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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


١ J

 ١٤٠
‫א‬   ١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 

 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ،‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬        ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ،  
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
     ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ،‫א‬   
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

  ?  ? ١J   ? ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬      
   ١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 

 ،KKK،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 KKKKKK،‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١ J 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

-١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

  ١J ١
،
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
The International System of Units‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ١
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫א‬
The Measurement Units‫א‬‫א‬ ١J ٢J ١
،‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬

Symbol‫א‬ Unit‫א‬ Quantity‫א‬
 m Meter  Length‫א‬
 kg Kilogram‫א‬ Mass‫א‬
 A Ampere Current‫א‬
 s Second Time‫א‬
 K Kelvin Temperature‫א‬‫א‬
 cd Candle Luminous Intensity‫א‬

 The Measurement Units‫א‬‫א‬E١-١F



K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Luminous Intensity‫א‬Temperature‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬NForce‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
kg
Watt‫א‬Electric Power‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
s2

-٢-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

Nm
Electric Energy‫א‬‫א‬K W
s
 K Nm  JJoule‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٢J ١
 which attached to the measurement units، prefixes،Power of ten units
power ‫א‬The International System of Units‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬of ten
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
Power of ten Symbol Prefixes to the Units
 1 * 10−18  a  Atto
 1 * 10−15  f Femto
 1 * 10−12  p Pico
 1 * 10−9  n Nano
 1 * 10−6  µ Micro
 1 * 10−3  m Milli
 1 * 10−2  c Centi
 1 * 10 −1  d Deci
 1 *101  da Deka
 1 *102  h Hecto
 1 *103  k Kilo
 1 *106  M Mega
 1 *109  G Giga
 1 *1012  T Tera‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ١F

The Basic Electrical Quantities‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ١


‫א‬،Voltage‫א‬،Current‫א‬،Charge‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KElectrical Resistance‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،EJ ‫א‬FElectrons‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KAtoms
 KE‫א‬FNeutrons‫א‬،EH‫א‬FProtons‫א‬
Charge‫א‬ ١J ٣J ١
‫א‬Electron‫א‬‫א‬،Q
،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Proton
K
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 KC‫א‬Coulomb‫א‬
Current‫א‬ ٢J ٣J ١
،I‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WKCurrent‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
dQ
I= E١J ١F
dt
 W‫א‬،Ampere‫א‬
C
A≡ E٢J ١F
s
 KA‫א‬IW
 KCCharge‫א‬WQ
 Kstime‫א‬Wt
 ‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬Electrons

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 


I

E Load



‫א‬E١J ١F
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،voltage source‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
Pure D.C. Current  K١
 KE٢J ١F،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Current (I)

time (t)

 E٢J ١F

Pulsating Current  K٢


 KE١J ٣F،‫א‬
current ( I )

time ( t )

-٥-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

current ( I )
time ( t )

current ( I )

time ( t )

Pulsating CurrentE٣J ١F
Alternating Current K٣

 sin wave‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 KAlternating Current‫א‬‫א‬
current ( I )

time ( t )


Alternating CurrentE٤J ١F

Voltage‫א‬ ٣J ٣J ١
Volt،‫א‬‫א‬(Work)‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
J
V≡ E٣J ١F
C
 W
dW
V= E٤J ١F
dQ
 W

-٦-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 KV‫א‬WV
 KJ‫א‬WW
 KCCharge‫א‬WQ

Resistance‫א‬ ٤J ٣J ١
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Electric Power‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬KOhm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
، Ω  Ohm،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
Current (I)

Resistance (R)

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ١F

Resistance of a wire‫א‬‫א‬ ٥J ٣J ١
 W‫א‬Wires‫א‬
 KL،Length‫א‬ K١
KA،Cross-section Area‫א‬ K٢

-٧-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

‫א‬K، ρ ،MaterialE ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ K٣


K
KT،Temperature‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ρ.L
R= E٧J ١F
A
 W
 K Ω Resistance‫א‬ WR
 K Ω.m ‫א‬‫א‬ Wρ
 m،Length‫א‬ WL
 K m 2 ‫א‬،Cross-section Area‫א‬ WA
 E١J ١F
‫א‬K٥m‫א‬،٥mm‫א‬‫א‬
1.72 * 10 −8 Ω m ‫א‬‫א‬، 20o C ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W،E٧J ١F‫א‬R‫א‬
ρ.L
R =
A

⎛ 5 ⎞
 ∴ R = 1.72 ∗ 10 −8
∗ ⎜ ⎟ = 4.38 Ω

( −3
⎝ π 5 ∗ 10 2 ⎠)
2 ⎟

-٨-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

Types of Resistors‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Opto-photo-ResistorsW ‫א‬‫א‬ K١
،‫א‬،‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Thermal-ResistorsW‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
10000

1000

100
‫أوم‬

10

1
0 40 80 120 160 180 200
‫درﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ١F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬WVoltage Dependent Resistors‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،VDR
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WLinear Resistors‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 KW‫א‬‫א‬ K

-٩-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫ א‬K



‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W
‫א‬WPotentiometer‫א‬E١
J ١F ٣،٢،١‫א‬ ،Voltage Divider
 KMega Ohm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،EEF٧
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬WRheostatE٢
Kilo  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،Ohm
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 EEF٧J ١F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬K
K ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١
+
٢
٢ V١٣ + 
١ ٣
V٢٣
- -
٣
 EF      EF  
 ‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ١F

-١٠-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 Conductance‫א‬ ٦J ٣J ١
G‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،Ampere per Volt‫א‬Siemens
 W
1
G= E٥J ١F
R
 KSiemens
 W
1
R=  E٦J ١F
G
 .Ohm
 K‫א‬‫א‬G‫א‬
















-١١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

:‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١
 ٢٩٠٠٠ kWE
 Ω ٧٠٠٠E

 ٠{٠٠٠٣ msE
٠{٠٥ AE
٠{٠٠٠٠٩ VE
٧٠٠٠٠٠٠ VE
٠{٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٠٨ sE
٩٠٠٠ kWE

W K٢
 A١٥mAE
 s٠{١ nsE
 mA µA ٨٠٠E
 A١٣ nAE

W‫ א‬K٣
 µA ٨٠٠H١٥mAE
 ١٣ msH٠{١ nsE
١A+  µA ٨٠٠E
 ٧٠٠٠ µA+١٣ nAE

WA - B‫ א‬K٤
 µA B=٨٠٠،A=١٥mAE
 B=١٣ ns A=٠{١ msE
B= ١٠٠٠ nA ، µA A=٨٠٠E
 B=٧٠٠٠ µV،A=١٣mVE
-١٢-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 


A
W ‫ א‬K٥
B
 µA B=٨٠٠،A=١٥mAE
 B=١٣ ns A=٠{١ msE
B= ١٠٠٠ nA ، µA A=٨٠٠E
 B=٧٠٠٠ µV،A=١٣mVE

-١٣-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١ J

 

٢
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ١٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

 ١J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fundamental Law‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
George Simon Ohm‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٨٢٦Ohm’s Law
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I
I R
  =R
Slope + −
V

t 
 ‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٢F

 Ohm’s Law ٢J ٢


،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 K‫א‬
Current Formula‫א‬EF ١J ٢J ٢
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E V
E١J ٢F I= , I=
RT R

 KA‫א‬IW
 KVVoltage Source‫א‬E
 KV،Voltage Drop‫א‬‫א‬V
- ١٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

 E١J ٢F
،٥٠V‫א‬ ، 100Ω ‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I

A 

100Ω V 


 E١J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٢F
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
V 50
I= = = 0.5A
R 100

Resistance Formula‫א‬ ٢J ٢J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
V E
E٢J ٢F R= , RT =
I IT
 W
 Ω ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W R T

 KA‫א‬I
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I T
 KV‫א‬E
 KV‫א‬‫א‬V

- ١٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

 E٢J ٢F
، 75µA   ‫א‬،١٥٠mV   ‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬


I = 75µA 
A

+

V 150mV 

-

 E٢J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٢F
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
V 150 * 10 −3
R= = − 6
= 2 * 10 3 Ω = 2KΩ
I 75 * 10

 WNote
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 E٣J ٢F
K٣٠V‫א‬‫א‬٠{٥ mA‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
E 30
RT = = − 3
= 60 * 10 3 Ω = 60 kΩ
I T 0.5 * 10

- ١٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

 E٤J ٢F

‫א‬،١٠mAR١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،٢٥ V‫א‬

V = 25 V

V
I = 10 mA
A 

R1

 E٤J ٢F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٢F
 ‫א‬

V 25
R1 = = − 3
= 2.5 * 10 3 Ω = 2.5 kΩ
I 10 * 10

Voltage Formula ٣J ٢J ٢
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Voltage Drop‫א‬ ١J ٣J ٢J ٢
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E ‫א‬
 ‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬

E٣J ٢F V = I.R

- ١٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

Voltage Source‫א‬ ٢J ٣J ٢J ٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ، R T ‫א‬‫א‬

E٤J ٢F E = IT .R T

 E٥J ٢F
‫א‬‫א‬ 500 Ω ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠{١A‫א‬
 ‫א‬

E = I T .R T = 0.1 * 500 = 50 V

 E٦J ٢F
 ٣mA‫א‬‫א‬ 27 KΩ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

E = I T .R T = 3 * 10 −3 * 27 * 10 3 = 81 V

 E٧J ٢F
 ٠{٨mA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 28 kΩ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
V = I * .R = 0.8 *10−3 * 28 *103 = 22.4 V

 WNote
‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 


V  

I R

 E٥J ٢F

 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

E٥J ٢F          V = I*R

V
E٦J ٢F I =
R
V
E٧J ٢F           R=
I

 K‫א‬
 Summary‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬ Current‫א‬ K٢
V
KI = W
R
W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
V = I*R
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
K‫א‬‫א‬، R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ K٥
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
W
 K‫א‬ EF
K٧٥٪‫א‬ E
F
K‫א‬ E
F
K٣٥٪‫א‬ E
F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EF

W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
 V = 5V , R = 1Ω EF
V = 15V , R = 10Ω E
F
 V = 50V , R = 100Ω E F
 V = 30V , R = 15KΩ E F
 V = 250V , R = 5.6MΩ EF

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،١٢V10KΩ  K٣

،J J J W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٤


K١٢V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،٢٥V K٥
KJ J J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦
  8Ω ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬

- ٢١ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

Fuse 

R
120V V 100V



،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Fuse‫א‬ 
 ‫؟‬١٠٠ V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬R‫א‬I‫א‬‫א‬ K٧
 I = 2A , R = 18Ω EF
 I = 2.5A , R = 680Ω EF
I = 5A , R = 56Ω EF

‫א‬،٣A 27Ω ‫א‬‫א‬ K٨
‫؟‬‫א‬K

W‫א‬‫א‬I‫א‬،V‫א‬‫א‬ K٩
 I = 2A , V = 10V EF
 I = 45A , V = 90V EF
 I = 5A , V = 50V EF

 R = 100Ω ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬Variable Voltage Source
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١٠٠ V‫א‬‫א‬

- ٢٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
  ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬KI‫א‬V‫א‬‫א‬K 
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬

K V = 1V   ‫א‬ I = 5mA ‫א‬‫א‬ K١١


W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 V = 1.5V EF
V = 2 V E F
 V = 3V E F
 V = 4 V E F
 V = 10V EF
K‫א‬‫א‬،I‫א‬V‫א‬،‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢


K


R = 3.3kΩ R = 3 .9 k Ω


50V 75V

R = 4 .7 k Ω

100V

- ٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١ J
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

Introduction ١J ٣
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬       K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  
KPower‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Power ‫ א‬٢J ٣
KP،Watt‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬t‫א‬‫א‬

Energy
Power = E١J ٣F
time

E
P= E٢J ٣F
t

 W
 ‫א‬L‫א‬Z‫א‬
 W
 KWatt‫א‬Power‫א‬ WP
 K Watt ⋅ second ⋅‫א‬‫א‬JEnergy‫א‬ WE
 Ksecondtime‫א‬ Wt

 Note
WattW،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬Joule‫א‬

Joule
Watt = E٣J ٣F
sec ond

-٢٥-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 E١J ٣F
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،٥ sec‫א‬١٠٠ J‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
Energy E 100 J
Power = = = = 20 Watt
time t 5 sec

 E٢J ٣F

 ‫؟‬‫א‬Kt = ٣٠ sec‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،P = ١٠٠ W‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬
Energy
Power = ⇒ Energy = Power * time
time
E = P * t = 100 * 30 = 3000J = 3 kJ
 WNote
 KWEEnergy‫א‬‫א‬
 E٣J ٣F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٠{٠٤٥ W EF
٠{٠٠٠٠١٢ W E F
٣٥٠٠ W E F
 ٠٠٠ W، ٠٠٠،١٠ E F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KMWkWWmW‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،mW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KKW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KMW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

mW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬،P=٠{٠٤٥ W EF

-٢٦-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 W

P = 0.045 W = 0.045 * 10 3 * 10 −3 W = 45 * 10 −3 = 45 mW

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬،P=٠{٠٠٠٠١٢ W E
F
‫א‬، µW ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
W

P = 0.000012 W = 0.000012 * 10 6 * 10 −6 W = 12 µW

W‫א‬kW،P=٣٥٠٠ W EF

P = 3500 W = 3500 * 10 −3 * 10 3 W = 3.5 kW

WMW‫א‬P=١٠{٠٠٠{٠٠٠ W EF

P = 10,000,000 W = 10,000,000 * 10 −6 * 10 6 W = 10 MW

 WNote
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 E٤J ٣F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬١٤٠٠ WEF
 K٢٥٠٠ WEF
 K١٠٠٠{٠٠٠ WEF
 ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٢٧-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

1400
1400 W = = 1.4 kW EF
10 3
W = P * t = 1.4 kW * 1h = 1.4 kWh

2500
2500 W = = 2.5 kW EF
10 3
W = P * t = 2.5 kW * 2h = 5 kWh

1000000
1000000 W = = 1000 kW EF
10 3
W = P * t = 1000 kW * 5h = 5000 kWh

Power in Electric Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ٣


 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬Power‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KOhm’s Law‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
P = V.I E٤J ٣F
 W
 KWatt‫א‬،Power‫א‬ WP
 KA‫א‬ WI
 KV،‫א‬ WV

-٢٨-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 


I
+

R V


 ‫א‬E١J ٣F

‫א‬ V = I.R ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
P = V.I = I.R.I = I 2 .R E٥J ٣F


V
‫א‬ I = ‫א‬،
R
 W‫א‬

V V2
P = V.I = V. = E٦J ٣F
R R

V E
R= , RT = E٧J ٣F
I IT

 E٥J ٣F
 W‫א‬‫א‬،10Ω ‫א‬‫א‬
I=٠{٧AEF
 I=١{٤AEF
 I=٢{١AEF

-٢٩-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

 P = I 2 .R = (0.7)2 *10 = 4.9W EF

P = I 2 .R = (1.4) 2 *10 = 19.6W EF

P = I 2 .R = (2.1) 2 *10 = 44.1W EF

IP‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 WK
P α I2 E٨J ٣F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
P = 4.9 Watt ← I = 0.7 A EF
 P = 19.6 Watt ← I = 1.4A EF

 KEF‫א‬EF‫א‬EF
 E٦J ٣F
،١٥ V10 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢J ٣F‫א‬
 ‫؟‬12 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬

12 kΩ I 
+ -
V +

10kΩ ١٥V 
− 

 E٦J ٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٣F

-٣٠-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V 15 15
I= = = = 1.5 mA
R 10 * 10 3 10 4

 W12 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V = I*R

= 1.5 * 10 −3 * 12 * 10 3 = 12 V

 KV=١٢ V 12 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬

 Summary‫א‬
Joule
K Watt = W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
sec ond
K‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬
K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
Kopen circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K
KAmpere. Hourx‫א‬ •
K١١x‫א‬ •



-٣١-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬ 350 j s ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–١
 ‫؟‬ 5 h  7500 j ‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 500 ms 1000 j ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣
 kw ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤
  3750w EF  1000w EF
 500 w EF  50000w EF

 Kx‫א‬Ex‫א‬ 5 *106 F‫א‬–٥
‫א‬ 2A  75V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٦
 ‫؟‬ R L ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ 3A ‫א‬120V –٧
 ‫؟‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬100µA 10kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٨

-٣٢-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
١ J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ٣٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Introduction ١J ٤
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

Series Connection‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٤
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R١ R١ 
a a R١

a


R٢ R٢
I 




b b

b I
I

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٤F

- ٣٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Total Resistance (RT)‫א‬ ١J ٢J ٤


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E١J ٤F       R T = R1 + R 2 + R 3 + K + R n
 E١J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
R 1 = 56 Ω R 2 = 100 Ω 

I 
VS R٣ = ٢٧ Ω 
R 5 = 5.6 Ω R 4 = 10 Ω 

 E١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٤F
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R T = 56Ω + 100Ω + 27Ω + 10Ω + 5.6Ω


= 198.6Ω
∴ R T = 198.6Ω

 E٢J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K 22 Ω
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٢J ٤F Q R T = nR
∴ R T = 8 * 22 = 176 Ω

 K‫א‬ n W
- ٣٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Ohm's Law in Series Circuits ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ٤


،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 E٣J ٤F
،12.6 kΩ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3.9 kΩ ‫א‬Voltage Drop‫א‬
R1 R2 

+ 
Vs = ٢٠ V R٣ =٣٫٩ kΩ V=? 
_ 

 E٣J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٤F
 ‫א‬
I‫א‬ ،‫א‬ R٢،R١‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VS 20
I= = = 1.59mA
R T 12.6 * 103

 V = I * R 3 = 1.59 *10−3 * 3.9 *103 = 6.19V


 ٦{١٩ VR٣‫א‬‫א‬∴
 E٤J ٤F
KVs،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K 5mA Fuse‫א‬ Vs‫א‬

- ٣٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


5 mA Fuse R 1 = 1 kΩ R 2 = 3 .3 k Ω

+
I = 1mA
VS R 3 = 4.7 kΩ


 E٤J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٤F


 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
V1 = IR 1 = (1mA ) ⋅ (1KΩ ) = 1 * 10 −3 * 10 3 = 1V
∴ V1 = 1V
( )
V2 = IR 2 = (1mA ) ⋅ 3.3 * 10 3 = 3.3V
∴ V 2 = 3.3V
( )
V3 = IR 3 = (1mA ) ⋅ 4.7 * 10 3 Ω = 1 * 10 3 * 4.7 * 10 3 = 4.7 V
∴ V3 = 4.7 V

 KRTVS‫א‬
∴ R T = 1 + 3.3 + 4.7 = 9KΩ
 VS = 1 * 10 −3 * 9 * 10 3 = 9V
 WVSV١،V٢ ،V٣ 
 VS = V1 + V2 + V3 = 9V


 EKirchhoff’s Voltage LawF‫א‬
‫א‬VS‫א‬EF‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WNote
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EKVLF
- ٣٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

٥mA‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
VS = 5mA * 9KΩ
VS = 5 * 10 −3 * 9 * 10 3 = 45V

 E٥J ٤F
 ‫؟‬VS‫א‬،1mA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

− VS + 



1 .5 k Ω 1.2 kΩ 
I


1.2 kΩ 5 .6 k Ω

 E٥J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٤F

 ‫א‬
RT‫א‬‫א‬،VS‫א‬
R T = 1.2 + 5.6 + 1.2 + 1.5 = 9.5kΩ
∴ R T = 9.5kΩ

 VS‫א‬

 VS = IR T = (1mA ) ⋅ (9.5kΩ ) = 1 * 10 −3 * 9.5 * 10 3


∴ VS = 9.5V

- ٣٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Voltage Sources in Series‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٤J ٤


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 E٦J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢،E١‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KRT

+ 
30 V 
E1
+
− R T = 200 Ω 
20 V E2 
− 

 E٦J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٤F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ E١،E٢‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 E T = E1 + E 2
E T = 30 + 20 = 50V
 W
ET 50
 ∴I = = = 0.25A
R T 200
∴ I = 0.25A

- ٣٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬،ESeries–OpposingF‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٧J ٤F
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

+
25V 

E1 
+ RT
15V 
E2

− 

 E٧J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ٤F


 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  E١،E٢‫א‬
‫א‬–H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
E = E1 − E 2
E = 25 − 15 = 10 V

- ٤٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٨J ٤F
‫א‬،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬
− E1 + − E 2 + − E3 + − E 4 +

1.5V 1.5V 1.5V 1 .5 V

ET
 E٨J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٤F
 ‫א‬
E T = 4 * 1 .5 = 6 V 

Kircchoff's voltage law (KVL) ٥J ٤


?
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K?‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
Voltage Drops‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Voltage Drops‫א‬‫א‬ 
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤١ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 



R1 R2 R3

− V1 + − V2 + − V3 + − V4 + 



VS 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٤F

v s = v1 + v 2 + v 3 + v 4

‫א‬Voltage Drops‫א‬ 


 K‫א‬

 v s = v1 + v 2 + v 3 + ..........
 E٩J ٤F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ VS ‫א‬

+ + 5V -
+ 
VS
10V
− 



 E٩J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠J ٤F
 ‫א‬
 K
v s = v1 + v 2
v s = 5 + 10 = 15v
∴ v s = 15v

- ٤٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١٠J ٤F
‫א‬، I = 200mA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬ R 4  R 3 ، R 2 ، R1 ‫א‬

R 3 = 100 Ω R 2 = 47 Ω 


R4 R 1 = 10 Ω



I = 200 mA 
E=١٠٠ V

 E١٠J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ٤F
 ‫א‬
Ohm’s Law‫א‬‫א‬
 KKirchhoff's Voltage Law
 Voltage Drops‫א‬

 V1 = IR 1 = 200 * 10 −3 * 10 = 2V
 V2 = IR 2 = 200 * 10 −3 * 47 = 9.4V
 V3 = IR 3 = 200 * 10 −3 * 100 = 20V
 WE R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬F v 4 

 v s − (v 1 + v 2 + v 3 + v 4 ) = 0
 100 − 2 − 9.4 − 20 − v 4 = 0
68.6 − v 4 = 0
∴ v 4 = 68.6V

- ٤٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)  ٦J ٤


 W‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ENodeF?
 ?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ Node‫א‬



Node R4 


I2
I3 


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٤F

 W
 I1 = I2 + I3
 W‫א‬KCL‫א‬
 ?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Node‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬?
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
I1 − I 2 − I3 = 0

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KCL
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Nods‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KCL
 K‫א‬

Voltage Divider ‫א‬ ٧J ٤


،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
Voltage Dividers‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٤٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


− V1 + 

R1 I 
+ +
VS R٢ V2 
− _ 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣J ٤F

‫א‬ ‫א‬ R 2 ، R1 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
V1 = IR 1
V2 = IR 2

K R1, R 2  V2 ، V1 ‫א‬‫א‬


 W R 2 = 100Ω ، R1 = 50Ω ، VS = 10V ‫א‬،

R T = 50 + 100 = 150Ω

10 V 1
I= = A
150 Ω 15

1 1
V1 = IR 1 = * 50 = * 10 V
15 3

1
∴ V1 = (10) V
3

1 1
V2 = IR 2 = * 100 = (20 ) V
15 3

2
∴ V2 = (10) V
3

- ٤٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 K‫א‬ V2 ‫א‬ V1 ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Voltage Divider Formula‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١J ٧J ٤
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R١ R٢ R٣ R٤

V١ + − V٢ + − V٣ + − V٤ + − 
I



VS + −

 ‫א‬‫א‬E١٤J ٤F

 ،‫א‬ X  VX ‫א‬‫א‬

VX = IR X
  ٤ ، ٣، ٢،١‫א‬ x W
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VS
 I=
RT
  VX ‫א‬ I ‫א‬
⎛V ⎞
VX = ⎜⎜ S ⎟⎟R X
⎝ RT ⎠
 W VX ‫א‬
⎛ RX ⎞
 VX = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VS
⎝ RT ⎠

- ٤٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١١J ٤F
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ V2 ‫א‬ V1 ‫א‬

+ 
R 1 = 100Ω
V1 
+

VS = 10 V 
− + 
R 2 = 56 Ω
V2




 E١١J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥J ٤F
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ V2 ، V1 
⎛R ⎞
VX = ⎜⎜ X ⎟⎟VS
⎝ RT ⎠
  R T ‫א‬‫א‬
R T = 100 + 56 = 156Ω
⎛R ⎞ 100
V1 = ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟VS = * 10 = 6.41V
R
⎝ T⎠ 156
∴ V1 = 6.41V

  V2 
⎛R ⎞ 56
 V2 = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟VS = * 10 = 3.59V
⎝ RT ⎠ 156

 ‫א‬

 V2 = VS − V1 = 10 − 6.41 = 3.59V

- ٤٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١٢J ٤F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  C to D (e) B to D (d) B to C (c) A to C (b) A to B (a)
 W‫א‬
  VCD (e) VBD (d) VBC (c) VAC (b) VAB (a)

R١ = ١kΩ
A
 B

 R٢ = ٨٫٢kΩ

VS = ٢٥V C

 R٣ = ٣٫٣kΩ

 D

 E١٢J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٤F


 ‫א‬
 R T ‫א‬‫א‬

 R T = R1 + R 2 + R 3
 R T = 1 + 8.2 + 3.3
R T = 12.5KΩ

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
⎛R ⎞
 VAB = ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟VS
⎝ RT ⎠
1
 VAB = * 25 = 2V
12.5
 ∴ VAB = 2V

- ٤٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

⎛ R1 + R 2 ⎞
 VAC = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VS
⎝ R3 ⎠

 VAC = ⎛⎜
9 .2 ⎞
⎟ * 25 = 18.4V
⎝ 12.5 ⎠
∴ VAC = 18.4V
  C،B‫א‬‫א‬
⎛R ⎞
VBC = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎟VS
⎝ RT ⎠
⎛ 8.2 ⎞
VBC = ⎜ ⎟ * 25 = 16.4V
⎝ 12.5 ⎠
∴ VBC = 16.4V
⎛ 8.2 + 3.3 ⎞
VBD = ⎜ ⎟ * 25
⎝ 12.5 ⎠
⎛ 11.5 ⎞
VBD = ⎜ ⎟ * 25 = 23V
⎝ 12.5 ⎠
∴ VBD = 23V

 VCD ‫א‬

 VCD = ⎛⎜
3 .3 ⎞
⎟ * 25 = 6.6
⎝ 12.5 ⎠

 ∴ VCD = 6.6V

Power in a Series Circuit ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬٨J ٤


‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W

 PT = P1 + P2 + ........... + Pn
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ PT 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1) PT = VS I
- ٤٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

2) PT = I 2 R T

VS2
3) PT =
RT


 E١٣J ٤F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R٢ = ١٨ Ω

R٣ = ٥٦ Ω
VS = ١٥ V

R٤ = ٢٢ Ω

 E١٣J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٤F


 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
R T = 10 + 18 + 56 + 22 = 106 Ω

 W‫א‬E٣F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VS2 (15)2
 ∴ PT = = = 2.12 W
RT 106
∴ PT = 2.12 W

- ٥٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١٤J ٤F
  ،٠{٥ W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R١ = ١kΩ R٢ = ٢٫٧kΩ 

R٣ = ٩١٠Ω 
VS = ١٢٠ V 
R٤ = ٣٫٣kΩ
 

 E١٤J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨J ٤F
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

 R T = R1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4
 R T = 1 + 2.7 + 0.91 + 3.3 = 7.91 kΩ
R T = 7.91 kΩ


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VS 120
 I= = = 15.2 mA
R T 7.91
 W‫א‬
P1 = I 2 R 1 = (15.2 mA )2 (1 kΩ ) = 231 mW

P2 = I 2 R 2 = (15.2 mA )2 (2.7 kΩ ) = 624 mW = 0.62 W

P3 = I 2 R 3 = (15.2 mA )2 (910 Ω ) = 210 mW = 0.21 W


762
 P4 = I 2 R 4 = (15.2 mA )2 (3.3 kΩ ) = 762 mW = = 0.762 W
1000

- ٥١ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬  R 4 ، R 2  ‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬،15.2mW
P2 = 0.62 W > 1 W
2
P4 = 0.762 W > 1 W
2
 K‫א‬١w‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Voltage With Respect to Ground ‫א‬ ٩J ٤


E‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Reference Point.
‫א‬،١٠٠V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KCircuit Ground‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬Ground‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٩J ٤F

- ٥٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 



+ 
R1 V1
+


V2 a 
− 
+
R2 V2 V 
− 


 ‫א‬‫א‬E١٩J ٤F
 Note
 a‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٥J ٤F

 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٢٥ VVoltage Dropped ‫א‬‫א‬

+ − + − + − + −
a c a    c
b b 
+ + + +
100V 100V 
− − + − − − + −
e d e d

 (a) (b)

 E١٥J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ b)،(aE٢٠J ٤F

- ٥٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

+ − C
c
a
b
+ +
100V
− − + −
e d

(c)
 E١٥J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫(א‬c)E٢٠J ٤F
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EaF‫א‬‫א‬
 Va ‫א‬،a‫א‬‫א‬، Va ‫א‬
 K‫א‬a‫א‬‫א‬a‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ EaF‫א‬‫א‬
Ve = 0
Vd = +25V
Vc = +50V
Vb = +75V
Va = +100V

 W‫א‬‫א‬d‫א‬Eb F‫א‬‫א‬

 Ve = −25V
 Vd = 0V
 Vc = +25V
 Vb = +50

- ٥٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 Va = +75V
 W‫א‬‫א‬،c‫א‬،EcF‫א‬‫א‬

 Ve = −50V
 Vd = −25V
 Vc = 0V
 Vb = +25V
Va = +50V

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،a‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 Ke ← ،d،c،b‫א‬
 ‫א‬a‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KJ ،H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W VA EaF‫א‬‫א‬
Va = VS = 100V
Vb = 100 − 25 = +75V
Vc = 100 − 25 − 25 = +50V
Vd = 100 − 25 − 25 − 25 = +25V

 ‫א‬e‫א‬
Ve = Vs + Vb + Vc + Vd + Ve
Ve = 100 − 25 − 25 − 25 − 25 = 0
∴ Ve = 0

 Note 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫ א‬E١
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫ א‬E٢
 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W R1 ‫א‬
Vb = Vs − IR 1

 Kc،b،a‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Troubleshooting ‫א‬‫א‬ ١٠J ٤


 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KOpen Circuit ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١F
KShort Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢F
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Open Circuit‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K١
 
V = IR = 0
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
Cheek For Burned Resistor‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


0V 0V 
+ 10V −


R1 R2 R2

VS = 10V

Short Circuit‫א‬‫א‬E٢١J ٤F
‫א‬‫א‬KShort‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٦J ٤F
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬، VS = 100V 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ A, B ‫א‬Short‫א‬E

10Ω 18Ω 
c
b



VS = 100V 33Ω

+
39Ω 

a

 E١٦J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢J ٤F

- ٥٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
 K R T ‫א‬W 

 R T = 10 + 18 + 33 + 39 = 100 Ω
100
 I= =1A
100
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K A, B ‫א‬ShortW  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A, B ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 R T = 18 + 10 = 28 Ω

10Ω 18Ω 
b 
C
−   
VS = 100V I 33Ω 
+  
a 
39Ω

 E١٦J ٤F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣J ٤F

VS 100
 I= = = 3.57 A
RT 28

 W‫א‬
 1 A ‫א‬‫א‬ ، A, B ‫א‬
K 3.57 A 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  A, C ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬18 Ω ، 33 Ω ، 39 Ω ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 R T = 10 Ω
VS 100
 I= = = 10 A
R T 10

 10 A ‫א‬‫א‬
Summary ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KKVL‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Series-Opposition‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Voltage Drops‫א‬ ƒ
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Ground‫א‬ ƒ
K‫א‬Negative Ground‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Positive Ground‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Open circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ƒ א‬
 K‫א‬

- ٥٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

K A, B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١
A

A B 
R٢ 
R١ R٢ R٣ 

B 

 
A


B

R١ R٤




12V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٢
120Ω ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬، 5mA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٣
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
A 
R٣ 
+ 5 mA
A 
VS



R1


A
R2

- ٦٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬ K٤
 1000 Ω ، 500 Ω EF
 56 Ω ، 47 Ω EF
 10 kΩ ، 2.2 kΩ ،1.5 kΩ EF
 2.2 MΩ ،1 kΩ ، 470 kΩ ،1 MΩ EF

‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K٥
R 2 = 10 Ω 

R 2 = 10 Ω R1 = 4.7 Ω

R 3 = 12 Ω
R 1 = 25.6 kΩ 

R4 =1Ω


R 3 = 2.2 kΩ

(a ) ( b)


R 1 = 1 MΩ R 5 = 10 M Ω 

R1 = 1 MΩ



R 2 = 560 kΩ

R 3 = 5.6 MΩ 

(c) 

- ٦١ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬، 100 mA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٦


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬

R 1 = 45 Ω

VS R 2 = 15 Ω
+
R 3 = 90 Ω
A

، 25V   R 2 ‫א‬، 25mA  R1 ‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٧


 ‫؟‬ R 2 

A
R1

VS R2 V
+
R3

، R1 = 10Ω ‫א‬، VS = 48V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K٨


‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ ؛‬R 3 = R 4 = 47Ω ، R 2 = 96Ω

، VS = 24V ‫א‬ R 2 = 5.6 kΩ ، R 1 = 4.7 kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬ K٩


‫؟‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٠
 W‫؟‬ VS
، R 3 = 330Ω ، R 2 = 56Ω ، R 1 = 100Ω

- ٦٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

V5 = 1.124V & R 5 = 47Ω ، R 4 = 220Ω



R1 R2 

I 

R3 
VS
R5 R4 

V 

، V1 = 4.69 V   R1 ‫א‬‫א‬ VS = 15 V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١١
‫؟‬ R 1 = 1.5 kΩ  R 2 

 R 1 = 1.5 kΩ, V1 = 4.69 V



V 

+ R1 R2

VS = 15V 



 I = 1.43mA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٢
، V1 = 2V2 ‫א‬‫א‬، VS = 15V 
‫؟‬ R 3 ، R 2 ، R1 ، V2 = 2V3

‫؟‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٣

- ٦٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

، R 2 = 10KΩ ، R 1 = 15KΩ
R 4 = 2.2KΩ ، R 3 = 6.8KΩ

R1 R2 
a


VS1 = 24V
R3

VS2 = 12V 
R4


 VS1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K١٤
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬،a
 ‫א‬‫א‬

W 2.16V  R1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٥
 WK،E R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬F V3 ‫א‬،E V1 = 2.16V F
R 4 = 220KΩ & R 3 = 560Ω ، R 2 = 1KΩ ، R 1 = 390Ω


VS2 
R 1 = 390 Ω R 2 = 1 kΩ 
A

I 
R 3 = 560 Ω
VS1 

R 4 = 220 Ω

- ٦٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬ VS2 ، VS1 = 15V ‫א‬E١٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٦


KE V1 = 3.77V FW 3.77V  R1 ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ R1 ‫א‬‫א‬ VS 2 ‫א‬ K١٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ VS2 ‫א‬EE١٥F‫א‬‫א‬F R 2
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ V4 ، V3 ، V2 ، V1 ‫א‬‫א‬،E١٦F

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K١٨
 A, B, C, D ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
 W‫؟‬
 R 1 = 12 kΩ, R 2 = 22 kΩ, R 3 = 47 kΩ & R 4 = 15 kΩ 
d 
c

R4

R3

b 

+
R2 
VS = 48V
− a 
+
R1 
V1
− 


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 560 Ω ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K١٩
‫؟‬ R = 27 Ω ‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A, B ‫א‬‫א‬ K٢٠


- ٦٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

A 
100 Ω

+ 
12V 56 Ω



B 



1kΩ 

A

+ 2.2kΩ
8V

3.3kΩ

- ٦٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٥
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ٦٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Introduction ١J ٥
،‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KVoltage Drop‫א‬‫א‬
 KVoltage Divider
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،KCL
 K‫א‬‫א‬Current Divider‫א‬
 Parallel Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
E١J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
A 
I1 A I I1 I2
I I2 
R1 R1 R2 
R2

B B 

R1 A
A I 
I I1
I1 I2
R2
I2   R1 R2

B B  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١J ٥F
- ٦٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

I1 

R1 A
I2
I I1
A R1 R2
I
R2
B
I2 R3 I٢
B

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ١J ٥F

Voltage Drop in Parallel Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٥


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١J ٥F
 E٢J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬

VS = 
25V

R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = R5 =
1.8kΩ
F
1kΩ 2.2kΩ 2.2kΩ 3.3kΩ 
 

 KE١J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٥F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 V1 = V2 = V3 = V4 = V5 = VS = 25V

- ٦٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 Kirchhoff’s Current Law٣J ٥


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Node
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E٢J ٥F
،E٣J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

A
  I 2 = 12mA
IT I1 = 5mA
+ 
VS R1 R2

− IT 

B
 KE٢J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٥F

 ‫א‬
‫א‬ R1 ‫א‬‫א‬ 5mA ‫א‬‫א‬ A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬12mA

I T = I1 + I 2

= 5mA + 12mA = 17 mA
∴ I T = 17mA

- ٧٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٣J ٥F
 KE٤J ٥F‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

IT = 100mA 
A
I 3 = 20mA 
I1 = 30mA
+  I2
VS R1 R2 R3


IT 
B 

 KE٣J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٥F


 ‫א‬
 I T  A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I T = I1 + I 2 + I 3

∴ 100mA = 30mA + I 2 + 20mA

∴ I 2 = 100mA − 50mA = 50mA

 E٤J ٥F
‫א‬ A1 , A 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
5A x y I3 

+  
VS R1 R2 R3 

I1 = 1.5A I 2 = 1A 
IT

 KE٤J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٥F

- ٧١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬
 W 5A  x ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
5A = 1.5A + I A1

 K A1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I A1 W
∴ I A1 = 5 − 1.5 = 3.5A

 K 3.5A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ y ‫א‬‫א‬


∴3.5A = 1A + I A 2
∴ I A 2 = 3.5 − 1 = 2.5A

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬∴
I A1 = 3.5A
I A 2 = 2 .5 A

 Total Parallel Resistors‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٥


 ‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
I1 R1 

I2 R2 
 
IT 

+ VS −
 

R1 , R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٥F

- ٧٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ R1, R 2 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬ R T E‫א‬‫א‬F
 W‫א‬،

I T = I1 + I 2 E١J ٥F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VS VS VS
= + E٢J ٥F
R T R1 R 2

 K VS ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1 1 1
= + E٣J ٥F
R T R1 R 2

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٥F‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
1 R + R2
= 1 E٤J ٥F
R T R1 ∗ R 2
 W
R1 ∗ R 2
RT = E٥J ٥F
R1 + R 2

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T 
‫א‬‫א‬ R T W

- ٧٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


I1 R1 


I2 R2


I3 R3


IT


+ VS − 

 R1, R 2 , R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ٥F
 W
IT = I1 + I 2 + I3 E٦J ٥F
 W‫א‬
VS VS VS VS
= + + E٧J ٥F
R T R1 R 2 R 3
 W‫א‬ VS 
1 1 1 1
= + + E٨J ٥F
R T R1 R 2 R 3
 W
R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT = E٩J ٥F
R1R 2 + R1R 3 + R 2 R 3

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬

- ٧٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬ ‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 


 W‫א‬‫א‬
1
RT = E١٠J ٥F
1 1 1 1
( ) + ( ) + ( ) +K+ ( )
R1 R2 R3 Rn

 E٥J ٥F
 W‫א‬‫א‬ A, B ‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

A


R 1 = 100Ω R 2 = 47Ω R 3 = 22Ω  

B 
 KE٥J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٥F
 ‫א‬
 WE٩J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT =
R1R 2 + R1R 3 + R 2 R 3

 

100 ∗ 47 ∗ 22
RT = = 13Ω
100 ∗ 47 + 100 ∗ 22 + 47 ∗ 22

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٤J ٥
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

QR1 = R 2 = R 3 = K = R n = R E١١J ٥F

- ٧٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

1
∴R T = R E١٢J ٥F
n
R
or R T = E١٣J ٥F
n

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R W
،‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٦J ٥F
 K R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 8Ω 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
R 8
RT = = = 2Ω
n 4

 Determining an unknown Parallel Resistor‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٥


،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WEE٥J ٥FF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R1R 2
RT =
R1 + R 2

‫א‬ R X ‫א‬ R A  ‫א‬‫א‬


W‫א‬

- ٧٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

RA 

RX 


RT

 K‫א‬E٩J ٥F

 R X ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

R AR X
RT = E١٤J ٥F
RA + RX

R T (R A + R X ) = R A R X E١٥J ٥F

RTR A + RTR X = R AR X E١٦J ٥F

R T R A = (R A − R T ) E١٧J ٥F

RTRA
∴R X = E١٨J ٥F
RA − RT

 E٧J ٥F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 150Ω ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 330Ω ‫א‬

R A = 330Ω


 RX

 KE٧J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠J ٥F


- ٧٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬ 330Ω ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R AR X
RT =
RA + RX

330R X
150 =
330 + R X

150(330 + R X ) = 330R X

150 * 330 = 330R X − 150R X

150 * 330
∴R X = = 275Ω
180

 E٨J ٥F
 KE١١J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
10mA 

+ 
VS R 1 = 220Ω R 2 = 560Ω R 3 = 1kΩ




 KE٨J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ٥F
 ‫א‬
 R T ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT =
R 1R 2 + R 1R 3 + R 2 R 3

- ٧٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

220 ∗ 560 ∗ 1000


RT = = 136Ω
220 ∗ 560 + 220 ∗ 1000 + 560 ∗ 1000
∴ V = IT * R T = 10mA * 136Ω = 1.36V

E٩J ٥F
  ‫א‬،1kΩ ‫א‬ R 3 = 680Ω ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K IT = 10mA
 ‫א‬
 W R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT =
R 1R 2 + R 1R 3 + R 2 R 3

220 ∗ 560 ∗ 680


RT = = 128Ω
220 ∗ 560 + 220 ∗ 680 + 560 ∗ 680

∴ V = I T * R T = 10mA * 128Ω = 1.28V

 Current Division in Parallel Circuits‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF٦J ٥


،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬KBranches‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬Current Divider Law‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
W‫א‬،E١٢J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٧٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

I1 R1 

I2 R2

+ VS −

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٥F

 W I ‫א‬ I1 , I 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V = I*RT E١٩J ٥F

V = I1 * R 1 (٢٠J ٥F

V = I2 * R 2 E٢١J ٥F

 W،‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٠J ٥F‫א‬E١٩J ٥F‫א‬

I * R T = I1 * R 1 E٢٢J ٥F

RT
I1 = I E٢٣J ٥F
R1

 W،‫א‬‫א‬،E٢١J ٥FE١٩J ٥F‫א‬


RT
I2 = I E٢٤J ٥F
R2

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Node ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

RT
IX = I E٢٥J ٥F
RX
 K X = 1,2,3,K, n W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W RT
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W RX
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ X ‫א‬ X ‫א‬‫א‬ W IX
 K‫א‬

- ٨١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١٠J ٥F
 KE١٣J ٥F‫א‬Branch‫א‬
I1 R1 = 680Ω 


I2 R 2 = 330Ω

I3 R 3 = 220Ω

10A

 KE١٠J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣J ٥F

 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 10A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬
R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT =
R 1R 2 + R 1R 3 + R 2 R 3

680 ∗ 330 ∗ 220


RT = = 111Ω
680 ∗ 330 + 680 ∗ 220 + 330 ∗ 220

RT 111
I1 = I T = 10 ∗ = 1.63A
R1 680

RT 111
I2 = IT = 10 ∗ = 3.36A
R2 330

RT 111
I3 = IT = 10 ∗ = 5.05A
R3 220

- ٨٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W I 3 ‫א‬ I1 , I 2 

I T = I1 + I 2 + I 3

10 = 1.63 + 3.36 + I 3

I 3 = 10 − (1.63 + 3.36)

∴ I 3 = 5.05A

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


K I1 = 1.63A  R1 = 680Ω ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬K I3 = 5.05A  R 3 = 220Ω ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

- ٨٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
IT  W

I1 I2

R1 R2 


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤J ٥F

WE٥J ٥F‫א‬E٢٣J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬
RT
I1 = I T E٢٣J ٥F
R1
 
R 1R 2
RT = E٥J ٥F
R1 + R 2

 WE٢٣J ٥F‫א‬ R T 


R1
I1 = I T E٢٦J ٥F
R1 + R 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬ I 2 
R2
I2 = IT E٢٧J ٥F
R1 + R 2

 I1 , I 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧J ٥F،E٢٦J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬ I1 , I 2 , I 3 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ R1, R 2 , R 3 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٨٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 



I1 R1


I2 R2


I3 R3 


IT 

+ VS −


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥J ٥F

 W‫א‬ R1 ‫א‬‫א‬ I1 ‫א‬
RT
I1 = IT E٢٣J ٥F
R1
 ‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬
R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT = E٢٨J ٥F
R1R 2 + R1R 3 + R 2 R 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬ R T 
R2 ∗ R3
I1 = IT . E٢٩J ٥F
R1R 2 + R1R 3 + R 2 R 3
 W I 2 , I 3 

R1 ∗ R 3
I2 = IT . E٣٠J ٥F
R 1R 2 + R 1R 3 + R 2 R 3

R1 ∗ R 2
I3 = IT . E٣١J ٥F
R 1R 2 + R 1R 3 + R 2 R 3

- ٨٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Power in Parallel Circuits‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٥


 WE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ PT ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
PT = P1 + P2 + P3 + K + Pn E٣٢J ٥F

IT 

I2

I1 I3 In

PT R1 R2 R3 Rn
P1 P2 P3 Pn 


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٥F

V2
PT = V.I = I T2 .R T = E٣٣J ٥F
RT
 W‫א‬

P1 = I12 .R 1 E٣٤J ٥F

P2 = I 22 .R 2 E٣٥J ٥F

P3 = I 32 .R 3 E٣٧J ٥F

PT = P1 + P2 + P3 E٣٨J ٥F

 KWatt‫א‬

- ٨٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١١J ٥F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬



R 1 = 68 Ω R 2 = 33 Ω R 3 = 22Ω



 KE١١J ٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٥F
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬

R1 ∗ R 2 ∗ R 3
RT =
R 1R 2 + R 1R 3 + R 2 R 3

68 ∗ 33 ∗ 22
= = 11.1Ω
68 * 33 + 68 * 22 + 33 * 22

Q PT = I T2 .R T

= (2) 2 * 11.1 = 44.4W

∴ PT = 44.4W

‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

VS = I.R T = 2 * 11.1 = 22.2V

VS2 (22.2) 2
P1 = = = 7.25W
R1 68

- ٨٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

VS2 (22.2) 2
P2 = = = 14.9 W
R2 33

VS2 (22.2) 2
P3 = = = 22.4W
R3 22

Q PT = P1 + P2 + P3

= 7.25 + 14.9 + 22.4

∴ PT = 44.6W

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬‫א‬‫א‬













- ٨٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F
 ‫א‬EF‫א‬EF
 EF‫א‬EF

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 100Ω ‫א‬1.2kΩ ‫א‬E٢F
  R T ‫א‬
 1.2kΩ 100Ω EF1.2kΩ EF
 90Ω EEF 90Ω 100Ω EF

 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 68Ω ، 270Ω  330Ω E٣F
 47Ω EF 668Ω EF
 22Ω EF 68Ω EF

،1kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 1kΩ EF 8kΩ EF
  500Ω EF1kΩ EF

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F
 EFEF
 ‫א‬‫א‬EFEF
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F
 EF‫א‬‫א‬EF
 EFEF

- ٨٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

K 3A ‫א‬، 5A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧F


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 EF 2A EF
 K‫א‬EF 8A EF

 ‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 390 Ω, 560 Ω, 820 Ω ‫א‬‫א‬E٨F
 
 560Ω EF 390Ω EF
 K‫א‬EF 820Ω EF

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩F
 ‫א‬EFEF
 EFEF‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،1W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١F
 4W EF1W EF
 16W EF 0.25W EF

- ٩٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٦
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫• א‬

- ٩١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

   ١J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٦
 E١J ٦F
 KE١J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R٢ 
R١ 
R٣ 

R٦ R٥ R٤ 






 KE١J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١J ٦F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ R 1 , R 7 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 R T = R1 + R 2 // R 3 + R 4 // R 5 // R 6 + R 7 + R 8 // R 9
 W

- ٩٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

R 2R 3 R 4R 5R 6 R 8R 9
 R T = R1 + + + R7 +
R 2 + R 3 R 4R 5 + R 4R 6 + R 5R 6 R8 + R9
 E٢J ٦F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R1

IT A
+
I3 I2 
VS R3 R2 
− R4 
IT B

 KE٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢J ٦F
 ‫א‬
 R1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬، R 2 ،  A ‫א‬
 R1, R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬K R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬ B ‫א‬
‫א‬، R 2 // R 3 
 ،‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 , R 3 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 W R T ‫א‬

 R T = R1 + R 2 // R 3 + R 4
 E٣J ٦F
KE٣J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


R1 


+ R2 R3

VS


R4 R5 


 KE٣J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣J ٦F
 ‫א‬
 KE٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R1 


+ R2 R3

VS


R5

R4 


 KE٣J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٦F
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬ R T ‫א‬
 R T = R1 + R 2 // R 3 + R 4 // R 5R T1

- ٩٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٤J ٦F
 KE٥J ٦F‫א‬ A, D ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R2 R3  
R1

A

R4
R6 
D 
R5

 KE٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٦F

- ٩٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬ R 2 , R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T1 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(R 2 + R 3 ) ⋅ R 4
 R T1 =
(R 2 + R 3 ) + R 4

 KE٦J ٦F R 5 ‫א‬‫א‬ R T1 ‫א‬‫א‬

A 
R1 R T1

R6

R5 
D 
 KE٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٦F

 W‫א‬‫א‬ D, A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 R T = R1 + R 6 //(R T1 + R 5 )
 E٥J ٦F
 K A, B, C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٧J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
B 

R2 R1 


A C 
R3

 KE٥J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ٦F

- ٩٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ R 1 , R 3   A, B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W R T ‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬
R 2 * (R 1 + R 3 )
 R TAB =
R 2 + (R 1 + R 3 )
 W B, C  A, C ‫א‬‫א‬
(R 1 + R 2 ) * R 3
R TAC =
(R 1 + R 2 ) + R 3
(R 2 + R 3 ) * R 1
 R TBC =
(R 2 + R 3 ) + R 1
 Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ♦
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ♦
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ♦
 E٦J ٦F
 KE٨J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R 2 = 47Ω R 3 = 47Ω
A B
R 4 = 68Ω 
R 1 = 100Ω R 6 = 75Ω
+
VS
R 5 = 39Ω

 KE٦J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨J ٦F

- ٩٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 , R 3 ‫א‬
 R T2,3 = 47 + 47 = 94Ω
 R 6 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 4 , R 5  ‫א‬‫א‬
 W
68 * 39
 R T4,5, 6 = + 75 = 99.8Ω
68 + 39

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 99.8Ω , 94Ω ‫א‬

99.8 * 94
 R TA , B = = 48.41Ω
99.8 + 94
94Ω 
A B

100Ω
+ 99.8Ω 
VS 


 KE٦J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٦F

∴ R AB = 48.41Ω

 ∴ R T = 100Ω + 48.41Ω = 148.41Ω


 E٧J ٦F
 KE١٠J ٦F R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ٩٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 



IT R1 = 1kΩ 

I2 I3
+ R 2 = 2 .2 k Ω R 3 = 3.3kΩ
VS = 22V

 KE٧J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠J ٦F


 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  R 3 ‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K A ‫א‬‫א‬
 K R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R 2R 3
R T = R1 +
R2 + R3

(2.2kΩ)(3.3kΩ)
R T = 1kΩ +
2.2kΩ + 3.3kΩ
∴ R T = 1kΩ + 1.32kΩ = 2.32kΩ

∴ R T = 2.32kΩ

VS 22V
 IT = = = 9.48mA
R T 2.32kΩ

 ‫א‬‫א‬

3.3kΩ
I 2 = 9.48mA * = 5.69mA
5.5kΩ

2 .2 k Ω
I 3 = 9.48mA * = 3.79mA
5 .5 k Ω

- ٩٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٨J ٦F
  VS = 50V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I2 
I1
R2 
+ R1
330Ω A 
VS = 50V 560Ω
I3 I4 

R3 R4
330Ω 560Ω

 KE٨J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ٦F


 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، 50V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K R 3 , R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R1 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬ R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬ I 4 ‫א‬
 K R 2 , R 3 , R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K R 2 , R 3 , R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I 2 W
 K‫א‬ I 4 ‫א‬ A ‫א‬ I 2 W

R T2,3, 4 = R 2 + R 3 // R 4

R 3R 4
= R2 +
R3 + R4

330 * 560
= 330 + = 538Ω
330 + 560

∴ R T2,3, 4 = 538Ω

50
I2 = = 93mA
538

- ١٠٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

⎛ R3 ⎞
I 4 = I 2 ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 34.5mA
⎝ R3 + R4 ⎠

 ∴ I 4 = 34.5mA
Voltage Drops in Series-Parallel Circuits‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٤J ٦
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٩J ٦F
‫א‬،E١٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K R1 ‫א‬‫א‬

R1 = 150Ω 

A

+ R 2 = 560 Ω R 3 = 560 Ω 
VS = 80V

− B


 KE٩J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٦F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 , R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W
560 * 560
 R T2,3 = = 280Ω
560 + 560

- ١٠١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1
 R TAG = (560) = 280Ω
2

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، R1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 280Ω ‫א‬



R1 = 150Ω
A 

+ 280Ω 
VS = 80V 
− 
B

 KE٩J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣J ٦F

 W R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 R T = 150 + 280 = 430Ω
  VAG ‫א‬‫א‬
⎛ R AG ⎞
 VAG = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VS
⎝ RT ⎠

 K‫א‬‫א‬ R AG 
 VAG = ⎛⎜
280 ⎞
⎟ * 80 = 52.1V
⎝ 430 ⎠
  R1 ‫א‬‫א‬

 VS = V1 + VAG
V1 = VS − VAG

 = 80 - 52.1 = 27.9V

- ١٠٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ∴ V1 = 27.9V
 E١٠J ٦F
 KE١٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R1 = 1kΩ  

IT = 1mA I1

I2
+ 
VS R 2 = 2 .2 k Ω 
− I3 R 4 = 1.5kΩ

I4
R 3 = 3.9kΩ R 5 = 560Ω 


 KE١٠J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤J ٦F
 ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ R1 ‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬ R1, R 2 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬

⎛ R2 ⎞
I1 = I T ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ R1 + R 2 ⎠

⎛ 2 .2 k Ω ⎞
= 1mA⎜ ⎟ = 688µA
⎝ 1kΩ + 2.2kΩ ⎠

 ∴ I1 = 688µA
  R1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 V1 = I1 .R 1 = 688µA * 1kΩ

 V1 = 688mV ∴
- ١٠٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬ R 3 ‫א‬ I 3 ‫א‬

⎛ R4 + R5 ⎞
 I3 = IT ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
R
⎝ 3 + ( R 4 + R )
5 ⎠

 W‫א‬ I T 
 I3 = 346µA
 W R 3 , R 4 , R 5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V3 = I 3 .R 3 = (346µA)(3.9kΩ)

 ∴ V3 = 1.35V
 W، R 4 ‫א‬‫א‬ V4 

 I 4 = I5 = IT − I3

 = 1mA - 346µA

 = 1mA - 0.346mA

 ∴ I 4 = 0.654mA

 V4 = (0.654mA)(1.5kΩ) = 0.981V

 ∴ V4 = 981mV

 V5 = I 5 * R 5 = 366mV

- ١٠٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١١J ٦F
 KE١٥J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
R 1 = 3.3kΩ 
A B 
+ R 3 = 1kΩ 
VS = 8V R 2 = 6.2kΩ C 
− 
R 5 = 680Ω

R 4 = 1kΩ 
R 6 = 390Ω

D 
 KE١١J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥J ٦F
 ‫א‬
،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١٥J ٦F‫א‬
 W A, B ‫א‬‫א‬RAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R1R 2
 R AB = = 2.15kΩ
R1 + R 2

 W C, D ‫א‬‫א‬RCD‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R 4 (R 5 + R 6 )
 R CD = = 517Ω
R 4 + R5 + R6

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٦J ٦F

- ١٠٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


R AB = 2.15kΩ


+ R 3 = 1kΩ 
VS = 8V 
− R CD = 517Ω 

 KE١١J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٦J ٦F

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

⎛R ⎞
VAB = ⎜⎜ AB ⎟⎟VS = 4.69V
⎝ RT ⎠

⎛R ⎞
VCD = ⎜⎜ CD ⎟⎟VS = 1.13V
⎝ RT ⎠

⎛R ⎞
V3 = ⎜⎜ 3 ⎟⎟VS = 2.18V
⎝ RT ⎠
 W‫א‬‫א‬

⎛ R AB ⎞
 VAB = V1 = V2 = 4.69V⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VS = 4.69V
⎝ RT ⎠
 K (R 5 + R 6 ) ‫א‬‫א‬ R 4 ‫א‬ VCD ‫א‬

⎛ R5 ⎞
V5 = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VCD = 718mV
⎝ R5 + R6 ⎠

⎛ R6 ⎞
V6 = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VCD = 412mV
⎝ R5 + R6 ⎠

- ١٠٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١٢J ٦F
 KE١٧J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

IT Rc 
A B
Ra
VS RL
Rb Rd
 

C D

 KE١٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٦F
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 K R d // R L ‫א‬‫א‬ R d , R L 
  R C + R d // R L  R C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ R b ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ 
 
 R b //[R C + (R d // R L )]
‫א‬، R a  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 R T = R a + R b //[R C + (R d // R L )]

- ١٠٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R T ‫א‬‫א‬




IT
A 
Ib Ic 
Ra
Rc
B 
+

VS Rb Rd RL
− Id IL 
C 

D

 KE١٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨J ٦F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

Ia = IT

IT = Ib + IC

 IC = Id + IL
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ D‫א‬
 W I T ‫א‬

 IT = I b + Id + I L

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬٥J ٦
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬

- ١٠٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣J ٦F
 E١٣J ٦F
 W‫؟‬‫א‬،E١٨J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 V1 = 12V, V2 = 8V, V3 = 8V, V4 = 5V 

R1


+ 
R2 R3
VS

− R4 

 KE١٢J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩J ٦F
 ‫א‬
 VS ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W

VS = V1 + V2 + V4

= 12 + 8 + 5 = 25V
 E١٤J ٦F
 KE٢٠J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R 3 = 50Ω R 5 = 50Ω 

R 2 = 100Ω R 4 = 100Ω R 6 = 100Ω R 7 = 100Ω

R1 = 50Ω

- ١٠٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 KE١٤J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠J ٦F


 ‫א‬

Q R 6 // R 7

100 * 100
 ∴ R 6, 7 = = 50Ω
100 + 100
 W‫א‬ R 6,7 ‫א‬‫א‬ R 5

R 5 + R 6,7 = 50 + 50 = 100Ω

 R 4 //( R 5 + R 6 // R 7 ) = 100 // 100 = 50Ω

 K‫א‬‫א‬ R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 R 3 + R 4 //( R 5 + R 6 // R 7 ) = 50 + 50 = 100Ω
 W، R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

100 * 100
 R 2 //[R 3 + R 4 //(R 5 + R 6 // R 7 )] = = 50Ω
100 + 100

  R T ‫א‬ R1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 R T = 50 + 50 = 100Ω
 E١٥J ٦F
 W، VS  V4 = 28.2V ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 R 1 = 2.7kΩ, R 2 = 2.2kΩ, R 3 = 5.6kΩ, R 4 = 10kΩ, R 5 = 15kΩ, R 6 = 820Ω


R1 
IT

- ١١٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


I1
I2 IT 
+
VS R2 I3 I5
I4

R3 R4 R5

R6 IT

 KE١٥J ٦F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢١J ٦F
 ‫א‬
 W،‫א‬

 I T = I3 + I 4 + I 5
، R 3 , R 4 , R 5 ‫א‬ ‫א‬ V4 = 28.2V 
W I 3 , I 4 , I 5 ‫א‬‫א‬

28.2
I4 = = 2.82mA
10k

28.2
I5 = = 1.88mA
15k

28.2
I3 = = 5.04mA
5 .6 k
∴ I T = 5.04mA + 1.88mA + 2.82mA = 9.74mA

 R eq ‫א‬‫א‬ I T 


 W I T  R 3 , R 4 , R 5 
V4
 IT =
R eq

 W
- ١١١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

R 3R 4 R 5
R eq = = 2.896kΩ
R 3 R 4 ,+ R 3 R 5 + R 4 R 5

28.2
 ∴IT = = 9.74mA
2.896 * 10 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬
  R1 // R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

V1 = V2 = I T (R 1 // R 2 )

R 1R 2
 = IT ( )
R1 + R 2

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 V1 = V2 = 11.8V
  R 6 ‫א‬‫א‬

V6 = I T .R 6 = 9.74 * 10 −3 * 0.82 * 10 3

 ∴ V6 = 7.99V
  VS ‫א‬

VS = V1 + V4 + V6

 = 11.8 + 28.2 + 7.99 = 48V

 ∴ VS = 48V
‫א‬‫א‬ VS E١F
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 VS ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ VS E٢FKW
 W‫א‬

 VS = IT * R T
Summary‫א‬
- ١١٢ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬–‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١F
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣F
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F
⎛ RX ⎞
 VX = VS ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
R
⎝ T⎠

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W R X 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W VX 
 ‫א‬W VS 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W R T 

‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E٥F
 K
 ‫א‬Common Reference Point

- ١١٣ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١

R1 R2

A B
R3 R4 R5 

 R 3 , R 4 , R 5 ‫א‬‫א‬ R1 , R 2 EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬ R1, R 2 EF
 ‫א‬‫א‬ R 3 , R 4 , R 5 EF
  R 3 , R 4 , R 5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R1, R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬EF
 EF،EF‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬، R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٢
 R1 + R 2 + R 3 // R 4 // R 5 EF
 R1 // R 2 + R 3 // R 4 // R 5 EF
 (R1 + R 2 ) //(R 3 + R 4 + R 5 ) EF
 EF

‫א‬ A, B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٣
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 R 3 , R 4 , R 5 EF R 5 EF
 ‫א‬EF R1, R 2 EF

- ١١٤ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

1kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٤
‫א‬‫א‬، 2.2kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 ،٦V1kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬

V1 = 6V 1kΩ

1kΩ
2.2kΩ

 
 : 2.2kΩ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣VEF٦VEF
 ١٣{٢VEF ١٢VEF

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، 330Ω,470Ω ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–٥
100V ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1kΩ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


1kΩ

330Ω 1kΩ

1kΩ 
470Ω 1kΩ 

100V

- ١١٥ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
   470Ω EF 330Ω EF1kΩ EF

 ‫א‬،E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٦
  470Ω EF 330Ω EF1kΩ EF

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٥F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
 W1kΩ
٣١{٣٪ EF ٥٠٪EF ٢٥٪EF١٠٠٪EF

‫א‬F‫א‬٩V‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، E‫א‬‫א‬
 EF ‫א‬EF EFEF

F10kΩ ‫א‬J ٩
 W‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬

10kΩ
+
V2

10kΩ
output

- ١١٦ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

1MΩ EFK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬


 10kΩ EF 100kΩ EF 20kΩ EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠
‫א‬‫א‬EF EF EFEF

- ١١٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K١

R1 = 56Ω


+ 
R 2 = 100Ω R 3 = 100Ω
VS = 1.5V


R 4 = 27Ω 

(a ) 

R1

+
680Ω 
VS = 3V
− 
R2 R3 R4
680Ω

330Ω 180Ω


(b)


R 2 = 6 .2 k Ω


+ R 3 = 3.3kΩ

R 1 = 1kΩ 5V
R 4 = 10kΩ 


R 5 = 5.6kΩ

 
(c)
- ١١٨ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٢

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬K٣
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R 2 = 1kΩ 

− 
1V R 1 = 1kΩ R 3 = 2.2kΩ R 4 = 3.3kΩ
+

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K٤
 4.7 kΩ
A B

10kΩ
5 .6 k Ω
+
100V C
E
− 1kΩ
1.8kΩ
F D
1kΩ

 W‫א‬‫א‬ (A, B) ‫א‬‫א‬J ٥



R1 = 1kΩ R 2 = 330Ω

+ R 3 = 470Ω R 5 = 1kΩ R 6 = 1.5kΩ


A B
100V
R 4 = 560Ω R 7 = 680Ω
− R 8 = 100Ω

- ١١٩ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٦

P = 20 W R2 
4A R1 P = 2W
20V
+ 5V
R3 R4 R5 R6 1V
40V
− 1A R8

R7 
1A


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٧
‫א‬، R L = 10kΩ ‫א‬KE (A, B) ‫א‬FNo Load‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


+ R 1 = 10kΩ

22V A

− R 2 = 5 .6 k Ω

RL
R 3 = 2 .7 k Ω

B

 W‫א‬‫א‬J ٨
  R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 I T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
  910Ω ‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K VA , VB  A, B ‫א‬EF
- ١٢٠ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


+ 56Ω 56Ω

60V
910Ω 


560kΩ 
1kΩ 1kΩ
560kΩ

A 1kΩ B 1kΩ

 WLadder Network‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ٩
 R T ‫א‬‫א‬EF
 VA ،A‫א‬‫א‬EF
 VB ،B‫א‬‫א‬
R 3 = 1kΩ 
R 1 = 5 .6 k Ω R 5 = 1kΩ
A B


R 2 = 2.2kΩ R 4 = 2 .2 k Ω R 6 = 1kΩ
18V 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ A, B ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١٠
 W‫א‬

- ١٢١ -
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


R1 = 100Ω R 3 = 220Ω 
R 5 = 100Ω
A
IT I2 I3 I4 I5
+
R 2 = 820Ω 
R 4 = 820Ω R 6 = 680Ω
− 
R 9 = 100Ω

B
IT R 8 = 220Ω R 7 = 100Ω 
‫א‬‫א‬١٠‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ١١
 ‫؟‬ VS = 10V ،١٠V A, B ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬J ١٢
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 R 1 = 10kΩ, R 2 = 20kΩ, R 3 = 60kΩ, R 4 = 15kΩ, R 5 = 5kΩ
 

R3 A R5

+
R2
100V
VA R4 VC
B −
R١ VB

C 

- ١٢٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ã¹]<gè…‚jÖ]æ<ËÖ]<Üé×Ãj×Ö<íÚ^ÃÖ]<퉉ö¹]
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

١ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

٧
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

- ١٢٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

Introduction  ١J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE٢J  F ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٧
Voltage Source‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،Current Source
Constant Voltage Source ‫א‬‫א‬ ١J ٢J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R S ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١J ٧F

+ RS
VS 
RL 



 E١J ٧F

 R S 
 ،Ideal Voltage Source ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬

R L >> R S E١J ٧F

- ١٢٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 Constant Current Source  ٢J ٢J ٧


 R S ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٢J ٧F،
A 

iS A RS 

B 
 EJ ٢J ٧F

A 

iS A RS RL 

 B

 EJ ٢J ٧F

 R S ،Ideal Current Source  ‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬

 R S 〉〉 R L E٢J ٧F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

?Source Conversions " ‫א‬ ٣J ٢J ٧


   ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬E٣J ٧F‫א‬

- ١٢٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


A 
A
+ RS iL i L
VS

RL ≡ iS I RS RL



B B 
 KE٣J ٧F

 W IL ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

VS
IL = E٣J ٧F
RS + R L

 KW IL ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

⎛ RS ⎞
I L = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟iS E٤J ٧F
R
⎝ S + R L⎠

 WE٤J ٧FE٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬

 VS = R S ⋅ i S E٥J ٧F

- ١٢٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١J ٧F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(a )R L = 100Ω  (b)R L = 560Ω  (c)R L = 1KΩ
A

iL

iS
I RS RL 
1A
10kΩ 
B 
 KE١J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤J ٧F
 ‫א‬
 R L = 100Ω 
 IL ،E٣J ٧F

⎛ RS ⎞
I L = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟iS
⎝ RS + R L ⎠

⎛ 10kΩ ⎞
IL = ⎜ ⎟ * 1 = 990mA = 0.99A
⎝ 10.1kΩ ⎠

 W، R L = 560Ω 

⎛ 10kΩ ⎞
IL = ⎜ ⎟ *1 = 0.947A
⎝ 10.56kΩ ⎠

 IL  R L = 1KΩ 

⎛ 10kΩ ⎞
IL = ⎜ ⎟ * 1 = 0.909A
⎝ 11kΩ ⎠

 R L  iS ٪١٠ I L ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R S ‫א‬

- ١٢٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٢J ٧F
 K IL = 750mA ‫א‬ R L ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

A 
iL 

i S = 1A I R S = 10kΩ RL


B

 KE٢J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥J ٧F
 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬،E٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬
⎛ RS ⎞
I L = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟iS
R
⎝ S + R L⎠

 W‫א‬ iS ، R S ‫א‬

0.75(10 + R L ) = 10

7.5 + 0.75R L = 10

0.75R L = 2.5
2.5
RL = = 3.33kΩ
0.75

- ١٢٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٣J ٧F
 K‫א‬E٦J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
A 
+ R S = 50Ω 
VS = 100V



B 
 KE٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٧F
 ‫א‬
VS 100
iS = = = 2A
R S 50

- ١٢٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W،E٧J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
A 

i S = 2A I  R S = 50Ω

B 
 KE٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٧J ٧F
Superposition Theorem ‫א‬ ٣J ٧
?‫?א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
  R S ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ♦
 KShort Circuit‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬، R S ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ♦
Open-Circuit‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E٨J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

- ١٣٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


R١ R2
a 
+ + 
VS1 VS2 
R3
− −


b
 K‫א‬E٨J ٧F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E R 3  ‫א‬Fab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
، I1 ‫א‬‫א‬،E٩J ٧F‫א‬
،‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I 2
‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬


I1 I2
a a 
+ R١ R2 R١ +

+
R2
VS1 VS2
R3 R3


b b 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٩J ٧F

- ١٣١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٤J ٧F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬

a
 

R1 = 100Ω R 3 = 100Ω

+
+ 
10V
R 2 = 100Ω 5V
− 


b 
 KE٤J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٠J ٧F
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١١J ٧F١٠ V‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

a
+ R1 = 100Ω R 3 = 100Ω
10V
R 2 = 100Ω

b
 KE٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠ V‫א‬‫א‬E١١J ٧F
 W‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬

R2 * R3
RT = + R1
R2 + R3

100 * 100
RT = + 100 = 150Ω
100 + 100

VS 10
IT = = = 66.7mA
R T 150

- ١٣٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

100
Iab = 66.7 * = 33.3mA
100 + 100

KE١٢J ٧F٥ V‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬




a

R1 = 100Ω R 3 = 100Ω
+ 
R 2 = 100Ω 5V 


b 
 KE٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥ V‫א‬‫א‬E١٢J ٧F

 W R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R 1R 2
RT = R3 +
R + R 21

100 * 100
R T = 100 + = 150Ω
100 + 100

VS 5
IT = = = 33.3mA
R T 150

 Wab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
⎛ R1 ⎞
I ab = I T ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ R1 + R 2 ⎠
100
I ab = 33.3 * = 16.7 mA
100 + 100

- ١٣٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬

ITab = 33.3 + 16.7 = 50mA

 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E٥J ٧F
 KE١٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
a 
+ R1 = 220Ω
10V
R 2 = 100Ω A i S = 100mA

b
 KE٥J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٣J ٧F
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٤J ٧F١٠ V‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
a

+ R 1 = 220Ω

10V
R 2 = 100Ω 



b
 KE٥J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٤J ٧F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W R T ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R T = 220 + 100 = 320Ω

10
iT = i ↓R2 = = 31.2mA
320
- ١٣٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 K 31.2mA 10V ‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬∴ 


KE١٥J ٧F١٠٠ mA‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

a 
R1 = 220Ω 

R 2 = 100Ω A i S = 100mA


b 
 KE٥J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٥J ٧F

 W‫א‬‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬

⎛ 220 ⎞
i ↓ R = iS ⎜ ⎟
2
⎝ 220 + 100 ⎠

‫א‬ i s ،‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ i ↓ R 2 


 W‫א‬،‫א‬
⎛ 220 ⎞
i ↓ R 2 = 100⎜ ⎟ = 68.8mA
⎝ 320 ⎠

∴ i ↓ R 2 = 68.8mA

 K 68.8mA ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬ R 2 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
i = 31.2 + 68.8 = 100mA

- ١٣٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 Thevinen's Theorem ٤J ٧
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 KThevinen's TheoremEF
 R Th ‫א‬‫א‬ VTh ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE١٦J ٧F

R Th
A

VTh 
I r


B
 K??‫א‬E١٦J ٧F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R Th ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ r ‫א‬‫א‬ I ‫א‬
VTh
I= E٦J ٧F
R Th + r
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١
 K VTh ‫א‬
EZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٢
F R Th ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Short Circuit‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R Th 

- ١٣٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 R Th ‫א‬‫א‬ VTh E‫א‬F E٣


‫א‬‫א‬KE١٦J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VTh
I=
R Th + r

KComplex Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬Output‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬Open E١
K VTh ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٢
K‫א‬‫א‬ R Th 
Series Circuit‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F E٣
K‫א‬ R L  R Th ، VTh 
 E٦J ٧F
 K‫א‬a،b‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
a
+ R 1 = 4Ω R 2 = 8Ω
+
10V
R 3 = 6Ω 5V

b

 KE٦J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٧J ٧F

- ١٣٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
‫א‬Open‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K VTh b،a‫א‬
a

+ R 1 = 4Ω R 2 = 8Ω
+ 
10V
5V 

I − 

b
 Kab‫א‬E٦J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٨J ٧F
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

10 − 5 = I(4 + 8)

10 − 5 5
∴I = = A
12 12
 W‫א‬‫א‬ Va 
∴ Va = 10 − I * 4
5
Va = 10 − * 4 = 8.33V
12
∴ VTh = 8.33V

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬a‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٥V  ‫א‬‫א‬a
 W Va ‫א‬
Va = 5 + I * 8

8
Va = 5 + *8
12

Va = 5 + 3.33 ≈ 8.33V

- ١٣٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ Va ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬Short R Th W‫א‬‫א‬

R Th = R ab

 KE١٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R 1 = 4Ω R 2 = 8Ω

a

b 

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٦J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E١٩J ٧F
 KE٢٠J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

R 1 = 4Ω R 2 = 8Ω
a


b


 KE١٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٠J ٧F

 WRTH‫א‬

4*8
∴ R Th = R ab = = 2.66Ω
4+8

- ١٣٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 KE٢١J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
R Th = 2.66Ω 
A 

VTh = 8.33V
I 6Ω 

B 
 KE٦J ٧FE٢١J ٧F

 Wab‫א‬‫א‬
VTh 8.33
I ab = = = 0.96A
R Th + 6Ω 2.66 + 6

 E٧J ٧F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 KE٢٢J ٧F، E1 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
IT١

a

+ R 1 = 4Ω R 2 = 8Ω

10V
Iab١ R 3 = 6Ω 



b

 KE٧J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١٠ V‫א‬‫א‬E٢٢J ٧F

 WIab١‫א‬

- ١٤٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

8*6
RT = 4 + = 7.43Ω
8+6
10
i T1 = = 1.345A
7.43
8
i ab1 = 1.345 * = 0.77 A
8+6

 KE٢٣J ٧F، E 2 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

IT٢
a 
R 1 = 4Ω R 2 = 8Ω 
+
Iab٢ R 3 = 6Ω 5V 
− 

b

 KE٧J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٥ V‫א‬‫א‬E٢٣J ٧F

 WIab٢‫א‬
4*6
RT = 8 + = 10.4Ω
4+6
5
iT = = 0.48A
10.4
4
i ab = 0.48 * = 0.192A
4+6

،‫א‬ab‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

i ab = 0.77 + 0.192 = 0.962A

 K 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E٨J ٧F
 W‫א‬E٢٤J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬EF
 KEF
12kΩ 
a

 
R L = 8kΩ
2mA I   10kΩ 

b 
 KE٨J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢٤J ٧F
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬12KΩ ، 8KΩ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K10KΩ ‫א‬‫א‬
10
∴i ↓ = 2 *
RL 10 + 20

1 2
i ↓ = 2 * = mA
RL 3 3

- ١٤٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 K‫א‬W 
 KEJ ٢٥J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬ VTh  R L ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

12kΩ
a 
I=0

VTh

2mA I 10kΩ
⇐ 

b

 KRLE٨J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٢٥J ٧F

∴ VTh = 2mA * 10KΩ = 20V

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEJ ٢٥J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E F

12kΩ
a 
I=0 
R Th
open 10kΩ
⇐ 


b

 K‫א‬E٨J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ ٢٥J ٧F

 WRTh

∴ R Th = 10 + 12 = 22KΩ

 KE٢٦J ٧FW‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


R Th = 22kΩ 
A 

VTh = 20V
I R L = 8kΩ 


B

 KE٨J ٧FE٢٦J ٧F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
VTh
∴I =
R TH + R L
20 20V 2
I= = = mA
22 + 8 30KΩ 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ١J ٤J ٧
،Bridge Circuit‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬Thevinen's Theorem،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
B،A‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬،E٢٧J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬
 K R L ‫א‬D،COutput‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬D،C‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
KSource‫א‬‫א‬B،A‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

A

R1 R2 

RL
VS C D 

R 3 R4

 B

 K‫א‬‫א‬E٢٧J ٧F
 E٩J ٧F
 W‫א‬،E٢٨J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KD،C‫א‬ R L ‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K R L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 A

R 3 = 330Ω R 2 = 680Ω

R L = 1kΩ 
VS = 24V C D 

R 3 = 680Ω R 4 = 560Ω


B

 KE٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬E٢٨J ٧F

- ١٤٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬D،C‫א‬ R L ‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W VTh D،C

VTh = VC − VD

⎛ R3 ⎞ ⎛ R4 ⎞
VTh = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VS − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟VS E٧J ٧F
R
⎝ 1 + R 3⎠ R
⎝ 2 + R 4⎠

،K ‫א‬‫א‬ R L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 KE٢٩J ٧F
 W

 VC = I1R 3
VS
 I1 =
R1 + R 3

 VD = I 2 R 4
VS
 I2 =
R2 + R4


I1 I2

R 1 = 330Ω R 2 = 680Ω
+
24V
C VTh D


R 3 = 680Ω R 4 = 560Ω
VC VD 


 KRL‫א‬E٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬E٢٩J ٧F
- ١٤٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 WVTh

⎛ 680 ⎞ ⎛ 560 ⎞
∴ VTh = ⎜ ⎟ * 24 − ⎜ ⎟ * 24
⎝ 330 + 680 ⎠ ⎝ 680 + 560 ⎠

VTh = 16.158 − 10.838 = 5.32V

 R Th ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬


 KE٣٠J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬D،C‫א‬‫א‬
R1

A
C
R3
R Th

R2 ⇐
B R4 D

 KE٩J ٧FRTh‫א‬E٣٠J ٧F


 WRTh

R 1R 3 R 2R 4
∴ R Th = + E٨J ٧F
R1 + R 3 R 2 + R 4

330 * 680 680 * 560


R Th = +
330 + 680 680 + 560

R Th = 222.178 + 307.096 = 529.27Ω

 KE٣١J ٧FW‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٤٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


R Th = 529.27Ω
C 

VTh = 5.32V
I R L = 1kΩ 

D 
 KE٩J ٧FE٣١J ٧F

 W،‫א‬CD‫א‬‫א‬

VTh
∴ I CD =
R Th + R L

5.32
I CD = = 3.5mA
529.27 + 1000

 ٣{٥ mACD‫א‬‫א‬‫ ∴א‬

 J ‫א‬–‫א‬ ٥J ٧
E Y ← ∆ F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬١J ٥J ٧
" Conversion From Delta → Star "
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٣٢J ٧F‫א‬ Y ← ∆ ‫א‬
A
A



R1
RC RA 
O 
R2 R3
RB
B C B C

 K Y ↔ ∆ E٣٢J ٧F
- ١٤٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 Kc،b،aC،B،A ∆ ‫א‬
 K٣،٢،١ Y ‫א‬
" Conversion From (Y←∆)" (Y←∆)‫א‬
،E٣٣J ٧F ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬ Y ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

R1
RC RA 
R2 O R3


B  C
RB

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٣J ٧F

‫א‬= Y W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WK ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬
R AR C
R1 = E٩J ٧F
RA + RB + RC
R BR C
R2 = E١٠J ٧F
RA + RB + RC
R CR A
R3 = E١١J ٧F
RA + RB + RC

- ١٤٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

E ∆ ← Y F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٢J ٥J ٧
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R 1R 3
R A = R1 + R 3 + E١٢J ٧F
R2
R 2R 3
RB = R2 + R3 + E١٣J ٧F
R1
R 1R 2
R C = R1 + R 2 + E١٤J ٧F
R3

‫א‬ Y ‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E١٠J ٧F
 K‫א‬ Y ‫א‬E٣٤J ٧F‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬
A


220Ω  560Ω

100Ω
B C
 KE١٠J ٧F‫א‬E٣٤J ٧F
 ‫א‬
،E٣٥J ٧F ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬ Y ‫א‬
 K Y ← ∆ ‫א‬

- ١٥٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 


A 


R1 
100Ω 220Ω


R2 O R3 


B C 
560Ω
 KE١٠J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٥J ٧F

،E١١J ٧FJ E٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 W

100 * 220
R1 = = 25Ω
100 + 220 + 560

100 * 560
R2 = = 63.6Ω
100 + 220 + 560

220 * 560
R3 = = 140Ω
100 + 220 + 560

- ١٥١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 KE٣٦J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬
A 

R 1 = 25Ω 

O
R 2 = 63.5Ω R 3 = 140Ω 

B C

 KE١٠J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٦J ٧F

 E١١J ٧F

 KE٣٧J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬ ∆ ← Y ‫א‬


A 

R 1 = 1kΩ 

O
R 2 = 2.2kΩ R 3 = 5.6kΩ 

B C
 
 KE١١J ٧F‫א‬E٣٧J ٧F

- ١٥٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬
،E٣٨J ٧F، Y ‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬
 K ∆ ← Y ‫א‬
A 


1kΩ 
RB RA

O
2.2kΩ 5 .6 k Ω 

B C
RC
 KE١٢J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٨J ٧F

‫א‬H Y ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬= ∆ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬ Y 
 W،E١٤J ٧FJ E١٢J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬

1 * 5 .6
R A = 1 + 5 .6 + = 9.15KΩ
2.2

1 * 2 .2
R B = 1 + 2.2 + = 3.59KΩ
5 .6

2.2 * 5.6
R C = 2.2 + 5.6 + = 20.12KΩ
1

- ١٥٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

K‫א‬‫א‬ ∆ ← Y  Y ← ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٣J ٥J ٧

 E١٢J ٧F
‫א‬،E٣٩J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K∆ → Y
A 

R 1 = 4.7kΩ R 2 = 3 .9 k Ω

18kΩ 
VS = 120V C D


R 3 = 2 .2 k Ω R 4 = 2 .7 k Ω

 B
 KE١٢J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٣٩J ٧F
 ‫א‬
D، C،A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ Y ‫א‬D،C،B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬
‫א‬D،C،B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤٠J ٧F Y ‫א‬‫א‬

C D
18kΩ R١ R٢
C D


o
R 3 = 2 .2 k Ω R 4 = 2.7kΩ R٣

B B

 KE١٢J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٠J ٧F

- ١٥٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W R 3 ، R 2 ، R1 

18 * 2.2
R1 = = 1.73KΩ
2.2 + 2.7 + 18

2.7 * 18
R2 = = 2.12KΩ
2.2 + 2.7 + 18

2 .2 * 2 .7
R3 = = 0.26KΩ
2.2 + 2.7 + 18

 R 3 ، R 2 ، R1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 WE٤١J ٧F

 
A

R 1 = 4.7 kΩ R 2 = 3 .9 k Ω  

VS = 120V C D 
1.73kΩ 2.12kΩ 
o
0.26kΩ 

B

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤١J ٧F

 WE٤٢J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

A 
I2 
I1
4.7 kΩ 
3 .9 k Ω
+ 
120V C D


1.73kΩ 2.12kΩ 


0.26kΩ

B 
 KE٤١J ٧F‫א‬E٤٢J ٧F

 ‫א‬‫א‬ Υ ‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ R T W
 K I T ‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬ I 2 ، I1 W
 K VC  C ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 K VD  D ‫א‬‫א‬W
 K D ، C ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
VCD = VC − VD
 K R L  VCD ‫א‬‫א‬ CD ‫א‬‫א‬W
VCD
∴ ICD =
RL
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

(4.7 + 1.73) ⋅ (3.9 + 2.12)


RT = + 0.26 ≈ 3.37 KΩ
(4.7 + 1.73) + (3.9 + 2.12)

- ١٥٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

∴ R T = 3.37 KΩ

120
IT ≈ ≈ 35.6mA
3.37

 W‫א‬‫א‬

I1 = I T *
(3.9 + 2.12)
(3.9 + 2.12) + (4.7 + 1.73)
∴ I1 = 17.2mA

I 2 = 18.38mA

VC ≈ 39.18V

VD = 48.32V

 K D ، C ‫א‬‫א‬
∴ VCD = VC − VD

VCD = 39.18 − 48.32 = −9.14V

 C ‫א‬‫א‬ D ‫א‬‫א‬EJ F‫א‬W


 K ICD ‫א‬‫א‬ VD 〉 VC
9.14V
∴ ICD = = 0.507mA
18KΩ

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ٦J ٧
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٥٧ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬Mesh
 K‫א‬b،a‫א‬‫א‬،E٤٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
R١ R٢  K
a b d

V١ V٢ 
a R3 b

c
e 
R5 R4 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٣J ٧F

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KMesh‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E١F
KCL‫א‬ Meshes ‫א‬‫א‬ E٢F
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KVL‫א‬ E٣F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٤F
Meshes.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٦F

- ١٥٨ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 E١٣J ٧F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE٤٤J ٧F‫א‬

I1 I2 I3
a
b d 
10Ω c 30Ω 20Ω 
10V 20V 15V
20Ω 
I1 10Ω
I2 I3 
I5 I4

f 
 KE١٣J ٧F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤٤J ٧F

‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K I 5 ، I 4 ، I 3 ، I 2 ، I1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I 3 ، I 2 ، I1 
 EbF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I 5 ، I 4 

I 5 = I1 − I 2 (a)

I 4 = I 2 − I3 (b)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ I 3 ، I 2 ، I1 ‫א‬‫א‬ 


 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 Mesh E١F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

10 = 10I1 + 20I 5 (c)
- ١٥٩ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 I1 + I 2 EaF I 5 
  I 2 ، I1  I 5 KW
∴10 = 10I1 + 20I1 − 20I 2
10 = 30I1 − 20I 2 (d)

 KEdF

 Mesh E٢F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
20 = 30I 2 + 20I5 − 10I 4 (e)
 WEeF I 5 ، I 4 ‫א‬
20 = −30I 2 + 20(I1 − I 2 ) − 10(I 2 − I 3 )
20 = −30I 2 + 20I1 − 20I 2 − 10I 2 + 10I 3
20 = 20I1 − 60I 2 + 10I 3 (f)

 Mesh E٣F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
15 = −20I 3 + 10I 4 (g)
 WEbF I 4 
15 = −20I 3 + 10(I 2 − I 3 )
15 = −20I 3 + 10I 2 − 10I 3
15 = −30I 3 + 10I 2 (h)
‫א‬ I 3 ، I 2 ، I1 EhF،EfF،EdF‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
10 = 30I1 − 20I 2 − (0) I 3 (I)
− 20 = −20I1 + 60I 2 − 10I 3 (II)
− 15 = (0) I1 − 10I 2 + 30I 3 (III)
 W(III, II, I)‫א‬‫א‬

- ١٦٠ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

⎡ 10 ⎤ ⎡+ 30 − 20 −0 ⎤ ⎡I1 ⎤
⎢− 20⎥ = ⎢− 20 + 60 − 10⎥ ⎢I ⎥ (IV)
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥
⎢⎣− 15 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣− 0 − 10 30 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣I 3 ⎥⎦

 WEIVF‫א‬‫א‬
[V] = [R ] ⋅ [I] E١٥J ٧F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، [I]‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W [V ] ‫א‬J
MeshE٣F،MeshE٢F،MeshE١F
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W [R ] ‫א‬J
⎡R11 R12 R13 ⎤
[R ] = ⎢⎢R 21 R 22 R 23 ⎥⎥ E١٦J ٨F
⎢⎣R 31 R 32 R 33 ⎥⎦

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 33 ، R 22 ، R11 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬
 KMeshE١F‫א‬‫א‬ R11
 KMeshE٢F‫א‬‫א‬ R 22
 KMeshE٣F‫א‬‫א‬ R 33

 R12 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E٢F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 23 ‫א‬KMeshE٢F،MeshE١F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬MeshE٣F‫א‬،Mesh
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬MeshE٣F‫א‬MeshE١F‫א‬
 K‫א‬R١٣

- ١٦١ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K I 3 ، I 2 ، I1
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬E١
R 11 R 12 R 13
 ∆ = R 21 R 22 R 23 E١٧J ٧F
R 31 R 32 R 33
 K‫א‬∆
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

∆ = R11{R 22 R 33 − R 32 R 23 } − R12 {R 21R 33 − R 31R 23 } + R13 {R 21R 32 − R 31R 22 }

 K∆‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W I1 ‫א‬
V1 R12 R13
1
I1 = V2 R 22 R 23 E١٨J ٧F

V3 R 32 R 33
 W I 2 ‫א‬
R11 V1 R13
1
I2 = R 21 V2 R 23 E١٩J ٧F

R 31 V3 R 33
 W I 3 ‫א‬
R11 R12 V1
1
I3 = R 21 R 22 V2 E٢٠J ٧F

R 31 R 32 V3

 W‫א‬ I 3 ، I 2 ، I1 ‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬


 W ∆ ‫א‬
+ 30 − 20 −0
∆ = − 20 +60 − 10
−0 − 10 + 30
- ١٦٢ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

∆ = 30(60 * 30 − (−10) * (−10 )) − (−20) * (− 20 * 30 − 0) + 0(KK) = 39000
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، I1 
+ 10 − 20 − 0
1
I1 = − 20 + 60 − 10

− 15 − 10 +30
 W‫א‬

1
∴ I1 = {10 * (60 * 30 − 100) − (−20) * (− 20 * 30 − 15 * 10)} = 0.05128A
39000
 W
+ 30 + 10 − 0 + 30 +10 0
1 1
I2 = − 20 − 20 − 10 = ⋅ − 20 − 20 − 10
∆ 39000
−0 − 15 + 30 −0 − 15 + 30

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1
I2 = {30 * ((−20) * (30) − (−15) * (−10)) − (10) * ((−20) * (30) − (0))}
39000
I 2 = −0.423A

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
+ 30 − 20 + 10
1
I3 = − 20 + 60 − 20

− 0 − 10 − 15
 WI٣‫א‬ ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
1
I3 = { 30 * ((60) * (−15) − (−10) * (−20)) − (−20) * ((−20) * (−15)
39000
− (−10) * (10)) =
I 3 = −0.641A
- ١٦٣ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W I 5 ، I 4  I 3 ، I 2 ، I1 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

I 4 = I 2 − I 3 = 0.218A

I 5 = I1 − I 2 = 0.05128 + 0.42300 = 0.47428A

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 "Summary"‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ KCL  E١F
‫א‬‫א‬ KVL  E٢F
 K‫א‬
 K E٣F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٤F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٥F

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ E٦F
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬

  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬E٧F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ E٨F
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R Th ‫א‬‫א‬ VTh 

- ١٦٤ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K R S = 50Ω ، VS = 300V E١F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٢F

100Ω 2 .2 Ω

5kV 12V




 K R S = 1.2KΩ ، iS = 600mA ‫א‬‫א‬E٣F

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٤F


0.01A I 2.7 kΩ 10mA I 4 .7 k Ω 


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ R 5 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٥F

R1 = 1kΩ R 3 = 1kΩ 

2V

R 2 = 2 .2 k Ω R 4 = 1kΩ
R5 

3V 

- ١٦٥ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬ R 3 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٦F
R 3 = 330Ω 

R 1 = 680Ω R 2 = 220Ω
100mA I R 4 = 470Ω 
20V 



 K R L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E٧F

1kΩ 8.2kΩ 560Ω 
40V

0 .5 A I R 5 = 1 .5 k Ω

60V

1kΩ


 ‫א‬‫א‬ R L ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E٨F
A

R 1 = 1kΩ R 2 = 820Ω

R L = 1kΩ
C
VS = 12V D

R 3 = 2.2kΩ R 4 = 1.2kΩ

B
- ١٦٦ -
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ١- 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ AB ‫א‬E٩F


R 1 = 10Ω R 2 = 15kΩ 
+ 
10V A B 


R 3 = 12kΩ I = 0.2mA R4


 

- ١٦٧ -
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 

 (References) ‫א‬‫א‬

[١] Thomas L. Floyed, Electrical Engineering Fundamentals, Prentice, Inc, sixth
edition, ٢٠٠٠.
[٢] B. L. Theraja, A. K. Theraja, " Electrical Technology", published by Ninja
Construction development Co. Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi, ١١٠٠٥٥, ١٩٩٥.
[٣] M. A. PAI, "Introduction to Electric Circuits and Machines", Affiliated east west
presses private limited, ١٩٧٥.

- ١٦٨ -
 ‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 


 ‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬
  
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢  ١J ١
 ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ١
 ٢  ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ١
 ٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٢J ١
 ٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ١
 ٤  ‫א‬١J ٣J ١
 ٤  ‫א‬٢J ٣J ١
 ٦  ‫א‬٣J ٣J ١
 ٧  ‫א‬٤J ٣J ١
 ٧  ‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٣J ١
 ٩  ‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٣J ١
 ١٠  ‫א‬٧J ٣J ١
 ١٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
  W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥  ١J ٢
 ١٥  ٢J ٢
 ١٥  ‫א‬EF١J ٢J ٢
 ١٦  ‫א‬٢J ٢J ٢
 ١٨  ٣J ٢J ٢
 ‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 


 ١٨  ‫א‬١J ٣J ٢J ٢
 ١٩  ‫א‬٢J ٣J ٢J ٢
 ٢١  ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٢٥  ١J ٣
 ٢٥  ‫א‬٢J ٣
 ٢٨  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٣
 ٣٢  ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٣٤  ١J ٤
 ٣٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٤
 ٣٥  ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ٤
 ٣٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٤
 ٣٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٤
 ٤١  ٥J ٤
 ٤٤   ٦J ٤
 ٤٤  ‫א‬٧J ٤
 ٤٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٧J ٤
 ٤٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨J ٤
 ٥٢  ‫א‬٩J ٤
 ٥٦  ‫א‬‫א‬١٠J ٤
 ٦٠  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٦٧  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 


 ٦٨  ١J ٥
 ٦٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٥
 ٧٠  ٣J ٥
 ٧٢  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٥
 ٧٥  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٤J ٥
 ٧٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٥
 ٧٩  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF٦J ٥
 ٨٦  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٧J ٥
 ٨٩  ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ٩١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ٩٢   ١J ٦
 ٩٢  ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٦
 ٩٧  ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٦
 ١٠١  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤J ٦
 ١٠٨  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٥J ٦
 ١١٨  ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢٣  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٢٤  ١J ٧
 ١٢٤  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٧
 ١٢٤  ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٢J ٧
 ١٢٨  ٢J ٢J ٧
 ١٢٨  ‫א‬٣J ٢J ٧
 ١٣٠  ‫א‬٣J ٧
 ١٣٦  ٤J ٧
 ‫א‬  ‫ א‬١٤٠ ‫א‬
 ١- 


 ١٤٤  ‫א‬‫א‬١J ٤J ٧
 ١٤٨  J ‫א‬–‫א‬٥J ٧
 ١٥٠  E Y ← ∆ F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬١J ٥J ٧
 ١٥٠  E ∆ ← Y F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٢J ٥J ٧
 ١٥٤  ∆ ← Y  Y ← ∆ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٣J ٥J ٧
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٥٧ ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٦J ٧
 KE‫א‬
 ١٦٥  ‫א‬‫א‬
 ١٦٨  ‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬

GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS