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VENTILATION SYSTEM By the end of this session, the students are able to : Explain definition of ventilation, natural ventilation

tion and mechanical ventilation. list purpose of natural ventilation list purpose of mechanical ventilation describe and illustrate types of mechanical ventilation

Introduction Since the dawn of humankind, the use of ventilation is very important as it provide the comfortability to the occupant. Ventilation is the changing of air in any space. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining healthy indoor air quality in a closed space. Fresh air is needed for humans. In buildings, removal of stale air, chemical fumes, gases, smoke, heat, and other contaminants is essential. Some buildings are designed for natural ventilation. They have their own limitations. Ventilation system purpose: To prevent depletion of oxygen content of the air. To prevent undue concentrations of carbon dioxide, body odours and moisture. To remove heat from lighting, people and machinery. To remove toxic gases and dust To reduce bacteria. Types of ventilation system Natural ventilation Mechanical ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without the use of a fan or other mechanical system. The sources for natural ventilation are: Wind Effect/Pressure Stack Effect/Pressure A combination of Wind Pressure and Stack Effect For high building we use a stack effect and a combination of wind pressure and stack effect.

Cross ventilation Inlets and outlets located directly opposite each other cool only those areas in between, in the direct path of the airflow. You'll cool more of your home or business if you force the air to take a longer path between the inlet and outlet.

Upward ventilation It is created by the differences in temperature between the air inside and the air outside a building. The warmer, less dense air inside is displaced by the cooler denser air from outside.

OBSTACLES TO THE USE OF NATURAL VENTILATION Smoke control in case of fire is more difficult and may require special equipment and/or variances in codes. Outdoor noise is difficult to manage in a building that relies on operable windows or vents. Acoustic separation between spaces can be difficult to achieve. Low pressure differences often require large apertures for desired airflow rates. Outdoor air must be clean enough to introduce directly into occupied space. THE ADVANTAGES OF NATURAL VENTILATION Cheap to install and maintain. Save cost of energy as it does not require any electrical power. Do not make any noise. Mechanical Ventilation Uses fan to create air change and movement. Types of mechanical ventilation: Natural inlet and Mechanical extract Mechanical inlet and Natural extract Mechanical inlet and Mechanical extract Mechanical ventilation may be used to control humidity or odours. Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical ventilation to control both. The main component of ventilation is the fan. Ventilation systems can either supply air or exhaust air. They usually work in conjunction with ducting. The ducting helps to distribute the suction and discharge points in a room. Three types of fans used for mechanical ventilation system : Propeller Fan Centrifugal Fan Axial Flow Fan Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level. If the ducting for the fans traverse unheated space (e.g. an attic), the ducting should be insulated as well to prevent condensation on the ducting. Direct drive fans are available for many applications (these save the owner the costs of maintaining/replacing the fan).


Advantages of mechanical ventilation Can be design to provide the required amount of air change and air movement. Do not consider natural forces which are wind pressure, stack pressure or a combination of both. Develop the consistent process of ventilation. Disadvantages of mechanical ventilation Costlier to install and maintain. Waste cost of energy as it required electrical power to function. Risk of noise from the fan and ducts DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NATURAL AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION

Propeller Fan Develop low pressure usually placed at the area that not used through long lengths of ductwork. Consist of two or more blades fixed to the hub.

NATURAL VENTILATION Naturally occurring. The cost is cheaper for installation. Does not require any maintenance. Do not use any electrical power to operate. Silence during operation. Can be design for air movement only. Usually holes is used to give an air change movement.

MECHANICAL VENTILATION Man-made based on invention. The cost for installation is high and expensive. Require monthly inspection and maintenances. Usually use electrical power to operate. Making noise during operation. Can be designed to provide a positive air change and air movement. Normally fan is used as a component to create air change movement.

Example: Wall housing installation


1. Centrifugal Fan Develop high pressure and suitable for long length of ductwork. Consists of an impeller that revolves inside a casing shaped like scroll

Axial Flow Fan Develop high pressure and suitable for long length of ductwork. Consist of an impeller with blades of aerofoil section, rotating inside a cylinder casing Centrifugal fans can overcome higher pressures, but they need to be installed on solid bases. Axial fans produce lower pressures, and are more compact. They can be hung in line with ducting, thus saving installation space.

Example: Installation Of Centrifugal Fan at Housing Wall