 3 girls and 1 boy? How many outcomes result in 2 girls and 2 boys? How many outcomes result in 1 girl and 3 boys? How many outcomes result in 4 boys? 12. Compare the numbers in the third row with the work you did in the practice on page 348 for number 3 about a pop quiz with true or false statements. How do the possible outcomes identified and the total number of outcomes for the answers to 3 true or false questions compare with the numbers on the third row and the sum of those numbers? Explain in words. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Practice

Answer the following. Pascals triangle is helpful in looking at the number of outcomes possible in situations such as heads or tails, boy or girl, and true or false. These are often called binomial probabilities because each consist of two possibilities. We will now look at patterns to help us generate the pattern of the triangle.

1 2 3 6 10

1 1 3 4 10 5 1 1 1

.

2. The second row has three entries. The first and third are 1s. What is the sum of the two entries on row one which is just above the center entry on row two? entry on row 2 below them? 3. The third row has four entries. The first and fourth are 1s. Do the other entries on row three represent the sum of the two entries on row two directly above them? 4. The fourth row has five entries. The first and fifth are 1s. Do the other entries on row four represent the sum of the entries on row three directly above them? Is the sum the same as the second

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5. The fifth row could be used to describe the number of outcomes possible for a family with five children, a coin tossed five times, a set of five true or false statements, and other similar situations. There is There are true and 1 is false. There are true and 2 are false. There are true and 3 are false. There are and 4 are false. There is outcome possible when 5 statements are false. outcomes possible when 1 statement is true outcomes possible when 2 statements are outcomes possible when 3 statements are outcome possible when 5 statements are true. outcomes possible when 4 statements are

The total number of outcomes possible for five true or false statements is .

356

Practice

Complete the following. A 5 x 5 square is provided below. At each intersection, the number of paths to get from the arrow at the lower left corner to any intersection moving vertically ( ) or horizontally ( ) is recorded.

21

56

126

252

15

35

70

126

10

20

35

56

10

15

21

Diagonal ( ) lines have been shaded grey to help you see how the entries look like Pascals triangle in this problem. The six outcomes from B to E for a 2 x 2 square were illustrated for you in the first practice on page 341 of this lesson. Go back and review the procedures. Use the grid paper on the following pages to show all paths to get to some other intersection with more than 6 paths. You may choose the intersection, but draw one grid per path until you have found them all.

357

358

359

Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. It is time for Team Problem Solving. Ready, Set, Go! Problem: Mr. Zhang is writing 10 statements for a true or false test. He decides he will write 4 statements that are true and 6 statements that are false. How many different ways could he arrange the 10 statements with 4 true statements and 6 false statements on the test? Remember to do your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: This is like the problems we did in class. If the test has 10 questions, then we need Pascals triangle to the 10th row.

1 2 3 6 10 15 21 35 28 56

1 1 3 4 10 5 20 15 6 1 1 1 1

35 21 7 1 70 56 28 8 1

This is as far as we got in class. Lets start with the 8th row and go to the 10th

Row 8 Row 9 1

1 9

28 56

70 56 28 8

1 1

36 84 126 126 84 36 9

There is one way for all questions to be true. There are 10 ways that 9 of the questions could be true and 1 could be false. There are 45 ways that 8 of the questions could be true and 2 false. There are 120 ways that 7 could be true and 5 false. There are 210 ways that 6 could be true and 4 false. There are 252 ways that 5 could be true and 5 false. There are 210 ways that 4 could be true and 6 false.

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One group member says that may be what the triangle says, but it doesnt sound reasonable. Can there possibly be 210 ways to arrange 10 true or false statements with 4 true and 6 false statements? Lets try a few and see how we feel about this, the group agreed. Well simply decide which 4 statements will be true. 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 5 1, 2, 3, 6 1, 2, 3, 7 1, 2, 3, 8 1, 2, 3, 9 1, 2, 3, 10 1, 2, 4, 5 1, 2, 4, 6 1, 2, 4, 7 1, 2, 4, 8 1, 2, 4, 9 The group decides this is a slow process that could take a long time. It does appear there will be many different ways, and they have confidence in using Pascals triangle for a problem like this. They decide to check their numbers one more way. Is the sum of our row a power of 2? If it is, our calculations for the 9th and 10th rows are right, and well go with our answer. 1 + 10 + 45 + 120 + 210 + 252 + 210 + 120 + 45 + 10 + 1 = 1024 210 = 1,024 Okay, it checks. There are 210 ways to arrange, or order, the 10 statements if 4 are true and 6 are false.

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Feedback from the Coach: Your work shows evidence that you understand some important mathematical concepts involved in this problem. Could you explain to another student how each entry in the 10th row of Pascals triangle can be interpreted as it applies to this problem? Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: One student speaks up: If there are to be 4 true and 6 false, that could be like having a family of four children who are all girls and a family of 6 children who are all boys. Lets look at that triangle for rows 4 and 6.

1 2 3 6 10 15

1 1 3 4 10 5 20 15 6 1 1 1 1

There is one way to have 4 children if all four are girls. There is one way to have 6 children if all six are boys. That means there are two ways to arrange the 10 true or false statements.

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Feedback from the Coach: Show me the two ways you have in mind. The students reply: T, T, T, T, F, F, F, F, F, F We let the true come first and the false come last. F, F, F, F, F, F, T, T, T, T We let the false come first and the true come last. The coach says: Can you think of at least one other way? The students reply: We could alternate: T, F, T, F, T, F, T, F, F, F. We alternated until we used up all four true questions. The coach replies: You have shown me three ways, so you know your response of two ways is not correct. Review the work you did with the practices in this lesson and try again. Remember, the set of 10 questions is like a family with 10 children, not one family with 6 and one family with 4. We are not having all 10 questions true or all 10 false. Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: The team members decide to use the sum of the entries on row 4 and the sum of the entries on row 6. 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1 = 16 1 + 6 + 15 + 20 + 15 + 6 + 1 = 64 16 + 64 = 80. There are 80 ways Mr. Zhang could arrange the 10 true or false questions. Feedback from the coach: Lets look at the 4th row of Pascals triangle. 1 4 6 4 1 The 1 on each end represents the one way that 4 out of 4 statements could be true or that 4 out of 4 statements could be false. The 4s in the second and fourth positions represent the ways that 3 statements could be true with 1 false or that 3 statements could be false with one true. The 6 in the center position represents the ways 2 statements could be true and 2 statements could be false. None of these deal with 10 questions of which 4 are true and 6 are false. Lets fully understand the 4th row. 1 4 true 0 false TTTT 4 3 True 1 false TTTF TTFT TFTT FTTT 6 2 true 2 false TTFF TFTF TFFT FTTF FTFT FFTT 4 1 true 3 false FFFT FFTF FTFF TFFF 1 0 true 4 false FFFF

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets make a table and list all the possible ways.

Possible True and False Statements 1 T F F F F F F T T T T T T F F F T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F F F F F 2 T T F F F F F T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F 3 T T T F F F F T T T T T T T T T T T F F F F F F T T T T T T T T T F F F 4 T T T T F F F F F F F F F T T T F F T F F F F F F F F F F T T T T T T F 5 F T T T T F F T F F F F F F F F F F T T F F F F T F F F F F F F F T T T 6 F T T T T T F F T F F F F T F F F F F T T F F F T T F F F T F F F F F T 7 F F F T T T T F F T F F F F T F F F F F T T F F F T T F F T T F F T F F 8 F F F F T T T F F F T F F F F T F F F F F T T F F F T T F F T T F T T F 9 F F F F F T T F F F F T F F F F T F F F F F T T F F F T T F F T T F T T 10 F F F F F F T F F F F F T F F F F T F F F F F T F F F F T F F F T F F T

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We need more time. We need a whole lot of time! Feedback from the Coach: You may be able to continue your work to find all possible arrangements for 4 true and 6 false responses. Your listing indicates some organization, but maybe less will be required to be certain you have found every one. For instance, I once tried to clean a sidewalk in downtown Augusta, Georgia with a toothbrush. It was part of an initiation into a club in our middle school. This initiation was for fun, not punishment. However, it was a slow process. We could have eventually gotten it clean, but other tools would have been far more efficient. The same is true of your approach to solving this problem. A list may be an effective tool when the number of things to be listed is reasonable and leads to more efficient ways to solve problems. Review the work we did with the other practices in this lesson and search for a more efficient tool for solving this problem. Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

368

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. grid intersection outcome Pascals triangle pattern (relationship) power (of a number) sum table (or chart)

____________________

1.

a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc. the point at which two lines meet a possible result of a probability experiment an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each number is the sum of the pair of numbers above it the result of an addition an exponent; the number that tells how many times a number is used as a factor a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines

____________________ ____________________

2. 3.

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________ ____________________

6. 7.

____________________

8.

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Add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Interpret equations to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2) Solve real-world problems with algebraic equations. (D.2.3.1) Use algebraic problem-solving strategies to solve realworld problems involving linear equations. (D.2.3.2)

In this lesson, you will examine real-world problems. You will gain practice in using algebraic problem-solving strategies and using algebraic equations. Equations can be simple or complex. can have one variable or many. can have one solution or many. can be graphed. A graph is a drawing used to represent data. A graph can be a picture of an equation. The graphs of some equations are straight lines. Equations whose graphs are straight lines are called linear equations. Graphs of other equations can be curves or other shapes. Equations whose graphs are not straight lines but are curves or other shapes are called nonlinear equations.

linear equations

nonlinear equations

370

Practice

Answer the following. 1. Nina is purchasing a laptop computer to take to college. The cost of the model she has chosen is $1,500. She will use $420.00 she received in graduation gifts from family and friends for her down payment. The company has a deal at this time that allows payment within 12 months interest free. She is to make monthly payments of equal amounts during the next 12 months to pay the balance. a. Explain in your own words how the following equation C = d + 12a applies to this specific problem if C represents cost, d represents down payment, and a represents amount of monthly payments. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ b. Replace the variables in the equation above with the actual amounts and solve the problem.

371

c. Check your work and explain why your answer is reasonable. Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 2. Forensic scientists have established a relationship or pattern between the length of certain bones in a persons body and the height of the person. They use the relationships to estimate the height of a person based on the length of a bone. An example of this is the relationship of the length of the femur, f, to the height, h, of a male and to the height, h, of a female. All measurements are in centimeters. Male: h = 69.089 + 2.238f Female: h = 61.412 + 2.317f a. Explain in words each equation if h represents height and f represents length of femur. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ b. If the length of a femur for a female is 44.56 cm, what would her estimated height be according to the equation? Start with the equation above for a female; substitute the actual femur length for f, and solve the equation.

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c. If the length of a femur for a male is 47.32 cm, what would his estimated height be according to the equation? Start with the equation above for a male; substitute the actual femur length for f, and solve the equation.

3. Our height increases significantly early in life and decreases very gradually later in life. It has been estimated that the height of a person begins to decrease at age 30 at a rate of 0.06 cm per year. If the height of a female is 162.5 cm (approximately 5 feet, 5 inches) at age 30, what is her height expected to be at age 65? a. Explain in words how the following equation L = h 0.06(a 30) represents the information in the problem if L represents height at age greater than 30, h represents height at 30 years of age, and a represents the current age of the person where a is greater than 30. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ b. Use the equation above to solve the problem.

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4. Mrs. Naidoo prefers to travel on an interstate highway where she can average 70 miles per hour. Mrs. Schubert prefers to travel on a less busy four-lane highway where she can average 60 miles per hour. How long must Mrs. Schubert travel to cover the same distance Mrs. Naidoo does in 4.5 hours? a. Explain in words how the following equation 60t = 70(4.5) represents the information in the problem if distance (D) is equal to the product of the rate (r) and the time (t) or D = rt Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ b. Use the equation above solve the problem.

374

Practice

Answer the following. Lightning can be dangerous. Nationwide, 25 million lightning bolts a year hit the ground. An average of 73 people are killed each year by lightning, and Florida leads the nation in lightning strikes. We often wonder how close lightning may be to us. A general rule has been to count the seconds between the lightning flash and the sound of thunder. Since the speed of sound is about 1,100 feet per second, a count of 5 seconds indicates the lightning is about 5,500 feet away. That is a little more than a mile. 1. Explain in words how the following equation D = 1,100s represents the information in the problem if D represents distance and s represents the number of seconds. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. Use the equation above to determine the distance from the lightning to your location if you count 4 seconds.

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3. Use the equation in number 1 to determine how many seconds occur between the flash of lightning and the sound of thunder if the distance is 1 2 mile? (Remember: 1 mile = 5,280 feet.)

Next you will make a line graph on a coordinate grid to represent this relationship. First lets review how to make a graph. Plans for Making a Graph Time and distance are always positive numbers. Only the first quadrant or region of the graph is needed.

first quadrant (Quadrant I)

coordinate graph

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Distance changes over time, so time is placed on the horizontal ( ) or x-axis and labeled Time in Seconds.

horizontal axis

Time in Seconds

Distance traveled is placed on the vertical ( ) or y-axis and labeled Distance in Feet.

Y

Distance in Feet

vertical axis

Time in Seconds

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Every graph needs a title. The title is placed above the graph. On this graph, zero (0) is used as the minimum value and 6 is the maximum value for time. A scale or assigned numeric value of 1 has been used on the x-axis. Zero is also the minimum value, and 6,600 is the maximum value for distance. A scale of 1,100 was chosen for the y-axis. This is because the rate of the speed of sound is about 1,100 feet per second. However, this is not the only scale that could have been chosen. To plot the ordered pairs or points for the data, start at the origin (0, 0). The origin is the intersection where the x-axis and the y-axis meet. First, locate the number of seconds on the xaxis. Then move from that point on the x-axis straight up and parallel ( ) to the y-axis. Move to a point aligned with the correct distance on the y-axis and draw a point.

Sound of Thunder and Lightning Strike Distance

Y

6,600

(5 seconds, 5500 feet)

5,500

Distance in Feet

X

origin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time in Seconds

The first set of ordered pairs (5, 5500) has been located for you. The 5 is the first number of the ordered pair or the x-coordinate on the x-axis ( ). The 5,500 is the second number of the ordered pair or the y-coordinate.

378

4. First complete the following table. Then plot all the ordered pairs on the graph. Next connect the dots.

Time in Seconds (s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 5500 Distance (D) in Feet 0

6,600

Distance in Feet

Time in Seconds

5. Look at the graph you created above. Do the dots connect to form a straight line? If you answered no because you do not have a straight line, go back and check your work. 6. Equations whose graphs are straight lines are called .

Unit 4: Creating and Interpreting Patterns and Relationships 379

A function is a relation in which each value of x in a given set is paired with a unique value of y. A function is a relationship between input and output. For each input, there is exactly one output. Output depends upon input. The distance of the lightning strike from you is a function of time. This relationship is a function because for each amount of time, there is exactly one value of distance. You can represent functions in many ways, including as equations, graphs, or tables. In this practice you used the equation D = 1,100s to determine the distance from the lightning to your location. The general rule was to count the seconds between the lightning flash and the sound of the thunder. A count of 5 seconds = 5,500 feet. You also determined the distance when the time lapse was 4 seconds, and you made a line graph on a coordinate grid to represent this relationship.

380

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. data equation graph linear equation nonlinear equation parallel ( ) product rule variable

____________________ ____________________

1. 2.

the result of a multiplication a mathematical expression that describes a pattern or relationship, or a written description of the pattern or relationship information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes a drawing used to represent data any symbol that could represent a number an equation whose graph is not a line an equation whose graph is a line a mathematical sentence that equates one expression to another expression being an equal distance at every point so as to never intersect

____________________

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

____________________

9.

381

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. numbers greater than zero ______ 2. network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines especially designed for locating points, displaying data, or drawing maps ______ 3. the vertical ( ) axis on a coordinate plane ______ 4. any of the four regions formed by the axes in a rectangular coordinate system ______ 5. the titles given to a graph, the axes of a graph, or the scales on the axes of a graph ______ 6. the numeric values assigned to the axes of a graph ______ 7. the horizontal ( ) axis on a coordinate plane ______ 8. the smallest amount or number allowed or possible ______ 9. the largest amount or number allowed or possible G. scales A. coordinate grid or system

C. maximum

D. minimum

E. positive numbers

F. quadrant

H. x-axis

I. y-axis

382

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided.

____________________

1.

the location of a single point on a rectangular coordinate system where the digits represent the position relative to the x-axis and y-axis the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis in a coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0, 0) the first number of an ordered pair the second number of an ordered pair a relation in which each value of x in a given set is paired with a unique value of y any of the numbers represented by the variable

____________________

2.

3. 4. 5.

____________________

6.

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Lets review different methods you can use for making equations easier to solve. Combining Like Terms to Simplify Equations To simplify an equation, you can combine the like terms. For instance, think about adding how many apples and oranges you have collected: 6 apples, 3 oranges, 2 more apples, and 4 more oranges.

+

You will have a simpler expression if you combine the apple terms and the orange terms: 8 apples + 7 oranges.

+

In algebra, like terms are terms that have the same variable raised to the same power. 3x2 + 5x2 are like terms 7y2 + 7y are not like terms because y2 and y have different powers or exponents For example: Simplify by combining like terms.

8k - 2k + k = 14 6k + k = 14 7k = 14

Note: If a variable has no coefficient, (the number multiplied by the variable), the coefficient is understood to be 1. k = 1k

384

Using Properties to Simplify Equations To simplify an equation, you can use the commutative property, associative property, and the distributive property. Commutative Property You can add or multiply numbers in any order without affecting the result. (See Order of Operations in Unit 1 on pages 107-108 as needed.) Addition a+b =b+a 3+7 =7+3 Multiplication ab =ba 37 =73

Think of the commutative property of addition and multiplication as the sequence or order making no difference in the outcome. For example, when getting dressed, you could put your shoes on before your belt. However, the commutative property does not apply to subtraction and division. 6336 6336

In other words, in this case, order does matter. You would not put your socks on after your shoes were already on your feet. Associative Property When you add or multiply three or more numbers, you can group the numbers without affecting results. Addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) (3 + 7) + 4 = 3 + (7 + 4) Multiplication (a b) c = a (b c) (3 7) 4 = 3 (7 4)

Think of the associative property of addition and multiplication as ways of associating or grouping together yet making no difference in the outcome. For example, if you are with two friend and are the person in the middle, you may first associate or group with the friend on the left, or you may first associate or group with the friend on the right.

385

For example: Simplify this equation. Use the associative property to group. Use the commutative property to change the order. Use the associative property to group like terms. Combine like terms. Distributive Property You can distribute the numbers to write an equivalent or equal expression. For all numbers a, b, and c: a(b + c) = ab + bc 3(7 + 4) = 3 7 + 3 4 Think of the distributive property of multiplication as spreading things out or distributing things out to make it easier to work with yet making no difference in the outcome. For example: Simplify this equation. Use the distributive property and multiply. Use the associative property to group like terms. Combine like terms. 6k + 2(4k 6k + 2(4k + 3) + 3) = 34 = 34 6n + 9 + 3n = 27 6n + (9 + 3n) = 27 6n + (3n + 9) = 27 (6n + 3n) + 9 = 27 9n + 9 = 27

6k + (2 4k) + (2 3) = 34 6k + 8k 14k + 6 + 6 = 34 = 34

386

Practice

Answer the following. 1. Lela, Lina, and Lora are friends. Lela is one year older than Lina and Lina one year older than Lora. If the sum of their ages is 42, how old is Lina? a. Explain in words how the following equation (L +1) + L + (L 1) = 42 represents the information in the problem if L represents Linas age. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ b. Use the equation to solve the problem. Answer: _____________________________________________ Show all your work.

c. (L + 2) + (L + 1) + L = 42 represents the information in the problem if L represents Loras age. Solve the problem using this equation. Answer: _____________________________________________ Show all your work.

387

d. Solving the equations begins like this: first equation (L + 1) + L + (L 1) = 42 L + 1 + L + L 1 = 42 3L = 42 second equation (L + 2) + (L + 1) + L = 2 L + 2 + L + 1 + L = 42 3L + 3 + 42 = 42

Why do you think some students prefer the first equation over the second? Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. Lakeithia has been working each Saturday for 8 hours at a fast food restaurant earning a salary of $7.50 per hour. She would like to find work on weekday afternoons so her Saturdays will be free. She has an opportunity to tutor 3 students in her neighborhood two hours each per week. What must her hourly rate for tutoring be for her to earn the same amount that she has been earning in her fast food job? First, complete the following information about the problem. a. Salary at fast food restaurant equals hours times rate. hours x or 8(7.50) b. Earnings for tutoring equals number of students times hours times rate. students x or 3(2)r c. Write an equation to solve the problem. _____________________________________________________

388 Unit 4: Creating and Interpreting Patterns and Relationships

hours x rate

d. Explain in words how the equation represents the information in the problem. Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ e. Use the equation to solve the problem. Answer: _____________________________________________ Show all your work.

3. The space shuttle Columbia was scheduled to fly over Tallahassee in February 2001. The shuttle is very weather-sensitive and cant be transported at altitudes higher than 15,000 feet (4572 meters). The formula for calculating the temperature at a given altitude is as follows. T=C

d 150

Where T represents the temperature at a given altitude, C represents the ground temperature in degrees Celsius, and d is the altitude in meters.

389

a. If the ground temperature in Tallahassee was 21 degrees Celsius, what was the temperature at an altitude of 15,000 feet (4572 meters)? Use the equation to solve the problem. Answer: _____________________________________________ Show all your work.

b. Many planes fly at an altitude of 30,000 feet (9144 meters) or higher. If the ground temperature is 21 degrees Celsius, what is the temperature at an altitude of 30,000 feet (9144 meters)? Use the equation to solve the problem. Answer: _____________________________________________ Show all your work.

4. A reference book provides the following formulas for converting U.S. customary units to metric units. A true or false statement accompanies each formula. a. The formula for converting from pounds to kilograms is as follows. K = 0.4536p where K represents the number of kilograms and p represents the number of pounds. One kilogram of potato chips is less than one-half pound of potato chips.

390

(True or False)

b. The formula for converting from inches to centimeters is as follows. I = 2.54C where C represents the number of centimeters and I represents the number of inches. If the length of a paper clip is one inch, then its length is a little more than 2 1 2 centimeters. (True or False) c. The formula for converting from cubic inches to cubic centimeters is as follows. x = 16.3871y where x represents the number of cubic inches and y represents the number of cubic centimeters. A cubic inch is smaller than a cubic centimeter. (True or False) d. The formula for converting from cubic feet to cubic meters is as follows. x = 0.0283y where x represents the number of cubic feet and y represents the number of cubic feet. A cubic foot is larger than a cubic meter. (True or False)

391

Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problems below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: If 25 is subtracted from the product of 3 and the length of a mans foot in inches, the result should be his shoe size. If a mans shoe size is 11 1 2 , how long is his foot in inches? Let f represents the length of his foot in inches when writing your equation. Remember to do your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

392

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: 25 3f = 11.5 This means that we want to know what number is taken away from 25 to leave 11.5. That number is 13.5. This means that 3 times some number is 13.5. That number is 4.5. His foot is 4.5 inches long.

3f f

= 13.5 = 4.5

Feedback from the Coach: Please draw a segment 4.5 inches long. Do you really believe a mans foot is that short? Find out the shoe size of some of the males in our class. Is your answer reasonable? Read the problem again. Are you subtracting something from 25 or 25 from something? Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: 11.5 11.5 86.5 = 3 (f 25) = 3f 75 = 3f We have to find the product of 3 and f and of 3 and 25. We have to add 75 to both sides of the equation. We have to divide both sides of the equation by 3. His foot is 28 1 3 inches long.

28.8333 = f

Feedback from the Coach: Wow! Lets get a yard stick and look at how long 28 1 3 inches is! Have you have seen anyone with a foot that long? It might be fun to look in a book of records to see if it includes the length of the longest foot. In the meantime, read the problem again. What is being subtracted, 25 or the product of 3 and 25? Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

394

Team: ___________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: 11.5 = 3f 25 We can think that when 25 is subtracted from some number, the result is 11.5. That number is 36.5. We could also add 25 to each side and get the same result. 36.5 = 3f 12.16 = f or 12 1 6 =f We can think 3 times some number is 36.5. That number is 12.1666. We know that the decimal .1666 is equal to the fraction 1 6. His foot is 12 1 6 inches long.

Feedback from the Coach: Your equation does represent the information given in the problem. We can see that 25 is being subtracted from the product of 3 and the foot length and that this difference equals the size of the shoe which is 11 1 . This seems to be a reasonable foot length for a man. 2 You might find it interesting to find several people with a shoe size of 11 1 2 and ask permission to measure their feet. Be sure they are standing when you measure. Let me know your results. Your Suggestions to the Team: _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

395

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. a way of expressing a relationship using variables or symbols that represent numbers ______ 2. a collection of numbers, symbols, and/or operation signs that stand for a number ______ 3. terms that have the same variables and the same corresponding exponents ______ 4. the number of times the base occurs as a factor ______ 5. the order in which any two numbers are added or multiplied does not change their sum or product Example: 2 + 3 = 3 + 2 or 4x7=7x4 ______ 6. the way in which three or more numbers are grouped for addition or multiplication does not change their sum or product Example: (5 + 6) + 9 = 5 + (6 + 9) or (2 x 3) x 8 = 2 x (3 x 8) ______ 7. for any real numbers a, b, and x, x(a + b) = ax + bx ______ 8. the result of subtraction H. like terms D. distributive property A. associative property

B. commutative property

C. difference

E. exponent

F. expression

G. formula

396

Understand that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms. (A.1.3.4) Understand and use exponential notation (A.2.3.1) Add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals to solve real-world problems using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Use concepts about numbers to build number sequences. (A.5.3.1) Describe a wide variety of patterns, relationships and functions through models, such as tables, graphs, and equations. (D.2.3.1) Create and interpret tables, graphs, and equations to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2) Represent and solve real-world problems graphically and with algebraic equations. (D.2.3.1) Use algebraic problem-solving strategies to solve realworld problems involving linear equations. (D.2.3.2)

In this lesson, we will begin establishing a foundation for exploring exponential growth and exponential decay. Exponential growth is a pattern of increase. You can use it to make predictions about things that will increase, such as population in Florida fast-producing bacterial cells money in an interest-bearing account

$

Exponential growth is a pattern of increase.

397

Exponential decay is a pattern of decrease. You can use it to make predictions about quantities that decrease, such as the decreasing number of people that live on farms today the height of a bouncing ball over time the number of players remaining after four rounds of a tennis tournament

Exponential decay is a pattern of decrease, such as the height of a bouncing ball over time.

Study the following problem and be sure you understand it before doing the other problems in this lesson. Exponential Growth Margaret invested $2,000 in a stock market account. She was assured it would grow at a rate of 1.06 each year. How much should be in Margarets account at the end of three years? First Year Growth The constant factor affecting a pattern of increase is called a growth factor. The growth rate is the constant rate of increase. A growth rate of 1.06 means that 100 percent (%) of the money in Margarets account at the first of the yearplus an additional 6%will be there at the end of the year. To find 106% of an amount we can do the following. 2000 x 0.06 = $120.00 120 + 2000 = 2,120 The account will grow by $120. It will have 120 plus the original 2000 at the end of the first year for a total of $2,120.

398

We can write the equation F = x + .06x where F represents the amount in the account at the end of year one and x is the amount at the beginning of the year. This can also be gotten by finding the product of 2000 and 1.06. 2000 x 1.06 = $2,120 We can write the equation F = 1.06x where F represents the amount at the end of the first year and x represents the amount at the beginning of the first year. F = 1.06x F = 1.06(2000) F = $2,120 Second Year Growth For the second year, we can find the amount of growth by multiplying 2120 by 0.06. 2120 x 0.06 = $127.20 We then add the amount of growth to the amount in the account, 2120. 2120 + 127.20 = $2,247.20 We can write the equation S = (1.06x)(1.06) where S represents the amount at the end of the second year and 1.06x represents the amount at the end of the first year. S = 1.06(2000)(1.06) S = (2120)(1.06) S = $2,247.20

399

Third Year Growth For the third year, we can find the amount of growth by (2247.20)(0.06) = 134.8320 or 134.83

2247.20 + 134.83 = $2,382.03 We can write the equation T = (1.06x)(1.06)(1.06) where T represents the amount at the end of the third year and (1.06x)(1.06) represents the amount at the end of the second year, and then can be used to determine the amount at the end of the third year. T = (1.06x)(1.06)(1.06) T = (1.06)(2000)(1.06)(1.06) T = $2,382.03 It is important to see that the following two ways to solve this problem result in the same answer. We choose the one we like best. 2000(.06) 120 + 2000 2120(.06) 127.20 + 2120 2247.20(.06) 134.83 + 2247.20 = 120 = 2,120 = 127.20 = 2,247.20 = 134.83 = $2,382.03 or 2000(1.06)(1.06)(1.06) = $2,382.03 or 2000(1.063) = $2,382.03

400

Practice

Answer the following. 1. Mr. Sawyer began getting Social Security benefits each month when he was 65 years of age. The amount of his monthly benefit check was $950 during the first year. At the end of the first year, Mr. Sawyers benefit increased 3%. The same percent of increase occurred at the end of year 2, year 3, and year 4. Based on the annual growth rate of 1.03, complete the following table. Round your answers to the nearest whole cent.

Plan #1 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Amount of Monthly Benefit Check $950

2. Mr. Sawyer sometimes thinks it would be less confusing if the amount of increase was the same every year. He knows 3% of $950 is $28.50. How much difference does it make for the check to go up 3% of the new amount rather than simply $28.50 per month each year? The equation under these circumstances would be A = 950 + 28.50y where A represents the amount of the benefit for a given year and y represents the number of years since the benefit began.

401

a. Complete the table below for comparisons purposes. Round your answers to the nearest whole cent.

Plan #1 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Amount of Monthly Benefit Check $950

b. Compare the two tables and explain to Mr. Sawyer which plan of increase is better. Explain in words. Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ c. If a graph was made of the data in the two tables, the first would be a very gentle curve rather than a straight line since the amount of increase is not the same every year. The graph of the second would be a line since the amount of increase is the same every year. Would the curve lie slightly above or slightly below the line graph of the fixed amount? Explain in words. Answer: Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

402

Practice

Answer the following. If a wolf population of 50 wolves began to grow at a rate of increase of 1.2 per year, how many wolves would there be in 5 years? 1. Complete the table below. Round your answers to the nearest whole number.

Wolf Population Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of Wolves 50

2. Make a coordinate graph to represent this relationship on the grid paper provided on the following page. Extend the graph with a dotted line to show how you think it would look if the growth rate remained the same for a total of 10 years.

403

404

3. How would this graph compare with a graph of data based on the wolf population beginning at 50 and increasing at a constant rate of 10 wolves per year? If you are unsure, make another table before you use the graph. Use a solid line to make the second graph on the same grid as the first. Describe how the two lines look in relation to each other. Description: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

405

Practice

Answer the following. 1. The capacity of a school is 1,200. The current number of students enrolled is 980. If the student population continues to increase 7% each year, in how many years will the enrollment exceed the capacity? Round to the nearest student. Answer: You may find making a table helpful in answering this question.

School Population Number of Year Students Current 980 Year 1 2 3 4 5

2. The Frankenmuth family inherited $15,000 when their twins were 10 years old. They deposited it in a savings account with an interest rate of 5.5% per year. The understanding was that the initial deposit and interest earned would be withdrawn and divided between the twins when they were 18 years of age. How much should each of the twins expect to receive? Note: The amount in the account as the twins become 11 years old would be 15,000(1.055) since 5.5% equals 0.055.

406

a. Complete the table below. Round your answers to the nearest dollar.

b. Each twin would expect to receive ______________________ .

$15,000

407

3. Mr. Johnson travels at an average rate of 65 miles per hour for 8 hours. What is his total distance? a. Complete the table below.

Distance Traveled by Mr. Johnson Time in Distance Hours Traveled in Miles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 65

b. Make a coordinate graph of the data on the grid paper provided on the following page. Extend the graph with a series of dots or dashes to show how you think it would look if the increased distance remained the same for more than 10 hours.

408

409

4. a. Compare the pattern observed in the table in number 3 of this practice with the pattern observed in the table in the practice on pages 403-405 about wolf population. Which table represents a linear relationship? Which table represents an exponential relationship? Explain in words. Explanation: _________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b. Compare the graph for the data in number 3 of this practice with the graph for the data in the practice on pages 403-405 about wolf population. How are the graphs different? Which graph represents a linear relationship? Which graph represents an exponential relationship? Explain in words. Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

410

Practice

Answer the following. The next problem will deal with exponential decay. The original amount will show a weekly decrease. In exponential decay, there is a pattern of decrease. The constant factor affecting a pattern of decrease is called a decay factor. The decay rate is the constant rate of decrease. If a weight loss of 3% is anticipated, that means that the person weighs 97% of week ones weight in week two and so on. Mrs. Bailey is beginning some medical treatments that are to last for 10 weeks. Her physician has told her to expect a weight loss of 3% per week during the treatments. If Mrs. Baileys weight is 144 pounds now, what can she expect to weigh at the end of each of the next 10 weeks? An equation for week one might be as follows. W = 144(0.97) An equation for week two might be as follows. W = 144 (0.97)(0.97) An equation for week three might be as follows. W = 144 (0.97)(0.97)(0.97)

411

1. Complete the table below. Round the weight to the nearest tenth of a pound.

Weight Loss Week 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Weight 144

b. Complete the graph of the data on the coordinate grid provided on the following page. 2. a. How is the table above different from the table in the practice on pages 403-405 about wolf population? Explain. Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

412

Weight Loss

140

130

Weight in Pounds

120 110 100 0

10

Number of Weeks

413

b. How is the graph in this practice different from the graph in the practice on pages 403-405 about wolf population? Explain. Explanation: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

414

Practice

Answer the following. A teacher decides to use one problem with several parts to determine if the foundation for future study of linear and exponential relationships is in place. She will give the students this problem instead of a problem for teams in this lesson. Heidi is using a graphing calculator in her math class. She has entered the following four equations.

A. B. C. D.

Heidi will let x represent the number of years, and y represents the amount of money in the account under one of four circumstances when she begins with $100. Study the equations above. You will use the equations above to answer Part One on the following page.

415

Part One Match each circumstance with the correct equation. These are the same equations as on the previous page. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. The money is placed in an interest-bearing account at the bank and earns 5% interest each year. ______ 2. The money is kept in a cookie jar at home and $5.00 is withdrawn each year. ______ 3. The money is kept in a cookie jar at home and $5.00 is added to the jar each year. ______ 4. The money is placed in a noninterest-bearing account at the bank, and the bank charges a 5% fee of the balance each year for an inactive account. A. y = 100 + 5x

B. y = 100 5x

C. y = 100(1.05x)

D. y = 100(0.95x)

416

Part Two After setting the minimum and maximum values for x and y, and choosing her scale on her graphing calculator, Heidi presses the key for graphs to be made. They all appear on the same screen. Look at the illustration below. Use the list below to write the correct letter of the equation for each symbol in the key on the graph. These are the same equations from page 415. Write the letter on the line provided in the graphs key. A. B.

170 160 150 140 130 120

y = 100 + 5x y = 100 5x

C. D.

y = 100(1.05x) y = 100(0.95x)

key

Money in Dollars

110 100

x

90 80 70 60 50 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time in Years

x x x x x x x

417

Part Three Heidi would like for the graphing calculator to produce a table for values for the four graphs. She presses the key for table. The table provided below appears on her screen. Use the list below to label each column with the correct letter representing the equation that would be true for the values in the column. These are the same equations from page 415. Write the letter on the line provided. A. B. y = 100 + 5x y = 100 5x C. D. y = 100(1.05x) y = 100(0.95x)

1.

2.

3.

4.

Bank Account Deposits Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Amount in Account 105 110.25 115.76 121.55 127.63 134.01 140.71 147.75 155.14 Amount in Account 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 Amount in Account 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 Amount in Account 95 90.25 85.74 81.45 77.38 73.51 69.83 66.34 63.03

418

Part Four 1. Explain why taking $5.00 out of the cookie jar each year does not have the same effect on the account as the bank charging 5% per year for an inactive account. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. Explain why adding $5.00 to the cookie jar each year does not have the same effect on the account as the bank paying 5% per year on an interest-bearing account. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

419

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. decay factor decay rate exponential decay exponential growth growth factor growth rate interest-bearing account percent (%) rounded number

____________________

1.

a pattern of increase in which each value increases by a fixed amount at regular intervals an account for which an agreed upon rate of interest is paid a number approximated to a specified place a pattern of decrease in which each value decreases by a fixed amount at regular intervals the constant factor that each value in an exponential growth pattern is multiplied by the next value the constant rate at which an exponential function increases the constant factor that each value in an exponential decay pattern is multiplied by to get the next value a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 the constant rate at which an exponential function decreases

____________________

2.

____________________ ____________________

3. 4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________

8.

____________________

9.

420

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns ______ 2. a drawing used to represent data ______ 3. a mathematical expression that describes a pattern or relationship, or a written description of the pattern or relationship ______ 4. any of the numbers represented by the variable ______ 5. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes ______ 6. a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines ______ 7. a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc. ______ 8. a mathematical sentence that equates one expression to another expression A. data

B. equation

C. graph

D. grid

E. pattern (relationship)

F. rule

G. table

H. value

421

This unit emphasizes how statistical methods and probability concepts are used to gather and analyze data to solve problems.

Unit Focus

Numbers Sense, Concepts, and Operations Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, decimals, and fractions to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Measurement Understand and describe how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affects its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. (B.1.3.3) Geometry and Spatial Relations Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Plot ordered pairs in a rectangular coordinate system (C.3.3.2) Algebraic Thinking Create and interpret tables, graphs, and vertical descriptions to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2)

Data Analysis and Probability Collect, organize, and display data in a variety of forms. (E.1.3.1) Understand and apply the concepts of range and central tendency (mean, median, and mode). (E.1.3.2) Analyze real-world data by applying appropriate formulas for measures of central tendency and organizing data in a quality display, using appropriate technology, including calculators and computers. (E.1.3.3) Compare experimental results with mathematical expectations of probabilities. (E.2.3.1) Determine the odds for and the odds against a given situation. (E.2.3.2) Formulate hypotheses, design experiments, collect and interpret data, and evaluate hypotheses by making inferences and drawing conclusions based on statistics, tables, graphs, and charts. (E.3.3.1) Identify the common uses and misuses of probability and statistical analysis in the everyday world. (E.3.3.2)

Insurance Agent

determines insurance needs based on personal factors calculates different costs using tables of information determines annual insurance premiums

Vocabulary

Study the vocabulary words and definitions below. axes (of a graph) ............................ the horizontal and vertical number lines used in a rectangular graph or coordinate grid system as a fixed reference for determining the position of a point; (singular: axis) bar graph ........................................ a graph used to compare quantities in which lengths of bars are used to compare numbers

XYZ Stock Company

Holdings in Billions of Dollars

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1999 2000 Year 2001 2002

center of circle ............................... the point from which all points on the circle are the same distance

H

central angle (of a circle) .............. an angle whose vertex is the center of a circle chart ................................................. see table

P vertex

circle ................................................ the set of all points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center circle graph ..................................... a graph used to compare parts of a whole; the whole amount is shown as a circle, and each part is shown as a percent of the whole

Water Area of Earth Arctic Ocean 3% Indian Ocean 20% Pacific Ocean 46% Fresh Water 3% Other Salt Water 5% Atlantic Ocean 23%

425

congruent ( ~ = ) ................................. figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size cube ................................................. a rectangular prism that has six square faces data .................................................. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes data display .................................... different ways of displaying data in tables, charts, or graphs Example: pictographs; circle graphs; single, double, or triple bar and line graphs; histograms; stem-and-leaf plots; and scatterplots degree () ......................................... common unit used in measuring angles denominator ................................... the bottom number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts a whole was divided into Example: In the fraction 2 3 the denominator is 3, meaning the whole was divided into 3 equal parts. difference ........................................ the result of a subtraction Example: In 16 - 9 = 7, 7 is the difference. double bar graph ........................... a graph used to compare quantities of two sets of data in which length of bars are used to compare numbers

14 12

Percent of People

adults teens

13.00 12.00 13.00

10 8 6 4 2 0

2.00 5.00

9.00

426

equally likely ................................. two or more possible outcomes of a given situation that have the same probability even number .................................. any whole number divisible by 2 Example: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 face ................................................... one of the plane surfaces bounding a threedimensional figure

edge face

fraction ............................................ any number representing some part of a a whole; of the form b Example: One-half written in fractional form is 1 2. graph ............................................... a drawing used to represent data Example: bar graphs, double bar graphs, circle graphs, and line graphs greatest common factor (GCF) .... the largest of the common factors of two or more numbers Example: For 6 and 8, 2 is the greatest common factor. grid ................................................... a network of evenly spaced, parallel horizontal and vertical lines hypotenuse ..................................... the longest side of a right triangle; the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle

hy po te nu se

leg

leg

labels (for a graph) ........................ the titles given to a graph, the axes of a graph, or the scales on the axes of a graph

427

leg ..................................................... in a right triangle, one of the two sides that form the right angle

leg

leg

line graph ....................................... a graph used to show change over time in which line segments are used to indicate amount and direction

Number of Customers (in millions)

30 25 20 15 10

Video Customers

10.00

8.00

5 0

5.00

2.00

1997

1998

2001

2002

line segment ................................... a portion of a line that has a A B defined beginning and end Example: The line segment AB is between point A and B and includes point A and point B. maximum ........................................ the largest amount or number allowed or possible mean (or average) .......................... the arithmetic average of a set of numbers median ............................................ the middle point of a set of ordered numbers where half of the numbers are above the median and half are below it minimum ........................................ the smallest amount or number allowed or possible mode ................................................ the score or data point found most often in a set of numbers numerator ....................................... the top number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts being considered Example: In the fraction 2 3 , the numerator is 2.

428 Unit 5: Probability and Statistics

odd number .................................... any whole number not divisible by 2 Example: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 odds ................................................. the ratio of one event occurring to the event not occurring; the ratio of favorable outcomes to unfavorable outcomes outcome ........................................... a possible result of a probability experiment Pascals triangle ............................. a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each 1 Row 0 number is the Row 1 1 1 sum of the Row 2 1 2 1 Row 3 1 3 3 1 pair of 1 4 6 4 1 Row 4 numbers Row 5 1 5 10 10 5 1 above it pattern (relationship) ................... a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc.; also called a relation or relationship; may be described or presented using manipulatives, tables, graphics (pictures or drawings), or algebraic rules (functions) Example: 2, 5, 8, 11...is a pattern. Each number in this sequence is three more than the preceding number. Any number in this sequence can be described by the algebraic rule, 3n - 1, by using the set of counting numbers for n. percent (%) ..................................... a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 Example: The ratio is written as a whole number followed by a percent sign, such as 25% which means the ratio of 25 to 100.

429

pictograph ...................................... a graph used to compare data in which picture symbols represent a specified number of items

4+4=8

4 + 4 + 4 = 12

probability ..................................... the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes protractor ........................................ an instrument used for measuring and drawing angles pyramid ........................................... a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with a single base that is a polygon and whose faces are triangles and meet at a common point (vertex)

Pythagorean theorem ................... the square of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (a and b) Example: a2 + b2 = c2

hypotenuse c

leg

random ............................................ by chance, with no outcome any more likely range (of a set of numbers) ......... the difference between the highest (H) and the lowest value (L) in a set of data; sometimes calculated as H - L + 1

430

ratio .................................................. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities Example: The ratio of 3 to 4 3 . is 4 rectangle ......................................... a parallelogram with four right angles right triangle .................................. a triangle with one right angle rounded number ........................... a number approximated to a specified place Example: A commonly used rule to round a number is as follows. If the digit in the first place after the specified place is 5 or more, round up by adding 1 to the digit in the specified place ( 461 rounded to the nearest hundred is 500). If the digit in the first place after the specified place is less than 5, round down by not changing the digit in the specified place ( 441 rounded to the nearest hundred is 400). sample ............................................. part of a larger group; a number of people, objects, or events chosen from a larger population to represent the entire group scales ................................................ the numeric values assigned to the axes of a graph

431

sector ............................................... a part of a circle bounded by two radii and the arc or curve created between any two of its points

minor arc

major sector

square root ...................................... a positive real number that can be multiplied by itself to produce a given number Example: The square root of 144 is 12, or

144 = 12

sum .................................................. the result of an addition Example: In 6 + 8 = 14, 14 is the sum. table (or chart) ............................... an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns triangle ............................................ a polygon with three sides; the sum of the measures of the angles is 180

432

Introduction

Today there is more emphasis on statistics and probability than ever before. You may wonder how your parents use statistics and probability daily. Ask yourself: Do my parents ever make decisions about brands of food makes of cars routes to work health care options? How do they make these decisions? They gather and analyze data formally and informally. Several years ago, a trip to the library may have been necessary to get the data needed to make some decisions. Today, people are increasingly turning to the Internet for information. The problems you will solve in this unit should be interesting and challenging. You should see many connections. You should People are increasingly turning to the Internet for see connections between what information instead of a trip to the library. you are doing in this unit and the mathematics you have done in other units. You will also see connections with what you have learned in the past and what you are likely to build upon in the future. Most of all, you will see ways to apply what you are learning in your everyday life.

433

Add and subtract whole numbers to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Understand and describe how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affects its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. (B.1.3.3) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Plot ordered pairs in a rectangular coordinate system. (C.3.3.2) Understand and apply the concepts of range and central tendency (mean, median, and mode). (E.1.3.2) Analyze real-world data by applying appropriate formulas for measures of central tendency and organizing data in a quality display, using appropriate technology, including calculators and computers. (E.1.3.3) Compare experimental results with mathematical expectations of probabilities. (E.2.3.1) Determine the odds for and against a given situation. (E.2.3.2)

434

In this lesson, you will use geometry, measurement, and probability. You will use your skills in those areas to find solutions. Geometry deals with points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids. It deals with their properties and relationships. You will use what you discovered about the Pythagorean theorem in Unit 3. You will also use what you learned in Unit 2 about measurement. You will determine lengths of line segments. Probability is the chance of an event occurring. It is the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes.

P(event) =

You will also determine the odds for and the odds against given situations. You will also apply range and central tendency (mean, median, and mode) to given situations. Go to the next page and let the challenges begin.

435

Practice

Answer the following using geometry, measurement, and probability. Two points are randomly selected from the points located at (0,0); (1,0); (2,0); (0,1); (1,1); and (2,1). What is the probability that they are more than one unit apart? 1. Plot the six points on the grid provided below.

4 2 0 2 4 x

2. The shortest distance from one of the points to another can be seen by looking from (0,0) to (0,1). The length of this segment is unit. 3. The greatest distance from one of the points to another can be seen by looking from (0,0) to (2,1). This segment could represent the hypotenuse of a right triangle. If you place a point at (2,0) you can find the length by using the Pythagorean theorem, a2 + b2 = c2, where a and b are lengths of the legs of the right triangle, and c is the length of the hypotenuse.

436

y 4

legs

hypotenuse

We get a2 + b 2 = c 2 22 + 1 2= c 2 4 + 1 = c2 5 = c2 5 = c2 hypotenuse (2, 1) leg c b a 2 (2, 0) Therefore, the line segment of the hypotenuse equals the square root of 5. 4 x

(0, 0) 0 leg

Remember: The Pythagorean theorem is a2 + b2 = c2. The theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (a and b). The length of the segment from (0,0) to (2,1) is about which is (less than, equal to, or greater than 1).

4. Complete the table on the next page. As you do, think of the

following. From the first point selected (0, 0), there are 5 possible segments (0, 1); (1,0); (1,1); (2, 0); (2, 1). From the second point selected (0, 1), there are 4 possible segments (1, 0); (1, 1); (2, 0); (2, 1). Look for a pattern.

} }

437

The Pythagorean theorem will help you with the length of the segment from (0,0) to (1,1), as well as others.

Length of Segments First Point Second Point (0,0) (0,0) (0,0) (0,0) (0,0) (0,1) (0,1) (0,1) (0,1) (1,0) (1,0) (1,0) (1,1) (1,1) (2,0) (0,1) (1,0) (1,1) (2,0) (2,1) (1,0) (1,1) (2,0) (2,1) (1,1) (2,0) (2,1) (2,0) (2,1) (2,1) 5 Length of Segment from First Point to Second Point

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6. The number of outcomes with lengths greater than 1 unit is . 7. Solve the problem. What is the probability that the points are more than 1 unit apart? number of favorable outcomes of lengths greater than 1 = number of possible outcomes .

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Practice

Answer the following using statistics and probability. A store offers each customer entering the store during the first hour of business a discount card. The discount card has five circles, each hiding a percent (%) of discount. On each card, the hidden percents are 50%, 50%, 25%, 10%, and 5%. The customer is allowed to scratch off two of the five circles. The customer then receives a discount equal to the mean or average of the two values. What is the probability of getting a discount greater than 30%? (Remember: The mean is an average of a set of numbers. The mean is found by adding all the values in a set and then dividing the sum by the number of values.)

The Saving The Saving The Saving Store Store Store D The Saving The Saving The Saving 50% I Store Store Store Saving The Saving The Saving C S The Store Store Store C The Saving The Saving The Saving A Store Store O Store R The Saving The Saving The Saving U Store D Store Store Saving Saving The Saving The N The 5% Store Store Store T The Saving The Saving The Saving

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1. Make a list of all the ways the customer could choose which two circles to scratch. This may be a little bit tricky since two circles have 50%. Think of scratching the first and second, first and third, first and fourth, first and fifth. Then think of second and third and so on.

Scratch Off Discounts First Amount Scratched Second Amount Scratched Mean of the Two Scratched Amounts

2. The greatest discount the customer can get is the least is under this policy is %.

%, and

(Remember: The range of a set of numbers can be reported in two ways. The range can be reported as ranging from the lowest to the highest values. Or the range can be reported as the difference between the highest and lowest values.)

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3. The median of the discounts possible under this policy is . (Remember: The median marks the middle point of a set of ordered numbers. If the set of ordered numbers has an even number of values, the mean or average of the two values in the center is the median.) 4. Solve the problem. What is the probability of getting a discount greater than 30%?

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Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. the middle point of a set of ordered numbers where half of the numbers are above the median and half are below it ______ 2. the ratio of one event occurring to the event not occurring; the ratio of favorable outcomes to unfavorable outcomes ______ 3. the score or data point found most often in a set of numbers ______ 4. the arithmetic average of a set of numbers ______ 5. the difference between the highest (H) and the lowest value (L) in a set of data ______ 6. a possible result of a probability experiment ______ 7. a portion of a line that has a defined beginning and end ______ 8. the quotient of two numbers used to compare two quantities ______ 9. the square of the hypotenuse (c) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs (a and b) ______ 10. the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes A. line segment

B. mean

C. median

D. mode

E. odds

F. outcome

G. Pythagorean theorem

H. probability

I. range

J. ratio

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Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided.

by chance, with no outcome any more likely the longest side of a right triangle; the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle a triangle with one right angle in a right triangle, one of the two sides that form the right angle a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 the result of an addition the result of a subtraction a positive real number that can be multiplied by itself to produce a given number an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns

____________________

2.

____________________ ____________________

3. 4.

____________________

5.

6. 7. 8.

____________________

9.

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Practice

Answer the following. Heidi tosses one fair, 6-sided die labeled 1 through 6 and one fair, 4-sided die labeled 7 through 10. What is the probability that the sum she rolls is 13, her age? 1. What 3-dimensional shape is a fair, 6-sided die? (triangle , cube )

2. What 3-dimensional shape is a fair, 4-sided die? (triangular pyramid , rectangular pyramid )

Sum Game Outcomes + 1 2 3 4 5 6

10

14

10

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5. The sums least likely are 6. The sums most likely are .

, and ,

. , and

7. Solve the problem. What is the probability that the sum Heidi rolls is 13, her age?

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Practice

Answer the following. The enrollment at Howell Middle School is provided in the table below. The name of one student is to be randomly selected for a prize.

Howell Middle School Enrollment 6 th Males Females 125 117 7 th 142 120 8 th 133 128

1. If the name of the student is a female, what is the probability she is an 8th grader? Express your answer as a fraction. 2. If the name of the student is an 8th grader, what is the probability the student is a male? Express your answer as a fraction. 3. What is the probability the name of the student selected will be an 8th grader? Express your answer as a fraction. 4. The fractions in number 1 and 2 cannot be simplified. The fraction in number 3 can be simplified or reduced to lowest terms. Find the greatest common factor (GCF) of its numerator and denominator and simplify the fraction.

447

Practice

Answer the following. At the age of 6, Wynns parents began giving him an allowance of $6 per week. Each year since then, his weekly allowance has been increased by $1. Wynn is now 13 years old. His allowance now each week is the same number of dollars as his age in years. One weekend, Wynn and his parents experimented with some games of chance and allowance just for fun. They proposed different plans for giving his allowance. Then they tested each plan with experiments. Afterwards, they did an analysis of possible outcomes and compared the analysis with the results from their experiment. First Experiment Wynn and his parents put one of each of the following bills in a paper bag: $1, $1, $5, $10, and $20. Then they let Wynn pull two bills from the bag. The two bills would represent the allowance for the week. Do the following to get ready to try the experiment. Divide one sheet of paper into five congruent ( ~ = ) pieces, exactly the same size and shape. Mark each congruent piece with the type bill it represents: $1, $1, $5, $10, or $20. Place the five bills in a bag. Draw two out in a random manner. Record the result. Put the bills back in the bag. Note: Record the first dollar bill pulled as $1 a. If a second dollar bill is pulled on the second draw, record it as $1 b. Repeat the experiment 20 times to represent 20 weeks of allowance.

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1. Keep a record of your results on the table below. (Remember: The first dollar bill drawn will be recorded as 1 a. The second dollar bill drawn will be recorded as 1 b.)

First Experiment

Trial Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 First Bill Second Bill Sum

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2. Make a list of all outcomes using the table provided. The first dollar bill drawn will be recorded as 1 a and the second dollar bill drawn as 1 b.

First Experiment Outcomes First Bill 1a 1a 1a 1a 1b 1b 1b 5 5 10 Second Bill 1b 5 10 20 5 Sum 2 6

3. Based on the list of possible outcomes above, answer the following. a. The probability of having an allowance of $2 is b. The probability of having an allowance of $6 is c. The probability of having an allowance of $11 is d. The probability of having an allowance of $21 is e. The probability of having an allowance of $15 is f. The probability of having an allowance of $25 is g. The probability of having an allowance of $30 is . . . . . . .

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number of outcomes. Odds is another way to express probability. Odds is the ratio of favorable outcomes to unfavorable outcomes. Odds (in favor of an event) = number of favorable outcomes to number of unfavorable outcomes. or

If the term odds means the ratio of one event occurring to its not occurring, look at your table on the previous page. The odds in favor of an allowance of $2 would be 1 to 9 since it occurs in 1 of our outcomes and does not occur in the other 9. Complete the following using your table on the previous page.

a. The odds in favor of an allowance of $6 would be . b. The odds in favor of an allowance of $11 would be . c. The odds in favor of an allowance of $15 would be . d. The odds in favor of an allowance of $21 would be . e. The odds in favor of an allowance of $25 would be .

to

to

to

to

to

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f. The odds in favor of an allowance of $20 would be . g. The odds in favor of an allowance of $30 would be . h. The odds in favor of an allowance greater than $13 would be to .

to

to

5. If Wynns allowance is $13 per week, his total allowance for 10 weeks would be be . , and the mean amount per week would

6. If each of the outcomes occurred once during a period of 10 weeks with the bag, his total allowance for 10 weeks would be and the mean amount per week would be . ,

7. If you were Wynn, which would you prefer, the set amount weekly or the game of chance using the bills in the bag? _______________ Why? ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Practice

Answer the following. Second Experiment Wynn and his parents tried another experiment. They made a circular spinner card; divided it into five congruent sectors, or equal parts; labeled each with a 1, 1, 5, 10, or 20; and used this to determine allowance. They spun twice, recorded the sum, spun twice, recorded the sum, and so on. They recorded the first spin with a 1 as 1 a and the second spin with a 1 as 1 b. They used a bobby pin or paper clip (with the outermost bend straightened out) anchored at the center of the circle with a pencil point to do the actual spinning. A spinner is provided for you below to try this experiment.

$1

$20

$1

$10

$5

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1. Before doing the experiment: Do you think the results will be similar to the paper bag experiment? Why or why not? __________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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2. Do the experiment until you have the results for 20 weeks of allowance. Keep a record of your results on the table below. (Remember: The first spin with a 1 will be recorded as 1 a. The second spin with a 1 will be recorded as 1 b.)

Second Experiment

Trail Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 First Bill Second Bill Sum

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3. Write a statement summarizing your results and comparing them to the paper bag experiment. __________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Practice

Answer the following. Third Experiment Wynn and his parents tried another experiment. They rolled a number cube with the numbers 1, 1, 5, 10, 10, and 20 on the six faces (sides). Note: In this experiment, there are two tens as well as two ones. The first 1 or first 10 is recorded as a 1 a or 10 a. The second 1 or second 10 is recorded as a 1 b or 10 b. The sum of two rolls would be the allowance. 1. Try this experiment until you have the allowance amounts for 20 weeks. Keep a record of your results on the table on the following page.

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(Remember: The first number cube with a 1 will be recorded as 1 a. The second number cube with a 1 will be recorded as 1 b. The first 10 will be 10 a and the second 10 as 10 b.)

Third Experiment

Trial Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 First Bill Second Bill Sum

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2.

Complete the table to determine the possible outcomes. (Remember: The first number cube with a 1 will be recorded as 1 a. The second number cube with a 1 will be recorded as 1 b. The first 10 will be 10 a and the second 10 as 10 b.)

Third Experiment Outcomes First Roll 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 b 1 b 1 b 1 b 5 5 5 10 a 10 a 10 b Second Roll 1 b 5 10 a 10 b 20 5 Sum 2 6 11 11 21

3. Based on the list of possible outcomes above, answer the following. a. The range for allowances is from $2 to b. The mean for allowances in the 15 outcomes is rounded to the nearest whole cent. . ,

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c. The probability of the allowance being less than $13 is . d. The probability of the allowance being more than $13 is . 4. Write a statement comparing the results from your experiment with the analysis of possible outcomes. ___________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 5. If you were Wynn, would you prefer $13 per week or the allowance based on this method? ____________________________ Why? ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

460

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided.

____________________

1.

a polygon with three sides; the sum of the measures of the angles is 180 a parallelogram with four right angles a three-dimensional figure (polyhedron) with a single base that is a polygon and whose faces are triangles and meet at a common point (vertex) any number representing some part of a a whole; of the form b one of the plane surfaces bounding a threedimensional figure a rectangular prism that has six square faces a part of a circle bounded by two radii and the arc or curve created between any two of its points figures or objects that are the same shape and the same size the top number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts being considered

____________________ ____________________

2. 3.

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

____________________

8.

____________________

9.

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____________________ 10.

the bottom number of a fraction, indicating the number of equal parts a whole was divided into the largest of the common factors of two or more numbers a number approximated to a specified place

____________________ 11.

____________________ 12.

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Practice

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: Wynn liked the results of the number cube experiment and wondered how much difference it would make if the six faces of the cubes were labeled 1, 5, 5, 10, 10, and 20 instead of 1, 1, 5, 10, 10, 20. If he labels the number cube 1, 5, 5, 10, 10, 20, by what amount will the mean (average) amount for the weekly allowance be greater than the previous experiment? By what amount will the mean weekly allowance be greater than the standard $13 per week? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think.

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: This is the easiest one yet! If he changes one face from a $1 to a $5, he gets $4 more. If the other way gave him a mean of $15.67 a week, this will give him $19.67. That is $6.67 more than the regular allowance of $13 each week. Feedback from the Coach: I can see how you got the $15.67 with the work we did on the earlier problem. Id like to see similar work to support your answer to this problem Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets make a list of how this changes things. He cant roll a one twice now, so he cant have an allowance of $2. His smallest allowance will now be $6. His largest will still be $30. The mean of $6 and $30 is $18. That means changing one of the $1s to a $5 on the number cube makes a difference of $18 - $15.67 or $2.33 per week. It also means $5 a week more than the regular $13 a week. Feedback from the Coach: It is true that the range will be from $6 to $30. It is also true that the mean of $6 and $30 is $18. However, you need to find the mean of all of the possible allowances under the revised plan, not the mean of the minimum and maximum. Try again. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets make a table for this one like we did for the other one.

Number Cube Outcomes First Roll 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 1 a 5 a 5 a 5 a 5 a 5 b 5 b 5 b 10 a 10 a 10 b Second Roll 1 b 5 10 a 10 b 20 5 b 10 a 10 b 20 10 a 10 b 20 10 b 20 20 Sum 6 6 11 11 21 10 15 15 25 15 15 25 20 30 30

(6 + 6 + 11 + 11 + 21 + 10 + 15 + 15 + 25 + 15 + 15 + 25 + 20 + 30 + 30) 15

This is $1.33 more than the previous plan and $4 more than the regular amount of $13 per week.

= 17

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Feedback from the Coach: Your work is accurate and complete. You might find it interesting to compare the modes, medians, and ranges for the two sets of outcomes from the number cube. Then consider which you think would be best to describe a typical weeks allowance under the plan. (Remember: Mode is the numerical value that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers. If there is a tie, the data is bimodal, meaning that it has two modes. The median is the middle number of a set of numbers. Range is the difference between the highest and lowest number in a set of numbers.) Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We could make the table, but we dont need all of it. Lets think about what changes. 1. With five outcomes, when 1 a is rolled first, the only change is getting a 5 instead of 1 b. That makes a difference of $4. 2. With four outcomes, when 1 b was rolled first,

all outcomes change and each increase by $4. That is 4 increases of $4 each for a total of $16. 3. It does not affect the other outcomes because they did not involve 1 b. 4. The total change is $4 + $16 or $20 or 5 outcomes increased by $4 = $20. An increase of $20 for 15 weeks would mean an increase of $1.33 per week. When we add that to $15.67, we get a mean allowance of $17 per week. That is $4 more than the regular allowance of $13 per week. Feedback from the Coach: Your analysis is interesting and indicates a thorough understanding of generating and analyzing outcomes in this type situation. You might find it interesting to explore other ways to label the 6 faces of the cube to get an allowance of $13 per week or slightly more.

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470

Practice

Answer the following. In Unit 4 of this book, you explored a variety of patterns. One of those considered situations with two outcomes such as boy or girl, heads or tails, or true or false. The problems to be solved in this practice will allow you to apply some of what you learned in Unit 4. If you need to review it, please do so. If a family has three children, what is the probability that all three of the children are girls? 1. Make a list of all possible outcomes for three children. There are more lines in the table than needed. Your task includes being sure you have all possible outcomes but that you duplicate none. You may remember how many outcomes to expect from your work in Unit 4.

Possible Outcomes for Three Children First Child Second Child Third Child

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Practice

Answer the following. Mr. Tyler is preparing a quiz for his students. They will indicate if each of five statements is true or false. He sets up his quiz paper.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

He then rolls a number cube with the numbers 1 through 6 on the faces. If he rolls an even number, he creates a statement that is true. If he rolls an odd number, he creates a statement that is false. He then asked the class to respond to the following question. If each of the 30 students in this class gives me a different set of five answers for the quiz, how is it possible that no one could get five out of five correct?

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Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 1 1 5 1 4 10 1 3 6 1 2 3 4 10 5 1 1 1 1 1

Each row can be generated from the preceding row. Each row begins and ends with 1. The other entries represent the sum of the two entries just above them. If row 1 represents a quiz with one statement, there is 1 way to make it true (T) and 1 way to make it false (F). There would be two possible answer keys for this quizT or F. If row 2 represents a quiz with two questions, there is 1 way to make both questions true, 2 ways to make one true and one false, and 1 way to make both false. There would be four possible answer keysTT, TF, FT, FF. 1. If row 5 represents a quiz with five statements that are true or false, complete the following. a. The number of ways for all five questions to be true is . b. The number of ways for four of the five questions to be true is . c. The number of ways for three of the five questions to be true is . d. The number of ways for two of the five questions to be true is .

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e. The number of ways for one of the five questions to be true is . f. The number of ways for none of the five questions to be true is . g. The total number of possible answer keys is .

2. Solve the problem and explain in words how is it possible that no one could get five out of five correct. Answer:__________________________________________________ Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Practice

Answer the following. If Mr. Tyler rolls a number cube as described in the previous practice to determine whether to make the statement true or false. What is the probability that the following will result? 1. All five statements will be true. 2. Four of the five statements will be true. 3. Three of the five statements will be true. 4. Two of the five statements will be true. 5. One of the five statements will be true. 6. None of the five statements will be true. 7. The answer key will be TFTFT or FTFTF. 8. The answer key will have either 2 true and 3 false or 3 true and 2 false. number 7.) (Careful! This is not the same question as

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Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: If two teams are equally likely to win when they play each other and they play a series of games until one team wins a total of 3 games, what is the probability that the series will require 5 games? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think. Your Solution: Show all your work.

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: This will be like a family of five children, so there will be 32 outcomes. We better make a table. Well never figure it out if we dont. Well let A represent one team and B represent the other. Well show in our table which team wins each game.

Team Outcomes First Game A A A A A B A A A B A A B A B B A A A A B B B B B B A B B B B B Second Game A A A A B A A A B A A B A B A B A B B B A A A B B B B A B B B B Third Game A A A B A A A B A A B A A B B A B A B B A B B A A B B B A B B B Fourth Game A A B A A A B A A A B B B A A A B B A B B A B A B A B B B A B B Fifth Game A B A A A A B B B B A A A A A A B B B A B B A B A A B B B B A B

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We can see from the table that anytime a team wins all five games, the series doesnt go five, so we could strike Team A with 5 and Team B with 5. We can see from the table that any time Team A or Team B win four of five games, there would be no need for the fifth game, so we can strike those. This sure is messy. How many ways are left? We struck through 2 possibilities, then we struck through 10 possibilities. We had 32 so 32 2 10 is 20. It must be 20/32. Feedback from the Coach: You are correct when you disregard the outcomes where either team wins 4 or 5 games. Look again at the outcomes where a team wins three. If they win Games 1, 2, and 3, the series is over. Your major work is done. A closer look will help you solve the problem correctly. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: If each team is equally likely to win, Team A will win the first, Team B will win the second, Team A will win the third, Team B will win the fourth, and Team A will win the fifth. or It could be just the opposite. Team B could win Games 1, 3, and 5 and Team A win Games 2 and 4. Either way the series will last five games. The probability is 1 or certain to happen. Feedback from the Coach: If I toss a coin five timesare heads and tails equally likely? Am I certain to get one on one toss and the other on the next toss? Why dont you try tossing a coin five times in a row and recording your results. Let the teams be H and T instead of A and B. This may help you get started on considering all possible outcomes. Let me know what you find out. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: We know that if one team wins 4 out of 5 or 5 out of 5, the series would not last five games. We only need to consider the outcomes when a team wins 3 out of 5.

There are no other ways for Team A to win 3 out of 5 games. When Team A wins the series, the 5th game is necessary 6 of the 10 times. If we made a table for Team B, it would be just like Team A. The probability of the series lasting five games if the teams are equally likely to win is 12 32 . Feedback from the Coach: The conclusions you were able to reach before making a table reduced the amount of work and time necessary to solve the problem. Another team had faulty reasoning, and their reduction in work and time did not result in a correct solution. How can you prove to me that four wins never requires a fifth game? By the way, can you report the probability in simpler terms?

480

Extending Your Thinking Answer the following. 4. If you operated a concession stand at ball games, and are preparing for the championship games that mark the end of the season, would you be likely to stock your stand in advance for five games? Why or why not? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

481

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. even number equally likely maximum minimum odd number Pascals triangle pattern

____________________

1.

two or more possible outcomes of a given situation that have the same probability a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each number is the sum of the pair of numbers above it any whole number not divisible by 2 any whole number divisible by 2 the smallest amount or number allowed or possible a predictable or prescribed sequence of numbers, objects, etc. the largest amount or number allowed or possible

____________________

2.

3. 4. 5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

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Add and subtract whole numbers to solve real-world problems using appropriate methods of computing such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Represent and apply geometric properties and relationships to solve mathematical problems. (C.3.3.1) Create and interpret tables, graphs, and vertical descriptions to explain cause-and-effect relationships. (D.1.3.2) Collect, organize, and display data in a variety of forms. (E.1.3.1) Understand and apply the concepts of range and central tendency (mean, median, and mode). (E.1.3.2) Formulate hypotheses, design experiments, collect and interpret data, and evaluate hypotheses by making inferences and drawing conclusions based on statistics, tables, graphs, and charts. (E.3.3.1) Identify the common uses and misuses of probability and statistical analysis in the everyday world. (E.3.3.2)

Analyzing Data Using Range and Central TendencyMean, Median, and Mode

In this lesson, you will apply the concepts of range and central tendency using real-world data. In a set of data, range is the difference between the greatest and least number. Singers are said to have a wide range if they can sing very high and very low notes. Shortstops are said to have a large range if they can cover a lot of ground. With a set of data, if you know the range, you Singers are said to have a wide are better able to decide whether the range if they can sing very high differences among your data are important. and very low notes.

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Shortstops are said to have a large range if they can cover a lot of ground.

An average is a measure of central tendency. There are three types of averages: mean, median, mode. With three different ways to describe averages, how do you decide which type of average to use to describe a set of data? Think about this as you complete this lesson.

484

Practice

Answer the following. 1. In Florida, Miami-Dade County school officials reported 84,000 students attending classes in portable classrooms in the fall of 2000. If the mean number of students per portable classroom was 30, how many portable classrooms were being used? Answer:

2. In a recent news report, the following data was reported on four large companies dealing in media. Review the data on the chart below and complete the following statements.

1999 Revenue for Five Major Media Companies (in billions) Media Company Gannett Company Knight Ridder Incorporated Tribune Company New York Times Company Revenue in 1999 $5.26 billion $3.23 billion $3.22 billion $3.13 billion Daily Newspapers 101 (including USA Today) 31 11 24 Other 22 TV stations 22 non-daily newspapers 22 TV stations 3 magazines, 8 TV stations, 2 radio stations 32 suburban weekly newspapers, 6 TV stations, 1 cable system, 1 magazine

$2.21 billion

a. The mean revenue for the companies in 1999 was b. The median revenue for the companies in 1999 was c. The range in the number of daily newspapers owned was from to or .

. .

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indicate how many newspapers the company printed or sold daily. e. One newspaper (may or may not) have sold 25 or

more times as many papers as another. f. The median number of TV stations the companies owned was . (Remember: When finding the median of a set of data, if there are two middle numbers, find the mean of the two middle numbers to find the median.)

486

Data Displays

Data displays are different ways of displaying data in tables, charts, or graphs. Tables and charts are orderly displays of numerical information in rows and columns. Graphs are pictures used to display numerical facts called data. Different graphs are used for different purposes. Newspapers and magazines often use pictographs to visually display and compare data. Pictographs use picture symbols to represent a specified number of items. Circle Graphs Circle graphs are used to compare parts of a whole. Circle graphs display data expressed as fractional parts or percents of a whole. The entire circle represents the whole, which may be expressed as 100 percent (%). Each part is shown as a fraction or percent of the whole. To Make a Circle Graph Draw a circle and mark the center of the circle. A circle has 360 degrees (). The circle represents 100% of the data. Determine the degrees in a sector or part of the circle. Each sector of the circle represents a fractional part or a percent of the data. Some arithmetic will be necessary to find the percent and to represent that percent as a sector in the circle graph.

Pacific Ocean 46%

4+4=8

4 + 4 + 4 = 12

pictograph

Water Area of Earth Arctic Ocean 3% Indian Ocean 20% Fresh Water 3% Other Salt Water 5% Atlantic Ocean 23%

circle graph

center of a circle

487

Use a protractor to draw a central angle with the degree of measure assigned to the data. Label and title your circle graph.

Water Area of Earth

12 0

90

80 10 0 70 110

0 80 10

0 11 70

60

60 12

50

40

30 15 0 20 16 0

10 170

14

40

0 14

Arctic Ocean 3%

150

13

50 0 13

30

60 20 1

Indian Ocean 20% Pacific Ocean 46% Fresh Water 3% Other Salt Water 5% Atlantic Ocean 23%

10 170

0 180

0 180

Number of Customers (in millions)

30 25 20 15 10 5

2.00 10.00

Video Customers

8.00

5.00

1997

1998

2001

2002

line graph

Line graphs use line segments to show changes in data over a period of time. The line graph shows both an amount and a direction of change. A line graph may be used to show a trend of increase or decrease in the data and may even be used to predict data for a future time.

XYZ Stock Company

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

1999

2000 Year

2001

2002

14 12

Percent of People

adults teens

13.00 12.00 13.00

10 8 6 4 2 0

2.00 5.00

9.00

Bar graphs use bar graph lengths of bars to compare quantities of data about different things at a given time. Double bar graphs are used to compare quantities of two sets of data. Bar graphs have two axes: a horizontal axis ( ) and a vertical axis ( ). One of these axes is labeled with a numerical scale.

488

Horizontal Bar Graph

Ten States with the Most Prevalent Wild Horse Population

AZ CA CO ID MT NV NM OR UT WY

0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

To Make a Bar Graph Title the graph. Draw and label the horizontal axis ( axis ( ).

Mark off equal scales on one of the axes. Create and label appropriate scales to best represent the data. Draw and label bars with space between each one to show quantities. Include a key to show which bar represents which data for double bar graphs.

WY

NM

CO

OR

CA

MT

NV

AZ

UT

ID

489

Practice

Answer the following. 1. Complete the table below to determine the size each sector or part should be to represent the total revenue each company generated for the five companies. The revenue data in the column Fractional Part of Total Revenue is from the previous practice. Round the number of degrees to the nearest whole number.

1999 Revenue for Five Major Media Companies (in billions) Media Company Fractional Part of Total Revenue

5.26 billion 17.05 billion 3.23 billion 17.05 billion 3.22 billion 17.05 billion 3.13 billion

Calculation

Gannett Company

x 360

x 360

3.22 17.05

x 360

2.21 billion

490

2. Use the circle below to make a circle graph representing total 1999 revenue for the five media companies and how much each company generated. Be sure your graph has a title and that sectors are correctly determined and labeled.

title

491

3. Use the grid paper below to make a bar graph showing the 1999 revenue for each company. Be sure your graph has a title, that axes are labeled and that a reasonable scale is chosen and used correctly. (Refer to page 489 as needed.)

title

492

4. Write a statement comparing the effectiveness of the two types of data displays. Which do you think would be more meaningful to a reader? Answer:__________________________________________________ Why? ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

493

Practice

Answer the following. Review the double bar graph below reporting budget differences in Leon County from 1999 to 2000. The budget for Public Works indicates a 31% increase with a small amount of difference in the heights of the bars. The category labeled Other indicates a 31% decrease with a more significant difference in the heights of the bars. Explain why. Explanation: ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

The Countys Budget

Total Budget

Other*

1990 2000

Administration

$46.9 million

$60.6 million

$30.7 million

$36.5 million

$11.3 million

$5.2 million

$6.9 million

$3.8 million

$2.5 million

$2.8 million

$4.2 million

$7.6 million

$10.7 million

$14 million

$22.2 million

52% increase

86% increase

63% increase

81% increase

31% increase

111% increase

155% increase

$823,166

$2.1 million

49% decrease

31% decrease

$25.3 million

494

$147.7 million

$147.1 million

Community Development

Capital Improvement

Management Services

Const. Officers

Judicial

Public Works

Practice

Answer the following. 1. A news source reported that roughly 4 million people of Asian descent or 37 percent of the Asian population in the United States live in California. To the nearest million, what is the Asian population in the United States? Objective Find a number when a percent of it is known. Thinking Strategy What I need to know: The total Asian population in the United States by finding 37% of what number is 4,000,000. What I do know: 37% or .37 of the total Asian population is about 4,000,000. How I would write it mathematically:

37% of what number is 4,000,000 0.37n = 4,000,000

0.37 x n = 4,000,000 0.37 0.37

495

Practice

Answer the following. Use the data provided below on notable oil disasters in recent years. Complete the following statements and explain how the smallest and largest values affect the mean and the median.

Recent Notable Oil Disasters Date 06/03/79 03/24/89 01/25/91 Place Gulf of Mexico Prince William Sound, Alaska Persian Gulf Cause Exploratory oil well blows out Ship runs aground Iraq deliberately released during the Persian Gulf War Never determined Ship runs aground Ship runs aground Tanker breaks apart and sinks Oil rig sinks Number of Gallons of Oil Spilled 140 million 10.92 million 460 million

Aegean Sea Shetland Islands Wales French Atlantic Coast Atlantic Ocean off Brazil

1. List the amounts of spillage in order from smallest to largest in millions. 0.078 , , , , , , 460 . , .

496

4. If the minimum (smallest) and maximum (largest) values are not included, the median in millions is .

5. If the minimum and maximum values are not included, the mean in millions is .

6. Explain how the smallest and largest values affect the mean and the median. ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ The mean and median are considered measures of central tendency. One or the other, or both, are often used when arguing for or against something. 7. If you were representing a shipping company opposing more severe penalties for oil spillage, would the mean or median be more helpful in your presentation? 8. If you were representing people supporting more severe penalties for oil spillage, would the mean or median be more helpful in you presentation?

497

Answer the following. You and the teams from Unit 1 on pages 12-13 are now ready for the problem below. 1. First solve the problem showing all your work. 2. Now consider the following teams solutions and match each solution with the correct team. Use the list below to write the correct team for each solution on the line provided. Refer to pages 12-13 for team descriptions as needed. Not all teams will be used. Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: The MOH Team (Mountain or Hill) The C&C Team (Creative and Confident) The RSG Team (Get Ready, Set, Go) The P&M Team (Plus and Minus) The SBS Team (Slow But Sure)

3. Then read the feedback from the coach to the teams. Add your suggestions for each team on the lines provided. Remember to do number 2 and 3 for each team. Problem: Melinda has had four tests in her social studies class, earning scores of 75, 75, 95, and 80. Her teacher does not allow extra credit. A 100 is the highest score possible on tests. There is one test remaining. Melinda would like to have a final test average, or mean, of 85which is considered a grade of B in her school. What advice do you have for Melinda? Remember to do all your own thinking and work before reading what the teams think.

498

499

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Her mean score now is 75 + 75 + 95 + 80 divided by 4 which is 81.25. She just needs 3.25 points because 84.5 will round up to 85 and give her the B. An 85 + 3.25 points should do it. She needs to make an 89 which is better than 3 of her scores. Shed better study! Feedback from the Coach: Find the mean of 75, 75, 95, 80, and 89. If you do not get 85, does checking your answer help you redirect your thinking? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

500

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: She needs 10 points to bring one of the 75s to an 85. She needs another 10 points for the other 75. She needs 5 points to bring up the 80 to 85. That is a total of 25 points. She has 10 of them because of the 95. Shes got to make 15 on the final test. Feedback from the Coach: The sum of the scores of 75, 75, 95, 80, and 15 must be divided by 5, not 4, to find the mean. Had her original four scores included an additional 15 points, her mean score would have been 85. Consider what must be true for her to have a mean score of 85 if there are five scores. Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

501

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: If 5 scores have a mean of 85, then the scores could have been 85, 85, 85, 85, 85. The mean represents what the scores would be if they were all the same. If she had 5 scores of 85, she would have 425 points. Lets see how many more points she needs to have a total of 425. 75 + 75 + 95 + 80 = 325. She will need 100 more points so her last score must be a perfect 100. Feedback from the Coach: Your analysis of what the mean represents shows an understanding of the term mean. You might enjoy considering a different situation. Suppose a policy was in place to round 84.5 through 84.9 to 85. How would this affect your work? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

502

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets guess and check. One of us will try 85, one of us will try 90, one of us will try 95, and one of us will try 100. Lets see what the results are. 75 + 75 + 95 + 80 + 85 = 405; 75 + 75 + 95 + 80 + 90 = 410; 75 + 75 + 95 + 80 + 95 = 420;

410 5

= 82. Not good enough for a B. = 83. Not good enough for a B. = 84. Not good enough for a B. = 85. She has the B.

415 5

420 5

425 5

For each 5 points of increase, her mean increases by 1. That makes sense because we are dividing by 5. If we had 6 scores and were dividing by 6, we would need 6 more points in the total to increase the mean by 1 point. She has to make 100. Think a minute. We know many teachers round to the nearest whole number. What score does she need to get to 84.5? Lets look at the pattern. She needs a score halfway between 95 and 100. That is 97.5. One small mistake, and she might still get the B! She still has her work cut out for her. She hasnt made above a 95 so far. Those 75s are hurting her. It may have been easier for her to make 80s before, than 97.5 to 100 now. Feedback from the Coach: I am glad to see you used a minimum score of 85 to guess and check. If you did this problem again, would you use the same strategy or would you try another?

503

504

Team: _________________________________________________________ Teams Discussion and Solution: Lets find her current mean score. 75 + 75 + 95 + 80 = 325

325 4

= 81.25

This means her scores could have been 81.25, 81.25, 81.25, 81.25 and she would have had the same mean score. She needs an 85 on the last score + 3.75 for each of the other four scores to pull the mean up to 85. 85 + (3.75 x 4) = 85 + 15 = 100 She needs a score of 100. Feedback from the Coach: Your interpretation of mean shows an understanding of the concept. Your method is efficient and your work is accurate. Can you think of another strategy that is equally efficient? Your Suggestions to the Team: __________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

505

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. center of circle central angle (of a circle) circle circle graph data data display degree () graph pictograph protractor

____________________

1.

a graph used to compare data in which picture symbols represent a specified number of items information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes an instrument used for measuring and drawing angles an angle whose vertex is the center of a circle the point from which all points on the circle are the same distance common unit used in measuring angles the set of all points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center a graph used to compare parts of a whole; the whole amount is shown as a circle, and each part is shown as a percent of the whole a drawing used to represent data different ways of displaying data in tables, charts, or graphs

Unit 5: Probability and Statistics

____________________

2.

____________________

3.

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________ ____________________

6. 7.

____________________

8.

____________________

9.

____________________ 10.

506

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. the horizontal and vertical number lines used in a rectangular graph or coordinate grid system as a fixed reference for determining the position of a point ______ 2. a graph used to compare quantities of two sets of data in which length of bars are used to compare numbers ______ 3. a graph used to compare quantities in which lengths of bars are used to compare numbers ______ 4. the numeric values assigned to the axes of a graph ______ 5. the titles given to a graph, the axes of a graph, or the scales on the axes of a graph ______ 6. a graph used to show change over time in which line segments are used to indicate amount and direction E. line graph A. axes (of a graph)

B. bar graph

F. scales

507

Practice

Match each illustration with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided.

Chick Population Living Chicks 4 Number Living*

______ 1.

4+4=8

A. bar graph

4 + 4 + 4 = 12

14 12

Percent of People

adults teens

13.00 12.00 13.00

10 8 6 4 2 0

2.00 5.00

9.00

______ 2.

B. circle graph

Widgets purchased 2001 Year Widgets purchased 2002

______ 3.

______ 4.

D. line graph

30 25 20 15 10 5

2.00 10.00

Video Customers

______ 5.

8.00

5.00

E. pictograph

2002

1997

1998

2001

508

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator. (A.3.3.3) Analyze real-world data by applying appropriate formulas for measure of central tendency and organizing data in a quality display, using appropriate technology, including calculators and computers. (E.1.3.3) Formulate hypotheses, design experiments, collect and interpret data, and evaluate hypotheses by making inferences and drawing conclusions based on statistics, tables, graphs, and charts. (E.3.3.1)

At the RSL Middle School, the starting time for school was changed from 9:00 to 7:30. The dismissal time was changed from to 3:30 to 2:00. The teachers like the earlier starting time but report that many students do not appear to be rested when coming to school.

RSL

Some students like to start earlier because of the extra time they have in the afternoon. Many students complain, however, about having to get up so early. One of the teachers asks her students to create a survey about sleeping habits. Then they will develop a plan for a sample of the school population to complete the survey. One of the parts of this lesson will address the survey. The other will address the plan for a sample. This part of the lesson will deal with the survey itself. At the end of this lesson, you will create a survey, gather and record data, and make recommendations.

509

When generating questions for your proposal for the survey, consider the difference in an open-ended question and a closed-ended question. Open-ended questions are questions to which there is not one definite answer. Because of this, the answers are more difficult to organize and analyze. Open-ended question: What is your weight?

Closed-ended questions have a specific set of answers from which to choose. The answers are easy to organize and analyze. However, they are more difficult to write. You must design choices to include all possible responses a person could give for each question. Closed-ended question: What is your weight? 75-100 pounds

8

101-125 pounds 126-150 pounds 151-175 pounds 176-200 pounds 201 or more pounds Also consider if the answer to one question may require an answer to another question in order to be meaningful. For example, I may want to know the height of a person to draw conclusions from the weight of the person.

510

Answers to closed-ended questions may be easier to organize and analyze than answers to open-ended questions. However, closed questions may limit responses. An example of this might be the following. Open-ended question: What is your favorite hobby?

Closed-ended question: What is your favorite hobby? Reading Walking, jogging, biking Gardening Cooking Sports Drawing/painting

It is important to clearly state your questions to avoid misinterpretation. You might want to explain the purpose of your survey to several people and then ask them to respond to it. Also ask them to make any recommendations for changes they might have.

511

The purpose of the RSL Middle School survey is to help the teachers and students identify concerns about the new school times. Recommendations can be based on the answers to the survey. Consider the following when creating a survey. 1. What is the intent of your survey? 2. What will your questions be? 3. How will you organize responses? 4. How will you report your findings? 5. What recommendations do you have based on your findings?

Surve

If you are trying to draw conclusions about students in your school, it is wise to choose a sample that is representative of the student body. Such a sample is called a representative sample. Sample: A group of people selected from a population. Collecting data from a sample allows you to study a large population. You may then be able to make predictions or draw conclusions about the entire population based on data from the sample. Representative sample: A sample that accurately represents a population. There are several types of samples which include the following. Convenience sample: A sample that is selected because it is easy. It is considered easy because of the convenience of contacting people to be surveyed. An example might be surveying the students in your neighborhood. Systematic sample: A sample selected in a methodical way. You may be waiting in the lunchroom line and decide to sample every fifth person in line.

512

Random sample: A sample selected in a way that gives every member of a population an equally likely chance of being selected. Voluntary-response sample: A sample that selects itself since volunteers are sought.

513

Practice

Complete the following chart. 1. Consider each of the survey plans. Then use the list below to complete the first column Type of Sample. One term will be used more than once. convenience random systematic voluntary-response

2. Next list an advantage and a disadvantage for each plan in the appropriate column.

Survey Plans Type of Sample Plan A. Print 30 surveys. Stand at the front door of the school and hand them out to the first 30 students to arrive. Have each of the students complete the survey and return it to you. B. Print 30 surveys. Give one to each of the first 30 students to get on your school bus. Have each of the students complete the survey and return it to you. C. Print 30 surveys. Give one to every 2nd student as he or she enters the band classroom for band practice after school. When you have given out 30, have each of the students complete the survey and return it to you. D. Print 30 surveys. During an assembly program, ask students who are interested in completing the survey to meet you in the cafeteria before school the next morning. Ask the first 30 to come to complete surveys and return them to you. E. Place the names of each student enrolled in the school in a container. Shake well and draw one name. Continue to shake well and draw until 30 names are drawn. Ask these 30 students to complete the surveys and return them to you. Advantage Disadvantage

514

3. Describe at least two other plans for gathering data from a sample of the students in your school. _________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Choose one sampling plan and explain why you chose it. _______ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

515

Practice

Answer the following. Complete the following to develop a proposal for a survey. 1. What is the intent of your survey? ___________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 2. What will your questions be? _______________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 3. What size and type of sample population will you use? _________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

516

4. How will you organize responses? ___________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 5. How will you report your findings?__________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 6. Predict what you think the findings might reveal and thus what recommendations you would make. _________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 7. With your teachers permission, conduct your survey. Gather and record the data, analyze it, and make recommendations.

517

Characteristics of Mathematicians

At the end of most of the lessons in this book, a team problem has been presented for you to solve. Each one had a variety of correct and incorrect solutions for you to review. There was potential for you to grow as a mathematician in each and every one. Consider the following characteristics of mathematicians. Mathematicians often work for a long time on a single problem work together with other mathematicians study the work of other mathematicians prove for themselves that their solutions are correct work on complex problems get satisfaction from the process gain a sense of pride in finding solutions use unsuccessful attempts as stepping stones to solutions It is hoped that you are becoming a mathematician and that your attitude towards mathematics is increasingly positive. It may be helpful to revisit some of the team problems in the book with the characteristics of mathematicians in mind. Take the following steps. Spend time trying to solve the problem. Study the work of others shared in each set of solutions, as well as the work of your classmates. Prove to yourself that your solution is correct. Consider the complexity of the problem. Experience satisfaction from the work you have done and be proud of your accomplishment. When unsuccessful, retrace your steps, determine where the wrong turn was taken, and try another path. Share what you have learned with others.

518

Practice

Use the list below to write the correct term for each definition on the line provided. mean median mode probability range rounded number sample

1. 2. 3.

a number approximated to a specified place the arithmetic average of a set of numbers the score or data point found most often in a set of numbers the difference between the highest (H) and the lowest value (L) in a set of data the middle point of a set of ordered numbers where half of the numbers are above the median and half are below it the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the total number of outcomes part of a larger group; a number of people, objects, or events chosen from a larger population to represent the entire group

____________________

4.

____________________

5.

____________________

6.

____________________

7.

519

Practice

Match each definition with the correct term. Write the letter on the line provided. ______ 1. an orderly display of numerical information in rows and columns ______ 2. information in the form of numbers gathered for statistical purposes ______ 3. a part of a circle bounded by two radii and the arc or curve created between any two of its points ______ 4. the horizontal and vertical number lines used in a rectangular graph or coordinate grid system as a fixed reference for determining the position of a point ______ 5. the numeric values assigned to the axes of a graph ______ 6. a special-case ratio in which the second term is always 100 ______ 7. a drawing used to represent data G. table A. axes (of a graph)

B. data

C. graph

D. percent (%)

E. scales

F. sector

520

Appendices

522

Appendix A

Formulas triangle rectangle trapezoid parallelogram circle area =

1 2

bh

area = lw area =

1 2

h (b1 + b2)

22 7

for .

In a polygon, the sum of the measures of the interior angles is equal to 180 (n - 2), where n represents the number of sides.

Pythagorean Theorem c2 = a2 + b2

a b c

volume = r2h total surface area = 2rh + 2r2 volume = lwh total surface area = 2(lw) + 2(hw) + 2(lh)

1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches 1 mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet 1 acre = 43,560 square feet 1 hour = 60 minutes 1 minute = 60 seconds 1 liter = 1000 milliliters = 1000 cubic centimeters 1 meter = 100 centimeters = 1000 millimeters 1 kilometer = 1000 meters 1 gram = 1000 milligrams 1 kilogram = 1000 gram

1 cup = 8 fluid ounces 1 pint = 2 cups 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 ton = 2,000 pounds

Appendix A

523

Appendix B

525

526

Appendix B

Index

A

acute angle ....................................... 207, 229 acute triangle .................................... 207, 229 adjacent angles ................................ 207, 285 adjacent sides ................................... 207, 222 altitude ............................................. 207, 232 angle ................................ 127, 192, 207, 221 area (A) ............................. 127, 136, 207, 233 ascending order ..................................... 3, 26 associative property ........................ 331, 385 axes (of a graph) ........... 207, 304, 425 , 488 decay factor ...................................... 331, 441 decay rate .......................................... 331, 441 decrease .................................................. 3, 28 degrees () ...... 128, 192, 209, 226, 426, 487 denominator ........................ 3, 17, 426, 447 descending order ................................... 3, 66 diagonal (of a polygon) ................. 209, 294 diameter (d) .................. 128, 162, 209, 224 difference ......................... 4, 24, 128, 184, ................................. 331, 395, 426, 441 digit .......................................................... 4, 36 distributive property ....................... 332, 385 divisible .................................................. 4, 66 divisor ..................................................... 4, 69 double bar graph ............................. 426, 488

B

bar graph ........................................... 425, 488 base (b) ............................. 127, 136, 208, 232 bisect .................................................. 208, 237

E

edge ................................................... 209, 255 endpoint ........................................... 209, 226 equally likely ................................... 427, 476 equation ........................................... 332, 370 equilateral triangle .......................... 209, 230 even number ........................ 4, 41, 427, 472 exponent (exponential form) ...... 4, 49, 332, 384 exponential decay ........................... 332, 397 exponential growth ........................ 332, 397 expression ........................................ 332, 384

C

center of a circle ....... 127, 162, 208, 224, 425, 487 central angle (of a circle) ................. 127, 192, 208, 287, 425, 488 chart ..................................... 3, 52, 425, 445 circle ............. 127, 162, 208, 224, 425, 487 circle graph ....................................... 425, 487 circumference (C) ......... 127, 165, 208, 224 common factor ...................................... 3, 17 commutative property ................... 331, 385 complementary angles .................... 208, 284 congruent ( ~ = ) ...................... 128, 143, 208, ......................................... 229, 426, 448 consecutive ............................................ 3, 38 coordinate grid or system ................. 208, 304, 331, 376 coordinates ...................................... 208, 304 corresponding angles and sides .... 209, 258 cube ...................................... 3, 65, 426, 445 cubic units ........................................ 128, 134 cylinder .......................... 128, 161, 209, 258

F

face ................. 128, 135, 209, 255, 427, 457 factor .................................... 4, 17, 210, 300 flip ..................................................... 210, 298 formula ......... 128, 136, 210, 242, 332, 390 fraction .................................. 4, 17, 427, 447 function ............................................. 332, 380

G

graph .............................. 333, 370, 427, 487 greatest common factor (GCF) ...... 427, 447 grid ................................ 128, 141, 210, 305, ................................. 333, 342, 427, 436 growth factor ................................... 333, 398 growth rate ...................................... 333, 398

D

data .................... 3, 15, 331, 370, 426, 483 data display ...................................... 426, 487 decagon ............................................. 209, 296

Appendix C

527

H

height (h) ........................ 129, 136, 210, 232 heptagon ........................................... 210, 296 hexagon ............................................. 210, 296 hypotenuse ........ 5, 58, 210, 232, 427, 436

odd number ......................... 6, 66, 429, 472 odds .................................................. 429, 435 opposite sides ................................... 212, 222 ordered pair .................. 212, 305, 334, 378 origin ............................. 212, 304, 334, 378 outcome .......................... 334, 344, 429, 435

I

increase ................................................... 5, 27 integer ...................................................... 5, 43 interest-bearing account ................. 333, 397 intersect ............................................ 211, 221 intersection ..................... 211, 304, 333, 341 irrational number ................................. 5, 59 isosceles right triangle ................... 211, 235 isosceles triangle .............................. 211, 230

P

parallel ( ) .... 129, 161, 212, 221, 334, 378 parallel lines ..................................... 213, 221 parallelogram ................................... 213, 255 Pascals triangle ........... 335, 350, 429, 473 pattern (relationship) .................. 6, 16, 335, ........................................... 340, 429, 471 pentagon .......................................... 213, 295 percent (%) ................................... 6, 77, 129, ......................... 196, 335, 398, 429, 440 perfect square ......................................... 6, 43 perimeter (P) ................. 129, 167, 213, 224 perpendicular ( ) ........................... 213, 221 perpendicular bisector (of a segment) ........................... 213, 222 perpendicular lines ......................... 213, 221 pi () .................................................. 129, 162 pictograph ......................................... 430, 487 plane ................................................. 213, 298 point ................................ 213, 221, 335, 378 polyhedron ....................................... 214, 254 positive numbers ........................335, 376 power (of a number) ............ 6, 15, 335, 362 prime factorization ............................... 6, 71 prime number ....................................... 7, 41 prism .............................. 129, 136, 214, 254 probability ....................................... 430, 435 product ............................... 7, 15, 130, 136, ................................ 214, 232, 336, 374 proportion ........................................ 214, 259 protractor ......................................... 430, 488 pyramid .......................... 214, 254, 430, 445 Pythagorean theorem .................. 7, 58, 214, ......................................... 241, 430, 435

L

labels (for a graph) ........ 333, 377, 427, 488 leg ............................ 5, 58, 211, 232, 428, 436 length (l) ........................... 129, 135, 211, 235 like terms ......................................... 333, 384 line ..................................................... 211, 221 line graph .......................................... 428, 488 line of symmetry ............................. 211, 317 line segment ................... 211, 224, 428, 435 linear equation ................................. 334, 370

M

maximum ...................... 334, 378, 428, 466 mean (or average) .......................5, 66, 129, ........................................... 191, 428, 435 measure of an angle ....................... 211, 226 median .............................................. 428, 435 minimum ...................... 334, 378, 428, 466 mode ................................................. 428, 435 multiples ................................................ 5, 55

N

nonagon ............................................ 212, 296 nonlinear equation .......................... 334, 370 number line ..................................... 212, 304 numerator ........................... 5, 17, 428, 447

Q

quadrant ......................... 215, 304, 336, 376 quotient ............................... 7, 69, 130, 194

O

obtuse angle ..................................... 212, 229 obtuse triangle ................................. 212, 229 octagon .............................................. 212, 258

R

radius (r) ......................... 130, 162, 215, 224 random .............................................. 430, 436

528

Appendix C

range (of a set of numbers) ........... 430, 435 ratio ...................... 7, 17, 215, 259, 431, 435 ray ...................................................... 215, 226 rectangle ....... 130, 136, 215, 255, 431, 445 rectangular prism ......... 130, 134, 215, 255 reflection .......................................... 215, 298 regular polygon ............................... 215, 294 relationship (relation) .................... 336, 372 remainder ............................................... 7, 41 right angle ........................................ 215, 229 right triangle ....... 7, 58, 216, 229, 431, 436 rotation ............................................. 216, 298 rounded number ................ 8, 21, 130, 144, ................................... 336, 401, 431, 459 rule .................................................... 336, 375

V

value (of a variable) ........................ 337, 380 variable ............................................. 337, 370 vertex ............................. 131, 161, 218, 222 vertical angles ................................. 218, 285 volume (V) ..................... 132, 134, 218, 259

W

whole number .................... 9, 15, 132, 144 width (w) ........................................... 132, 136

X

x-axis .............................. 218, 304, 337, 377 x-coordinate .................. 218, 305, 337, 378

S

sample .............................................. 431, 510 scales ............................... 336, 378, 431, 488 scale factor ........................................ 216, 259 scale model ...................................... 131, 141 scalene triangle ................................ 216, 230 scientific notation .................................. 8, 15 sector ................................................. 432, 453 side .................................. 131, 143, 216, 222 similarity (of figures) ..................... 216, 258 slide ................................................... 216, 298 solid ................................................... 216, 221 solid figures ..................................... 217, 254 square ............................. 131, 171, 217, 235 square (of a number) ............................. 8, 43 square root (of a number) . 9, 43, 432, 437 square units ..................................... 131, 135 standard form ....................................... 9, 25 straight angle ................................... 217, 229 sum ............................ 9, 57, 131, 143, 217, ....................... 237, 336, 353, 432, 440 supplementary angles..................... 217, 284 surface ............................................... 217, 221 surface area (of a geometric solid) ............. 131, 143

Y

y-axis .............................. 218, 304, 337, 377 y-coordinate .................. 218, 305, 337, 378

T

table (or chart) ..... 9, 23, 337, 342, 432, 437 tessellation ....................................... 217, 298 transformation ................................ 217, 308 trapezoid ........................................... 217, 233 translation ......................................... 217, 298 triangle ............................ 218, 229, 432, 445 turn ................................................... 218, 298

Appendix C

529

References

Charles, Randall I., et al. Middle School Math, Course 3, Volume 1 and 2. Menlo Park, CA: Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley, 1998. Florida Department of Education. Florida Course Descriptions. Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, 1998. Florida Department of Education. Florida Curriculum Framework: Mathematics. Tallahassee, FL: State of Florida, 1996. Lappan, Glenda, et al. Connected Mathematics. Menlo Park, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1998. Lappan, Glenda, et al. Integers. Menlo Park, CA. Dale Seymour Publications, 1998. Lappan, Glenda, et al. Linear Relationships. Menlo Park, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1998. Lappan, Glenda, et al. Probability and Expected Value. Menlo Park, CA. Dale Seymour Publications, 1998. Lappan, Glenda, et al. Three-Dimensional Measurement. Menlo Park, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1998. Muschla, Judith A. and Gary Robert Muschla. Math Starters! 5- to 10-Minute Activities That Make Kids Think, Grades 6-12. West Nyack, NY: The Center for Applied Research in Education, 1999. Usiskin, Zalmen, et al. Transition Mathematics. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, and Company, 1990. Wheatley, Grayson and Anne Reynolds. Coming to Know Number: A Mathematics Activity Resource for Elementary School Teachers. Tallahassee, FL: Mathematics Learning, 1999.

Appendix D

531

Production Software

Adobe PageMaker 6.5. Mountain View, CA: Adobe Systems. Adobe Photoshop 5.0. Mountain View, CA: Adobe Systems. Macromedia Freehand 8.0. San Francisco: Macromedia. Microsoft Office 98. Redmond, WA: Microsoft.

532

Appendix D

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- Algebra I - Course No. 1200310 content revised by Sylvia Crews Sue Fresen developed and edited by Sue FresenTransféré parMLSBU11
- English I - Teacher’s Guide Course No. 1001310 written and developed by Janice McLain, Sue Fresen graphics by Rachel P. McAllister page layout by Jennifer Keele Exceptional Student Education Curriculum Improvement Project IDEA, Part B, Special Project http://www.leon.k12.fl.us/public/pass/Transféré parMLSBU11
- Marine ScienceTransféré parMLSBU11
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- English II - Teacher’s Guide Course No. 1001340 rewritten and edited by Janice McLain & Sue Fresen graphics by Rachel P. McAllister page layout by Rachel P. McAllister Exceptional Student Education Curriculum Improvement Project IDEA, Part B, Special Project http://www.leon.k12.fl.us/public/pass/Transféré parMLSBU11
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- Introductory Spanish Spanish I Course No. 0708340 written and developed by Sharon Carlson Sue Fresen graphics by Rachel McAllister page layout by Jennifer KeeleTransféré parMLSBU11

- American GovernmentTransféré parMLSBU11
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- World History-Part II, Teachers' GuideTransféré parMLSBU11
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- Mathematics I - Teachers' GuideTransféré parMLSBU11
- World History-Part I, Teachers' GuideTransféré parMLSBU11
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- Physical ScienceTransféré parMLSBU11
- Earth Space ScienceTransféré parMLSBU11
- American History-Part I, Teachers' GuideTransféré parMLSBU11
- American Government - Teachers' GuideTransféré parMLSBU11
- EconomicsTransféré parMLSBU11
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- Marine ScienceTransféré parMLSBU11
- American History-Part ITransféré parMLSBU11
- Integrated Science ITransféré parMLSBU11
- BiologyTransféré parMLSBU11
- World History-Part IITransféré parMLSBU11
- American History-Part IITransféré parMLSBU11
- Mathematics ITransféré parMLSBU11
- World History-Part ITransféré parMLSBU11
- Pre AlgebraTransféré parMLSBU11
- Mathematics IITransféré parMLSBU11

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