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A. Emotion is often what we remember about interpersonal encounters
1. Forms the foundation for how we represent and judge our relationships 2. Influences how we talk to others, hear what others say, and how communication affects relationship outcomes


Defining emotion
A. Scholars differentiate between real feelings and manufactured feeling
1. Manufactured feelings are called emotion labor

B. Emotion- the critical internal structure that orients us to and engages us with what matters in our lives: our feelings about ourselves and others
1. Emotion encompasses both the internal feelings of one person, as well as feelings that can be experienced only in a relationship


Emotion systems
1. System 1: category system a) To capture the complexity of emotion, researchers have created systems b) The category system is based on (1) Valance- attribute of emotion that refers to whether the emotion reflects a positive or negative feeling (2) Activity- attribute of emotion that refers to whether the emotion implies action or passivity 2. System 2: emotion cone a) The emotion cone is based on intensity- an attribute of emotion that refers to how strongly an emotion is felt



Emotion, reason, and the body

A. Emotion is more than just feelings

B. One reason it is so difficult to define because it is often grounded in dualisms C. Dualism- a way of thinking that constructs polar opposite categories to encompass the totality of the thing
1. 2. Prompt us to think either-or Keeps up from seeing a 3rd (or 4th) possibility a) b) c) d) e) f) Hotcold Malefemale Goodbad Mindbody Reasonemotion Liberalsconservatives Strongweak rightwrong publicprivate blackwhite thinkingfeeling activepassive


Emotional states affect physical wellness

1. Prolonged depression makes people more susceptible to heart attacks


Reason can also be dependent on emotion

1. A hunch or gut feeling


Perception- a bad feeling about something


Explaining emotion: biology and social interaction

A. Theories on the origination of emotion
1. The biological theory of emotion a) , related to instinct and energy

b) If emotions are similar across many types of people, they propose that people from all cultures should experience feelings in the same manner c) Theory assumes that that we need thought only to bring a preexisting emotion to our conscious awareness (1) (2) Advancing ideas vs. experiencing emotions Introspection and

d) Charles Darwin placed importance on observable emotional expressions, not the meaning associated with them (1) These physical gestures of emotion are remnants of prehistoric behaviors that served important functions (a) (b) (c) Showing teeth Look of disgust Hug

(2) Darwin says people enact these gesture as a result of experiencing emotion (3) He said the opposite is also true- when people enact a certain gesture the experience the related emotion (4) 2. He believed most gestures were universal

Social interaction theory of emotion a) Acknowledges biological influences

b) This theory is more interested in how people interact with their social situation before, during, and after the experience of emotion


Also interested in gesture (1) Focuses on how the reactions of other to our gestures help us define what we are feeling

Comparing the theories The biological theory Definition of emorion Biological process Relationship of emotions to cognitions Assumption of universality Concern with subjective meaning Separate Yes No


The social theory The way one feels is a result of social interactions Interrelated No Yes