Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Artificial Intelligence and workers A PAPER PRESENTATON



WORKERS [with no brains]


SK.YASIN 3rd B.Tech (CSE) shaikyasin15@gmail.com 108A1A0534

K.V.S DEEPTHI 3rd B.Tech (CSE) kvsdeepthi34@gmail.com 108A1A0517


Artificial Intelligence and workers

We can learn something about how to make machines solve problems by observing This paper is the introduction to Artificial intelligence (AI) and its usage. Artificial intelligence is exhibited by artificial entity, a system is generally assumed to be a computer. AI systems are now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games like computer chess and other video games. We tried to explain the brief ideas of AI and its application to Robotic field. It cleared the concept of computational and conventional categories. AI is used in typical problems such as Pattern recognition, Natural language processing and more. This system is working throughout the world as an artificial brain. Intelligence involves mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to make computers carry out some of them and not others. If doing a task requires only mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs can give very impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should be considered ``somewhat intelligent''. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence. 2 other people or just by observing our own methods. On the other hand, most work in AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or animals. AI researchers are free to use methods that are not observed in people or that involve much more computing than people can do. We discussed conditions for considering a machine to be intelligent. We argued that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent. ABOUT ROBOTICS : Building a mechanical system with features of a Human system has been attempted from time immemorial. This attempt is now renewed with flexibility of design using advanced electronics and microprocessors. A robot attempts to emulate only specific futures of Human systems. It is not a replacement to it. However, where repeatability, accuracy, without any fatigue are Demanded in any action robots are efficient and are a natural choice. A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional,

Artificial Intelligence and workers manipulator, Design to more materials, parts, tools, are specialized device, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. There are two main lines of research. One is biological, based on the idea that since humans are intelligent, AI should study humans and imitate their psychology or physiology. The other is phenomenal, based on studying and formalizing common sense facts about the world and the problems that the world presents to the

INTRODUCTION:Artificial intelligence (AI):Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial entity. Such a system is generally assumed to be a computer. Although AI has a strong science fiction connotation, it forms a vital branch of computer science, dealing with intelligent behavior, learning and adaptation in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and

achievement of goals. The two approaches interact to some extent, and both should eventually succeed. It is a race, but both racers seem to be walking. Some of the AI researches are: 1. Expert Systems 2. Natural Language Processing 3. Speech Recognition 4. Computer Vision 5. Robotics 6. Planning 7. Automatic Programming Expert Systems: It typically includes knowledge-based facts about the domain and rules for applying those facts in declarative and procedural forms of production rules. A question and answer technique that also may allow system to explain its reasoning may be diagrammed to show relationship among its parts. One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974, which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggested treatments. It did better than medical students or practicing doctors, provided its limitations were observed. 3

scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting, speech, and facial recognition. AI is the study of have to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better AREAS OF AI RESEARCH AI research has both theoretical and experimental sides. The experimental side has both basic and applied aspects.

Artificial Intelligence and workers Namely, its ontology included bacteria, possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. Computer Vision: As a camera is attached to computer can receive usual images. By those images it has proven to be a far more difficult task can be interpreted and can understand easily by what it is seeing. The goal is to give computers this same powerful facility for Natural Language Processing: Computers is often limited by communication imprecision, everyday parts. Speech Recognition: Speech recognition continues to be difficulties, ambiguity, Incompleteness they and inaccuracy analyzed lexical, understanding their surroundings. The world is composed of threedimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and computers' TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of twodimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use. Automatic Programming: Process of felling the computer exactly what you want it to do. A program or system must be designed written, tested, debugged and evaluated all as part of the program development process. Its aim is to create special programs that act as intelligent tools to assess programmers and expedite each phase of the programming process. 4

symptoms, and treatments and did not include patients, doctors, hospitals, death, recovery, and events occurring in time. Its interactions depended on a single patient being considered.

create difficulties, for this to make understand the language keyword, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic

subject of A.I research. It is to make computer to understand the natural speech and is having several advantages i.e., ease of access, speed, manual freedom, remote access should be present. In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the the other hand, while it is

Artificial Intelligence and workers Planning and decision support: The realization of complex goal may require the construction of formal and detailed plan. Intelligent planning programs are designed to provide active assistance in the planning process and are expected to be particularly helpful in decision making responsibilities. Heuristic classification: One of the most feasible kinds of expert system given the present knowledge of AI is to put some information in one of a fixed set of categories using several sources of information. An example is advising whether to accept a proposed credit card purchase. Game playing - Chess Alexander Kronrod, a Russian AI researcher, said ``Chess is the Drosophila of AI.'' He was making an analogy with geneticists' use of that fruit fly to study inheritance. Playing chess requires certain intellectual mechanisms and not others. Chess programs now play at grandmaster level, but they do it with limited intellectual mechanisms compared to those used by a human chess player, substituting large amounts of computation for understanding. Once we understand these mechanisms better, we can build human-level chess programs that do far less computation than do present programs. Unfortunately, the competitive and commercial aspects of making computers play chess have 5 Founded a nonprofit in 1979, the American devoted to Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is scientific society advancing the scientific understanding of the Continuing efforts in AI research are investigating advanced computer technology in areas such as VLSI and parallel processing. DARPA strategic computing program is focusing on the development of military applications. AI ACHIEVEMENTS: taken precedence over using chess as a scientific domain. It is as if the geneticists after 1910 had organized fruit fly races and concentrated their efforts on breeding fruit flies that could win these races.

American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI):-

Artificial Intelligence and workers mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions. The Twenty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence Robotics, papers that extend the state of the art, and explore parts of the design space of AI ... The Special Track on Artificial Intelligence and the Web (AIW) focuses on the use.December 1, 2009 January 18, 2010. computing. In some cases biology, medicine, chemistry might also be involved First, a robot must have a body of some kind. Science fiction robots are made to look human, but the appearance of an industrial robot depends entirely on its job. Most of the real robots today are like giant arms bolted to the floor. The robot itself stays in one place while the arm moves to perform a task, such as painting an automobile door or picking up parts moving by on a conveyor belt. Other robots, called mobile robots, move about. For example, robot arts carry materials inside a factory or deliver mail in an office building. An exciting ewe science has grown up in recent years around the idea of creating machines that can mimic human intelligence. This science is called artificial INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTS The term robot is first discovered by Isaac Asimov. Robot is reprogrammable multi functional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices. It is most advanced in terms of its actual implementation Well it is a system that contains sensors, control systems, manipulators, power supplies and software all working together to perform a task. Designing, building, programming and testing robots is a combination of physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering, mathematics and 6 intelligence or AI for short.

Artificial Intelligence and workers or a drill, are attached directly to the robot's wrist. Other types of grippers use magnets and vacuums to pick up and hold different objects. Robots come in many shape and sizes and have many different abilities. Basically, a robot is simply a computer with some sort of mechanical body designed to do a particular job. Usually, it is able to move and has one or more electronic senses. These senses are not nearly as powerful as our own senses of sight and hearing. Robots are constantly coming up with ways to make them see, hear and respond to the environment around them. Robotics has been a real science only since the 1970's Why do we need robots? First, they are hardworking and reliable. They can do dangerous work that is very boring or tiring for humans. They can work around the Just as humans have sense organs such as eyes and ears, robots need sensors. A robot might have electronic eyes to find its way around and see what it is doing; electronic ears to hear commands and noises, safety touch sensors to stop it if it accidentally bumps into anything. These are some of the many types of sensors used by robots. A robot might also need a voice to speak to its owner. Speech synthesizer chips can be programmed and controlled by a computer to speak in a voice that sounds almost human. Many robots need some type of hand, usually called a manipulator or gripper, to do their jobs. Sometimes different tools, such as a screwdriver 7 clock without complaining and without needing rest, food or vacations. And robots can go places that humans cannot, such as the surface of Mars, deep under the ocean or inside the radioactive parts of a nuclear power plant. The computer is perhaps the most important part of a robot, since it is the computer's "brain" that makes a robot different from other machines. Over the last several years, computers have become smaller and smaller. This is what has made possible the many recent advances in robotics, since robots can now carry their brains around with them. This was not possible when computers were the size of a large room only about 25 years ago. Computers can

Artificial Intelligence and workers seem like very complicated machines, but they are actually based on simple ideas. All computers today have the same basic part or hardware. The main part, where most of the actual computing is done, is the central processing unit (CPU). It carries out the instructions of the computer's program, or software, and directs the actions of all the other components of the computer. The CPU is made up of one or more plastic boards holding lots of electrical connectors and sockets. Cables are attached to the connectors from other parts of the computer. Integrated circuits, or IC's, are plugged into the sockets. The IC's are tiny chips, so small they could fit on the tip of your finger, housed in a protective plastic covering. Each chip is made mostly of silicon (a common element found in sand and rocks) and contains thousands of small switches. A second important part of a computer is the memory. This is where the CPU stores the data that it needs or the answers to the problems it works on. Memory is also a small chip, usually made of silicon within a plastic covering. Computer memory is different from human memory in two main ways. A computer's memory can hold a definite limited amount of information and no more. To add new data means that some of the old data must be erased. Secondly, a computer's memory doesn't forget over time and only forgets when told to do so. Some types of memory, however, lose the information they are processing when the power is turned off. 8 Depending on the motion it is divided into two: 1) Servo robots CONTROLING Asimov's 3 laws of Robotics The 3 laws of robotics are intended to give humanity an ethical framework for the time when intelligent robots become a part of our daily lives. The laws are: 1. A robot must not injure, or allow the injury of, any human being. 2. A robot must obey all orders from humans, except orders that would contradict the first law. 3. A robot must protect itself, except when to do so would contradict the First or Second Law. A computer needs a way to move information in and out of its brain. One familiar input device is the keyboard. It is used by humans to type information into the computer. Joysticks and paddles are other input devices. You've probably used them to play video games. An output device is where the computer sends information out to the user or asks questions about what it should do next. It can be the computer's monitor (screen), a printer or a storage device like a disk drive.

Artificial Intelligence and workers 2) Non servo robots SERVO ROBOTS: Servo robots considered to be intelligent only if it can alter its own trajectory in response to feed back from a sensing device, technique. Its again of two types Play back control and computer control. NONSERVO ROBOTS: It does not include a servo mechanism, a device that can correct a robots performance. It used an open loop technique to move from one location to another, it moves until something physically blocks its path, mainly used in pick and place applications. Point to point control and continuous path control are the motions that are present. AI technique used in programming an intelligent robot allows it to understand its environment and to take appropriate intelligent actions in response to theirs external situations. Applications outside the Earth's atmosphere are clearly a good fit for robots. It is dangerous for humans to get to space, to be in space and to return from space. Keeping robots operating reliably in space presents some unique challenges for engineers. The ultra-high vacuum in space prevents the use of most types of lubricants. The temperatures can swing wildly depending on whether the robot is in the sun light or shade. And, of course, there is almost no gravity. The conceptual robot above has 21 independent joints. On earth it would be impossible for this robot to support its own weight, but in space, the design presents some unique capabilities. The robot can reach around obstacles and through port holes. The robot also possesses a huge degree of fault tolerance. It can continue to operate with excellent dexterity even after several joints fail. 9

Applications of robots (Recent):

-Robots in Space

Artificial Intelligence and workers obstacles a wheel diameter (13cm) in size. Each wheel is independently actuated and geared (2000:1). The front and rear wheels are independently steerable, providing the capability for the vehicle to turn in place. The vehicle has a top speed of 0.4m/min. It is powered by a 0.22sqm solar panel comprised of 13 strings of 18, 5.5mil GaAs cells each. The normal driving power requirement for the micro rover is 10W. -Robots in the Military The Predator shown below has probably become our military's most famous unmanned vehicle. It is essentially a super high-tech r/c plane though it does have some autonomous flying capabilities. Originally designed for reconnaissance, it now can be outfitted with a variety of different weaponry, most recently the laser-guided AGM114 Hellfire anti-armor missiles. It is roughly 29 feet long with a 49 foot wingspan. Since 1995, the Predator has seen action over Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan.

Left we see the Canadarm robot arm, a version of which has flown on every Space Shuttle flight for the last twenty years. The arm has a shoulder with 2 DOF, an elbow with 1 DOF and a 3 DOF wrist. The arm is routinely used as a mobile work platform for the astronauts, for "tossing" satellites into space and for retrieving faulty ones. Nonroutine uses have included: knocking a block of ice from a clogged waste-water vent, pushing a faulty antenna into place, and activating a satellite that failed to go into proper orbit. Several of these arms have been in service for twenty years.

At top we see a press photograph of the Sojourner mobile robot that ultimately explored the surface of Mars. This is more of an R/C car than a robot as it was completely remote controlled from Earth, but NASA calls it a robot so I will too. In any case, the pictures it provided from the Martian surface were breath taking. Sometimes I think that really cool pictures may be NASA's greatest contributions. The deep field images produced by the Hubble telescope are in my opinion some of the greatest wonders of mankind. The Sojourner is a 6-wheeled vehicle of a rocker bogie design which allows the traverse of 10

The photo at top shows a robotic mine-sweeper. It is basically a tractor with a bunch of swinging chains mounted on the front. These chains pound the ground with significant forces to explode any buried mines. Using GPS and relatively simple

Artificial Intelligence and workers control algorithms, robots such as these can be programmed to methodically cover large areas of ground in a perfect grid. Vehicles like this can also be equipped with water cutting tools to cut into and through explosive ordnance, water cannons to disperse unruly mobs and charge setters to explode suspicious packages. For these operations the unmanned vehicle would be teleported. a labeled-line code; biomimetic controllers, based on the relatively simple control systems of invertebrate animals; and autonomous behaviors that are based on the actual animal's behavior. If a robot like this goes walking around on the ocean floor, I wonder if a big fish will eat it. Remotely operated robotic vehicles. This process resembles conventional bomb disarming. The robot vehicle has cameras which broadcast video to a controller. The robot may be used to cut the mine free, disarm the mine, or disrupt it. Disrupting is the use of small amount of explosive to separate the fuse from the explosive charge.

-Undersea Robots

LATEST INDIAN ROBOTIC TECHNOLOGY: Undersea operations are a great application for robotics to replace humans. Working underwater is both dangerous and difficult for humans. Schilling Robotics makes the system shown at left. This system combines a remote operated vehicle with thrusters for maneuvering and two robot arms for manipulating. Note that one of the arms is almost a grappler. It can grab something rigid, such as the base of an oil rig, to steady the vehicle while the other arm performs such tasks as welding and valve maintenance.

-Alarm robot:

The above shown alarm robot was developed by the B.Tech students which The robot at top is a biomimetic (mimicking biology) lobster developed by the Northeastern University Marine Science Center. Biomimetic robots may employ myomorphic actuators, which mimic muscle action; neuromorphic sensors, which, like animal sensors, represent sensory modalities such as light, pressure, and motion in 11 stood among the top three at national level robotic symposium held at pune in June 2010.This robot is included with sensors that helps it not falling from the table and the robot

Artificial Intelligence and workers

moves away when we try to stop the alarm with our hands.

Technology in CHANDRAYAAN I & II:

Recently in the CHANDRAYAAN I & CHANDRAYAAN II missions organized by ISRO artificial intelligence i.e. robotic technology was used. Robotic arms are used that helps taking the photographs. Mr. MADHAVAN NAIR chairman of ISRO said that though CHANDRAYAAN he added that I was not successful II will completely but it gave us the required results and CHANDRAYAAN completed by 2015.



Artificial Intelligence and workers The concept of SHAPE SHIFTING ROBOTS was revealed on 5 august 2010. Shapeshifting robot is a device that can enter a system as a sheet, perform duties in some other shape and return as a sheet. given a three-dimensional shape, can determine how to reproduce it by folding a sheet of semirigid material with a distinctive pattern of flexible creases. To test out their theories, they built a prototype that can automatically assume the shape of either an origami boat or a paper airplane when it receives different electrical signals. The researchers reported their results in the July 13 issue of the Proceedings of the National As director at Laboratory Artificial robots in Academy of the the of Distributed Laboratory together is snap Sciences. Robotics and (CSAIL), to tackle called like Science


Intelligence can work

Professor Daniela Rus researches systems of that complicated tasks. One of the big research areas distributed robots robotics could whats together programmable matter, the idea that small, uniform robots. intelligent Legos to create larger, more versatile

These robots are studded with magnets and electronic muscles known as actuators, a prototype robot developed at MIT can automatically fold itself into an airplane or an origami boat. By combining origami and electrical engineering, researchers at MIT and Harvard are working to develop the ultimate reconfigurable robot one that can turn into absolutely anything. The researchers have developed algorithms that, 13

This topic gives the how ATRIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE helps to made complex applications done with robots and how robots are useful to us what the human dont do .Robots mean more than just Sony dogs and Mars Rovers: land, air, sea, and underwater.

References: -www.google.com -News papers.

Artificial Intelligence and workers

-artificial intelligence journals.