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Internal Loads

Class Objectives

Identify Internal Loads group functions Understand total airplane FEM process Apply basic modeling concepts

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-2

Internal Loads Group Has a Crucial Role in Airplane Design


Develops integrated Finite Element Model (FEM) Internal loads data is critical to airplane schedule Supports Stress group with modeling expertise Coordinates between stress group and external loads group

Documents internal load results (needed for life of airplane)

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-3

The Internal Loads Group Brings the External Loads Inside


Produces internal loads for various stress groups Generates stiffness data for external loads group p and maintains major j finite element Develops models used for internal loads analysis in support of an airplane certification process Coordinates C di t between b t external t l loads l d and d stress t groups

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-4

Internal Loads
Structural analyst engineer Sizes structure Verifies that model represents actual structure

Finite element model (FEM)

FEM engineer Acts as a go-between Builds models Understands models Understands theory
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-5

Agenda

I t Integrated t d FEM

Support

Technical Background

Validation

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-6

Complete Integrated Finite Element Model (FEM)

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-7

Integrated FEM Contains Enough Detail to Accurately Describe the Structural Behavior

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-8

Integrated FEM Includes the Major Structural Elements


Skins Stringers Frames Ribs Floor beams Load-carrying doors Sills Bulkheads Pressure deck Keel beam Pickle forks Wheel wells Longerons Window belt Door cutouts Seat tracks *L di *Landing gear *Nacelles/struts
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures *Not used for stress analysis.
9-9

The Integrated FEM Does Not Use Detailed Models For Components
Leading and trailing edges of both wing and empennage p g Control Surfaces Plug-type doors Fairings

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-10

Wing Models Use Simple Concepts

Vent stringers

Skins: modeled with membranes Stringers: g modeled with bars and shears to create fixed and free flanges
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-11

Ribs Are Modeled With Bars and Shears

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-12

Body Models Have More Variety

Skins: modeled with membranes Stringers: St i h have b bending di i inertia ti (beams) Window belt is included (anisotropic properties)

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-13

Frames and Floor Beams Use Bars and Shears

W b Web

Chord

Web

St Stanchion hi (beam) (b ) Outer chord Fail-safe chord Inner chord


1

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-14

Bulkheads Use Beams and Shears


Aft wheel well bulkhead Center section wing box

Ring chord (beam elements)

Webs (shear elements)

Up Stiffeners (beam element) Outboard Forward

BL0
9-15

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

FEM Sizing Comes From a Variety of Sources


Wing and section 41 groups provide complete sized models. Some models are converted from other codes (e.g., landing gear: ATLAS) Most M b d sizing body i i comes from f stress groups Oracle O l database APARD (Analysis PARameter Database). Other body sizing comes on paper or in Excel (e.g., floor beams, keel beam, door sills).

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-16

The Integrated FEM IS a Collection of Several Individual Models


Vertical fin

Horizontal stabilizer

Section 48 Forward cargo door Section 46 Center section Section 45 Section 43 Nose gear S ti 41 Section Main gear Engine jig Outboard wing Raked tip

767-400ER
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-17

The Model Is Subject to Many Types of Load Conditions


Ultimate and fatigue: Loads due to flight maneuver, gusts, ground maneuver, and landing Floor/frame: loads due to such items as seats, lavs, galleys, and cargo. Pressure: loads due to cabin pressure and sudden decompression (13.65 psi internal cabin pressure is added to all flight cases). Mi Miscellaneous: ll l d d loads due t to such h conditions diti as ti tire b burst t or center section fuel slosh.

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-18

Each FEM Scenario Causes the Engineers Workload to Multiply


Load-carrying doors (door-in and door-out) Main landing gear (up and down) Fail-safe conditions (limit load) Discrete-source damage conditions (70% of limit load)

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-19

Results From the Model Are Used in Several Ways


Stresses and internal loads are postprocessed to calculate margins of safety Deflections are provided to the control surface groups (e.g., flaps) and d systems t groups Stiffnesses (EI/GJ) provided to loads and flutter groups Super-elements (reduced stiffness and loads) given to stress groups to iterate the component FEMs D Deflections fl ti are sometimes ti provided id d to solve manufacturing problems

Structures workstation

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-20

The Integrated FEM Plays a Key Role in the Overall Design Process
Wind tunnel data Stability and control data Pressure distribution Stiffness update External loads Balanced forces I t Internal l loads l d model d l Stresses or internal loads Post-processing g Sizing Update detail drawings
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-21

Mass distribution update

Internal Load Schedule is Critical and Highly Visible


1997
Major Milestones
Configure/ Requirements Loads Commitments & Compliance Product Definition Product Release Fab and Assembly (Ref) Lab Test Airplane p Test
Start Ground Test Lab Test Plans Start MLG Fatigue Test Start Structures W/S and Parts D-E Negotiations Firm Systems, Payloads and Propulsion I/F to Structures Wheels and Tires SCD, Initial EAMR Release (MLG)

1998
Firm 25% Drawing Config. Release
Firm Structures Config.

1999
90% Drawing Start Roll Release Major -Out First Flight

2000
Cert/ETOPS Approval 1st Delivery

Qrt 1 Qrt 2 Qrt 3 Qrt 4 Qrt 1 Qrt 2 Qrt 3 Qrt 4 Qrt 1 Qrt 2 Qrt 3 Qrt 4 Qrt 1Qrt 2 Qrt 3 Qrt 4 Qrt 1
Manag. Config. Plan Complete
Config. Memo Release

Firm Config.

Firm Structures Config. for Loads Start Loads Prelim Internal Loads Comp. Design Internal Loads Comp. Program Plans Complete IDAS Compl (Parts, Plans, Tools and CSD Negotiations IPT Description of Change Comp.

All parts t in i EPIC 1st Machine Print (Fixed LE)

MLG OD

Valid of Sys. Funct/Integ in Labs Complete Flight Test Comp.

Ground/Flight Test Plans

First Flight

Certification

Application to FAA/JAA

Preliminary Type Board Final Cert. Plan w/FAA/JAA to FAA

Cert. Basis Cert. Plans Approved Closed

95% Compliance Doc. Submitted

Cert./ETOPS Approval

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-22

Why Use the Integrated FEM?


Pros
Serves as a means of uniting disparate groups Consistency of idealization and analysis Preserves lessons learned from previous programs Easier to find errors (debug) Better interface loads

Cons
Stress group is somewhat dependent on FEM results Requires coordination Idealization disagreements Culture clashes
767 versus 777 SAMECS versus ELFINI

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-23

Use of the Finite Element Method Is Diverse


Typical applications Structural modeling (static, dynamic, and weight analysis) Preliminary-design airframe stress Airplane Ai l wing/body i /b d junction j ti Detailed internal loads Crack growth and residual strength Nonlinear geometry Propulsion/structures integration Structure/acoustic interaction Bird/blade impact Controlled airplane crash
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-24

Guidelines for Modeling


Use simple elements. Use simple modeling concepts. Keep the model size small. Spend time to verify/validate/check out the model.

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-25

Integrated FEM Summary


A collection of separate models (similar in detail and idealization) ) Contains the major structural details A cooperative effort (internal loads, external loads, and d stress groups) ) Subject to many demands
Many load cases Many scenarios Many groups use the results

Critical item in the program schedule

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-26

Agenda

I t Integrated t d FEM

Support

Technical Background

Validation

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-27

Study Models are Built to Support Stress Groups


767-300 767 300 Validation Model

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-28

Study Models Are Built to Support Stress Groups


767-400ER Frame Idealization Study Model

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-29

Internal Loads Group Builds Detailed Stress Models for Analysis and Verification

777 and Drag Brace Fitting Design Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-30

737-X Overwing Escape Hatch Cutout

St Stress group worried about fatigue g interactions between corners of the three cutouts Total weight savings of 10 lb per airplane

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-31

737NG Rear Spar Pickle Fork

Model used to analyze bolt loads


Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-32

Internal Loads Group Builds Hybrid Models


777-300 Overwing Door Goal was to find optimum contour for corners of door cutout Optimizer was used to minimize weight Skins are 1-inch thick in this area

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-33

Internal Loads Group Loaned Engineers to Stress Group for 767-400ER Main Landing Gear Analysis

Coarse model

Coarse model with fine-meshed fine meshed upper torque link


9-34

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

Internal Loads Group Supports External Loads and Flutter Groups


Creates finite element models Provides P id stiffness tiff data d t

767-400ER flutter FEM

767-400ER external loads FEM


9-35

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

Support Summary
Internal loads builds detailed stress models for analysis y and verification. Hybrid models are built to be more detailed than the regular internal loads model. Study S d models d l investigate i i software f or idealization id li i changes. Internal loads engineers are sometimes loaned to other groups to assist with modeling efforts. Internal loads group supports flutter and external loads with FEM data.

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-36

Agenda

I t Integrated t d FEM

Support

Technical Background

Validation

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-37

Textbook Definition: What Are Internal Loads?

Forces and Moments Carried by the Structure of the Aircraft


Examples Axial force in a fuselage stringer Shear flow in a bulkhead Hoop load in a fuselage skin panel Segment load (skin plus stringer) in a wing

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-38

Simple, Easily Understandable Elements, and Properties Are Used


Internal Loads Model
Spring Bar Beam Shear* Membrane Membrane* Bending Plate*
* Properties for shear/membrane/bending elements

Solid Models
10-noded tetrahedron 8-noded brick 20-noded brick

Isotropic More common

Composite

Honeycomb

Sandwich

Less Common

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-39

Springs
Easy to understand Control direction of load Allow for easy, quick check of load path Used to attach pieces of major structure in the FEM For very stiff elements set K= Use 3 translational and 3 rotational stiffnesses at each node

F=Kx

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-40

Bars
Easy to understand Allow for quick check of load path Used for modeling of
Area

Fuselage stringers Built-up structure (chord-web-chord)

The only variable is the area

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-41

Beam
Advanced features:
Torsional inertia Bending inertia

Hinges (releases) at each end Variable area Variable inertia (3 per beam) Variable shear area

Bending inertia

Area

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-42

Shear, Membrane and Bending Plate

Sh Shear

Membrane

Bending g plate

Carries shear force only

Adds axial capability

Adds bending capability

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-43

Solid Elements

10-noded tetrahedron

8-noded brick

20-noded brick

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-44

What Is a Degree of Freedom (DOF)?


A node can have 6 structural degrees of freedom
3 translations relative to an axis system y 3 rotations about an axis system

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-45

Degrees of Freedom are Determined by Element Properties


Example: Beam

Without torsional inertia

With torsional inertia

10 DOF

12 DOF

All elements attached to a given node can potentially affect the degrees of freedom at that node
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-46

Finite Element Method


Stress/ strain relationship (spring f = Kx)

Write stiffness matrix for each element

Each element contributes to the overall stiffness of the model

Assemble global stiffness matrix

Invert global stiffness matrix

Back-substitute to obtain displacements


Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-47

What Software Tools Do Internal Loads Use to Create an Integrated FEM?

Preprocessor: CATIA

Solver: CATIA-ELFINI (batch, not interactive) Post-processor: CATIA-ELFINI (interactive) <or> Create a large ASCII text file to transfer to other codes

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-48

How Are Loads Applied to the Integrated FEM?


ELFINI aeroelastic using detailed model (TRLOAD) ELFINI aeroelastic using sing coarse model (U (U-CONNECT) CONNECT)
Using point loads (Unit loads and factors)

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-49

ELFINI Aeroelastic Using Detailed Model

Direct node-tonode transfer External loads FEM Internal loads FEM

External loads calculated using a model that is 95% common with ith th the i internal t ll loads d model d l CATIA-ELFINI TRLOAD function used to transfer node loads Used on 737NG
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-50

ELFINI Aeroelastic Using Coarse Model

Spreading algorithm must be used U-CONNECT External loads FEM Internal loads FEM

External loads calculated on coarse model Stiffness approximates that of the internal loads model CATIA-ELFINI U-CONNECT function used to transfer node loads Used on 777-200X & 777-300X
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-51

Point Loads Using Detailed Model


Hundreds of unit load cases created (represent airload, fuel, cargo, OEW, etc.) External loads group provides factors Unit cases factored and added together to create each final case on the integrated FEM Used on 767-400ER Labor intensive
Internal loads FEM

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-52

Many Programs Can read Results From the FEM


MARGIN: Wing stress FEADMS: Oracle database for body structures Moss/Duberg: body skin and stringer sizing FAMOSS: body frames POST-ELF: Wichita IDTAS Fatigue IDTAS: F ti Plus other IAS and Excel applications

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-53

Boeing Uses a Variety of Finite Element Codes

CATIA-ELFINI: CATIA ELFINI: Internal loads, stress, flutter SAMECS: legacy internal loads weights, flutter, flutter landing gear gear, dynamic ATLAS: weights loads, and legacy internal loads NASTRAN: legacy internal loads, loads stress, stress PSD PSD, vibration ANSYS: S S stress, landing gear, systems ALGOR: systems, stress ABAQUS: advanced nonlinear code
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-54

CATIA-ELFINI Has Many Differences Compare to Other Finite Element Codes


Uses a history file (cutting, copying, and pasting blocks of commands) Uses topological meshing (10, 1, 4, 1, instead of 1001) Integrated into CATIA (same place as geometry) Sub-structuring S b t t i and d super-elements l t are very advanced d d Load and displacement p transfer between meshes is easy non linear capability Limited non-linear
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-55

Super-Elements Add Flexibility to the Overall Process


Incorporate sub-structuring Individual I di id l sections ti can rerun on their th i own Useful for fail-safe and discrete-source damage runs

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-56

Example of Super-Elements, Step 1


Mesh A Never changes Mesh B Changes often

Load

To solve (without super-elements): 1. Join Mesh

A with Mesh B .

2. Assemble global stiffness matrix [K]. 3. Invert global stiffness matrix [K]. 4 Back-substitute to get global displacements {U} 4. {U}. Note: Each time

B changes, must re-solve for A .


9-57

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

{
Coincident

Example of Super-Elements, Step 2


B
Super-elements representing stiffness of mesh A

Load

To solve (using super-elements for Mesh A ):


1. Create super-element for Mesh A (reduce loads and stiffness at boundary ( y with Mesh B ). ) 2. Join Mesh B with super-element that represents Mesh A . 3. Assemble global stiffness matrix [K]. 4. Invert global stiffness matrix [K]. 5 Back-substitute 5. Back substitute in Mesh B and to boundary of Mesh A .
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
9-58

{
Coincident

Technical Background Summary


Simple, easily understood elements and properties p p contribute to overall stiffness of the model. Internal Loads group uses CATIA-ELFINI to create integrated FEM. FEM External loads are applied to the integrated FEM, using g one of three methods. Many Boeing software programs use results from the FEM Other finite element codes are in use throughout Boeing

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-59

Agenda

I t Integrated t d FEM

Support

Technical Background

Validation

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-60

777-200 Static Test Condition


Maximum Positive Wing Bending - 110% Limit Load

280 240 200 160 120 Vertical deflection 80 (in) 40 0 0 01 0.1 02 0.2 03 0.3 04 0.4 05 0.5 06 0.6 07 0.7 08 0.8 09 0.9 1
9-61

Tip deflection: Test: Analysis:

205.6 205 6 inches 204.7 inches

Side of b d body

Nacelle

ETA station
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

Analysis - Test

Summary
Internal loads group develops the integrated finite element model (FEM) ( ) Internal loads group coordinates the overall modeling effort Internal I l loads l d group supports other h groups by b building models and providing data to the flutter, stress, , and external loads groups g p The FEM uses simple, easily understood elements and properties FEM results correlate well with static test

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-62

Internal Loads
Successes 777-200 737-X 767-400ER

Established many y current processes p Used ELFINI Aeroelastic for external loads Preliminary cycle made shorter

Lessons Leaned 757-300 Two entire loads releases with composite properties in the frame webs Program canceled just prior to release of internal loads Software change did not go smoothly

747-600x

777-200X/300X

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-63

Why Work in the Internal Loads?

Get to see entire airplane Lots of variety Lots of exposure p to other groups g p Trips to Wichita (future: maybe Long Beach) Recognition lunches with upper management (in the cafeteria)

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-64

Can You Trace the Internal Load Paths?

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

9-65