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AHU, CHILLER AND COOLING TOWER Course outcome At the end of the lecture the student will be able

e to: Distinguish between split unit and central unit of air-cond Explain the function of AHU, Chiller and cooling tower Show the heat transfer in air-conditioning system

Water side arrangement In the central air-conditioning system, heat from each floor is transferred from the room air at 25oC to the chilled water at 12oC by an AHU The refrigeration machine which transfer heat from the chilled water at 12 oC to condenser water at 35oC is called water chiller A cooling tower is used to reject heat from the condenser water at 35 oC to the outside air at 30oC

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

Operation of basic air-conditioning system R-12 gas in compressor with low pressure gas is compressed to high pressure gas state of 909.2 kPa and high temperature of 37.8 oC, release heat in the condenser, change high pressure gas becomes high pressure liquid 246.2 kPa at -6.7oC, entering the expansion valve, the pressure of the liquid is reduced to low pressure liquid , go through the evaporator, absorb heat (from room) becomes low pressure gas and this gas will be compressed. The cycle begins again Important components in an air conditioning unit 1. Refrigerant 2. Compressor 3. Condenser 4. Expansion valve 5. Evaporator 1. Refrigerant A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. The two main uses of refrigerants are refrigerators/freezers and air conditioners the most widely used refrigerants were the halomethanes R-12 and R-22, with R-12 being more common in automotive air conditioning and small refrigerators, and R-22 being used for residential and light commercial air conditioning, refrigerators, and freezers. 2. Compressor A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, so the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013

3. Condenser Condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will transfer to the condenser coolant. Condensers are used to transfer heat from the hot compressed refrigerant gas to a cooling medium, usually air (air cooled) or water (water cooled) and the refrigerant condensed.

4. Expansion valve In the expansion valve, high pressure liquid is converted to low pressure liquid and this will control the rate at which the refrigerant enters the evaporation and is an amount equal to that being evaporated due to the heat absorbed from the substance being cooled. 5. Evaporator To absorb heat from the inside and removed it by using refrigerant. Due to this, low pressure refrigerant (liquid state) becomes low pressure gas Almost similar to condenser, except the tubing will have smaller tube instead of fin such as need condenser.

EDITED BY AZUAN AHMAD FAUZI 2011803188 UITM PULAU PINANG MAC 2013