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Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7


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EFFECT OF AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE ON SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF NATURALLY ASPIRATED DIESEL ENGINE
Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari2a, Ziyad J. Talabany3a 1 Mechanical Engineer 2 Assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering Department 3 Assistant Lecturer of Mechanical Engineering Department a Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq
Abstract
Received: 03 Mar 2013 Accepted: 23 Mar 2013 Keywords: Components Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine Inlet Air Temperature Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Electric Heater Engine Speed
This paper aims it finding the effect of increase of the ambient air temperature before entering the naturally aspirated diesel engine on specific fuel consumption. The experimental investigation was carried out on a diesel engine four strokes, water cooled and indirect injection. The experiments covered all tests. The tests included heating of the inlet air temperature by designing an electric heater then increasing the air temperature entering into the diesel engine. The results showed that brake specific fuel consumption increased with increasing inlet air temperature. Also the results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing the brake mean effective pressure. Experimental data obtained in this work were compared with other references were found to be in good agreement with experimental results.

1. INTRODUCTION The internal combustion engine is a heat engine that converts chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy. The power is usually made available on a rotating output shaft. The chemical energy of the fuel is first converted to thermal energy by means of combustion or oxidation with air inside the engine. This thermal energy raises the temperature and pressure of the gases within the engine and the high-pressure gas then expands against the mechanical mechanisms of the engine. This expansion is converted by the mechanical linkages of the engine to a rotating crankshaft, which is the output of the engine. The crankshaft, in turn, is connected to a transmission and/or power train to transmit the rotating mechanical energy to the desired final use [1]. The internal combustion engines which were invented in the last decades of the 19th century began to influence on human activities and environment in the beginning of the 20th century. At the end of the century the air pollution with combustion products and immoderate consumption of energy resources became unbearable [2]. Lin C. Y. [3] investigated systematically the effects of humidity and temperature of intake air on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines in order to improve their design and operations.

Correspondence:

Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari Assistant professor Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq

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Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7 Nomenclatures:


A/F Bmep Bp Bsfc Cc

Page |2

Air/fuel ratio Brake mean effect pressure [N/m ] Brake power [kW] Brake specific fuel consumption [kg/kW-h] Cubic capacity Mass flow rate of air [kg/s]
2

N T Ap B L k

Engine speed [r.p.m] Engine torque [Nm] Piston area [m2 ] Bore diameter [mm] Stroke [mm] Number of cylinder

ma

mf
P Sfc p

Mass flow rate of fuel [kg/s] Power [kW] Specific fuel consumption [kg/kW-h] Pressure [N/m ]
2

n
.

Number of power stroke Fuel discharge [m3/s] Fuel density [kg/m3]

Qf
f

This study shows that the air consumption rate, brake torque, and nitrogen oxides decrease, while the brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide increase with both the temperature and humidity of the charge air. Talal F. [4] Canned out experimentally a performance and emission testing for a single cylinder four-stroke diesel engine to determine the optimum operation conditions for this engine. The studied operation parameters included brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the results indicated that the lowest( BSFC) of the engine was found when the engine ran around 1 kW charging load at a speed ranging between 1900 rpm and 2700 rpm. Brian D.Feldman [7] Modeling an engine through software methods to obtained reasonably accurate data based on reasonably accurate assumptions. Modeling the 2.5LDetroit Diesel engine will help the Future Truck team to make quick and informed decisions .Assumptions were made in the construction of the model because all operating parameters were not obtainable. However, it can be seen that the model is sufficiently similar to the actual engine because major characteristics such as (BSFC) and exhaust gas temperatures are similar. The most effective strategy for balancing emissions, fuel economy, performance, and cost in a diesel engine requires a combination of techniques. The aim of this study is to test the influence of increasing ambient air temperature on brake specific fuel consumption of naturally aspirated diesel engines.

2. PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
2.1 ENGINE POWER Power is the amount of work done per unit time or the rate of doing work. The measure of the engine's ability to apply power generation is called torque. Engine torque is normally measured by a dynamometer. The engine is clamped on a test bed and the shaft is connected to the dynamometer rotor, Brake power refers to the amount of usable power delivered by the engine to the crankshaft [5]. 2 N T bp = (1) 60 1000 2.2 SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC) The fuel consumption characteristics of an engine are generally expressed in terms of specific fuel consumption in kilograms of fuel per kilowatt-hour. In engine tests, the fuel consumption is measured as a
.

flow rate-mass flow per unit time ( m f ). A more useful parameter is the specific fuel consumption (SFC) the fuel flow rate per unit power output. It measures how efficiently an engine uses the fuel supplied to produce work [5]:

SFC =

mf P

(2)

3 | P a g e Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany

m f = Qf f
Qf =

(3) (4)

volume of fuel time

2.3 BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE (BMEP) For any particular engine, operating at a given speed and power output, there is brake mean effective pressure (Bmep) derived from the brake power [6]. 60 1000 bp Bmep = (5) L AP n K

3. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
The experimental work for this study was carried out in the laboratory of the mechanical engineering department. Experiments were performed on (Ford XLD 416 indirect injection diesel engine). The test rig can be shown in Figure (2). 3.1 SCHEMATIC CHART OF EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The experimental setup of the present work step by step can be shown in Figure ( 1 ). According to the Figure ( 1 ), all the procedures were taken in into consideration during the investigation along with the ranges of engine parameters and were then analyzed. The data collected was applied by direct mathematical equations to find the influence of increase in the ambient of air temperature on performance of the aspirated diesel engine.

Figure (1) A schematic chart for the experimental setup.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Experiments were performed to study the effect of inlet air temperature on brake specific fuel

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7

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consumption, Figure (3) illustrates the effect of inlet air temperature on brake specific fuel consumption at constant engine speed (1500 r.p.m) and varying torques. It was observed that the brake specific fuel consumption increased with increasing inlet air temperature while brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing engine torque. Figure (4) illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with inlet air temperature at constant engine torque (50 N.m) and different engine speed. It was also observed that the brake specific fuel consumption increases with increasing inlet air temperature. Figure (4) also shows the effect of engine speed on the brake specific fuel consumption, decreased with the increase in the engine speed due to the shorter time for heat loss during each cycle. At higher engine speeds (2700 and 3000 r.p.m) fuel consumption again increases because of high friction lose. Figure (5) illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed and different engine torque. It can also be observed that the brake specific fuel consumption decreases with increasing engine speed. The figure also shows that brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increase in the engine torque. Figure (6) illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with brake mean effective pressure. It can observed that brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increase in the brake mean effective pressure, because the brake mean effective pressure does not depend on engine speed. Rather, it depends on engine torque ,as well as on the increasing brake mean effective pressure. This means increasing brake torque leads to increase in the brake power as a result of decreasing brake specific fuel consumption. It also shows that the decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing engine speed. Figure (7) illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed specified in the present work and [7]. It can be observed that the brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing engine speed for both works. It also showed that the decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed of the present work is in a good agreement with [7]. The main reason for the existence of a difference between the present work and researcher [7] is the diesel engine used in present work ( Old laboratory-made engine) and consumer testers and currently does not exist in our laboratories( new laboratory-made engine) compared to the engine and Model used by the researcher [7]. Figure (8) illustrates the variation of the brake specific fuel consumption with brake power of the present work and [7]. It can be observed that the brake specific fuel consumption decreased with increasing brake power for both works. It also shows that the decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption with brake power of present work is in a good agreement with [7].

4. CONCLUSIONS
The results of this investigation show that: 1. Brake specific fuel consumption increases with increasing inlet air temperature in all experimental results used in the present work and decreases with both engine torque and engine speed. The decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption with engine speed occurs until reaching (2500 r.p.m) then increases at (2700 r.p.m) and above. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases with increasing brake mean effective pressure. 2. At higher engine speeds (above 2500 r.p.m) the brake specific fuel consumption increases because of high friction lose. 3. Brake thermal efficiency increases with increasing brake mean effective pressure. 4. The heating of air affected combustion, because of enlargement of air size at heating with same amount of fuel, leads to less air available to burn with fuel led to high fuel consumption.

REFERENCES
[1] Willard W. Pulkrabek, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, Pages 1- 27. [2] Algis Butkus, Saugirdas Pukalskas and Zenonas Bogdanoviius, (2007), The Influence Of Turpentine Additive On The Ecological Parameters Of Diesel Engines, Dept of Automobile Transport, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanaviiaus g. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania, Volume 22, Page 80. [3] Lin C. Y. and Jeng Y. L., (1996), Influences of charge air humidity and temperature on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Jersey City, NJ, ETATS-UNIS, Volume 40, pp. 172-177 .

5 | P a g e Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany

[4] Talal F. Yusaf, (2009), Diesel Engine Optimization for Electric Hybrid Vehicles, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Volume 131, Issue 1, Pages 12203-12207. [5]. U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C, Department Of Energy Fundamentals Handbook, mechanical Science, Module 1: Diesel Engine Fundamentals, Volume 1of 2, Pages 2 19, (1993). [6]. V. Ganesan, (2004), Internal Combustion Engines, Tata, McGraw-Hill, second edition, Pages 25 597, [7] Brian David Feldman, (2004), Diesel Engine Modeling in wave, The Pennsylvania State University, Schreyer Honors College, Pages 11-13.

Figure (2) Diesel engine with air heater.

Figure (3) Effect of inlet air temperature on the brake specific fuel consumption, at constant engine speed (1500 r.p.m) and different engine torques.

Figure (4) Effect of inlet air temperature on the brake specific fuel consumption, at constant engine torque (50 N.m) and different engine speeds.

Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 1 (1), 2013, 1-7

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0.5 0.45

T orque=15 N.m T orque=30 N.m T orque=50 N.m

bsfc (kg/kWh)

0.4 0.35

T orque=75 N.m

0.3 0.25 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Engine speed (r.p.m)

T orque=100 N.m

Figure (5) Brake specific fuel consumption as a function of engine speed for different engine torques.

Figure (6) Effect of brake mean effective pressure on brake specific fuel consumption for different engine speeds.

Figure (7) Comparison between acquired experimental results and experimental results for the [7].

7 | P a g e Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany

Figure (8) Comparison between acquired experimental results and experimental results for the [7].

Please cite this article as: Hindren A. Saber1a, Ramzi R. Ibraheem Al-Barwari, Ziyad J. Talabany, (2013), Effect Of Ambient Air Temperature On Specific Fuel Consumption Of Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine, Science and Engineering, Vol. 1(1), 1-7.