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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD Research method is a must in any research.

It is like an itinerary for a traveler to take, without which the traveler could take hard winding and bumpy road, or even get lost. That is why, following the route that is going to take the researcher to a destination, i.e. to find out the productive skill in exchanging greetings of the seventh grade students of SMP 1 Negeri Wonokerto Kabupaten Pekalongan is unavoidable. A. Research Method This research is a descriptive-quantitative research, which means it is intended to find out numerical scores of the collected data and the interpretation of which as the conclusion. According to Arikunto (1998: 99), the data are the result of documenting a certain activity by a researcher through observing, interviewing, experimenting, and testing. The data of this research will be collected from the seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Wonokerto Kabupaten Pekalongan. Bowling (1999) describes quantitative research as its measurement and analysis of observations in a numerical way. Fowler (in Creswell, 1994: 117) defines quantitative method or type as a survey design provides a quantitative or numeric description of some fraction of the populationthe samplethrough the data collection process of asking questions of people. This research is also a case-study. It is a study that the researcher explores a single entity or phenomenon (the case) bounded by time and activity (e.g., a program, event, institution, or social group) and collects detailed information through a variety of data. (www.unr.edu). According to Dictionary of Sociology (http://online.sagepub.com),

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Case Study. The detailed examination of a single example of a class of phenomena, a case study cannot provide reliable information about the broader class, but it may be useful in the preliminary stages of an investigation since it provides hypotheses, which may be tested systematically with a larger number of cases. (Abercrombie, Hill, & Turner, 1984, p. 34) According to Bent Flyvbjerg (2006), a well-chosen case study in teaching situation can help the student achieve competence. Therefore, in view to finding out how the ability of SMP Students in exchanging greeting and helping them to achieve the best competence this study is conducted. In this case, the seventh grade students of SMP 1 Negeri Wonokerto Kabupaten Pekalongan are selected as the object of the study. B. Object of the Research Object of the research is also known as the respondent as it is mentioned in Olson (1995: 5) that objective research as practiced in the social sciences separates the researcher (the Cartesian knowing subject) from the respondent (the object of the research). Nawawi (1995: 2006) explains that the research object in qualitative research is human beings and everything that is influenced by human beings. That is why, concerned with the explaination, the subject of this research is seventh graders of SMP 1 Negeri Wonokerto Kabupaten Pekalongan. C. Subject of the Research Subject of the research, as it is also stated in Oslon (idem) is the researcher who focuses the research on the object of the research: The objective researcher/subject focuses on the respondent/object in an effort. It is also stated that subject of the research in part of the process (Anderson, 2006). In a word, the researcher is the subject of this research. The researcher is the one who will actively be involved in the whole process of this research.

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D. Sample The sampling of this research is taken purposely, which means it done on purposive sampling, which is a sampling that is done when a researcher handpicks subjects to participate in the study based on identified variables under consideration (http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~mezza/nur390/Mod3/sampling/lesson.html) and it is done to get the deepness of a study (Heribertus B. Sutopo, 1996). Law et al (1998) writes that Sampling in qualitative research is purposeful and the process used to select participants should be clearly described. Purposeful sampling selects participants for a specific reason (e.g., age, culture, experience), not randomly. In a word, the sample of this research is around 40 students of the seventh grade who are handpicked purposely. E. Instrument of the Research Instrument can simply be defined as a device to collect data. Nawawi (1995: 138) defines that instrument is a technique of measurement that discusses two activities: a quantitative data description (measurement) and interpretation of the data (evaluation). Quantitatively, a number of statistical formulas can applied. Therefore, this researched applies the following formulas (the Spearman-Brown formula) to find the validity and reliability of the instrument:

2 (r

xy ) r 11 = 1+r xy

Nr XY-(X)( Y) xy = {NX2-(X)2}{NY2-(Y)2

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F. Method of Collecting Data According to Arikunto (1995: 198 205) there are four methods of collecting data commonly used in a research. They are a test, questionnaire, interview, and observation. Sutopo (1996: 54 65) states that data sources in qualitative research can be in the form of humans, events, locations, documents, or archives. According to Goetz & LeCompte (in Sutopo) add that there two general strategies in qualitative data collection than can be grouped into interactive and non-interactive methods. Interactive method covers in-depth interview and participant observation. The Qualitative Paradigm (http://www.computing.dcu.ie/~hruskin/RM2. htm) lists the following method of collecting data in qualitative research: 1. Observation both participant and direct 2. 3. 4. In-depth interviews Group Interviews The collection of relevant documents

5. Photographs and Video Tapes Creswell (1994: 149 150) points out that data collection procedures in qualitative research involve four basic types: observations, interviews, documents, and visual images. Observation in used to collect data in this research. There kinds of observations according to Creswell (idem), i.e.: complete participant, in which the researcher conceal role; observer as participant, in which role of researcher is known; participant as observation, in which observation role secondary to participant; and complete observer, in which researcher observes without participating. The observer (researcher) in this research is a complete observer.

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G. Validity and Reliability of the Observation Concerned with validity, Heaton (1975) gives the following illustration: Validity refers to the degree in which our test or other measuring device is truly measuring what we intended it to measure. The test question 1 + 1 = _____ is certainly a valid basic addition question because it is truly measuring a students ability to perform basic addition. It becomes less valid as a measurement of advanced addition because as it addresses some required knowledge for addition, it does not represent all of knowledge required for an advanced understanding of addition. On a test designed to measure knowledge of American History, this question becomes completely invalid. The ability to add two single digits has nothing do with history According to Kelly (1998), validity refers to the accuracy of a measure. A measurement is valid when it is supposed to measure and performs the functions that it purports to perform (http://www.longwood.ed/). And reliability is synonymous with the consistency of a test, survey, observation, or other measuring device (http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/validityreliability.html). According to Golafshani (2003: 10), Reliability and validity are conceptualized as trustworthiness, rigor and quality in qualitative paradigm. It is also through this association that the way to achieve validity and reliability of a research get affected from the qualitative researchers perspectives which are to eliminate bias and increase the researchers truthfulness of a proposition about some social phenomenon. Taking all the above into account, the researcher in this, therefore, in this research uses face validity by consulting the instrument to the advisors, and afterward revises the suggested instrument in the form of ten subjects of exchanging greetings to be demonstrated by respondents and made by themselves.

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And to eliminate bias and increase the researchers truthfulness, the observation in this research is done to such an extent that dialogs must be repeated over and over again to besides being conducted in a quiet room to avoid noise and concentrate more on both sides of the researcher and the subjects. For that reason, additional steps to meet trustworthiness and rigor in the observation are taken as follows: 1. Set the time and the duration to hold a paired conversation. 2. Ask the participants to prepare themselves to have the conversation at the appointed time. 3. Set the rule for those taking part in the conversation. 4. Observe the conversation (a complete observer). H. Technique of Data Analysis To reveal the quality of observed subjects, the technique used in this research is using rating scale as suggested by Nawawi (1995: 79 84) and Heaton (1979: 94 95). Heaton suggested using numerical scale to indicate ability from 6 to 1, but the reality forced the researcher to adapt the numbers to be 5 to 1. He explains further that the numbers used in the rating scale has the following quality: 6. Excellent: on a par with an educated native speaker. Completely at ease in his use of English on all topics discussed. 5. Very good: although he cannot be mistaken for a native speaker, he expresses himself quite clearly. He experiences little difficulty in understanding English, and there is no strain at all in communicating with him.

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4. Satisfactory verbal communication causing little difficulty for native speaker. He makes a limited number of errors of grammar, lexis, and pronunciation but he is still at ease in communicating on everyday subjects. He may have to correct himself and re-pattern his utterance on occasions, but there is little difficulty in understanding him. 3. Fairly satisfactory: his verbal communication is fairly satisfactory. The native speaker may occasionally experience some difficulty in communicating with him. Repetition, re-phrasing, and re-patterning are sometimes necessary; ordinary native speakers might find it difficult to communicate. 2. Much difficulty experienced by native speakers unaccustomed to foreign English. His own understanding is severely limited, but communication on everyday topics is possible. Large number of errors of phonology, grammar, an lexis. 1. Extreme difficulty in communication and failure to understand adequately and to make him understood. The conclusion of the above category can put into: very good (5), satisfactory (4), fairly satisfactory (3), poor (2), and very poor (1). The observation is then focused on this categorization. Subject of the research who is very good at exchanging greetings will be grouped into those with them same rank and categorized as very good, and so are other subjects of the research. To facilitate the observation, the following table is used in the process of observation.

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Respondent 1 No 1 Observed Subject Arrival Formal: 2 Informal: Leaving: Formal: 3 Informal: Special Greetings a. Birthday b. Seasonal Greetings New year Fasting month Festive Seasons: 1). Lebaran 2). Christmas c. Special Occasions Graduation Scholarship Etc. Category 5 Rating Scale 4 3 2 1

This observation sheet would be included in the table of observation, in which items would be scored in numbers 1, which indicates it is correct (greeting or responding greetings), and 0, which indicates it is in incorrect.

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The table would contain columns for numbers, number of respondents, observed items, total (score), and category as the following: Table 1 Table of Observation
No Respondents Code Observed Items Total Category

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1 2 3 4 5 . . 40

R1 R2 R2 R4 R5 . . R40

After that, the result of this table would be put in the table of frequency distribution (f) to know how the scores are distributed among the respondents. This is in accordance with Heatons suggestion (1975). This step is also useful for the next step when mean of the total scores has to found. The table looks like this:

Table 2 Table of Frequency Distribution


Table 1 Table 2 Table 3

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Respondents

Score

Resps

Score

scale

Score

Frequency

R1 R2 R3 R4

R31 R36 R28 .

After that, measure of central tendency will be sought. There are two ways of finding central tendency: median and mean. Median, according to McDanial (www.echow.com), refers to the score gained by the middle candidate in the order of merit. In case of even number, half-way between the lowest score in the top half and the highest score in the bottom half is taken as the median. McDanial (idem) writes further on this: Median the observation value that falls exactly in the middle of the variable distribution if all observations are arranged chronologically from lowest to highest. If two observations share the midpoint (in a distribution with an even number of cases), then the average of those two observations is calculated and this particular average then represents the median. As to mean, according to Paul McDanial (idem), is the arithmetic average across the distribution of the data set. It is calculated by summing all the values in the particular variable and then dividing the sum by the total number of observations (N) in that variable field. This thesis, however, will use mean to find central tendency. Heaton said that the mean is the most efficient measure of central tendency. Mean of the total score is gained by using the following formula: m= fx

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N The above formula is applied by using table of mean. This is done to make the process easier and in accordance with Heatons (idem). Besides it is easy for others to see the mean in a more structured method. Here is the table:

Table 3 Table of Mean x 1 2 3 . . fx m f fx

After finding the mean, the next step is finding the standard deviation of the mean. Standard Deviation measures the degree to which the group of scores deviates from the mean; in other words, it shows how all the scores are spread out and thus gives a fuller description of test scores than the range, which simply describes the gap between the highest and the lowest marks examples the highest mark is 43 and the lowest is 22, so 43 22 = 21, so the range is 21and ignores the information provided by all remaining scores. It is done by applying this formula:

d /N
2

s.d =

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There are steps to find the standard deviation, of which will be delineated further in the next chapter. A simple example of finding standard deviation can be illustrated as the following: Step 1: Find the arithmetic mean (or average) of 4 and 8, (4 + 8)/2 = 6 Step 2: Find the deviation of each number from the mean, 4 6 = - 2 and 8 6 = 2 Step 3: Square each of the deviations (amplifying larger deviations and making negative values positives), ( 2 )2 = 4 and 22 = 4 Step 4: Sum the obtained squares (as a first step to obtaining an average), 4 + 4 = 8. Step 5: Divide the sum by the number of values, which here is 2 (giving an average), 8 / 2 = 4. Step 6: Take the non-negative square rood of the quotient (converting squared units back to regular units). So, the standard deviation is 2. However, to make it even simpler is by putting the above formula into the so-called table of dispersion measure like the following.

Table 4 Table of Dispersion Measure No 1 2 3 . Respondent R1 R2 R3 . Score Mean d d2

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. Total

. d2 Standard deviation of the mean

Finally, the conclusion of the findings would be put into the last table, e.g. table of category. This is done to have a better picture of categorization, in which there will be columns of numerical category (in harmony with Heatons suggestion), alphabetical score, descriptive category, number of students of respondents, and percentage. This is done to know how many are categorized into very good, satisfactory (good), fairly satisfactory (fair), poor (bad), and very poor (very bad). This also will make the process of interpretation easier, and the interpretation would be clearer. By this, any reader will be helped to understand these research findings and catch the real picture of them in the mind right away.

Table 5 Table of Category


Numerical Category Alphabetical Score Descriptive Category Number of Respondents Percentage (%)

5 4 3 2 1

A B C D E Total

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This closing table is made, as stated before, to conclude the research findings. It is the table in which the findings are collected in much simpler way for anyone to check in a glance, or anyone to follow the further interpretation; and so are conclusion and suggestion as well.

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