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FIRST JOURNAL Organization comprises of people, it is their satisfaction which can make or mars the performance of an organization. Employee satisfaction is important in determining how far an organization achieves its goals. Job satisfaction leads to life satisfaction. Job satisfaction is generally regarded as an employees attitude toward the job and job situation. Spector (1997) defines job satisfaction simply as the degree to which people like their jobs. Some people therefore enjoy work and consider it a central part of their lives while others do so only because they have to. Robbins (2005) defines job satisfaction as a collection of feelings that an individual holds towards his or her job. This implies that a person with a high level of job satisfaction will hold positive feelings towards the job and a person who is dissatisfied will hold negative feelings about the job. Locke (1976) as cited by Cooper and Locke (2000) offers a further definition of job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences. Job satisfaction is also defined in terms of equity. Robbins et al. (2003) define job satisfaction as the difference between the rewards employees receive and the reward they believe they should receive. The higher this discrepancy, the lower will be the job satisfaction. Job dissatisfaction leads to absenteeism, labour turnover and negative publicity of the organization. Unsatisfied worker can prove to be aliability to any organization and on the other hand happy and satisfied worker is always a productive worker. Nurses contribute very important position in health care sector. Helping sick people and dealing with medical emergencies can be very stressful. Patients need 24 hrs care. Nursing duty is around the clock duty including night shifts. They often work nights, weekends and even on holidays. There is a considerable amount of health hazard from disease, infection and radiation. A nurse is responsiblealong with other health care professionalsfor the treatment, safety, and recovery of acutely or chronically ill or injured people, health maintenance of the healthy, and treatment of life- threatening emergencies in a wide range of health care settings. Nurses may also be involved in medical and nursing research and perform a wide range of non-clinical functions necessary to deliver health care. Thus, studying job satisfaction among nurses is important because it is necessary to distinguish between positive and negative aspects of job satisfaction. Hertzberg (1959) stated that (positive) satisfaction is due to good experiences, and that these are due to `motivators'

i.e. achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Dissatisfaction is due to bad experiences caused by `hygiene' factors i.e. supervisors, fellow workers, company policy, working conditions, and personal life (Hertzberg 1959). The present set up in government and private hospitals depicts that a massive work load with the greater deal of responsibilities are vested on the working nurses in their day to day activities. The role played by the working nurses is so significant in maintaining the basic purpose of the government and private hospitals that the question of their satisfaction from their job can never be ignored. Extensive research has been done on role stress among nurses but very few studies have been done on job satisfaction in nurses. So, the present study aims at measuring the level of job satisfaction among the nurses. LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH PAY SCALE Pay is the most important factor that leads to job satisfaction. Majority of nurses from government hospitals are moderately satisfied from their pay scales i.e. 58%. In private hospitals also majority of the nurses are moderately satisfied from their pay scales i.e. 60%. LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH QUANTUM OF WORK Excessive work at work place always acts as a demotivating and dissatisfactory factor. Among the 50 nurses surveyed from the government hospitals majority of them find the work to be excessive for them i.e. 52%. LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH WORKING HOURS Nurses have to face long working hours in government and private hospitals both but at the same time most of them feel the working hours to be convenient for them. Most of the government nurses i.e. 46% RELATIONSHIPS WITH COLLAEGUES Most of the Government nurses i.e.48% have Professional and competitive relationship with their colleagues whereas most of the private nurses i.e. LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH BEHAVIOUR OF SUPERIORS Superior has to be co-operative along with being demanding and professional in order to increase job satisfaction among its employees. Most of the superiors in government hospital

are very cooperative i.e. 36%. But in private hospitals superiors are cooperative but at the same time very demanding i.e. 66%. Thus, satisfaction among government nurses is more LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH PROMOTION POLICY SATISFACTION WITH WORKING CONDITIONS LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES AVAILIBILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES AVAILIBILITY OF GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH NURSING PROFESSION JOB SECURITY INTENTION TO LEAVE THE JOB This study was done to know the level of job satisfaction among nurses of government and private hospitals which is affected by many factors both intrinsic and extrinsic. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of results obtained: a. There is a significant difference in the level of job satisfaction among nurses in both government and private sector. Though nurses of both the sectors are quite satisfied from their job but comparatively overall the government nurses are more satisfied with their job as compared to private nurses. b. Most of the nurses from both Government and private hospital are moderately satisfied from their pay scales. c. Nurses from both the sectors think they have to do excessive work. d. Nurses from both government and private hospitals have long but convenient working hours. Satisfaction among private nurses is more with regard to relationships with their colleagues. e. Most of government nurses are of the view that their superiors are very cooperative. f. Government Nurses are more satisfied from the social security schemes available in their organisations. g. Private hospitals follow seniority cum merit type of promotion policy. h. Hence on this account satisfaction in private nurses is more. i. Private Nurses are more satisfied from the working conditions of their organisation.

j. Government hospitals provide more growth opportunities so nurses in this sector are more satisfied as compared to private nurses. k. Government nurses are more proud to be associated with their organisation as compared to private nurses. l. All the nurses from both the sectors are proud of their profession. m. As compared to private nurses government nurses is less in number who is willing to shift from their job .The reason being they are more satisfied. n. Job security is more in government nurses whereas in private nurses job security level is very less this is another factor responsible of less job satisfaction among private nurses. o. Most of the nurses from both the sectors are nurses are willing to opt for voluntary retirement scheme due their family responsibilities.

According to the study conducted nurses from both the sectors seemed to be quite satisfied from their jobs. However the level of satisfaction is found to be more in case of government nurses as compared to the private nurses but at the same time there are certain factors on which private nurses are more satisfied. Improved job satisfaction results in fewer turnovers, better quality patient care, less physical and mental injuries to health care staff, and will lead to betterment of entire organisation. Thus in order to increase the level of job satisfaction among nurses hospital management should keep abreast with up to date technology, rationalize compensation and promotion policy, establish grievance redressal forum and must provide more and more professional growth opportunities. SECOND JOURNAL Nurse education in Canada is in the midst of rapid professional, social, and educational changes. Many Educational programmes are facing considerable nancial constraints due to government cutbacks in funding over the past decade. Decreasing enrollments, fewer educators, and increased class sizes, are placing increased demands on nurse educators (Leon & Zareski 1998, Brendtro & Hegge 2000). Lack of sufcient funding to support education programmes can be frustrating to educators, particularly when resources are not available to implement planned programmes. Furthermore, there is a looming shortage of qualied staff to deliver education programmes in the near future (DeYoung & Bliss 1995). In 1990, the National League of Nursing reporter approximately 900 unlled full-time nurse educators

positions in the United States of America (USA) (Moody 1996). This shortage has been attributed to ageing of the present cohort, fewer recruits to academic nursing, inadequate work conditions, and poor job security (DeYoung & Bliss 1995). The average age of the current cohort of nurse educators is 494 years of age and many will retire within the next 10 years (Brendtro & Hegge 2000). Such shortages increase the workload for others, increasing the likelihood of stres and burnout. Nurse educators carry great responsibility in their organizations, yet this high level of responsibility is often combined with low decisionmaking power (Bauder 1982). This, in turn, causes undue stress that may decrease job satisfaction and increase the risk of burnout. Burnout has been identied as an issue for nurse educators (Fong 1990). Too many Task in too little time are frequent complaints among educators. Nurse educators must teach, counsel students, and work on committees, as well as engage in clinical practice with students (Brown 1991). With advancing medical technology, nurse educators skills rapidly become obsolete and the pressure to keep abreast and to maintain effective skills cause distress. Finally, lack of respect and positive reinforcement from administrators create job dissatisfaction and the risk of burnout (Langemo 1988). Nurse educators are at risk for burnout because they spend a considerable amount of time with students who need help acquiring knowledge, critical judgement, and psychomotor skills (Bourcier 1986). Burnout is a syndrome in which a previously committed, helping professional gradually disengages from full participation in a job in response to excessive job-related stressors. Burnout consists of three components (Maslach et al. 1996). Emotional exhaustion (EE) is the Tire and fatigued feeling that develops as emotional energies are Drained. When these feelings become chronic, educators often experience depersonalization (DP), that is, indifferent feelings about helping their students learn and grow. When educators no longer feel that they are contributing to students development, they may experience a lack of personal accomplishment (PA). Burnout is a costly phenomenon because the physical and psychological manifestations result in decreased effectiveness and productivity (Pines & Maslach 1978). Maslach (1982) suggests that burnout stems from social interactions between helpers and recipients in which helpers become overly emotionally involved and overextend themselves. Over time this results in EE. Nurse educators are responsible for many roles and tasks in their organization and often work an average of 59 hours per week (Fong 1990). Time pressures and increasing job demands further increase their risk of burnout. Given the link between burnout and physical and emotional health problems (Stout & Williams 1983), identifying dissatisfying workplace factors that contribute to stress and burnout in nurse educators is important. The consequences of burnout have serious implications for nurse

educators, students, educational institutions, and ultimately the profession. During a time when the profession is facing a world-wide shortage of practicing nurses, highly qualied nurse educators are essential for ensuring that the supply of nurses in the future is sufcient to sustain the professional workforce. Thus, it is important to study factors that create negative work environments for nurse educators and to nd ways to make these settings satisfying Finally, high levels of work-related empowerment in combination with low levels of burnout were strongly predictive of nurse educators job satisfaction. This supports Kanters (1993) argument that when empowerment structures are in place, employees experience less job stress and are more satised in their work. All components of burnout Wet important predictors of job satisfaction, although EE dimension was the strongest. Indeed, EE was the only burnout component that accounted for unique variance in job satisfaction when the three burnout components were considered simultaneously. That is, once EE was taken into account, the other burnout components provided no new information in understanding the impact of burnout on job satisfaction. This nding is consistent with the view of many scholars that EE is the core component of burnout (Burke & Greenglass 1995, Cordes et al. 1997, Moore 2000). Most studies have shown it to be the most stable of the Three components (Schaufeli & Enzmann 1998), and, it has been shown to be the most responsive to the nature and intensity of stress at work stress (Lee & Ashforth 1996, Schaufeli & Enzmann 1998). Thus, it is not surprising that EE was the most important burnout factor predicting nurse educators job satisfaction in this study. Exhausted employees are not likely to be very satised with their jobs. While all empowerment factors were strongly related to job satisfaction, access to support was shown to have the strongest relationship. Support from administrators allows educators to perform their role effectively creating productive power and increased job satisfaction. Informal power was also an important determinant of job satisfaction supporting Kanters contention that posisional power is not sufcient for effective performance in organizations. College educators in Krahn (2000) study identied the importance of informal working relationships as instrumental to effective performance. Kanter (1993) believes that work structures, such as teams, empower employees by fostering opportunities to learn and grow, providing access to information, support and resources, resulting in increased work satisfaction and effectiveness. Educators engage in many activities throughout the organization that allow them the opportunity to build valuable networks with co-workers outside of their immediate workgroup. Educators empowerment and job satisfaction Wet negatively related to the number of classroom students taught and hours worked per week. This is a Resources issue. According to Kanter (1993), time is an

essential empowerment resource. Barrett et al. (1992) observed that nurse educators most enjoyable aspect of their job was student contact and felt they had insufcient time to do so due to unreasonable workloads. Addressing these issues would allow them to spend more time with students and to pursue other aspects of the nurse educator role, such as participating in continuing education activities. These opportunities can increase feelings of empowerment and job satisfaction. THIRD JOURNAL In 2002, there were two Australian national inquires into the nursing shortage (Department of Science, Education and Training 2002, Senate Community Affairs References Committee 2002). This shortage is not limited to Australia, rather it is experienced internationally in both developed and developing nations (Edwards 2001, Zungolo 2001, Aiken et al. 2002, Valentino 2002). Satisfaction with employment is influenced by the environment in which the nurse isemployed and the personal attributes of the nurse (Wheeler 1997, Taylor et al. 1999, Tovey & Adams 1999, Adams & Bond 2000). There is a substantial body of published literature linking the variables influencing job satisfaction with retention in the nursing workforce (Adams & Bond 2000, Aiken et al. 2002, Ingersoll et al. 2002). However, no study has linked these variables to the model of intrinsic INTRINSIC WORK VALUES The intrinsic work values in this study such as the emotionally challenging and physically demanding nature of nursing work, work stress, morale and the level of autonomy have all previously been associated with job satisfaction (Cavanagh 1990, Cavanagh & Coffin 1992, Irvine & Evans 1995, Adams & Bond 2000, Aiken et al. 2002, Ingersoll et al. 2002). How each of these variables influences job satisfaction has been the subject of debate in the previous studies (Cavanagh 1992). The findings of this study suggest that nursing work continues to be both emotionally challenging and physically demanding and therefore a source of workplace stress (Taylor et al. 1999, Tummers et al. 2002). However, the data also suggest that nurses perceptions vary according to job level, job designation and employment sector. EXTRINSIC WORK VALUES Similarly, many of the extrinsic work values in this study have been the focus of previous studies into job satisfaction (McNeese-Smith 1999, Queensland Health 1999, Tovey &

Adams 1999, Adams & Bond 2000, Adams & Bond 2000, Healy & McKay 2000, Hegney & McCarthy 2000, Silvestro & Silvestro 2000) Differences across sectors, and/or job designation and/or job level were apparent in perceptions of the rate of pay, rewards for skills and experience, the convenience of working hours, collegial support and teamwork, the safety of the workplace, nursing career prospects and the status of nursing as a career. The only variable not exhibiting differences across sectors is how well the workplace was equipped. With regard to remuneration, it was apparent that nurses report dissatisfaction with pay rates particularly when they perceive there is lack of parity between sectors and other professionals, such asteachers (Tovey & Adams 1999). A further finding of this study is that length of employment can influence nurses perceptions of the adequacy of remuneration. This finding is important as it was the newly employed nurses who were most dissatisfied. Retention of the nursing workforce, particularly newly recruited nurses, should be a priority for all employers Some authors note that nurses who are required to expand and extend their role may find this enhances their job satisfaction, whereas other nurses may experience a lessening of job satisfaction when role expansion is accompanied by a lack of career advancement (Adams et al. 1998, Furlong & Glover 1998). Linked to this role expansion is an increasing autonomy of practice, also associated with job satisfaction (Adams & Bond 2000, Stordeur et al. 2001, Tummers et al. 2002). Additionally, Three is some evidence that the job level of the nurse influences job satisfaction with nurses in more senior management positions experiencing greater satisfaction (Adams & Bond 2000). Further, the increasing need to use technical resources has been linked to job satisfaction (Stordeur et al. 2001, Tummers et al. 2002), as has the personal development opportunities of the nurse (Tovey & Adams 1999, Adams & Bond 2000). At a time of international shortages of nurses, it is apparent that the intrinsic and extrinsic work values influence nurses job satisfaction, and therefore nursing retention rates. As Taris and Feij (2001) note, intrinsic and extrinsic work values and social relations at work affect job satisfaction and the intentionto leave employment. The findings of this study give some indication of what should be included in a nursing workforce planning strategy both within Australian and internationally. From an Australian perspective, the need such a strategy is fundamental and urgent (Senate Community Affairs References Committee 2002, p. xiii). Whilst the data confirm some findings from previous studies aspects not discussed these reports were the impact of job designation, job level and the employment sector. The findings of this study suggest that a one size fits all solution across sectors within Australia and possibly across both developed

and developing nations will not work. It is therefore important that further research into job satisfaction take into consideration the job designation, job level and employment sector.


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