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MBA HRM NOTES HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
# HUMAN RESOURCE REFERS TO THE PEOPLE WHO WORK IN AN ORG. THE TERM SEEKS TO COMMUNICATE THE BELIEF THAT THE EMPLOYEES OF AN ORG ARE NOT JUST PEOPLE, BUT VALUABLE RESOURCES THAT HELP AN ORG TO ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES. PEOPLE ARE CENTRAL TO THE ORGs. THE FINANCIAL CAPITAL, TECHNOLOGY OR PROCESSES OF THE ORG, BY THEMSELVES, CANNOT ACCOMPLISH ORG GOALS. THESE RESOURCES DEPEND ON HRs FOR THEIR EFFECTIVE & EFFICIENT UTILIZATION. # HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ( HRM ) ENSURES THE MOST EFFECTIVE & EFFICIENT USE OF HUMAN TALENT FOR ACCOMPLISHING THE GOALS OF AN ORG.

WHAT IS HRM?
# HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ( H R M ) IS A STRATEGIC & COHERENT APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT OF AN ORGS MOST VALUED ASSETSTHE PEOPLE WORKING THERE WHO INDIVIDUALLY & COLLECTIVELY CONTRIBUTE TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ITS OBJECTIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. [ STRATEGY IS THE DETERMINATION OF THE BASIC LONG-TERM GOALS & OBJECTIVES OF AN ORG & THE ADOPTION OF THE COURSES OF ACTION & THE ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES NECESSARY FOR CARRYING OUT THESE GOALS. THUS THERE ARE THREE ASPECTS TO STRATEGY-----DETERMINATION OF BASIC LONG-TERM GOALS & OBJECTIVES; ADOPTION OF COURSES OF ACTION TO ACHIEVE THESE OBJECTIVES & ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES NECESSARY FOR ADOPTING THE COURSES OF ACTION. ] ( COHERENT MEANS LOGICAL & CONSISTENT; HOLDING TOGETHER TO FORM A WHOLE ) # HRM IS A STRATEGIC, INTEGRATED & COHERENT APPROACH TO THE EMPLOYMENT, DEVELOPMENT & WELL-BEING OF THE PEOPLE WORKING IN ORG. # HRM INVOLVES ALL MANAGEMENT DECISIONS & ACTIONS THAT AFFECT THE NATURE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORG & ITS EMPLOYEES ---THAT ITS HR ---( BEER 1984 )

# HRM COMPRISES A SET OF POLICIES DESIGNED TO MAXIMIZE ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRATION. EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT, FLEXIBILITY & QUALITY OF WORK. ----( GUEST, 1987 ). ( COMMITMENT IS THE STRENGTH OF AN INDIVIDUALS IDENTIFICATION WITH, & INVOLVEMENT IN, A PERTICULAR ORG.)

OBJECTIVES OF HRM 1. TO ENSURE THAT THE ORG IS ABLE TO ACHIEVE SUCCESS THROUGH PEOPLE /
EMPLOYEES. 2. TO INCREASE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS & CAPABILITY. AND 3. TO BE CONCERNED WITH THE RIGHTS & NEEDS OF PEOPLE IN ORGs THROUGH THE EXERCISE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.

HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS


# HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS REFER TO TASKS PERFORMED IN AN ORG TO PROVIDE FOR & COORDINATE HRs. HR FUNCTIONS ARE CONCERNED WITH A VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES THAT SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCE ALMOST ALL AREAS OF AN ORG & AIM AT :1. ENSURING THAT THE ORG FULFILS ALL OF ITS EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES & OTHER GOVT OBLIGATIONS. 2. CARRYING OUT JOB ANALYSIS TO ESTABLISH THE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR INDIVIDUAL JOBS WITHIN AN ORG. 3. FORECASTING THE HR REQUIREMENTS NECESSARY FOR THE ORG TO ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVESBOTH IN TERMS OF NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES & SKILLS. 4. DEVELOPING & IMPLEMENTING A PLAN TO MEET THESE REQUIREMENTS. 5. RECRUITING & SELECTING PERSONNEL TO FILL SPECIFIC JOBS WITHIN AN ORG. 6. ORIENTING & TRG EMPLOYEES. 7. DESIGNING & IMPLEMENTING MANAGEMENT & ORG DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES. 8. DESIGNING SYSTEMS FOR APPRAISING THE PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS. 9. ASSISTING EMPLOYEES IN DEVELOPING CAREER PLANS. 10. DESIGNING & IMPLEMENTING COMPENSATION SYSTEM FOR ALL EMPLOYEES.

IMPORTANCE OF HRM
# CORPORATE LEVEL FOR AN ENTERPRISE EFFECTIVE HRM LEADS TO ATTAINMENT OF ITS GOAL EFFICIENTLY AND

EFFECTIVELY. HRM HELPS ENTERPRISE IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS. A. HIRING REQUIRED SKILL SET AND RETAINING THEM THROUGH EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, PLACEMENT, ORIENTATION AND PROMOTION POLICIES. B. DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEES BY ENHANCING NECESSARY SKILLS AND RIGHT ATTITUDE AMONG EMPLOYEES THROUGH TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT, PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS ETC. C. HRM ALSO TAKES CARE OF OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF AVAILABLE HUMAN RESOURCE. D. HRM ALSO ENSURES THAT ORGANIZATION HAS A COMPETENT TEAM AND DEDICATED EMPLOYEES IN FUTURE

#SIGNIFICANCE AT PROFESSIONAL LEVEL A. HRM ALSO LEADS TO IMPROVED QUALITY OF WORK LIFE, IT ENABLES EFFECTIVE TEAM WORK AMONG EMPLOYEES BY PROVIDING HEALTHY WORKING ENVIRONMENT. IT ALSO CONTRIBUTES TO PROFESSIONAL GROWTH IN VARIOUS WAYS SUCH AS B. BY PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPLOYEE ENABLING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TEAMS AND ALLOCATING WORK PROPERLY TO EMPLOYEES AS WELL AS TEAMS. [ # QWL HAS BEEN DEFINED AS THE QUALITY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEES & THE TOTAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT. QWL SEEKS TO CREATE THOSE CONDITIONS IN THE ORG, WHICH :1. PROMOTE INDIVIDUAL LEARNING & DEVELOPMENT. 2. PROVIDE INDIVIDUALS WITH INFLUENCE & CONTROL OVER WHAT THEY DO & HOW THEY DO IT. 3. MAKE AVAILABLE TO THE INDIVIDUALS INTERESTING & MEANINGFUL WORK AS A SOURCE OF PERSONAL SATISFACTION & MEANS TO VALUED PERSONAL REWARDS. ] #Significance at Social Level

A. HRM PLAYS IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE SOCIETY, IT HELPS LABOUR TO LIVE WITH PRIDE AND DIGNITY BY PROVIDING EMPLOYMENT WHICH IN TURN GIVES THEM SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SATISFACTION. B. HRM ALSO MAINTAINS BALANCE BETWEEN OPEN JOBS AND JOB SEEKERS.

#SIGNIFICANCE AT NATIONAL LEVEL HRM PLAYS A VERY SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATION. EFFICIENT AND COMMITTED HUMAN RESOURCE LEADS TO EFFECTIVE EXPLOITATION AND UTILIZATION OF A NATIONS NATURAL, PHYSICAL AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES. SKILLED AND DEVELOPED HUMAN RESOURCE ENSURES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THAT COUNTRY. IF PEOPLE ARE UNDERDEVELOPED THEN THAT COUNTRY WILL BE UNDERDEVELOPED. EFFECTIVE HRM ENHANCES ECONOMIC GROWTH WHICH IN TURN LEADS TO HIGHER STANDARD OF LIVING AND MAXIMUM EMPLOYMENT. # IMPORTANCE OF HRM GOOD HR PRACTICES HELP: 1) ATTRACT AND RETAIN TALENT 2) TRAIN PEOPLE FOR CHALLENGING ROLES 3) DEVELOP SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES 4) PROMOTE TEAM SPIRIT 5) DEVELOP LOYALTY AND COMMITMENT 6) INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITS 7) IMPROVE JOB SATISFACTION 8) ENHANCE STANDARD OF LIVING 9) GENERATE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES.

EVOLUTION OF HRM
# IN UK, THE DEVELOPMENT IS CLASSIFIED IN SIX STAGES :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. WELFARE STAGE ( 1915 TO 1920 ) THAT IS AFTER WORLD WAR ONE. PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION STAGE ---( 1930 S ) THE DEVELOPING STAGE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT ( 1940 S & 1950 S) THE MATURE STAGE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT ( 1960 S & 1970 S ) HRM-- PHASE -ONE ( 1980S ) HRM ---PHASE TWO ( 1990 ONWARDS )

# IN INDIA DEVELOPMENT OF HRM IS IN FIVE STAGES :1. WELFARE STAGE ( BEFORE 1947 ) 2. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS STAGE ( 1947 TO 1960 ) 3. PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION STAGE ( 1970 S ) 4. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT STAGE ( 1980S ) AND 5. HRM STAGE ( 1990 ONWARDS ) # SALIENT FEATURES OF EACH STAGE ARE GIVEN BELOW :1. WELFARE STAGE :-

SUBHUMAN CONDITIONS DURING THE EARLY BRITISH PERIOD. ENACTMENT OF FACTORY ACT 1881 EMERGENCE OF TRADE UNIONS ----- IN 1890, THE FIRST LABOUR ORGANIZATION BOMBAY MILL HANDS ASSOCIATION WAS ESTABLISHED. SUBSEQUENTLY MANY UNIONS ALL OVER INDIA CAME UP. FIRST WELFARE OFFICER & OTHER DEVELOPMENTS ------ IN 1923, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN ORGANIZED SECTOR, TATA STEEL APPOINTED K.A. NAOROJI AS A LABOUR OR WELFARE OFFICER. THE FORMAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INDIAN TRADE UNION ACT, 1926 ALL OVER INDIA MANY WELFARE OFFICERS WERE APPOINTED IN 1942, CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY STARTED A DIPLOMA COURSE IN SOCIAL WELFARE TO IMPART TRG TO WELFARE OFFICERS. 2. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS STAGE ( 1947 TO 1960 ) : ENACTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1947. THE WELFARE OFFICERS STARTED WORKING AS IR OFFICERS. DEMARCATING WELFARE & PERSONNEL OFFICERS. 3. PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION STAGE ( 1970 S ) : THE PERSONNEL FIELD COVERED THREE MAJOR AREAS OF PROFESSIONAL DISCIPLINE NAMELY LABOUR WELFARE, IR & PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION. THUS THREE PROFESSIONAL FUNCTIONARIES STARTED WORKING. LABOUR WELFARE COMBINED WITH PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION BEING REFERRED AS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT. 4. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT STAGE ( 1980S ) : MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES WAS REGARDED AS A SPECIALIAZED PROFESSION THE HEAD OF PERSONNEL DEPT FORMULATED PERSONNEL POLICIES FOR THE COY. PERSONNEL MANAGER PERFORMED THE DUTIES OF LINE MANAGER IN HIS / HER DEPT. THE PERSONNEL MANAGER PERFORMED A SERIES OF TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES --LIKE CONTRACT NEGOTIATION, GRIEVANCE HANDLING ETC. THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF PERSONNEL MANAGER INCREASED MANY FOLD. THE PERSONNAL MANAGERS RESPONSIBILITIES RELATED TO HIS ADVISORY ROLE CAME IN. 5. HRM STAGE ( 1990 ONWARDS ) :-

LPG ----- LED TO THE EMERGENCE OF NEW HRM THE ECONOMY & POLITY OF INDIA WAS FAST CHANGING & HENCE NEW ERA OF HRM EMERGED. HRM ACQUIRED STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE BECAUSE OF LIBERALIZATION. INTRODUCTION OF NEW IR HR POLICIES AT THE NATIONAL & COY LEVEL. REALIZATION OF FLEXIBILITY & NOT CLINGING TO RIGID POSTURES. [ # TO LIBERALISE IS TO REMOVE OR LOOSEN RESTRICTIONS ON ECONOMIC OR POLITICAL
SYSTEMS. LIBERALISATION AIMED AT FREEING INDUSTRY, BUSINESS & TRADE FROM THE CLUTCHES OF CONTROL, DECONTROLLING MACRO-ECONOMY OF THE COUNTRY & ITS ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS & CHANGING THE STRUCTURAL INFIRMITIES. LIBERALISATIONS INCLUDE LIBERALISING INDUSTRY, BUSINESS & TRADE BOTH DOMESTIC & FOREIGN. # LIBERALISATION REFERS TO A SET OF MEASURES & REFORMS AIMED AT THE CREATION OF AN OPEN ECONOMY. ]

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PM & HRM : THESE COULD BE :1. PM IS A ROUTINE, MAINTENANCE-ORIENTED ADMIN FUNCTION WHERE AS HRM EMPHASIS CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE AT WORK. 2. PM FUNCTION IS MAINLY REACTIVE & RESPONDS TO THE DEMANDS OF AN ORG WHENEVER THEY ARISE. HRM IS PROACTIVE FUNCTION. IT IS NOT ONLY CONCERNED WITH THE PRESENT ORG NEEDS BUT ANTICIPATES FUTURE NEEDS & ACTS ACCORDINGLY. 3. PM IS SEEN AS INDEPENDENT FUNCTION WITHOUT GIVING DUE REGARD TO ORG STRATEGIES & PROCESSES. HRM TAKES INTO ACCOUNT ITS LINKAGES & INTERFACES WITH ALL OTHER PARTS OF THE ORG. 4. PM TAKES A NARROW VIEW OF ITS SCOPE & OBJECTIVES. IT CONCENTRATES MAINLY ON IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF PERSONNEL IN ISOLATION WITHOUT EMPHASISING THE RELEVENCE OF EFFICIENCY IN THE ORG CONTEXT. HRM UNDERTAKES A SYSTEMS VIEW IN WHICH ATTEMPT IS MADE NOT ONLY TO MAKE PEOPLE EFFICIENT BUT TO CREATE PROPER ORG CULTURE TO UTILISE THE EFFICIENCY. 5.PM EMPHASISES ON ECONOMIC REWARDS & TRADITIONAL JOB DESIGN FOR MOTIVATING PEOPLE FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE. HRM EMPHASISES ON THE SATISFACTION OF HIGHER NEEDS FOR MOTIVATING PEOPLE FOR JOB SATISFACTION. # THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PM & HRM ARE FUTHER TABULATED BELOW :-

SR
1.

DIMENSION
EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT

PM
CAREFUL DISCRIPTION OF WRITTEN CONTRACT IMPORTANCE OF DEVISING CLEAR RULES

HRM
AIM TO GO BEYOND CONTRACT

2.

RULES

CAN DO OUTLOOK, IMPATIENCE WITH RULES BUSINESS NEED VALUES/ MISSION


NURTURING.

3.

GUIDE TO MANAGEMENT ACTION BEHAVIOUR REFERENT

PROCEDURES
NORMS/CUSTOMS & PRACTICES

4.

5.

MANAGERIAL TASK VIS-VIS LABOUR

MONITORING
LABOUR MANAGEMENT CUSTOMER INTEGRATED FAST TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP DIRECT FACILITATION

6.

KEY RELATIONS
7. 8. 9. INITIATIVES SPEED OF DECISION MANAGEMENT ROLE PIECEMEAL SLOW TRANSACTIONAL

10. 11.

COMMUNICATION PRIZED MANAGEMENT SKILLS SELECTION PAY CONDITIONS LABOUR MANAGEMENT

INDIRECT NEGOTIATION

12. 13. 14. 15.

SEPARATE, MARGINAL TASK JOB EVALUATION SEPERATELY NEGOTIATED COLLECTIVE-BARGAINING CONTRACTS

INTEGRATED, KEY TASK PERFORMANCE RELATED HARMONISATION INDIVIDUAL CONTRACTS

16.

JOB CATAGORIES & GRADES JOB DESIGN CONFLICT HANDLING

MANY

FEW

17. 18.

DIVISION OF LABOUR REACH TEMPORARY TRUCE

TEAM WORK MANAGE CLIMATE & CULTURE LEARNING COYS

19.

TRG & DEVELOPMENT

CONTROLLED ACCESS TO COURCES PERSONNEL PROCEDURES

20.

FOCUS OF ATTENTION FOR INTERVENTIONS

WIDE-RANGING CULTURAL, STRUCTURAL & PERSONNEL STRATEGIES. PEOPLE ARE TREATED AS ASSETS TO BE USED FOR THE BENEFIT OF AN ORG, ITS EMPLOYEES & THE SOCIETY AS A WHOLE. MUTUALITY OF INTERESTS

21.

RESPECT FOR EMPLOYEES

LABOUR IS TREATED AS A TOOL WHICH IS EXPENDABLE & REPLACEABLE

22.

SHARED INTERESTS

INTERESTS OF THE ORG ARE UPPERMOST PRECEDES HRM

23.

EVOLUTION

LATEST IN THE EVOLUATION OF THE SUBJECT.

STRATEGIC HRM ( SHRM )


# DICTIONARY MEANING OF STRATEGIC IS FORMING PART OF A LONG-TERM PLAN OR AIM TO ACHIEVE A SPECIFIC PURPOSE. # CHANDLER ( 1962 ) HAS DEFINED STRATEGY AS, THE DETERMINATION OF THE LONG TERM GOALS & OBJECTIVES OF AN ORG & THE ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES NECESSARY FOR CARRYING OUT THESE GOALS. # GIVEN THE INCREASINGLY SIGNIFICANT ROLE OF HRs IN AN ORG, HRM HAS BECOME STRATEGIC IN NATURE. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ( SHRM ) IS CONCERNED WITH THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HRM & THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

IN AN ORG. SHRM IS AN APPROACH WHICH RELATES TO DECISIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP, RECRUITMENT, T & D, PM, REWARD & EMPLOYEE RETENTION. # WRIGHT & McMAHAN ( 1992 ) DEFINED SHRM AS, THE PATTERN OF PLANNED HR DEPLOYMENT & ACTIVITIES INTENDED TO ENABLE THE FIRM TO ACHIEVE ITS GOALS # SHRM HAS BEEN DEFINED AS, ALL THOSE ACTIVITIES AFFECTING THE BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS IN THEIR EFFORTS TO FORMULATE AND IMPLEMENT THE STRATEGIC NEEDS OF THE BUSINESS BY SCHULER,1992. # SHRM ADDRESSES BROAD ORG ISSUES RELATING TO CHANGES IN STRUCTURE & CULTURE, ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS & PERFORMANCE. IT ENDEAVOURS TO MATCH RESOURCES TO FUTURE REQUIREMENTS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISTINCTIVE CAPABILITIES , KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT & THE MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE. IT IS CONCERNED WITH BOTH HUMAN CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS & THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CAPABILITYTHAT IS THE ABILITY TO GET THINGS DONE EFFECTIVELY.

ROLE OF HR MANAGER
# IN CONTEXT OF CONTINUOUSLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENT, HR MANAGERS PERFORM VARIED ROLES TO ACCOMPLISH OUTSTANDING RESULTS , WHICH INCLUDE :1. THE REACTIVE / PROACTIVE ROLES 2. THE BUSINESS PARTNER ROLE. 3. THE STRATEGIC ROLE. 4. THE INTERVENTIONIST ROLE. 5. THE INNOVATIVE ROLE. 6. THE INTERNAL CONSULTANCY ROLE. AND 7. THE MONITORING ROLE.
# THE REACTIVE / PROACTIVE ROLES --- MAINLY REACTIVE ROLES. AT STRATEGIC LEVEL, PROACTIVE ROLES

ACT AS INTERNAL CONSULTANTS & PROVIDE GUIDENCE ON ISSUES RELATING TO

UPHOLDING CORE VALUES. # BUSINESS PARTNER ROLE ---- INTEGRATE THEIR ACTIVITIES WITH TOP MANAGEMENT. IDENTIFY BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES. FACILITATE ATTAINMENT OF THE FIRMS BUSINESS OBJECTIVES. MAKE PROPOSALS FOR INNOVATIONS THAT HAVE VALUE ADDITION SHARE RESPONSIBILITY WITH LINE MANAGERS FOR THE SUCCESS OF THE COY. # STRATEGIC ROLE ---- DEAL WITH BASIC LONG-TERM ISSUES RELATING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEOPLE ENSURE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP ENSURE THAT TOP MANAGEMENT LAY STRESS ON HR IMPLICATIONS OF THEIR PLANS. CONVINCE THE TPO MANAGEMENT THAT PEOPLE ARE A STRATEGIC RESOURCE FOR THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF THE COY. STRIVE TO ACCOMPLISH STRATEGIC INTEGRATION & FIT. # INTERVENTIONISTS ROLE -- TO OBSERVE & ANALYZE THE HAPPENINGS IN THEIR COY. THUS INTERVEN WITH PROPOSALS ON JOB DESIGN WRT PEOPLE FOR INTRODUCTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGYY. INTERVENE WHEN THEY THINK THAT PREVAILING PEOPLE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES SHOULD BE CHANGED FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE.

# INNOVATION ROLE ---- TO INTRODUCE INNOVATIVE PROCESSES & PROCEDURES WHICH CAN ENHANCE ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE. ( BSC ). THE APPROPRIATNESS OF SUCH INNOVATION MUST BE DEMONSTRATED BY HR MANAGERS.

# INTERNAL CONSULTANCY ROLE ------ HR MANAGERS WORK AS EXTERNAL MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS TO ANALYZE PROBLEMS, DIAGNOSE ISSUES & SUGGEST SOLUTIONS ( OD ) DEVELOP HR PROCESSES OR SYSTEMS FOR THEIR ORG ( LIKE NEW PAY STRUCTURE, PA etc. ) # MONITORING ROLE ---- TO ENSURE THE PROCEDURES & POLICIES ARE IMPLEMENTED CONSISTENTLY. HR MANAGERS WORK AS REGULATORS, THAT IS CONTROLLING. VALUE ADDITION :[
# MENTORING IS THE PROCESS OF USING SPECIALLY SELECTED & TRAINED INDIVIDUALS TO PROVIDE GUIDENCE & ADVICE WHICH WILL HELP TO DEVELOP THE CAREERS OF THE PROTEGES ALLOCATED TO THEM. ( PROTEGES MEANS A PERSON WHO IS GUIDED & SUPPORTED BY AN OLDER & MORE EXPERIENCED PERSON ) # COACHING IS A PERSON-TO-PERSON TECHNIQUE DESIGNED TO DEVELOP INDIVIDUAL SKILLS, KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDES. # COUNSELLING MEANS TO GIVE PROFESSIONAL HELP & ADVICE TO SOMEONE TO RESOLVE PERSONAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS. COUNSELLING IS THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH EMPLOYEES ARE GIVEN COUNSEL IN SOLVING THEIR WORK PROBLEMS & THEIR PERSONAL PROBLEMS. THE LINE MANAGEMENT HAS TO BE ADVISED ON THE GENERAL NATURE OF PROBLEMS WHICH THE EMPLOYEES MAY FACE FROM TIME TO TIME. ]

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING ( HRP )


WHY & WHAT OF HRP.
# MANPOWER OR HUMAN RESOURCE ARE SYNONYMOUS. HR MAY BE THOUGHT AS THE TOTAL KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, CREATIVE ABILITIES, TALENTS & APTITUDES OF AN ORGS WORK FORCE, AS WELL AS THE VALUES, ATTITUDES & BENEFITS OF AN INDIVIDUAL INVOLVED. IT IS THE SUM TOTAL OF INHERENT ABILITIES, ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS REPRESENTED BY THE TALENTS & APTITUDES OF THE EMPLOYED PERSONS # HR IS THE MOST VALUABLE ASSET OF AN ORG WHICH IS UTILIZED TO THE OPTIMUM EXTENT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE INDIVIDUAL & ORG GOALS. AN ORGS PERFORMANCE &

RESULTING PRODUCTIVITY ARE DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE QUALITY OF ITS HR. AND HENCE THE IMPORTANCE OF HR & ITS PLANNING # HRP IS THE FIRST STEP IN THE RECRUITING & SELECTING PROCESS.

DEFINITION
# MANPOWER PLANNING OR HR PLANNING ( HRP) USES DEMAND & SUPPLY FORECASTING TECHNIQUES TO DETERMINE THE FUTURE WORKFORCE REQUIREMENTS OF THE COY. # HRP IS THE PROCESS OF FORECASTING A FIRMS FUTURE DEMAND FOR & SUPPLY OF, THE RIGHT TYPE OF PEOPLE IN THE RIGHT NUMBER. # HRP DETERMINES THE HR REQUIRED BY THE ORG TO ACHIEVE ITS STRATEGIC GOALS. BULLA & SCOTT HAVE DEFINED HRP AS, THE PROCESS FOR ENSURING THAT THE HR REQUIREMENTS OF AN ORG ARE IDENTIFIED & PLANS ARE MADE FOR SATISFYING THOSE REQUIREMENTS # HRP IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH A MANAGEMENT DETERMINES HOW AN ORG SHOULD MOVE FROM ITS CURRENT MANPOWER POSITION TO ITS DESIRED MANPOWER POSITION. THROUGH PLANNING, A MANAGEMENT STRIVES TO HAVE THE RIGHT NUMBER & THE RIGHT KIND OF PEOPLE AT THE RIGHT PLACES AT THE RIGHT TIME, TO DO THINGS WHICH RESULT IN BOTH THE ORG & THE INDIVIDUAL RECEIVING THE MAX LONG-TERM BENEFITS. # IT IS THE PROCESS OF DECIDING WHAT POSITIONS THE FIRM WILL HAVE TO FILL & HOW TO FILL THEM.

NEED FOR HRP


# HRP IS INFLUENCED BY SEVERAL CONSIDERATIONS. THE MORE IMPORTANT OF THEM ARE : 1.TYPE & STRATEGY OF ORG. 2. ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH CYCLES & PLANNING. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTIES. 4. TIME HORIZONS 5. TYPE & QUALITY OF FORECASTING INFO 6. NATURE OF JOBS BEING FILLED AND 7. OFF-LOADING THE WORK

OBJECTIVES OF HRP

# OBJECTIVES OF HRP MUST BE DERIVED FROM ORG OBJECTIVES. ORG OBJECTIVES ARE DEFINED BY THE TOP MANAGEMENT & THE ROLE OF HRP IS TO SUBSERVE THE OVERALL OBJECTIVES BY ENSURING AVAILABILITY & UTILISATION OF HR. # THE OBJECTIVES OF HRP COULD BE :1. TO ENSURE OPTIMUM USE OF HR CURRENTLY EMPLOYED. 2. TO ASSESS OR FORECAST FUTURE SKILL REQUIREMENTS. 3. TO PROVIDE CONTROL MEASURES TO ENSURE THAT NECESSARY RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE AS & WHEN REQUIRED. 4. TO LINK HRP WITH ORG PLANNING. 5. TO DETERMINE RECRUITMENT LEVELS. 6. TO ANTICIPATE REDUNDANCES. 7. TO DETERMINE OPTIMUM TRG LEVELS. 8. TO PROVIDE A BASE FOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES. 9. TO COST THE MANPOWER IN NEW PROJECTS. 10. TO ASSIST PRODUCTIVITY BARGAINING. 11. TO ASSES FUTURE ACCOMMODATION. 12. TO STUDY THE COST OF OVER-HEADS & VALUE OF SERVICES FUNCTIONS. 13. TO DECIDE WHETHER CERTAIN ACTIVITIES NEED TO BE SUBCONTRACTED. 14. ATTRACT & RETAIN THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE REQUIRED WITH THE APPROPRIATE SKILLS,EXPERTISE & COMPETENCE. 15. ANTICIPATE THE PROBLEMS OF POTENTIAL SURPLUSES OR DEFICITS OF PEOPLE 16. DEVELOP A WELL-TRAINED & FLEXIBLE WORKFORCE, THUS CONTRIBUTING TO THE ORGS ABILITY TO ADAPT TO AN UNCERTAIN & CHANGING ENVIRONMENT. 17. REDUCE DEPENDENCE ON EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT WHEN KEY SKILLS ARE IN SHORT SUPPLY BY FORMULATING RETENTION, AS WELL AS EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES 18. IMPROVE THE UTLIZATION OF PEOPLE BY INTRODUCING MORE FLEXIBLE SYSTEMS OF WORK. # IN DEVELOPING THESE OBJECTIVES, SPECIFIC POLICIES NEED TO BE FORMULATED TO ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS :1. ARE VACANCIES TO BE FILLED BY PROMOTIONS FROM WITHIN OR HIRING FROM OUTSIDE? 2. HOW DO THE TRG & DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES INTERFACE WITH THE HRP OBJECTIVES? 3. WHAT UNION CONSTRAINTS ARE ENCOUNTERED IN HRP & WHAT POLICIES ARE NEEDED TO HANDLE THESE CONSTRAINTS? 4. HOW TO ENRICH EMPLOYEES JOB? SHOULD THE ROUTINE & BORING JOBS CONTINUE OR BE ELIMINATED? 5. HOW TO DOWNSIZE THE ORG TO MAKE IT MORE COMPETITIVE? 6. TO WHAT EXTENT PRODUCTION & OPERATIONS BE AUTOMATED & WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT THOSE DISPLACED? 7. HOW TO ENSURE CONTINUOUS AVAILABILITY OF ADAPTIVE & FLEXIBLE WORKFORCE.

WHY HRP?
# WHY HRP & CHALLENGES FACED BY HRP COULD BE : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. EMPLOYMENT-UNEMPLOYMENT SITUATION. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES. ORG CHANGES. DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES SKILL SHORTAGES. GOVT INFLUENCES. LEGISLATIVE CONTROLS. IMPACT OF PRESSURE GPS SUCH UNIONS, POLITICIANS etc. SYSTEM CONCEPTS. LEAD TIME.

IMPORTANCE OF HRP
1. FUTURE PERSONNEL NEEDS : PLANNING IS SIGNIFICANT AS IT HELPS DETERMINE FUTURE PERSONNEL NEEDS. SURPLUS OR DEFICIENCY IN STAFF STRENGTH IS THE RESULT OF THE ABSENCE OF OR DEFECTIVE PLANNING. THE PROBLEM OF EXCESS STAFF HAS BECOME SO HEAVY THAT MANY UNITS ARE RESTORING TO VRS TO REMOVE THE EXCESS STAFF. 2. COPING WITH CHANGE : H RP E N AB LE S AN E N T E R P R IS E T O COP E W IT H CH A N GE S IN C OM P E T IT I V E F O RC E S, M AR KE T S , T E CHN OL O GY , P ROD U CT S A N D GOV T . RE GU LAT ION S. S U CH C HAN GE S G E N E R A T E CH AN GE S I N JO B C ON T E N T , S KI LL DEMANDS, AND NUMBER AND TYPE OF PERSONNEL. SHORTAGE OF PEOPLE MAY BE INDUCED IN SOME AREAS WHILE SURPLUS IN OTHER AREAS MAY OCCUR. 3.CREATING HIGHLY TALENTED PERSONNEL : JOBS ARE BECOMING HIGHLY INTELLECTUAL AND INCUMBENTS ARE GETTING VASTLY PROFESSIONALIZED. ( L&T, AN ENGINEERING GIANT , HAS MBAS, ENGINEE RS, TECHNICIANS WHO COLLECTIVELY CONSTITUTE 70% OF THE TOTAL EMPLOYEE STRENGTH OF 2 0 ,0 0 0 ) . T HE HR M G R. M US T US E H IS / HE R IN GE N UIT Y T O AT T RA CT A N D RE T A IN QUALIFIED AND SKILLED PERSONNEL. ANOTHER FACT OF THE HIGH-TALENT PERSONNEL IS MGT. SUCCESSION PLANNING . WHO WILL REPLACE THE RETIRING CHIEF EXECUTIVE? FROM WHAT POOL OF PEOPLE WILL TOP EXECUTIVES BE SELECTED AND HOW WILL THESE INDIVIDUALS BE GROOMED FOR T H E I R I N C R E A S E D R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S ? H R P I S A N A N S W E R T O T H E S E A N D O T H E R RELATED QUESTIONS. 4. P R O T E C T I O N O F W E A K E R S E C T I O N S : SC/ ST C AN D I D AT E S, PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, CHILDREN OF SOCIALLY AND PHYSICALLY OPPRESSED AND

BA CK WA RD - C LAS S C IT I Z E N S E N JO Y A G I V E N % OF JO BS , N O T WIT HS T AN D IN G T HE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION WHICH GUARANTEES EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL.

5. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES : H R P W I L L G R O W I N C R E A S I N G L Y IMPORTANT AS THE PROCESS OF MEETING STAFF - NEEDS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND THE ATTENDANT CULTURAL, LANGUAGE AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS GROW COMPLEX. 6. F O U N D A T I O N F O R P E R S O N N E L F U N C T I O N S : MANPOWER PLANNING PROVIDES ESSENTIAL INFORMATION FOR DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS, SUCH AS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, PERSONNEL MOVEMENT AND TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. 7. INCREASING INVESTMENTS IN HUMAN RESOURCES : ANOTHER COMPELLING REASON FOR HRP IS AN INVESTMENT AN ORGANIZATION MAKES IN ITS H U M A N RESOURCES. HUMAN ASSETS, AS OPPOSED TO PHYSICAL ASSETS, CAN INCREASE IN VALUE. AN EMPLOYEE WHO GRADUALLY DEVELOPS HIS/HER SKILLS AND ABILITIES BECOMES A MORE VALUABLE RESOURCE. 8. RE SI ST A N CE T O C HA NG E A N D MO V E : T H E R E I S A G R O W I N G RESISTANCE AMONG EMPLOYEES TO CHANGE AND MOVE. THERE IS ALSO A GROWING EMPHASIS ON SELFEVALUATION AND ON EVALUATION OF LOYALTY AND DEDICATION TO T HE OR GA N IZ AT I ON . AL L T H E SE CH AN GE S A R E M AKI N G IT M O RE D IFF I CU LT F O R T HE ORGANIZATION TO ASSUME THAT IT CAN MOVE ITS EMPLOYEES AROUND ANY WHERE A N D AN Y T IM E IT W AN T S , T HUS I N CR E AS IN G T H E IM P OR T AN CE AN D N E CE S S IT Y OF PLANNING AHEAD. 9. Other Benefits : * UPPER MGT. HAS S BETTER VIEW OF THE HR DIMENSIONS OF BUSINESS DECISIONS. * PERSONNEL COSTS MAY BE LESS BECAUSE THE MGT. CAN ANTICIPATE IMBALANCES BEFORE THEY BECOME UNMANAGEABLE AND EXPENSIVE. *MORE TIME IS PROVIDED TO LOCATE SOURCE TALENT. BETTER OPPORTUNITIES EXIST TO INCLUDE WOMEN AND MINORITY GROUPS IN FUTURE GROWTH PLANS. * BETTER PLANNING OF ASSIGNMENTS TO DEVELOP MGRS. CAN BE DONE * MAJOR AND SUCCESSFUL DEMANDS ON LABOUR MARKETS CAN BE MADE

HRP PROCESS
# IT IS ON THE BASIS OF THE CURRENT CAPABILITIES & FUTURE NEEDS THAT WE MAKE HRP FOR FUTURE WHICH IS PROVIDED BY HR FORECASTING & AUDITING. WHEN WE ESTIMATE THE HR NEEDS, WE DETERMINE SPECIFIC NUMBER, SKILL, KNOWLEDGE, TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW & COMMITMENT FOR ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION & TALENTS REQUIRED FOR EVERY TASK IN THE ORG DURING GIVEN FUTURE PERIOD. # NO ORG CAN AFFORD TO MAINTAIN EVEN ONE IDLE EMPLOYEE. HENCE, THE EXISTING AVAILABILITY OF HR SHOULD BE DETERMINED BY HR AUDIT & THE FUTURE NEEDS ESTIMATED BY HR FORECASTING. # HRP CAN BE SEEN AS A SERIES OF ACTIVITIES CONSISTING OF:ORG OBJECTIVES, PLANS & POLICIES | -----------------------------------HRP -----------------------------------| FORECASTING NEEDS FOR HR | --------------IDENTIFICATION OF HR GAP----------------------| FORECASTING SUPPLY OF HR |

SURPLUS HR ACTION PLANS FOR BR GAPS

SHORTAGES OF HR

ORG OBJECTIVES, PLANS & POLICIES | -----------------------------------HRP -----------------------------------| FORECASTING NEEDS FOR HR | FORECASTING SUPPLY OF HR

| --------------IDENTIFICATION OF HR GAP-----------------------

SURPLUS HR ACTION PLANS FOR BR GAPS

SHORTAGES OF HR

# EFFECTIVE HRP CLOSES THE GAP FROM THE CURRENT SITUATION TO A DESIRED STATE OF AFFAIRS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ORGS STRATEGY. THE PROCESS FOR DETERMINING THIS MATCH INVOLVES A SET OF SIX STEPS AS FOLLOWS :1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING IDENTIFY & ANTICIPATE SOURCES OF THREATS & OPPORTUNITIES, SCANNING THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ( COMPETITORS, REGULATIONS etc.) AND INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ( STRATEGY, TECHNOLOGY, CULTURE etc.)

2. LABOUR DEMAND FORECAST PROJECT HOW BUSINESS NEEDS WILL AFFECT HR NEEDS, USING QUALITATIVE METHODS---e.g. DELPHI, NOMINAL etc AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS---TREND ANALYSIS, SIMPLE & MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS.

3. LABOUR SUPPLY FORECAST PROJECT RESOURCE AVAILABILITY FROM INTERNAL & EXTERNAL SOURCES.

4. GAP ANALYSIS----RECONCILE THE FORECAST OF LABOUR SUPPLY & DEMAND.

5. ACTION PROGRAMMING IMPLEMENT THE RECOMMENDED SOLUTION FROM STEP FOUR.

6. CONTROL & EVALUATION ----MONITOR THE EFFECTS OF THE HRP BY DEFINING & MEASURING CRITICAL CRITERIA----LIKE TURNOVER COSTS, BREAKEVEN COSTS OF NEW HIRES, RECRUITMENT COSTS, PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES etc.

MANPOWER ESTIMATION
# THIS IS ACHIEVED MAINLY BY USING DEMAND FORECASTING METHODS WHICH ARE OF TWO TYPES ----- QUALITATIVE METHODS & QUANTITATIVE METHODS. QUALITATIVE METHODS ESTIMATION EXPERT OPINION SALES FORECAST ESTIMATES QUANTITATIVE METHODS * TREND ANALYSIS & PROJECTION * SIMULATION MODELS * WORKLOAD ANALYSIS *MARKOV ANALYSIS.

# SUMMARY OF THESE METHODS IS GIVEN AS HAND-OUT.

JOB & RELATED TERMS


1. TASK-----IT DESCRIBES A WORK ACTIVITY THAT PRODUCES A SINGLE, MEANINGFUL WORK PRODUCT OR OUTCOME. 2. DUTY------A DUTY IS A DESCRIPTOR OF WORK ACTIVITY OR RESPONSIBILITY THAT IS COMPOSED OF A NUMBER OF RELATED TASKS. 3. JOB----A JOB IS A COLLECTION OF ONE OR MORE POSITIONS THAT ARE SIMILAR ENOUGH IN TERMS OF THEIR TASKS & DUTIES TO ALLOW THEM TO BE GROUPED TOGETHER & TREATED INTERCHANGEABLY. JOB IS A SUMMATION OF TASKS. 4. JOB ANALYSIS-----THE PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE DUTIES & SKILL REQUIRED OF A JOB & THE KIND OF PERSON WHO SHOULD BE HIRED FOR IT. JOB ANALYSIS = JOB DESCRIPTION + JOB SPECIFICATIONS. 5. JOB DESCRIPTION----A LIST OF A JOBS DUTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES, REPORTING RESPONSIBILITIES, WORKING CONDITIONS & SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIES---ONE LIMB OF JOB ANALYSIS. 6. JOB SPECIFICATIONS----A LIST OF A JOBS HUMAN REQUIREMENTS THAT IS THE REQUISITE EDN, SKILLS, PERSONALITY & SO ON---THE SECOND LIMB OF JOB ANALYSIS. 7. JOB ENLARGEMENT----ASSIGNING WORKERS ADDITIONAL SAME-LEVEL ACTIVITIES, THUS INCREASING THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES THEY PERFORM. 8. JOB ENRICHMENT------REDESIGNING JOBS IN A WAY THAT INCREASES THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE WORKER TO EXPERIENCE FEELING OF RESPONSIBILITY, ACHIEVEMENT, GROWTH & RECOGNITION ( MOTIVATION THEORY---ESTEEM NEEDS ) 9. JOB ROTATION----A MANAGEMENT TRG TECHNIQUE THAT INVOLVES MOVING A TRAINEE FROM DEPT TP DEPT TO BROADEN HIS OR HER EXPERIENCE & IDENTIFY STRONG & WEAK POINTS TO PREPARE THE PERSON FOR AN ENHANCED ROLE WITH THE COY; ALSO SYSTEMATICALLY MOVING WORKERS FROM ONE JOB TO ANOTHER TO ENHANCE WORK TEAM PERFORMANCE. 10. JOB EVALUATION----A SYSTEMATIC COMPARISON DONE IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE WORTH OF ONE JOB RELATIVE TO ANOTHER.

WHAT IS JOB ANALYSIS ?


# JOB MEANS A GP OF SIMILAR POSITIONS IN A SINGLE ORG. A JOB COMSISTS OF A RELATED SET OF TASKS THAT ARE CARRIED OUT BY A PERSON TO FULFIL A PURPOSE. IT CAN BE REGARDED AS A UNIT IN AN ORG STRUCTURE THAT REMAINS UNCHANGED WHOEVER IS IN THE JOB. # A POSITION REFERS TO A GP OF TASKS ACCOMPLISHED BY ONE INDIVIDUAL. # JOB ANALYSIS FORMS AN INTENSIVE, DIRECT TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING THE CRUCIAL INFO REGARDING THE JOB. # IT HAS BEEN DEFINED IN MANY WAYS AS FOLLOES : IT IS A PROCESS OF DETERMINING THE TASKS INVOLVED IN THE JOB & PERSONAL QUALITIES OF THE INDIVIDUALS REQUIRED TO PERFORM THE JOB THE PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE DUTIES & SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF A JOB & THE KIND OF PERSON WHO SHOULD BE HIRED FOR IT. A JOB IS A COLLECTION OF TASKS THAT CAN BE PERFORMED BY A SINGLE EMPLOYEE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF SOME PRODUCT OR SERVICE PROVIDED BY THE ORG. EACH JOB HAS CERTAIN ABILITY REQUIREMENTS, AS WELLAS CERTAIN REWARDS, ASSOCIATED WITH IT. JOB ANALYSIS IS THE PROCESS USED TO IDENTIFY THESE REQUIREMENTS # IN SIMPLE TERMS, JOB ANALYSIS MAY BE UNDERSTOOD AS A PROCESS OF COLLECTING INFO ABOUT A JOB. THE PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS RESULTS IN TWO SETS OF DATA NAMELY JOB DESCRIPTION & JOB SPECIFICATION WHICH COULD BE PUT IN THE FORM OF AN EQUATION AS : JOB ANALYSIS ( J A ) = JOB DESCRIPTION ( J D ) + JOB SPECIFICATION ( J S ) THAT IS----JA = JD + JS

CONTENTS OF JA
# A JA PROVIDES THE FOLLOWING INFO :1. JOB IDENTIFICATION : ITS TITLE INCLUDING ITS CODE NUMBER. 2.SIGNIFICANT CHARACTERISTICS OF A JOB : ITS LOCATION, PHYSICALLY SETTING, SUPERVISION, UNION JURISDICTION, HAZARDS & DISCOMFORTS.

3. WHAT THE TYPICAL WORKER DOES : SPECIFIC OPERATION & TASKS THAT MAKE UP AN ASSIGNMENT, THEIR RELATIVE TIMING & IMPORTANCE, THEIR SIMPLICITY, ROUTINE OR COMPLEXITY, THE RESPONSIBILITY OR SAFETY OF OTHERS FOR PROPERTY, FUNDS, CONFIDENCE & TRUST. 4. WHICH MATERIAL & EQPT A WORKER USES : METALS, PLASTICS, GRAINS, YARNS, MILLING MACHINES, PUNCH PRESSES & MICROMETERS. 5. HOW A JOB IS PERFORMED : NATURE OF OPERATIONLIFTING, BANDLING, CLEANING, WASHING, FEEDING, REMOVING, DRILLING, SETTING etc. 6. REQUIRED PERSONNEL ATTRIBUTES : EXPERIENCE, TRG, APPRENTICESHIP, PHYSICAL STRENGTH, CO-ORDINATION OR DEXTERITY ( THAT IS SKILL IN PERFORMING TASKS ESPECIALLY WITH THE HANDS ), PHYSICAL DEMANDS, MENTAL CAPABILITIES, APTITUDES, SOCIAL SKILLS etc.

7. JOB RELATIONSHIP : EXPERIENCE REQUIRED, OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCEMENT, PATTERNS OF PROMOTIONS, ESSENTIAL COOPERATION, DIRECTION OR LEADERSHIP FROM & FOR A JOB.

JOB DESCRIPTION
# IT IS A LIST A JOBS DUTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES, REPORTING RELATIONSHIPS, WORKING CONDITIONS & SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIES. # THIS IS STATEMENT CONTAINING ITEMS SUCH : JOB TITLE LOCATION JOB SUMMARY DUTIES MACHINES, TOOLS & EQPT. MATERIALS & FORMS USED SUPERVISION GIVEN OR RECEIVED. WORKING CONDITIONS HAZARDS

JOB SPECIFICATION
# IT IS A LIST OF A JOBS HUMAN REQUIREMENTS THAT IS THE REQUISITE EDN, SKILLS, PERSONALITY & SO ON WHICH ARE PRESENT & FUTURE SPECIFIC HUMAN BEHAVIOURS, TRAITS, CHARACTERISTICS & QUALITIES. # THIS IS A STATEMENT OF HUMAN QUALITIES NECESSARY TO DO THE JOB. USUALLY CONTAINS SUCH ITEMS AS :-

EDUCATION EXPERIENCE TRG JUDGEMENT INITIATIVE PHYSICAL EFFORT PHYSICAL SKILLS RESPONSIBILITIES COMMUNICATION SKILLS EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS UNUSUAL SENSORY DEMANDS SUCH AS SIGHT, SMELL, HEARING etc.

STEPS IN JA # THERE ARE FIVE BASIC STEPS REQUIRED FOR DOING JA WHICH ARE :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. COLLECTION OF BACKGROUND INFO SELECTION OF REPRESENTATIVE POSITION TO BE ANALYSED. COLLECTION OF JA DATA A JOB DESCRIPTION. AND DEVELOPING JOB SPECIFICATION.

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION


# IN AN ORG THE FUNCTIONING OF HRM STARTS WITH HRP WHICH LEADS TO RECRUITMENT & SELECTION WHICH INTURN INDUCTS THE NEW INTAKE INTO THE ORG WITH A VIEW TO PLACE THAT INTAKE. SUBSEQUENTLY THAT INTAKE GROWS IN THE ORG & DUE TO VARIOUS REASONS EXITS / SEPERATES FROM THE ORG. RECRUITMENT, THEREFORE, IS REGARDED AS MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTION OF PM /PA. IF RECRUITMENT IS CARRIED OUT PROFESSIONALLY, ORG IS SURE TO ACHIEVE GOOD STAFFING. # GENERALLY THERE IS A MIX-UP IN RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, PLACEMENT & INDUCTION ACTIVITIES. WE, THEREFORE, WILL UNDERSTAND THE MEANINGS OF THESE TERMINOLOGIES FIRST & THEN PROCEED WITH RECRUITMENT

# RECRUITMENT---- RECRUITMENT IS THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING THE PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYEES, STIMULATING & ENCOURAGING THEM TO APPLY FOR A PARTICULAR JOB OR JOBS IN AN ORG. IT IS A POSITIVE ACTION AS IT INVOLVES INVITING PEOPLE TO APPLY. THE PURPOSE IS TO HAVE AN INVENTORY OF ELIGIBLE PERSONS FROM AMONGST WHOM PROPER SELECTION OF THE MOST SUITABLE PERSON CAN BE MADE.

# SELECTION----SELECTION IS THE PROCESS OF EXAMINING THE APPLICANTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR SUITABILITY FOR THE GIVEN JOB OR JOBS & CHOOSING THE BEST FROM THE SUITABLE CANDIDATES & REJECTING THE OTHER. THUS, YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THIS PROCESS IS NEGATIVE IN NATURE IN THE SENSE THAT REJECTION OF CANDIDATES IS INVOLVED. # PLACEMENT----PLACEMENT IS THE DETERMINATION OF THE JOB FOR WHICH A SELECTED CANDIDATE IS BEST SUITED & ASSIGNING THAT JOB TO HIM. THE IDEAL SITUATION IS THE RIGHT MAN FOR THE RIGHT JOB. A PROPER PLACEMENT OF A WORKER REDUCES EMPLOYEE TURNOVER, ABSENTEEISM, ACCIDENT RATES etc. & IMPROVES MORALE, MOTOVATION, WORK-OUTPUT etc. # INDUCTION----INDUCTION IS INTRODUCING A NEW EMPLOYEE TO THE JOB & TO THE ORG. THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF INDUCTION IS TO SELL THE COY TO THE NEW EMPLOYEE SO THAT HE / SHE MAY FEEL PROUD OF ONES ASSOCIATION WITH THE COY. THIS IS ALSO CALLED AS ORIENTATION OR INDOCTRINATION OR SOCIALIZING.

RECRUITMENT:-- DEFINITIONS & ANALYSIS


# RECRUITMENT IS THE DISCOVERING OF POTENTIAL APPLICANTS FOR ACTUAL OR ANTICIPATED ORG VACANCIES.

# YODLER SAYS, RECRUITMENT IS A PROCESS TO DISCOVER THE SOURCES OF MANPOWER TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE STAFFING SCHEDULE & TO EMPLOY EFFECTIVE MEASURES FOR ATTRACTING THAT MANPOWER IN ADEQUATE NUMBERS TO FACILITATE EFFECTIVE SELECTION OF AN EFFICIENT WORKING FORCE # FLIPPO VIEWS, RECRUITMENT IS A PROCESS OF SEARCHING FOR PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYEES & STIMULATING & ENCOURAGING THEM TO APPLY FOR JOBS IN AN ORG. IT IS OFTEN TERMED POSITIVE IN THAT IT STIMULATES PEOPLE TO APPLY FOR JOBS TO INCREASE THE HIRING RATIO, THAT IS THE NUMBER OF APPLICANTS FOR A JOB. # RECRUITMENT IS THE PROCESS OF SEARCHING FOR PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYEES & STIMULATING THEM TO APPLY FOR THE JOB IN THE ORG.

# RECRUITMENT INVOLVES ATTRACTING & OBTAINING AS MANY APPLICATIONS AS POSSIBLE FROM ELIGIBLE JOB-SEEKERS. # ANY ACTIVITY CARRIED ON BY THE ORG WITH THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF IDENTIFYING & ATTRACTING POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES. # THESE ARE SOME OF THE DEFINITIONS OF RECRUITMENT & THE ANALYSIS OF WHICH GIVES US THE FOLLOWING SALIENT POINTS :1. HRP LEADS TO RECRUITMENT OR RECRUITMENT IS PUTTING HRP INTO ACTION. 2. WE HAVE TO DETERMINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB TO BE FILLED. 3. DETERMINING THE TYPE OF PERSONNEL REQUIRED 4. DISCOVER THE SOURCES OF REQUIRED MANPOWER. 5. SELL YOU COY TO GET HIGH RESPONSE SO THAT YOU HAVE A POOL OF APPLICANTS. 6. IT IS APOSITIVE ACTION. 7.IT IS A PROACTIVE ACTION. 8. WHILE RECRUITING, THE PAST IS ALSO REMEMBERED. 9. STRATEGY OF A COY DECTATES RECRUITMENT PLANNING.

OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENT
1. TO PROVIDE A POOL OF POTENTIALLY QUALIFIED CANDIDATES. 2. TO DETERMINE THE PRESENT & FUTURE REQUIREMENTS OF THE FIRM IN CONJUNCTION WITH ITS HRP & JOB-ANALYSIS ACTIVITIES. 3. TO INCREASE THE POOL OF JOB CANDIDATES AT MINIMUM COST. 4. TO HELP INCREASE THE SUCCESS RATE OF THE SELECTION PROCESS BY REDUCING THE NUMBER OF VISIBLY UNDERQUALIFIED OR OVERQUALIFIED JOB APPLICANTS. 5. TO HELP REDUCE THE PROBABILITY THAT JOB APPLICANTS, ONCE RECRUITED & SELECTED, WILL LEAVE THE ORG ONLY AFTER A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. 6. TO MEET THE ORGS LEGAL & SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS REGARDING THE COMPOSITION OF ITS WORKFORCE. 7. TO BEGIN IDENTIFYING & PREPARING POTENTIAL JOB APPLICANTS WHO WILL BE APPROPRIATE CANDIDATES.

8. TO INCREASE ORGANIZATIONAL & INDIVIDUAL EFFECTIVENESS IN THE SHORT TERM & LONG TERM. 9. TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS RECRUITING TECHNIQUES / METHODS & SOURCES FOR ALL TYPES OF JOB APPLICANTS.

YIELD RATIOS ( yRs )

# YIELD RATIOS---yRs-- EXPRESS THE RELATIONSHIP OF APPLICANT INPUTS TO OUTPUTS AT VARIOUS DECISION POINTS. LET US TAKE AN EXAMPLE :* ASSUME THAT AN ORG ATTEMPTING TO RECRUIT SALES PEOPLE RAN A SERIES OF NEWS PAPER ADS WHICH GENERATED 2000 RESUMES . * OUT OF THESE 2000, ONLY 200 WERE JUDGED TO BE POTENTIALLY QUALIFIED & HENCE AT THIS DECISION POINT THE y R IS = 10:1 OF THESE 200, 40 ATTENDED THE INTERVIEW FOR FINAL SELECTION & HENCE y R IS = 5 :1. OF THESE 40, 30 WERE ACTUALLY QUALIFIED & OFFERED JOBS & HENCE y R IS = 4 : 3. AND OUT OF 30, 20 ACCEPTED & HENCE y R IS = 3 : 2. THUS OUT OF 2000APPLICANTS, ONLY 20 ACCEPTED THE JOB & HANCE OVERALL y R IS 100 :1

# THUS A REQUIREMENT OF 30 HIRES, DURING A SPECIFIED PERIOD, WOULD MEAN A RECRUITMENT TARGET OF 3000.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

# BROADLY CATEGORISED INTO INTERNAL & EXTERNAL SOURCES.

INTERNAL SOURCES

EXTERNAL SOURCES

* PRESENT EMPLOYEES * EMPLOYEE REFERRALS

* PROFESSIONAL OR TRADE ASSOCIATIONS. * ADVERTISEMENTS.

* FORMER EMPLOYEES * PREVIOUS APPLICANTS * DEPUTATION

* EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGE. * CAMPUS RECRUITMENT.


* WALK-INS, WRITE-INS & TALK-INS.

* CONSULTANTS. * DISPLACED PERSONS. * RADIO & TV * M& A. * COMPETITORS. * E- RECRUITMENT. # CLARIFICATION ON SOME OF THE SOURCES IS GIVEN BELOW :# DEPUTATION---SINCE THE PERSON POSSESS CERTAIN ABILITIES USEFUL TO ANOTHER ORG, HE / SHE IS DEPUTED TO IT FOR A SPEVIFIED DURATION. DEPUTATION IS USEFUL BECAUSE IT PROVIDES READY EXPERTISE. HOWEVER, BECAUSE OF THE SHORT DURATION, THE DEPUTED EMPLOYEES OFTEN FAIL TO BECOME PART OF THE ORG.

# WALK-INS, WRITE-INS & TALK-INS ( EXTERNAL SOURCE )-----THE MOST COMMON & LEAST EXPENSIVE APPROACH FOR CANDIDATES IS DIRECT APPLICATIONS, IN WHICH JOB SEEKERS SUBMIT UNSOLICITED LETTERS OR RESUMES. DIRECT APPLICATIONS CAN ALSO PROVIDE A POOL OF POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES TO MEET FUTURE NEEDS. # WRITE-INS ARE THOSE WHO SEND WRITTEN ENQUIRIES. THESE JOB SEEKERS ARE ASKED TO COMPLETE APPLICATION FORMS FOR FUTHER PROCESSING. # TALK-INS ARE BECOMING POPULAR NOWADAYS. JOB SEEKERS ARE REQUIRED TO MEET THE RECRUITER, ON AN APPROPRIATE DATE FOR DETAILED TALKS. NO APPLICATION IS REQUIRED TO BE SUBMIITTED TO THE RECRUITER.

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT

# THERE ARE THREE METHODS---DIRECT, INDIRECT & THIRD PARTY. # DIRECT RECRUITMENT METHODS-----THESE INCLUDE :1. SENDING RECRUITERS TO EDUCATIONAL & PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS.

2. 3. 4. 5.

EMPLOYEES CONTACTS WITH PUBLIC. MANNED EXHIBITS. SENDING RECRUITERS TO CONVENTIONS & SEMINARS. SETTING UP EXHIBITS AT FAIRS.

# INDIRECT RECRUITMENT METHODS----THESE INVOLVE ADVERTISING IN NEWSPAPERS, ON RADIO, IN TRADE & PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS, TECH MAGAZINES & BROCHURES. # MANY ORGs OFTEN PLACE BLIND ADVERTISEMENTSONE IN WHICH THERE IS NO IDENTIFICATION OF THE ORG. RESPONDENTS ARE ASKED TO REPLY TO A POST OFFICE BOX NUMBER. OR TO A CONSULTING FIRM

# THIRD PARTY RECRUITMENT METHODS-----THESE INCLUDE THE USE OF COMMERCIAL OR PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES, STATE AGENCIES, PLACEMENT OFFICES OF COLLEGES, RECRUITING FIRMS etc.

THE EMERGING CHALLENGES OF RECRUITMENT

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

ATTRACT PEOPLE WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL EXPERIENCES & SKILLS. INDUCT OUTSIDERS WITH A NEW PERSPECTIVE TO LEAD THE COY. INFUSE FREASH BLOOD AT EVERY LEVEL OF THE ORG. DEVELOP A CULTURE THAT ATTRACTS PEOPLE TO THE COY. IDENTIFY PEOPLE WHOSE PERSONALITIES FIT THE COYS VALUES. DEVISE METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSING PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAITS. SEEK OUT UNCONVENTIONAL DEVELOPMENT GROUNDS OF TALENT. SEARCH FOR GLOBALLY & NOT JUST WITHIN THE COUNTRY. DESIGN ENTRY PAY THAT COMPETES ON QUALITY, & NOT QUANTUM. ANTICIPATE & FIND PEOPLE FOR POSITIONS THAT DO NOT EXIST YET.

SELECTION
INTRODUCTION
# RECRUITMENT & SELECTION ARE THE TWO CRUCIAL STEPS IN THE HR PROCESS & ARE OFTEN USED INTERCHANGEABLY. THERE IS, HOWEVER, A FINE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE TWO STEPS. WHILE RECRUITMENT REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING & ENCOURAGING PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYEES TO APPLY FOR JOBS, SELECTION IS CONCERNED WITH PICKING THE RIGHT CANDIDATES FROM A POOL OF APPLICANTS. RECRUITMENT IS SAID TO BE POSITIVE IN ITS APPROACH AS IT SEEKS TO ATTRACT AS MANY CANDIDATES AS POSSIBLE. SELECTION, ON THE OTHER HAND, IS NEGATIVE IN ITS APPLICATION INASMUCH AS IT SEEKS TO ELIMINATE AS MANY UNQUALIFIED APPLICANTS AS POSSIBLE IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY THE RIGHT CANDIDATES. SELECTION IS A SEQUEL TO RECRUITMENT. # THE TERM RECRUITMENT IS WIDELY USED TO REFER TO THE WHOLE PROCESS OF EMPLOYEE HIRING. # THE ROLE OF SELECTION IN AN ORGS EFFECTIVENESS IS CRUCIAL FOR AT LEAST TWO REASONS---PERFORMANCE & COST INCURRED IN RECRUITMENT & HIRING PERSONNEL. THE BEST WAY TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE IS TO HIRE PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE COMPETENCE & THE WILLINGNESS TO WORK.

WHAT IS SELECTION ?
# SELECTION IS THE PROCESS OF EXAMINING THE APPLICANTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR SUITABILITY FOR THE GIVEN JOB OR JOBS & CHOOSING THE BEST FROM THE SUITABLE CANDIDATES & REJECTING THE OTHER. THUS, YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THIS PROCESS IS NEGATIVE IN NATURE IN THE SENSE THAT REJECTION OF CANDIDATES IS INVOLVED. # SELECTION IS THE PROCESS OF DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN APPLICANTS IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY & HIRE THOSE WITH A GREATER LIKEHOOD OF SUCCESS IN A JOB. # SELECTION IS THE PROCESS OF PICKING INDIVIDUALSOUT OF THE POOL OF JOB SEEKERS--WITH REQUISITE QUALIFICATIONS & COMPETENCE TO FILL JOBS IN THE ORG. # PERSONNEL SELECTION INVOLVES THE PREDICTION OF JOB PERFORMANCE BASED ON ONE OR MORE INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE VARIABLES.

# SELECTION IS THE PROCESS OF DISCOVERING THE QUALIFICATIONS & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JOB APPLICANTS IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THEIR LIKELY SUITABILITY FOR THE JOB POSITION. # EFFECTIVE SELECTION DECISIONS ARE THOSE WHERE THE CANDIDATE WAS PREDICTED TO BE SUCCESSFUL & LATER DID PROVE TO BE A SUCCESSFUL PERFORMER ON JOB. # THESE ARE SOME OF THE DEFINITIONS OF SELECTION & ANALYSIS OF THESE PROVIDE US WITH FOLLOWING POINTS :1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SELECTION IS A SEQUEL TO RECRUITMENT. SELECTION IS A NEGATIVE PROCESS. SELECTION IS CHOOSING BEST FROM SUITABLE APPLICANTS. SELECTION IS A PREDICTION WHICH COULD BE CORRECT OR WRONG. SELECTION, THEREFORE, COULD HAVE ERRORS. SELECTION PROCESS HAS TO HAVE BASE OF SOUND JOB ANALYSIS. SELECTION TO BE EFFECTIVE WE MUST ASSESS THEIR WILL DO & NOT WHAT CAN DO.

# GOOD SELECTION REQUIRES A METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF FINDING THE BEST MATCHED PERSON FOR THE JOB. A FRAMEWORK CAN BE BUILT BY ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS :1. WHAT AM I LOOKING FOR ?---ANALYZE THE JOB. 2. HOW DO I FIND OUT ?----WHICH SOURCE TO LOOK AT AND 3. HOW CAN I RECOGNIZE WHEN I SEE IT ?---SELECT THROUGH APPLICATION FORMS, INTERVIEWS, LISTS & REFERENCES.

# SELECTION IS A CHAIN WHICH IS AS STRONG AS ITS WEAKEST LINK. THE SELECTION INVOLVES A SERIES OF COMPLEX DECISIONS CONCERNING THE CHOICE OF PERSON, CHOICE OF METHODS TO USE & THE CHOICE OF INFO. # ERRORS IN SELECTION----THERE COULD BE TWO TYPES OF ERRORS IN SELECTION DECISIONS :1. REJECT ERROR------REJECTING CANDIDATES WHO COULD HAVE PERFORMED SUCCESSFULLY ON THE JOB. AND 2. SELECT ERROR------SELECTING CANDIDATES WHO LATER PERFORM POORLY ON THE JOB.

# AN EFFECTIVE SELECTION SYSTEM SHOULD ENDEAVOUR TO MINIMIZE BOTH THESE ERRORS. THIS IS POSSIBLE IF THE SYATEM IS IMPARTIAL, HAS A DEGREE OF OBJECTIVITY & A FAIRLY UNIFORM STANDARD OF ASSESSMENT.

STEPS IN SELECTION PROCEDURE


# THERE IS NO SHORTCUT TO AN ACCURATE EVALUATION OF A CANDIDATE. THE HIRING PROCEDURES ARE, THEREFORE, GENERALLY LONG & COMPLICATED. MANY EMPLOYERS MAKE USE OF SUCH TECHNIQUES & PSEUDO-SCIENCES AS PHRENOLOGY, PHYSIOGNOMY, ASTROLOGY, GRAPHOLOGY etc, WHILE COMING TO HIRING DECISIONS.

# THE FOLLOWING ARE POPULAR STEPS, THOUGH MAY BE MODIFIED TO SUIT INDIVIDUAL SITUATIONS :-

PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW SELECTION TESTS. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW. REFERENCE & BACKGROUND ANALYSIS. SELECTION DECISION. MEDICAL EXAMINATION. JOB OFFER. EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT. EVALUATION

# THE POINT TO BE NOTED IS THAT AT EVERY STEP OF SELECTION EITHER A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE DECISION IS REQUIRED TO BE TAKEN.

PLACEMENT & INDUCTION


PLACEMENT
# ONCE AN OFFER OF EMPLOYMENT HAS BEEN EXTENDED & ACCEPTED, THE FINAL STAGE IN PROCUREMENT IS TO BE CONCLUDED, NAMELY, THAT OF PLACEMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL ON THE NEW JOB & ORIENTING HIM /HER TO THE ORG. # PLACEMENT MAY BE DEFINED AS, THE DETERMINATION OF THE JOB TO WHICH AN ACCEPTED CANDIDATE IS TO BE ASSIGNED & HIS ASSIGNMENT TO THE JOB # PLACEMENT REFERS TO THE ALLOCATION OF PEOPLE TO JOBS. IT INCLUDES INITIAL ASSIGNMENT OF NEW EMPLOYEES & PROMOTION, TRANSFERS OR DEMOTION OF PRESENT EMPLOYEES.

INDUCTION
INTRODUCTION
# INDUCTION IS ALSO KNOWN AS ORIENTATION AND SOCIALIZING. ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE INDIVIDUALS, HAVE THEIR UNIQUE PERSONALITY. IT IS ESSENTIAL TO ORIENT EMPLOYEES AT THE TIME OF THEIR ENTRY WITH THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE. THE CULTURE IS THE SYSTEM OF SHARED ACTIONS, VALUES & BELIEFS THAT DEVELOPS WITHIN AN ORG & GUIDES THE BEHAVIOUR OF ITS EMPLOYEES. # UPON ENTRY INTO A NEW JOB OR A NEW ORG, ALL EMPLOYEES INITIALLY NEED TO LEARN HOW THINGS ARE DONE IN THE NEW ENVIRONMENT, INCLUDING THINGS THEY CANNOT FIND IN ANY POLICY-AND-PROCEDURE MANUAL OR SOPs ( STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES )

WHAT IS INDUCTION
# AS SOON AS AN EMPLOYEE IS SELECTED, THE FIRST STEP RELATES TO INDUCTION OR REORIENTATION. ATTEMPTS ARE MADE TO INTRODUCE HIM / HER TO HIS /HER JOB, FELLOWWORKERS & HIS /HER SURROUNDINGS. # INDUCTION OR ORIENTATION MAY BE DEFINED AS A PROCESS OF GUIDING & COUNSELLING THE EMPLOYEE TO FAMILIARISE HIM /HER WITH JOB SITUATIONS. # THIS EXERTS A MARKED INFLUENCE ON HIS /HER JOB TENURE & EFFECTIVENESS.. THE INDUCTION PROCESS ACCOMPLISHES SEVERAL OBJECTIVES INCLUDING FORMATION OF A FAVOURABLE IMPRESSION & ATTITUDE, DEVELOPMENT OF A FEELING OF BELONGINGNESS & FACILITATION OF LEARNING & TEAMWORK ON THE PART OF THE EMPLOYEES. # THE CONTENT OF THE INDUCTION PROGRAMME SHOULD BE PREDETERMINED IN THE FORM OF A CHECK LIST SPECIFYING THE TOPICS TO BE COVERED. ATTEMPTS ARE TO BE MADE TO FOLLOW-UP & ASSESS THE PROGRAMME BY INTERVIEWING THE NEW EMPLOYEES AS A MEASURE TO CORRECT THE GAPS IN THE KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE OF THE EMPLOYEES. HRD PLANS & COORDINATES THE INDUCTION TRG WHERE AS LINE MANAGERS CONDUCT THE ACTUAL TRG. THE EVALUATION OF INDUCTION TRG SHOULD BE JOINTLY TAKEN UP BY HRD & CONCERN DEPT MANAGER.

WHY TO INDUCT ?
# A NEW EMPLOYEES INITIAL EXPERIENCES MAY EXERT IMMENSE IMPACT ON HIS CAREER. INDEED, HE /SHE STANDS ON THE BOUNDRY OF THE ORG WHICH CAUSES GREAT STRESS. HE /

SHE INTENDS TO REDUCE HIS STRESS BY BECOMING INSIDER AS RAPIDLY AS POSSIBLE. ACCORDINGLY, HE / SHE IS HIGHLY RECEPTIVE TO CUES FROM THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT. THESE CUES MAY STEM FROM :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. OFFICIAL LITERATURE OF THE COY----INDUCTION MANUAL, SOPs etc. EXAMPLES SET BY Srs. FORMAL INSTRUCTIONS FROM Srs. EXAMPLES GIVEN BY PEERS. REWARDS & PUNISHMENTS STEMMING FROM AN INDIVIDUALS EFFORTS. RESPONSES TO THE INDIVIDUALS IDEAS. AND EXTENT OF CHALLENGES INVOLVED IN THE ASSIGNMENT.

# THE NEW EMPLOYEE IS CONFRONTED WITH THREE PROBLEMS :1. PROBLEMS IN ENTERING A GP---HE / SHE MAY ASK HIMSELF / HERSELF WHETHER HE / SHE WILL BE ACCEPTABLE TO THE OTHER GP MEMBERS BE LIKED & SAFE. ATTEMPTS MUST BE MADE TO RESOLVE THESE ISSUES DURING THE ORIENTATION SO THAT HE / SHE IS COMFORTABLE & PRODUCTIVE AT WORK. 2. NATIVE EXPECTATIONS-----THE NEW EMPLOYEE EXPECTS REALISTIC JOB PREVIEWS INVOLVING FAIRNESS. THUS HE /SHE IS KEEN TO KNOW RULES OR ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR & COY ATTITUDES. AND 3. FIRST-JOB ENVIRONMENT---- THE NEW ENVIRONMENT SHOULD BE HELPFUL TO THE NEW EMPLOYEE TO CLIMB ABOARD. THE PEER SHOULD ALSO SOCIALISE HIM /HER TO THE DESIRED STANDARDS. # INFO KIT : THE NEW EMPLOYEE SHOULD BE GIVEN AN INFO KIT, COULD BE NAMED AS INFO MANUAL, INDUCTION MANUAL, SOPs. INFO BROUCHER etc., WHICH SHOULD BE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF HR DEPT. THIS KIT COULD INCLUDE FOLLOWING ITEMS / ASPECTS :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. A CURRENT ORG CHART OF THE COY & FLOW CHART & HISTORY OF COY. MAP OF FACILITY & INFO IN GENERAL ABOUT PRODUCT / SERVICES & CUSTOMERS. KEY TERMS UNIQUE TO THE INDUSTRY, COY & THE JOB. A COPY OF THE COYE POLICY HANDBOOK. A COPY OF UNION CONTRACT, IF REQUIRED. A COPY OF SPECIFIC JOB GOALS & DESCRIPTION. A LIST OF COYS HOLDINGS. A LIST OF BENEFITS. COPIES OF PA FORMS, DATES & PROCEDURES. COPIES OF OTHER REQUIRED FORMS. A LIST OF ON-THE-JOB TRG OPPORTUNITIES. TELEPHONE NUMBERS & LOCATIONS OF KEY PEOPLE & OPERATORS. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.

RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES
INTRODUCTION
# EMPLOYEE RETENTION INVOLVES TAKING MEASURES TO ENCOURAGE EMPLOYEES TO REMAIN IN THE ORG FOR THE MAX PERIOD OF TIME. CORPORATE IS FACING A LOT OF PROBLEMS IN EMPLOYEE RETENTION THESE DAYS. HIRING KNOWLEDGEABLE PEOPLE FOR THE JOB IS ESSENTIAL FOR AN EMPLOYER. BUT RETENTION IS EVEN MORE IMPORTANT THAN HIRING. # THERE IS NO DEARTH OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR A TALENTED PERSON. THERE ARE MANY ORGs LOOKING FOR SUCH EMPLOYEES. IF A PERSON IS NOT SATISFIED BY THE JOB ONE IS DOING, HE / SHE MAY SWITCH OVER TO SOME OTHER SUITABLE JOB. IN TODAYS ENVIRONMENT IT BECOMES VERY IMPORTANT FOR ORGs TO RETAIN THEIR EMPLOYEES. # RETAINING EMPLOYEES INVOLVES UNDERSTANDING THE INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS OF THEM WHICH MANY ORGs FAIL TO IDENTIFY. IN THIS CONTEXT ORGs NEED TO DIG NOVEL APPROACHES TO RETAIN THE MOST EFFECTIVE MANPOWER. [ INTRINSIC MEANS BELONGING TO THE BASIC NATURE OF SOMEONE OR SOMETHING; ESSENTIAL ]

CAUSES & SOLUTIONS


# NOTWITHSTANDING THE DOWNSIZING PROGRAMME TO REDUCE THE COST, SEVERAL COYS ARE RESORTING TO RETENTION STRATEGY TO RETAIN PEOPLE IN SKILLS SHORTAGE AREAS. THIS STRATEGY IS BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF WHY PEOPLE LEAVE. ALTHOUGH EXIT INTERVIEW MAY PROVIDE SOME INFO AS TO WHY PEOPLE LEAVE THE COY, THIS IS QUITE INADEQUATE. # IT HAS BEEN NOTED THAT MOSTLY PEOPLE DO NOT REVEL THE ACTUAL CAUSE FOR LEAVING THE COY. IN THIS CONTEXT, ATTITUDINAL SURVEYS MAY PROVE TO BE MORE USEFUL THAN EXIT INTERVIEWS. THESE SURVRYS MAY REVEAL AREAS WHERE LACK OF COMMITMENT & DISSATISFACTION PREVAIL. # THESE AREAS CAN BE ADDRESSED BY HR STAFF IN RETENTION PROGRAMME OF THE COY. # ARMSTRONG IDENTIFIES THE FOLLOWING ACTION MEASURES ( HR STRATEGIES ) TO BE UNDERTAKEN AS A PART OF RETENTION PROGRAMME :1. PAY SYSTEMS.

2. JOB DESIGN

3. RESPONSIBILITIES & PERFORMANCE. 4. TRG IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL. 5. TRG & LEARNING SYSTEMS. 6. CAREER DEVELOPMENT. 7. EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT. 8. EFFECTIVE TEAMS. 9. ORG CULTURES & INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP VALUES. 10. PRACTICES PROVIDING WORK LIFE BALANCE. 11. ORGANIZATIONAL DIRECTION CREATING CONFIDENCE IN THE FUTURE. 12.LEADERSHIP.. 13.SELECTION & PROMOTION. 14..DEVELOPMENT POLICIES.

SUMMARY : HRP
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. WHY & WHAT OF HRP. DEFINITIONS OF HRP NEED FOR HRP OBJECTIVES OF HRP. WHY HRP ? IMPORTANCE OF HRP. HRP PROCESS. MANPOWER ESTIMATION. JOB ANALYSIS ------- JOB & RELATED TERMINOLOGIES. WHAT IS JOB ANALYSIS ? CONTENTS OF JA. JOB DESCRIPTION JOB SPECIFICATION. STEPS IN JA.

10. RECRUITMENT & SELECTION -------11. RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, PLACEMENT & INDUCTION. 12. RECRUITMENT ----- DEFINITIONS & ANALYSIS. OBJECTIVES.

YIELD RATIO ( yRs ) SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT METHODS OF RECRUITMENT. EMERGING CHALLENGES IN RECRUITMENT. 13. SELECTION ----- INTRODUCTION. WHAT IS SELECTION ? DEFINITIONS & ANALYSIS. ERRORS IN SELECTION. STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS. 14. PLACEMENT & INDUCTION ------ WHAT IS PLACEMENT ? WHAT IS INDUCTION ? INFORMATION KIT FOR INDUCTION. 15. RETENTION OF EMPLOYEES ---- INTRODUCTION. CAUSES & SOLUTIONS.

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT ( TRG & DEVELOPMENT OR T& D )


GIVE A MAN A FISH & YOU HAVE GIVEN HIM MEAL. TEACH A MAN TO FISH, YOU HAVE GIVEN HIM LIVELIHOOD AN ANCIENT CHINESE PROVERB INTRODUCTION
# SINCE 1990s, THE ECONOMY HAS BEEN CHARACTERIZED BY INTENSE GLOBAL COMPETITION & RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE. DRAMATIC CHANGES IN THE ECONOMY & THE CONSEQUENT CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ARE BRINGING FORTH SIGNIFICANT TRANSFORMATIONS IN ORG STRUCTURE & WORK PRACTICES. THERE ARE CHANGES TAKING PLACE IN THE STRUCTURE OF JOBS, SKILLS REQUIREMENTS & LABOURMANAGEMENT CONTRACT. NEW JOB SKILLS & GREATER LEVELS OF WORKFORCE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED DUE TO CHANGING JOB PROFILES & ORG STRUCTURES. # CHANGES OF THIS MAGNITUDE IN CORPORATE WORLD HAVE SIGNIFICANT IMPLICATIONS FOR TRG & DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORKFORCE. IT IS INCREASINGLY BEING FELT THAT THE BEST WAY FOR BOTH ORGs & EMPLOYEES TO DEVELOP A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY IS TO IMPROVE THE LEVEL OF WORKFORCE SKILLS. ORGs ARE REQUIRED TO CONTINUALLY READJUST THE SIZE & SKILLS COMPOSITION OF THEIR WORKFORCE. # THIS COULD BE ACHIEVED THROUGH WELL MANAGED TRG & DEVELOPMENT. TO SUSTAIN THROUGH RUTHLESS COMPETITION ORGs ARE LEFT WITH NO OTHER CHOICE BUT TO TRAIN & DEVELOP THEIR WORKFORCE.

WHAT IS EDUCATION?
# EDN IS THE UNDERSTANDING & INTERPRETATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN AN EDUCATIONAL DISCIPLINE. IT DOES NOT PROVIDE DEFINITIVE ANSWERS, RATHER IT DEVELOPS A LOGICAL & RATIONAL MIND THAT CAN DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PARTICIPANT VARIABLES THEREBY UNDERSTAND PHENOMENA. # EDN AIMS AT IMPARTING & DEVELOPING OR IMPROVING QUALITIES OF MIND & CHARACTER & UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC PRINCIPLES. # EDN IN ANY DISCIPLINE HAS THREE BASIC OBJECTIVES :1. IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE RELEVENT TO THE DISCIPLINE.

2. DEVELOPING SKILLS. AND 3. DEVELOPING POSITIVE ATTITUDE.

WHAT IS LEARNING ?
# LEARNING IS THE PROCESS OF ACQUIRING THE ABILITY TO RESPOND TO A SITUATION WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE BEEN PREVIOUSLY ENCOUNTERED. # LEARNING HAS THE FOLLOWING FEATURES :1. 2. 3. 4. LEARNING INVOLVES A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR. THE BEHAVIUORAL CHANGE MUST BE RELATIVELY PERMANENT. LEARNING IS BASED ON SOME KIND OF EXPERIENCE OR PRACTICE. AND LEARNED BEHAVIOUR FACES THE THREAT OF EXTINCTION OR BEING REPRESSED IF IT DOES NOT MATCH WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS. THAT IS LEARNING IS DYNAMIC.

WHAT IS TRAINING ( TRG ) ?


# TRG FORMS A MEANS TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM OF OBSOLESCENCE AMONG PEOPLE & ORGs IN THE CONTEXT OF RELENTLESS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION. # EMPLOYEES TRG RELATES TO THE PROCESS BY WHICH NON-MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES ARE IMPARTED JOB SKILLS, WHICH IS LARGELY TASK-CENTRED INSTEAD OF CAREERCENTRED & SUPPLEMENTS BASIC SKILLS & JOB TRG OBTAINED IN TRADE SCHOOLS. # TRG IS CONCERNED WITH IMPARTING & DEVELOPING (IMPROVING ) SPECIFIC SKILLS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. FLIPPO HAS DEFINED TRG AS, THE ACT OF INCREASING THE SKILLS OF AN EMPLOYEE FOR DOING A PARTICULAR JOB # TRG MAY BE DEFINED AS, A PLANNED PROGRAMME DESIGNED TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE & TO BRING ABOUT MEASURABLE CHANGES IN KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDE & SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF EMPLOYEES FOR DOING A PARTICULAR JOB TRG, THEREFORE, IS ONE OF A FUNCTION OF NILE MANAGERS. NOWADAYS, TRG HAS AN ADDITIONAL PURPOSE OF FACILITATING CHANGE. # TRG IS DESIGNED TO HELP AN EMPLOYEE LEARN MOST APPROPRIATE RESPONSE TO A SITUSTION.

# TRG REFERS TO A PLANNED EFFORT BY A COY TO FACILITATE EMPLOYEES LEARNING OF JOB-RELATRD COMPETENCIES. THESE COMPETENCIES INCLUDE KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, OR BEHAVOURS THAT ARE CRITICAL FOR SUCCESSFUL JOB PERFORMANCE.
# COMPETENCIES----THE ABILITIES, VALUES, PERSONALITY TRAITS & OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE THAT LEAD TO SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE. # CORE COMPETENCIES ---- REFER TO THE COMBINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TECHNOLOGIES & PRODUCTION SKILLS THAT UNDERLINE A COYS MULTIPLE PRODUCTION LINES & CRITICALLY UNDERPIN THE FIRMS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE. CORE COMPETENCIES ARE ABOUT COMN, INVOLVEMENT & DEEP COMMITMENT TO WORKING ACROSS ORG BOUNDRIES. THE CONCEPT OF CORE COMPETENCIES WAS ORIGINALLY DEVISED BY PRAHALAD & HAMEL ( 1990 ) WHO ARGUED THAT THE SUCCESS OF THE BEST INTERNATIONAL COYS LAY IN CORE COMPETENCIES UNDERLYING ALL THEIR END PRODUCTS .

WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT ?
# DEVELOPMENT REFERS BROADLY TO THE NATURE & DIRECTION OF CHANGE INDUCED IN EMPLOYEES, PARTICULARLY MANAGERIAL PERSONNEL, THROUGH THE PROCESS OF TRG & EDUCATIVE PROCESS. # DEVELOPMENT PROVIDES EMPLOYEES, PERTICULARLY MANAGERS, WITH ABILITIES THE ORG WILL NEED IN THE FUTURE. # DEVELOPMENT IS DESIGNED TO IMPART LEARNING EXPERIENCES IN ORDER TO HELP EMPLOYEES ACQUIRE SKILLS & COMPETENCIES FOR FUTURE RESPONSIBILITIES.

OBJECTIVES OF TRG
# TRG REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF IMPARTING SPECIFIC SKILLS AND THE OBJECTIVES OF TRG, THEREFORE, COULD BE :1. TO PREPARE EMPLOYEES FOR THE JOB MEANT FOR THEM WHILE ON FIRST APPOINTMENT, ON TRANSFER, OR ON PROMOTION & IMPART TO THEM THE REQUIRED SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE. 2. TO ASSIST THE EMPLOYEES TO FUNCTION MORE EFFECTIVELY IN THEIR PRESENT POSITIONS BY EXPOSING THEM TO THE LATEST CONCEPTS, INFO, TECHNIQUES & IMPROVING THE SKILLS THAT WOULD BE REQUIRED IN THEIR PARTICULAR FIELDS. AND 3. TO BUILD A SECOND LINE OF COMPETENT OFFICERS & PREPARE THEM TO OCCUPY MORE RESPONSIBLE POSITIONS.

OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT
# DEVELOPMENT REFERS TO THE LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES DESIGNED TO HELP EMPLOYEES, PARTICULARLY MANAGERS, GROW. DEVELOPMENT IS LESS SKILL ORIENTED BUT STRESSES ON KNOWLEDGE. KNOWLEDGE ABOUT BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT, MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES & TECHNIQUES, HUMAN RELATIONS, SPECIFIC INDUSTRY ANALYSIS , CONCEPTUAL IDEAS & THE LIKE FOR BETTER MANAGEMENT OF A COY. ( CONCEPT MEANS AN IDEA TO HELP SELL OR PUBLICISE A COMMODITY; & CONCEPTUAL IS RELATING TO MENTAL CONCEPTS ). # THE OBJECTIVES, IN GENERAL, OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT COULD BE :1. TO ASSURE THE ORG OF AVAILABILITY OF REQUIRED NUMBERS OF MANAGERS WITH THE REQUIRED SKILLS TO MEET THE PRESENT & ANTICIPATED FUTURE NEEDS OF THE BUSINESS. 2. TO ENCOURAGE MANAGERS TO GROW AS PERSONS & IN THEIR CAPACITY TO HANDLE GREATER RESPONSIBILITY. 3. TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF MANAGERS AT ALL LEVELS IN THE JOBS THAT THEY HOLD NOW. AND 4. TO SUSTAIN GOOD PERFORMANCE OF MANAGERS THROUGHOUT THEIR CAREERS. # MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT MUST RELATE TO ALLMANAGERS IN THE ORG. IT MUST LEAD TO GROWTH & SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORG. ITS FOCUS SHOULD BE ON FUTUTE REQUIREMENTS THAN THOSE OF TODAY. IT MUST BE DYNAMIC & QUALITATIVE, RATHER THAN STATIC REPLACEMENT BASED ON MECHNICAL ROTATION. # Mr. A. DASGUPTA HAS GIVEN OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF MANGERIAL PERSONNEL FOR VARIOUS LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT. THESE ARE GIVEN BELOW :# OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT FOR TOP MANAGEMENT :1. TO IMPROVE THOUGHT PROCESSES & ANALYTICAL ABILITY IN ORDER TO UNCOVER & EXAMINE PROBLEMS & TAKE DECISIONS IN THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE COUNTRY & ORG. 2. TO OBTAIN THE OUTLOOK OF THE EXECUTIVE IN REGARD TO HIS ROLE, POSITION & RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE ORG & OUTSIDE. 3. TO THINK THROUGH PROBLEMS WHICH MAY CONFRONT THE ORG NOW OR IN THE FUTURE ( THAT IS WHERE A MANAGER SHOULD BE WELL INFORMED ) 4. TO UNDERSTAND ECONOMIC, TECHNICAL & INSTITUTIONAL FORCES IN ORDER TO SOLVE BUSINESS PROBLEMS. AND

5. TO ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE PROBLEMS OF HR. # OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT FOR MIDDLE LINE MANAGEMENT :1. TO ESTABLISH A CLEAR PICTURE OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS & RESPONSIBILITIES. 2. TO BRING ABOUT AN AWARENESS OF THE BROAD ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS & AN ACQUAINTANCE WITH & APPRECIATION OF, INTERDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONS. 3. TO DEVELOP THE ABILITY TO ANALYSE PROBLEMS & TO TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION. 4. TO DEVELOP FAMILARITY WITH THE MANAGERIAL USES OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING, PSYCHOLOGY, BUSINESS LAW & BUSINESS STATISTICS. 5. TO INCULCATE KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN MOTIVATION & HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS ( MAIN LINE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS OF HRM ). AND 6. TO DEVELOP RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP. # OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT FOR MIDDLE FUNCTIONAL EXECUTIVES & SPECIALISTS :1. TO INCREASE KNOWLEDGE OF BUSINESS FUNCTIONS & OPERATIONS IN SPECIFIC FIELDS IN MARKETING, PRODUCTION, FINANCE, HRM etc. 2. TO INCREASE PROFICIENCY IN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES SUCH AS WORK STUDY, INVENTORY CONTROL, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, QC etc. 3. TO STIMULATE CREATIVE THINKING IN ORDER TO IMPROVE METHODS & PROCEDURES. 4. TO UNDERSTAND THE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED IN A COY. 5. TO UNDERSTAND HUMAN RELATIONS PROBLEMS. AND 6. TO DEVELOP THE ABILITY TO ANALYSE PROBLEMS IN ONES AREA OR FUNCTIONS.

TRG PROCESS
# THE TRG DESIGN PROCESS REFERS TO A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR DEVELOPING TRG PROGRAMMES WHICH CONSISTS OF SEVEN STEPS AS GIVEN BELOW :1. STEP 1---CONDUCTING NEEDS ASSESSMENT TO INCLUDE :( a ) ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS ( b ) PERSON ANALYSIS. AND ( c ) TASK ANALYSIS. 2. STEP 2---ENSURING EMPLOYEES READINESS FOR TRG--(a) ATTITUDES & MOTIVATION (b) BASIC SKILLS.

3. STEP 3----CREATING A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT--( a )LEARNING OBJECTIVES. ( b ) MEANINGFUL MATERIALS. ( c ) PRACTICE ( d ) FEEDBACK ( e ) COMMUNITY OF LEARNING ( SCOPE ). ( f ) MODELING. AND ( g ) PROGRAMME ADMINISTRATION. 4. STEP 4------ENSURING TRANSFER OF TRG-----( a ) SELF-MANAGEMENT. ( b ) PEER & MANAGER SUPPORT. 5. STEP 5-----DEVELOPING AN EVALUATION PLAN----( a ) IDENTIFY LEARNING OUTCOMES. ( b ) CHOOSE EVALUATION DESIGN. AND ( c ) PLAN COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS.

6. STEP 6-----SELECT TRG METHOD--(a ) TRADITIONAL---INHOUSE, EXTERNAL, FACULTY ( b ) e-LEARNING

7. STEP 7--- --MONITOR & EVALUATE THE PROGRAMME----( a ) CONDUCT EVALUATION. ( b ) MAKE CHANGES TO IMPROVE THE PROGRAMME.

METHODS OF TRG
# TRG METHODS CAN BE BROADLY CLASSIFIED AS ( a ) ON-THE-JOB METHODS. AND ( b) OFF-THE - JOB METHODS. ( c ) OTHER TRG METHODS. # ON-THE-JOB METHODS :1. ON-THE JOB-TRG-----IT IS BASICALLY LEARNING BY DOING WHILE WORKING. THIS INCLUDES COACHING, ORIENTATIONS, JOB INSTRUCTION TRG, APPRENTICESHIPS Etc. 2. VESTIBULE TRG OR TRG CENTRE TRG. 3. DEMONSTRATION & EXAMPLES. 4. SIMULATION---TO SIMULATE MEANS TO IMITATE OR REPRODUCE THE APPEARANCE, CHARACTER OR CONDITIONS OF. 5. APPRENTICESHIP. # OFF-THE JOB METHODS : 1. LECTURES. 2. CONFERENCE METHOD-----MUTUAL PROBLEMS ARE DISCUSSED & PARTICIPANTS POOL THEIR IDEAS & EXPERIENCES IN ATTEMPTING TO ARRIVE AT A BETTER SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS SOLVING. THIS IS TEACHING & LEARNING TOGETHER IN GPS. 3. SEMINAR---A GP LEARNS THROUGH DISCUSSION OF A PAPER ON A SELECTED SUBJECT. 4. CASE STUDY 5. ROLE PLAYING. # OTHER TRG METHODS :1. SENSITIVITY TRG---A METHOD OF CHAMGING BEHAVIOUR THROUGH GP PROCESS WHICH HELPS TO REDUCE INTERPERSONAL FRICTION IN AN ORG. 2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS ( TA )---IT IS A METHOD OF ANALYSING & UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS.

3. COACHING---GUIDANCE THROUGH DIRECTION, ADVICE, CRITICISM ( USUALLY CONSTRUCTIVE ), & SUGGESTIONS IN AN ATTEMPT TO AID THE GROWTH OF AN EMPLOYEE OR A PLAYER. 4. UNDERSTUDY ASSIGNMENTS. 5. COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS. 6. AUDIO-VISUAL METHODS. 7. COMPUTER- AIDED INSTRUCTIONS. 8. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONS-----IT HAS TWO ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS :- ( a ) A STEPBY-STEP SERIES OF BITS OF KNOWLEDGE, EACH BUILDING UPON WHAT HAS GONE BEFORE AND ( b ) A MECHANISM FOR PRESENTING THE SERIES & CHECKING ON THE TRAINEES KNOWLEDGE. QUESTIONS ARE ASKED IN PROPER SEQUENCE & INDICATION GIVEN PROMPTLY WHETHER THE ANSWERS ARE CORRECT.

EVALUATION OF TRG PROGRAMMES


# TRG EVALUATION REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF COLLECTING THE OUTCOMES NEEDED TO DETERMINE IF TRG IS EFFECTIVE. THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF EVALUATING THE TRG PROGRAMME IS TO DETERMINE IF THEY ARE ACCOMPLISHING SPECIFIC TEG OBJECTIVES, THAT IS, CORRECTING PERFORMANCE DEFICIENCIES. # TRG EFFECTIVENESS REFERS TO THE BENEFITS THAT THE COY & THE TRAINEES RECEIVE FROM TRG. BENEFITS FOR TRAINEES MAY INCLUDE LEARNING NEW SKILLS OR BEHAVIOUR. BENEFITS FOR THE COY MAY INCLUDE INCREASED SALES & MORE SATISFIED CUSTOMERS. # TRG EVALUATION DESIGN REFERS TO FROM WHOM, WHAT, WHEN & HOW INFO NEEDED FOR DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRG PROGRAMME WILL BE COLLECTED. # EVALUATION PROCESS----- THE PROCESS COULD BE SUMMARISED AS FOLLOWS : CONDUCT OF NEED ANALYSIS DEVELOP MEASURABLE LEARNING OUTCOMES DEVELOP OUT MEASURES CHOOSE AN EVALUATION STRATEGY PLAN & EXECUTE THE EVALUATION

# TRG EVALUATION INVOLVES FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE EVALUATION. ( a ) FORMATIVE EVALUATION----REFERS TO EVALUATION CONDUCTED TO IMPROVE THE TRG PROCESS. THAT IS, FORMATIVE EVALUATION HELPS TO ENSURE THAT---THE TRG PROGRAMME IS WELL ORGANISED & RUNS SMOOTHLY; AND TRAINEES LEARN & ARE SATISFIED WITH THE PROGRAMME. ( FORMATIVE MEANS HAVING A PROFOUND INFLUENCE ON A PERSONS DEVELOPMENT ) ( b ) SUMMATIVE EVALUATION ---- REFERS TO EVALUATION CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH TRAINEES HAVE CHANGED AS A RESULT OF PARTICIPATING IN THE TRG PROGRAMME. THAT IS, HAVE TRAINEES ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDES, BEHAVIOUS OR OTHER OUTCOMES IDENTIFIED IN THE TRG OBJECTIVES ? HENCE IT IS ESSENTIAL, FOR HRM STAFF, TO DEFINE OBJECTIVE / S OF TRG PROGRAMMES WELL IN ADVANCE. ( SUMMATIVE MEANS SUMMARY )

# METHODS OF TRG EVALUATION


1. PRE- AND POSTTESTS 2. USE OF COMPARISON GPS 3. POSTTEST 4. PRETEST / POSTTEST WITH COMPARISON GP 5. KIRKPATRICKS FRAMEWORK-----MEASURES WHAT KNOWLEDGE TRAINEES LEARNED IN THE PROGRAM. IT HAS A FOUR LEVEL FRAMEWORK OF EVALUATION CRITERIA :-

LEVEL 1 2

CRITERIA REACTIONS LEARNING

FOCUS TRAINEE SATISFACTION ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE, SKILL, ATTITUDES, BEHAVIOUR. IMPROVEMENT OF BEHAVIOUR ON THE JOB BUSINESS RESULTS ACHIEVED BY TRAINEES.

3.

BEHAVIOUR

RESULTS

6. ROI---RETURN ON INVESTMENT RESULTS FROM A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS. COSTBENEFIT ANALYSIS, WRT TO TRG, IS THE PROCESS OF DETERMING THE ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF A TRG PROGRAM USING ACCOUNTING METHODS. # ROI = RETURN / INVESTMENT OR OPERATIONAL RESULTS / TRG COSTS.

CONCLUSION
# THUS IT CAN BE SEEN THAT T& D IS A COMPLEX PROCESS & HENCE DEMANDING. IF T& D IS TAKEN SERIOUSLY, COYS CAN CERTAINLY IMPROVE IN THEIR BUSINESS, REMAIN DYNAMIC, ATRRACT COMPETENT HR LEADING TO BETTER RETATION & HAPPY EMPLOYEES. -------------------AMEN

SUMMARY : T& D
1. INTRODUCTION. 2. WHAT IS EDN ? 3. WHAT IS LEARNING ? 4. WHAT IS TRG ? ------ COMPETENCE & COMPETENCIES. 5. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT ? 6. OBJECTIVES OF TRG. 7. OBJECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT ----- IN GENERAL & FOR VARIOUS LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT. 8. TRG PROCESS. 9. METHODS OF TRG. 10. EVALUATION OF TRG PROGRAMMES.

CAREER PLANNING AND SUCCESSION PLANNING

CAREER PLANNING
INTRODUCTION
# ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY & FULFILMENT OF CORPORATE OBJECTIVES CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED ONLY IF THE EMPLOYEES OF THE ORG GET A FEELING OF SATISFACTION & ACHIEVEMENT & CONSIDER THENSELVES A PART OF THAT ORG. NORMALLY, EMPLOYEES HAVE ASPIRATIONS TO ADVANCE & GROW IN THEIR ORG & A DESIRE TO ACHIEVE HIGHER & MORE SATISFYING PERFORMANCE. # AN ORG WILL GAIN STRENGTH & VITALITY ONLY WHEN ITS EMPLOYEES ARE CONVINCED THAT THEY WILL NOT ONLY HAVE FINANCIAL GAINS BUT ALSO EMOTIONAL & MENTAL SATISFACTION----ASCENDING MASLOWS SCALE. ONE WAY TO ACHIEVE ALL THIS IS A WELL THOUGHT OF SYSTEM OF CAREER PLANNING. # CAREER PLANNING ESSENTIALLY MEANS HELPING THE EMPLOYEES TO PLAN THEIR CAREER IN TERMS OF THEIR CAPACITIES WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS. IT IS DESCRIBED AS, DEVISING AN ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM OF CAREER MOVEMENT & GROWTH OPPRTUNITIES FROM THE POINT OF ENTRY OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN EMPLOYMENT TO THE POINT OF HIS RETIREMENT. # FOR AN EMPLOYEE, CAREER PLANNING PROVIDES HIM AN ANSWER AS TO WHERE HE / SHE WILL BE IN THE ORG AFTER FIVE OR TEN YEARS OR WHAT ARE THE PROSPECTS OF HIS / HER GROWING IN THE ORG. # SO WHAT IS CAREER ?

WHAT IS CAREER ?
# CAREER REFERS TO THE SERIES OF OCCUPATIONS & JOBS WHICH INDIVIDUALS HOLD OVER THEIR WORK LIVES. # CAREER IS DEFINED AS A SEQUENCE OF SEPARATE BUT RELATED WORK ACTIVITIES THAT PROVIDE CONTINUITY, ORDER & MEANING TO A PERSONS LIFE. IT IS NOT MERELY A SERIES OF WORK-RELATED EXPERIENCES, BUT CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF PROPERLY

SEQUENCED ROLE EXPERIENCES, LEADING TO AN INCREASING LEVEL OF RESPONSIBILITY, STATUS, POWER & REWARDS. # CAREER REPRESENTS AN ORGANISED PATH TAKEN BY AN INDIVIDUAL ACROSS TIME & SPACE. # THE STUDY OF CAREERS IN ORGs HAS FOCUSED ON SIX ISSUES IN PARTICULAR :1. HOW INDIVIDUALS APTITUDES, INTERESTS & SKILLS CHANGE OVER THE COURSE OF THEIR LIVES. 2. HOW INDIVIDUALS MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT WHICH JOBS TO PURSUE & WHICH ORGANIZATIONAL POSITIONS TO ACCEPT OR LEAVE. 3. HOW INDIVIDUALS ADJUST TO NEW JOB SITUATIONS. 4. HOW ORGs PLAN FOR & MANAGE THESE TRANSITION PROCESSES. 5. THE IMPACT OF SHORT-RUN CAREER DECISIONS ON LONGER-TERM CAREER OPTIONS. AND 6. AN INTEGRATION OR CONFLICT BETWEEN CAREER DEMANDS & PERSONAL LIFE DEMANDS.

CAREER ANCHORS
# CAREER ANCHORS ARE SELF PERCEIVED SOURCES OF STABILITY IN THE INDIVIDUALS INTERNAL CAREER. CERTAIN ATTITUDES FORMED EARLY IN LIFE, GUIDE PEOPLE THROUGHOUT THEIR CAREER. THEY ANCHOR ( THAT IS SECURING FIRMLY IN A POSITION ) AN INDIVIDUAL TO ONE OR A FEW RELATED TYPES OF CAREERS. KNOWLEDGE OF THESE CAREER ANCHORS HELPS IN PLANNING CAREER DEVELOPMENT. # THE CAREER ANCHOR IS A PRODUCT OF WORK EXPERIENCE & IS THEREFORE NOT LIKELY TO BE VERY FIRM UNTIL WE ARE AT LEAST FIVE TO TEN YEARS INTO OUR CAREER. BUT ONCE WE HAVE STABILIZED OUR SELF-IMAGE WE TEND TO WANT TO HOLD ON TO THAT IMAGE EVEN IF OUR EXTERNAL WORK SITUATION BEGINS NOT TO MATCH IT. # THE CAREER ANCHOR, THEN, CAN BE DEFINED AS THAT ELEMENT OF OURSELVES THAT WE WOULD NOT GIVE UP IF FORCED TO MAKE A CHOICE. # RESEARCH HAS REVEALED EIGHT KINDS OF CAREER ANCHORS ( SOME AUTHORS HAVE SAID FIVE ONLY ) WHICH ARE :1. TECHNICAL OR FUNCTIONAL COMPETENCE. 2. MANAGERIAL COMPETENCE.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

SECURITY OR STABILITY. AUTONOMY OR INDEPENDENCE. ENTREPRENEURIAL CREATIVITY SERVICE OR DEDICATION. PURE CHALLENGE. AND LIFE STYLE

# CAREER ANCHORS SERVE TO STABILIZE & GIVE MEANING TO THE INTERNAL CAREERS & THUS BE INDENTIFIED BY THE CAREER OCCUPANT AT THOSE POINTS WHEN CAREER OR LIFE CHOICES HAVE TO BE MADE, SO THAT THOSE CHOICES MAXIMIZE THE OPPORTUNITIES TO MATCH THE NEEDS OF THE INDIVIDUAL WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE ORG OR OCCUPATION.

PURPOSES & OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING # CAREER PLANS, IF CONCEIVED & EXECUTED PROPERLY KEEPING IN VIEW THE NEEDS
OF THE ORG & THE EMPLOYEES, BENEFIT BOTH OF THEM BY PROMOTING THEIR GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT & HARMONISING THEIR INTERESTS. THE PURPOSES & OBJECTIVES THAT CAREER PLANNING SERVES COULD BE :1. RECRUITMENT --- ATTRACTION & RETENTION OF THE RIGHT TYPE OF PERSONS IN THE ORG. 2. MAPPING OF CAREERS--- OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ORG SUITABLE TO THEIR ABILITY & SKILL & THEIR WILLINGNESS TO BE TRAINED & DEPLOYED FOR HIGHER POSITIONS. 3. JOB SATISFACTION----- BETTER USE OF HR, MORE SATISFIED & PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYEES & MORE FULFILLING CAREERS---JOB SATISFACTION. 4. TURNOVER & ABSENTEEISM-----REDUCING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER & ABSENTEEISM & THUS HAVING A MORE STABLE & SATISFIED WORKFORCE. 5. MANEGERIAL UTILITY--- INCREASING UTILISATION OF MANAGERIAL RESERVES AVAILABLE AT ALL LEVELS WITHIN THE ORG. 6. MORALE & MOTIVATION-----IMPROVEMENT OF MORALE & MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES BY MATCHING THEIR INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES & NEEDS TO THE DEMAND & REWARD OF THE JOB ENSURING THEM ADEQUATE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION & GROWTH IN THE ORG. 7. BETTER OUTPUT----OVERALL ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY & FULFILMENT OF CORPORATE OBJECTIVES. 8. ASSESS PROMISING EMPLOYEES ---ENSURE THAT MEN & WOMEN OF PROMISE ARE GIVEN A SEQUENCE OF EXPERIENCE THAT WILL EQUIP THEM FOR WHATEVER RESPONSIBILITY THEY HAVE THE ABILITY TO REACH. 9. GIIDENCE & ENCOURAGEMENT PROVIDE INDIVIDUALS WITH GUIDENCE & ENCOURAGEMENT THEY NEED IF THEY ARE TO FULFIL THEIR POTENTIALS & REMAIN WITH THE ORG.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT CYCLE # CAREER IS MADE UP OF GENERALLY FOUR STAGES AS GIVEN BELOW :1. EXPLORATORY STAGE---INDIVIDUALS ATTEMPT TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF WORK THAT INTERESTS THEM. THE CONSIDER THEIR INTERESRS, VALUES, & WORK PREFERENCES & THEY SEEK INFO ABOUT JOBS, CAREERS & OCCUPATIONS FROM CO-WORKERS, FRIENDS & FAMILY MEMBERS. EXPLORATION CONTINUES WHEN THE INDIVIDUAL STARTS A NEW JOB, WHERE THEY SEEK HELP & DIRECTIONS FROM OTHERS. 2. ESTABLISHMENT STAGE-----HERE INDIVIDUALS FIND THEIR PLACE IN THE COY, MAKE AN INDEPENDENT CONTRIBUTION, ACHIEVE MORE RESPONSIBILITY & FINANCIAL SUCCESS & ESTABLISH A DESIRABLE LIFE-STYLE. EMPLOYEES AT THIS STAGE ARE INTERESTED IN BEING VIEWED AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO THE COYS SUCCESS. EMPLOYEES WHO HAVE REACHED THE ESTABLISHMENT STAGE ARE CONSIDERED TO BE COLLEAGUES. DURING THIS STAGE REGULAR FEEDBACK ON INDIVIDUALS PERFORMANCE IS REQUIRED. 3. MAINTENANCE STAGE---IN THIS STAGE, EMPLOYEES TRY TO RETAIN THE NAME THEY HAVE ESTABLISHED IN THEIR CAREER. IN A FAST CHANGING WORLD, THIS WILL REQUIRE CONTINUOUS EFFORTS AT SELF-DEVELOPMENT. THIS IS THE STAGE WHERE MANY FACE THEIR MID-CAREER-CRISIS. SOME START AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT CAREER. 4. STAGE OF DECLINE OR DISENGAGEMENT-----INDIVIDUALS PREPARE FOR A CHANGE IN THE BALANCE BETWEEN WORK & NONWORK ACTIVITIES. SUCCESSION PLANNING # MANY COYS ARE LOOSING A SIZABLE NUMBER OF UPPER- LEVEL MANAGERS BECAUSE OF RETIREMENT & COY RESTRUCTRING THAT REDUCE THE NUMBER OF POTENTIAL UPPER-LEVEL MANAGERS. THEY ARE FINDING THAT THEIR MIDDLE MANAGERS ARE NOT READY TO MOVE INTO UPPER MANAGEMENT POSITIONS BECAUSE OF SKILL WEAKNESSES OR LACK OF EXPERIENCE. THIS CREATES THE NEED FOR SUCCESSION PLANNING. WHAT IS SUCCESSION PLANNING ? # SUCCESSION PLANNING ( SP ) REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING & TRACKING HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES.

# SUCCESSION PLANNING REFERS TO THE PROCESS & ACTIONS THAT AIM AT IDENTIFYING & DEVELOPING A POOL OF POTENTIAL SUCCESSORS FOR SENIOR OR KEY JOBS IN THE FUTURE. # SUCCESSION PLANNING ( SP ) IS MORE STRATEGIC, PROACTIVE, LONG-TERM ORIENTED & DEVELOPMENT-FOCUSED. IT ENSURES THE CONTINUAL SUPPLY OF QUALIFIED EXECUTIVE TALENT TO LEAD & SUPPORT BUSINESS GROWTH. # BENEFITS OF SP----BY ADOPTING A FAIR & SYSTEMATIC SUCCESSION PLANNING PROCESS, COYS ARE ABLE TO REAP THE FOLLOWING BENEFITS :1. 2. 3. 4. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT TALENT. RETENTION OF HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES. ENHANCEMENT OF MANAGERS READINESS FOR FUTURE ROLES & CHALLENGES. BULDING UP OF HUMAN CAPITAL FOR BUSINESS CONTINUITY & STABILITY.

SUCCESSION PLANNING PROCESS # SP IS VULNERABLE TO CORPORATE POLITICS & PERSONAL BIAS THAT MAY BE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE TO BUSINESS SUCCESS & REALIZATION OF INDIVIDUALS POTENTIAL. TO MAXIMIZE THE USEFULNESS OF SP, COYS NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES :1. IDENTIFY LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES. 2. DEVELOP A COMPREHENSIVE DATABASEPERFORMANCE & POTENTIAL APPRAISALS. 3. CONDUCT EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT REVIEW SESSIONS. 4. PROVIDE FEEDBACKS & IMPLEMENT PLANS. AND 5. MEASURE DEVELOPMENT PROGRESS. HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES & THEIR DEVELOPMENT # HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES ARE THOSE THE COY BELIEVES ARE CAPABLE OF BEING SUCCESSFUL IN HIGHER-LEVEL MANAGERIAL POSITIONS. # RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES INVOLVES THREE STAGES WHICH ARE :1. SELECTIONIN STAGE ONE, HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES ARE SELECTED. THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED ELITE ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES---MBA OR MPM OR PGDBM etc. OR WHO HAVE BEEN OUTSTANDING PERFORMERS ARE IDENTIFIED.

2. DEVELOPMENT---HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES RECEIVE DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES. THOSE WHO SUCCEED ARE THE ONES WHO CONTINUE TO DEMONSTRATE GOOD PERFORMANCE. WILLINGNESS TO MAKE SACRIFICES FOR THE COY IS ALSO NECESSARY---LIKE ACCEPTING NEW ASSIGNMENTS OR RELOCATING TO NEW LOCATIONS. GOOD ORAL & WRITTEN COMN SKILLS, EASE IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS & TALENT FOR LEADERSHIP ARE A MUST. 3. PERSONAL TRAITS----HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES USUALLY HAVE TO BE SEEN BY TOP MANAGEMENT AS FITTING INTO THE COYS CULTURE & HAVING THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS NEEDED TO SUCCESSFULLY REPRESENT THE COY. IT MAY TAKE 15 TO 20 YEARS TO REACH THIS STAGE. CONCLUSION # IN A NUTSHELL, SP HAS TO BE MANAGED CAREFULLY & SYSTEMATICALLY. IT SHOULD BE CONCEIVED AS A STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS FROM WHICH COYs CULTIVATE THEIR MOST CRITICAL RESOURCES----HIGH QUALITY EXECUTIVE TALENT. COMPARISON : CP & SP # SP IS GENERALLY REQUIRED FOR HIGHER LEVEL EXECUTIVES, WHILE CAREER PLANNING COVERS EXECUTIVES AT ALL LEVELS INCLUDING SKILLED EMPLOYEES & OPERATORS. BOTH HAVE THE SAME REQUIREMENTS & IMPLICATIONS AS MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FOR THE EXECUTIVES. # THE SP INVOLVES IDENTIFICATION OF VACANCIES THAT ARE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN THE HIGHER ECHLONS, & TO LOCATE THE PROBABLE OR LIKELY SUCCESSORS. # IN CP WE MAY HAVE CHARTS SHOWING THE CAREER PATHS OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF WORKERS SHOWING HOW THEY CAN ADVANCE UP IN THE ORG, BUT THE SP IS GENERALLY REDUCED TO A RUNNERS UP CHART OR SUCCESSION CHART IN RESPECT OF A PARTICULAR POSITION WHICH MAY TAKE THE FOLLOWING FORM :EXAMPLE ONE :-SP IN COY Z FOR MD ( DUE TO RETIRE AT THE AGE OF 60, ONE YEAR HENCE )

SR

NAME

CURRENT DESIGNATION

AGE

COLOUR CODE

REMARKS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Mr. A Mr. B Mr. C Mr. D Mr. E

DIRECTOR ( PRODUCTION) DIRECTOR (MARKETING) DIRECTOR ( PLANNING ) DIRECTOR ( PERSONNEL ) DIRECTOR ( FINANCE )

56 53 54 51 55

BLUE RED GREEN WHITE WHITE

CODE------BLUE----READY IN THREE TO FIVE YEARS. RED------READY IN THREE TO FIVE YEARS GREEN----READY NOW WHITE-----NOT LIKELY TO BE QUALIFIED, BUT WOULD BE THE BEST AVAILABLE IF OTHERS DO NOT MAKE EVEN THE WHITE GRADE. NOTE---THE CHAIR OF THE BOD WILL HAVE SOME SUCH DOCUMENT TO HELP HIM TO IDENTIFY A SUCCESSOR TO FILL THE POST OF MD ON HIS RETIREMENT. EXAMPLE TWO :- SP FOR GM ( PERSONNEL ) ( RETIRING AFTER TWO YEARS )

NAME Mr. X Mr. Y Mr. W

CURRENT DESIGNATION MANAGER ( PERSONNEL ) CHIEF IR OFFICER CHIEF OD OFFICER

AGE 54 58 52

COLOUR CODE RED BLUE GREEN

NOTE---W WILL BE THE OBVIOUS CHOICE, BUT IN ORDER TO AVOID SUPERSESSION OF Mr. X, THE COY MIGHT RESORT TO OPEN MARKET RECRUITMENT.

EXAMPLE THREE :- CPs FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF JOBS. ( a ) UNSKILLED WORKER---SEMI SKILLED----SKILLED---HIGHLY SKILLED -------FOREMAN.

( b) JUNIOR CLERKSr CLKASSISTANT---SECTION OFFICERUNDER / ---------DEPUTY SECRETARY.

( c ) SUPERVISORASST MANAGER---DY MANAGERMANAGERGM. SUMMARY 1. CAREER PLANNING---( a ) INTRODUCTION. ( b) WHAT IS CAREER ? ( c ) CAREER ANCHORS. ( d ) PURPOSES & OBJECTIVES OF CP. ( e ) CAREER DEVELOPMENT CYCLE. 2. SUCCESSION PLANNING----( a ) INTRODUCTION. ( b ) WHAT IS SP? ( c ) BENEFITS OF SP. ( d ) SP PROCESS. ( e ) HIGH-POTENTIAL EMPLOYEES & THEIR DEVELOPMENT. ( f ) CONCLUSION 3. COMPARISON BETWEEN CP & SP.

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ( PMS )


INTRODUCTION
# A HUMAN RESOURCE IN AN ORG GENERALLY GOES THROUGH THREE STAGES---ACQUISITION OF HR; DEVELOPMENT OF HR & SEPERATION OF HR. IN THE DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF HR WE ASSESS AN INDIVIDUAL AGAINST HIS ACHIEVEMENTS IN VARIOUS FIELDS. THUS WE LOOK AT A HR FROM THE PAST & PRESENT OUTPUTS WHICH COULD BE TERMED AS PERFORMANCE & WE DO LOOK AT THE SAME HR FROM HIS LIKELY OUTPUT IN THE FUTURE WHICH IS POTENTIAL APPRAISAL. # ORGS ARE RUN & STEERED BY PEOPLE. IT IS THROUGH PEOPLE THAT GOALS ARE SET & OBJECTIVES REALIZED. THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ORG IS THUS DEPENDENT UPON THE SUM TOTAL OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ITS MEMBERS. ACCORDING TO PETER DRUCKER, AN ORG IS LIKE A TUNE; IT IS NOT CONSTITUTED BY INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS BUT BY THEIR SYNTHESIS ( SYNTHESIS IS THE COMBINATION OF COMPONENTS TO FORM A CONNECTED WHOLE ). THE SUCCESS OF AN ORG, WILL THEREFORE DEPEND ON ITS ABILITY TO MEASURE ACCURATELY THE PERFORMANCE OF ITS MEMBERS & USE IT OBJECTIVELY TO OPTIMIZE THEM AS A VITAL RESOURCE. # THE PERFORMANCE OF AN EMPLOYEE IS HIS / HER RESULTANT BEHAVIOUR ON TASK WHICH CAN BE OBSERVED & EVALUATED. IT REFERS TO THE CONTRIBUTION MADE BY AN INDIVIDUAL IN THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES. # PERFORMANCE MEANS THE DEGREE OR EXTENT WITH WHICH AN EMPLOYEE APPLIES HIS / HER SKILL, KNOWLEDGE & EFFORTS TO A JOB, ASSIGNED TO HIM / HER & THE RESULT OF THAT APPLICATION. # PERFORMANCE CAN BE DEFINED AS THE RECORD OF OUTCOMES PRODUCED ON SPECIFIED JOB FUNCTIONS OR ACTIVITIES DURING A SPECIFIED TIME PERIOD.

WHAT IS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ?


# PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ( P A ) REFERS TO ALL THOSE PROCEDURES THAT ARE USED TO EVALUATE THE PERSONALITY, THE PERFORMANCE & POTENTIAL OF ITS GROUP MEMBERS. # THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY DEFINES PERFORMANCE AS---THE ACCOMPLISHMENT, EXECUTION, CARRYING OUT, WORKING OUT OF ANYTHING ORDERED OR UNDERTAKEN.

# PA IS THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING, OBSERVING, MEASURING & DEVELOPING HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS. # THE OBJECTIVES UNDERLYING PA ARE TO REVIEW PERFORMANCE FOR THE PERIOD UNDER REVIEW, AGREED OBJECTIVES FOR THE COMING PERIOD & IDENTIFY TRG & DEVELOPMENT NEEDS. # PA MEANS ANALYSIS, REVIEW OR EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OR BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF AN EMPLOYEE. IT MAY BE EITHER FORMAL OR INFORMAL, ORAL OR DOCUMENTED, OPEN OR CONFIDENTIAL. # PA IS A SYSTEMATIC & OBJECTIVE WAY OF JUDGING THE RELATIVE WORTH OR ABILITY OF AN EMPLOYEE IN PERFORMING HIS / HER TASK. PA HELPS TO IDENTIFY THOSE WHO ARE PERFORMING THEIR ASSIGNED TASKS WELL & THOSE WHO ARE NOT & THE REASONS FOR SUCH PERFORMANCE. # BROADLY SPEAKING, PA IS USED FOR :1. IDENTIFYING EMPLOYEES FOR SALARY INCREASES, PROMOTION, TRANSFER, LAY-OFF OR TREMINATION OF SERVICES. 2. DETERMINING TRG NEEDS FOR FUTHER IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE. 3. MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES BY INDICATING THEIR PERFORMANCE LEVELS. 4. ESTABLISHING A BASIS FOR RESEARCH & REFERENCE FOR PERSONNEL DECISIONS IN FUTURE. # PA IS THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING, OBSERVING, MEASURING & DEVELOPING HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN ORGs. EACH OF COMPONENTS OF THIS DEFINITION REFERS TO AN IMPORTANT PORTION OF THE APPRAISAL PROCESS :( a ) IDENTIFICATION-----THIS REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF DETERMING WHAT AREAS ARE TO BE FOCUSED ON & THUS TYPICALLY INVOLVES JOBANALISIS. WHAT IS IDENTIFIED SHOULD BE PERFORMANCE-RELATED CRITERIA & NOT PERFORMANCE-IRRELEVENT CHARACTERISTICS. ( b ) OBSERVATION----THIS INDICATES THAT ALL APPRAISAL CRITERIA MUST BE SUFFICIENTLY OBSERVED SO THAT FAIR & ACCURATE JUDGMENT CAN BE MADE. INFREQUENT OBSERVATION OR OBSERVATION OF NONPERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS WILL LEAD TO POOR RATINGS.

( c ) MEASUREMENT------THIS REFERS TO THE CENTRAL FEATURE OF APPRAISAL. THE RATER MUST SOMEHOW TRANSLATE THE OBSERVATIONS INTO A VALUE JUDGEMENT REPRESENTING THE LEVEL OF THE RATEES PERFORMANCE. HENCE OUR OBJECTIVES MUST BE MEASURABLE ( SMART ). RATERS ARE , IN ESSENCE , HUMAN TESTING DEVICES. AS SSUCH, THEY NEED TO BE SIMILARLY CALIBRATED ( THAT IS USE SIMILAR STANDARDS TO EVALUATE RATEES PERFORMANCE ). THE COMPARABILITY OF MEASUREMENT STANDARDS ACROSS RATERS IS AN IMPORTANT BUT UNDER-DEVELOPED AREA. ( d ) DEVELOPMENT----IT SUGGESTS THAT PA SHOULD BE MORE THAN SIMPLY THE ASSESSMENT OF PAST PERFORMANCE. TO BE COMPLETE, APPRAISAL SHOULD ALSO FOCUS ON IMPROVING FUTURE PERFORMANCE. THIS REQUIRES THAT RATERS BE EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE COACHES & THAT RATEES ACCEPT APPRAISAL FEEDBACK.

# IT CLEARLY, THEREFORE, COULD BE CONCLUDED THAT PA IS A FUNCTION OF LINE MANAGERS & HR IS A FACILITATOR INCLUDING TRG & DEVELOPMENT ON PA AT ALL LEVELS. [ PERFORMANCE COACHING--- IT IS THE PROCESS OF GIVING VERBAL PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK & DEVELOPMENT SUGGESTIONS AT REGULAR INTERVALS TO DIRECT REPORTS, COLLEAGUES OR EXTERNAL CLIENTS. RATHER THAN EXPECTING EMPLOYEES TO JUST KNOW HOW THEY ARE PERFORMING OR TO WAIT FOR AN ANNUAL REVIEW, COACHING INVOLVES GIVING FEEDBACK WHEN NEEDED, ALONG WITH PROVIDING DEVELOPMENT TIPS & IDEAS. THIS PROCESS CAN BE AS FORMAL AS CREATING A DEVELOPMENT PLAN OR MENU, & THEN FOLLOWING UP ON A REGULAR BASIS TO SEE IF THE INVOLVED EMPLOYEES ARE HAVING SUCCESS OR IF THEY NEED MORE GUIDENCE. IT IS A SHIFT FROM THE TRADITIONAL PARADIGM OF CONTROL / ORDER / PRESCRIPTION TO A PARTNERSHIP THAT RESTS ON ACKNOWLEDGING & EMPOWERING PEOPLE.]

WHAT IS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ?


# PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ( PM ) IS THE ATTEMPT TO GET BEST RESULTS OUT OF A SITUATION. IT IS AN ATTEMPT TO MANAGE BOTH INDIVIDUALS & ORGANISATIONS NEEDS. # PM AIMS TO ACHIEVE BETTER RESULTS BY UNDERSTANDING & MANAGING PERFORMANCE WITHIN AN AGREED FRAMEWORK OF---PLANNED GOALS, OBJECTIVES & STANDARDS. # IT IS AN APPROACH TO MANAGING HR, USING PERFORMANCE. THIS IMPLIES THAT THERE IS--MEASUREMENT, FEEDBACK & MOTIVATION. THE OUTCOME FOR THE INDIVIDUAL IS INCREASED COMMITMENT & JOB SATISFACTION. THE OUTCOME FOR THE ORG IS INCREASED EFFECTIVENESS. # WHERE WILL WE FIND PM ? IT CAN BE FOUND IN ORGs THAT THINK INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT & SELF-DEVELOPMENT ARE INPORTANT, IN ORGs THAT ARE CONCERNED ABOUT FINDING WAYS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE. THE ORG WILL NEED TO HAVE A CONTIGENCY STRUCTURE BECAUSE IT WILL NEED TO VALUE FLEXIBILITY. # PM IS THE INTEGRATED PROCESS OF OBJECTIVE SETTING, APPRAISAL & PAY DETERMINATION WHICH SUPPORTS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE COYS BUSINESS STRATEGIES. AT AN INDIVIDUAL LEVEL IT WILL RESULT IN ACTION PLANS RELATED TO PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT, CAREER DEVELOPMENT & TRG. THE PM INVOLVES THINKING THROUGH VARIOUS FACETS OF PERFORMANCE, IDENTIFYING CRITICAL DIMENSIONS OF PERFORMANCE, PLANNING, REVIEWING & DEVELOPING & ENHANCING PERFORMANCE & RELATED COMPETENCIES. # PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IS A PROCESS OR SET OF PROCESSES FOR HELPING ORGs TO ACHIEVE THEIR OBJECTIVES. IT FUNCTIONS BY FIRST ESTABLISHING SHARED UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN MANAGERS & THEIR STAFF ABOUT WHAT IS TO BE ACHIEVED, AND THEN BY MANAGING & DEVELOPING PEOPLE IN A WAY WHICH INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT IT WILL BE ACHIEVED IN THE SHORT & LONGER TERM. # THE AIM OF PM IS TO ESTABLISH A CULTURE IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS & GPs TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES & OF THEIR OWN SKILLS & CONTRIBUTIONS. # PM IS AN ONGOING COMMUNICATION PROCESS THAT INVOLVES BOTH THE MANAGER & THE EMPLOYEE IN :1. IDENTIFYING & DESCRIBING ESSENTIAL JOB FUNCTIONS & RELATING THEM TO THE VISION & GOALS OF THE ORG. 2. DEVELOPING REALISTIC & APPROPRIATE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. 3. GIVING & RECEIVING FEEDBACK ABOUT PERFORMANCE. 4. WRITING & COMMUNICATING CONSTRUCTIVE Pas. AND

5. PLANNING EDN & DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES TO SUSTAIN, IMPROVE OR BUILD ON EMPLOYEE WORK PERFORMANCE. 14 feb # THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF PM AS A NEW HRM MODEL REFLECTS A CHANGE OF EMPHASIS IN ORGs AWAY FROM COMMAND-AND-CONTROL TOWARD A FACILITATION MODEL OF LEADERSHIP. THIS CHANGE HAS BEEN ACCOMPANIED BY RECOGNITION OF THE IMPORTANCE TO THE EMPLOYEE & THE INSTITUTION OF RELATING WORK PERFORMANCE TO THE STRATEGIC OR LONG-TERM & OVERARCHING MISSION OF THE ORG AS A WHOLE. EMPLOYEES GOALS & OBJECTIVES ARE DERIVED FROM THEIR DEPTs, WHICH IN TURN SUPPORT THE MISSION & GOALS OF THE ORG # A MANAGER IS INVOLVED IN PM WHEN HE / SHE :1. ESTABLISHES SPECIFIC JOB ASSIGNMENTS. 2. WRITES JOB DESCRIPTIONS, ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY FOR STRATEGIC INITIATIVES , DEVELOP & APPLY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. 3. DISCUSSES JOB PERFORMANCE WITH THE EMPLOYEES & PROVIDE FEEDBACK ON STRENGTHS & IMPROVEMENTS NEEDED. 4. CONDUCTS AN ANNUAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PLAN FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE & EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT GOALS.

# SETTING RIGHT OBJECTIVES IS CRITICAL FOR EFFECTIVE PM. SUCH OBJECTIVES AS HIGHER PROFITS, SHAREHOLDER VALUE, CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MAY BE ADMIRABLE BUT THEY DONT TELL MANAGERS WHAT TO DO. THEY FAIL TO SPECIFY PRIORITIES & FOCUS. SUCH OBJECTIVES DO NOT MAP THE JOURNEY AHEADTHE DISCOVERY OF BETTER VALUE & SOLUTIONS FOR THE CUSTOMER. THE OBJECTIVES OF PM, THEREFORE, MUST BE :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. BE BE BE BE BE BE FOCUSED ON RESULT, NOT ACTIVITY. COSISTENT.---CONFORMING TO A REGULAR PATTERN SPECIFIC. MEASURABLE. RELATED TO TIME. ATTAINABLE.

# CONCEPTS OF PM
1. PM IS BASICALLY CONCERNED WITH PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE ORGANIZATIONAL, TEAM & INDIVIDUAL EFFECTIVENESS. 2. PM IS CONCERNED WITH EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT. 3. PM IS CONCERNED WITH SATISFYING THE NEEDS & EXPECTATIONS OF ALL THE ORGS STAKEHOLDERS. EMPLOYEES ARE TREATED AS PARTNERS IN THE ENTTERPRISE WHOSE INTERESTS ARE RESPECTED & LISTENED TO.

4. PM IS CONCERNED WITH COMN & INVOLVEMENT. IT CREATES A CLIMATE IN WHICH A CONTINUING DIALOGUE BETWEEN MANAGERS & THE MEMBERS OF THEIR TEAMS TAKES PLACE TO DEFINE EXPECTATIONS & SHARE INFO ON THE ORGS MISSION, VALUES & OBJECTIVES. # ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PM-----PM SHOULD OPERATE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOLLOWING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES ( HERE ETHICAL MEANS RELATING TO MORAL PRINCIPLES ) :1. RESPECT FOR INDIVIDUAL-----PEOPLE SHOULD BE TREATED AS ENDS IN THEMSELVES & NOT MERELY AS MEANS TO OTHER ENDS. 2. MUTUAL RESPECT-----THE PARTIES INVOLVED IN PM PROCESSES SHOULD RESPECT EACH OTHERS NEEDS & PREOCCUPATIONS. 3. PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS----THE PROCEDURES INCORPORATED IN PM SHOULD BE OPERATED FAIRLY TO LIMIT THE ADVERSE EFFECT ON INDIVIDUALS. 4. TRANSPARENCY-----PEOPLE AFFECTED BY DECISIONS EMERGING FROM THE PM PROCESS SHOULD HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO SCRUTINIZE THE BASIS UPON WHICH DECISIONS WERE MADE.

WHAT IS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ?


# PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ( PMS ) IS SET OF TECHNIQUES & PROCEDURES FOR IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE. TO SUSTAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE, ORG NOT ONLY REQUIRE TO RECRUIT THE BEST PEOPLE BUT ALSO FOCUS ON THEIR CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AN EFFECTIVE PMS. WHILE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE IS POSSIBLE THROUGH ONGOING TRG & DEVELOPMENT & SKILL & KNOWLEDGE RENEWAL, IT MUST PRECEDE PMS AS PMS ESTABLISHES THE BASIS FOR IDENTIFYING TRG & DEVELOPMENT NEEDS. # PMSs CAN BE USED TO COMMUNICATE & REINFORCE THE ORGS STRATEGIES, VALUES & NORMS & TO INTEGRATE INDIVIDUAL & CORPORATE OBJECTIVES. PMSs ALSO ENABLE INDIVIDUALS TO EXPRESS THEIR OWN VIEWS ON WHAT THEY SHOULD BE DOING, WHERE THEY SHOULD BE GOING & HOW THEY SHOULD BE MANAGED. THUS THEY PROVIDE A MEANS WHEREBY EXPECTATIONS CAN BE SHARED BETWEEN MANAGERS & THEIR STAFF. MANAGERS CAN CLARIFY THEIR EXPECTATIONS OF WHAT THEY WANT THEIR STAFF TO DO & STAFF CAN COMMUNICATE THEIR EXPECTATIONS ON HOW THEY SHOULD BE TREATED.

PITFALLS OF PA
# PA IS DONE BY PEOPLE WHO HAVE EMOTIONS, THERE WILL ALWAYS BE SOME SUBJECTIVITY. THOUGH CRITERION COULD BE STIPULATED, PERSONAL LIKINGS & BIASES WILL INFLUENCE THE EVALUATION. BEING SUBJECTIVE IN NATURE, THERE ARE CERTAIN PITFALLS WHICH NEED TO BE GUARDED AGAINST. ( SUBJECTIVE MEANS BASED ON OR INFLUENCED BY PERSONAL FEELINGS, TASTES OR OPINIONS ). THE PITFALLS COULD BE :-

1. SHIFTING STANDARDS---LAST YEAR QUALITY WAS THE CRITERIA FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION BUT THIS YEAR IT IS ON QUANTITY AS DECIDED BY THE BOSS. 2. DIFFERENT RATERS PATTERNS. 3. CENTRAL TENDENCY---MANY APPRAISAL FORMS REQUIRE THE APPRAISER TO JUSTIFY OUTSTANDING OR POOR ASSESSMENTS. SO MANY RATERS MAY PREFER AN EASIER PATH OF RATING MOST PEOPLE AS AVERAGE. 4. FIRST IMPRESSION 5. LATEST BEHAVIOUR. 6. HALO EFFECT----THIS IS THE THAT OCCURS WHEN A SUPERVISORS RATING OF A SUBORDINATE ON ONE TRAIT BIASES THE RATING OF THAT PERSON ON OTHER TRAITS. 7. HORN EFFECT--- HIGHLY CRITICAL BOSSES HAVE A TENDENCY TO COMPARE PERFORMANCE OF THEIR SUBORDINATES WITH WHAT THEY DID. THIS IS NOT CORRECT BECAUSE THE PERFORMANCE ALSO DEPENDS UPON THE SITUATION. PRODUCT MARKET AGAINST CUSTOMER MARKET. 8. STEREOTYPING----SOME RATERS HAVE A STANDARD MENTAL PICTURE ABOUT A PERSON BECAUSE OF THAT PERSONS SEX, COLOUR, CASTE, RELIGION, AGE, STYLE OF CLOTHING, POLITICAL VIEW etc. STEREOTYPING RESULTS IN AN OVERSIMPLIFIED VIEW. SUCH ASSESSMENTS ARE BASED ON FALSE ASSUMPTIONS / FEELINGS, RATHER THAN FACTS. DISCRETION SHOULD NOT BECOME DISCRIMINATION. 9. SPILL-OVER EFFECT---EARLIER PERFORMANCE BIASES THE NEW BOSS OR PRESENT PERFORMANCE. 10. LACK OF PROPER PERIODICAL FEEDBACK. 11. VERY CURT APPRIASL INTERVIEWS.

DIFFERENT METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL


# THERE ARE MAINLY TWO TYPES ----- TRADITIONAL & MODERN :TRADITIONAL METHODS STRAIGHT RANKING PERSON TO PERSON COMPARISON GRADING GRAPHIC RATING FORCED CHOICE DESCRIPTION. CHECK LIST FREE FORM ESSAY CRITICAL INCIDENTS GP APPRAISAL. FIELD REVIEW METHOD MODERN METHODS * ASSESSMENT CENTRE * BARS * MBO * 360 DEGREES

COMPETENCY MANAGEMENT
COMPETENCY
# BOYATZIS ESTABLISHED THAT THERE WAS NO SINGLE FACTOR BUT RATHER A RANGE OF FACTORS THAT DIFFERENTIATED SUCCESSFUL FROM LESS SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS. THIS RANGE OF FACTORS INCLUDED PERSONAL QUALITIES, MOTIVES, EXPERIENCE & BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS UNDER VARIOUS HEADINGS. # HE DEFINED COMPETENCY AS, A CAPACITY THAT EXISTS IN A PERSON THAT LEADS TO BEHAVIOUR THAT MEETS THE JOB DEMANDS WITHIN THE PARAMETERS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT & THAT, IN TURN, BRINGS ABOUT DESIRED RESULTS. # FOLLOWING ARE SOME MORE DEFINITIONS OF COMPETENCY :

1. THE BEHAVIOURAL DIMENSIONS THAT AFFECT JOB PERFORMANCE -----------( WOODRUFFE, 1990 )

2. ANY INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC THAT CAN BE MEASURED OR COUNTED RELIABLY & THAT CAN BE SHOWN TO DIFFERENTIATE SIGNIFICANTLY BETWEEN EFFECTIVE & INEFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE----------------(SPENCER 1990 ) 3. THE FUNDAMENTAL ABILITIES & CAPABILITIES NEEDED TO DO A JOB WELL -------------( FURNHAM 1990 ) 4.ALL THE WORK-RELATED PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES, KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS & VALUES THAT A PERSON DRAWS UPON TO DO THEIR WORK WELL. - --------------------------------------------------------------------(ROBERTS 1997 )

COMPETENCE
# COMPETENCE IS DEFINED AS BEING WHAT A PERSON WHO WORKS IN A GIVEN OCCUPATION SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO---ACTIONS, BEHAVIOUR OR OUTCOMES THAT THE PERSON SHOULD BE ABLE TO DEMONSTRATE. # COMPETENCES CAN BE DEFINED BY MEANS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS, WHICH ESTABLISHES WHAT PEOPLE IN PARTICULAR ROLES HAVE TO BE ABLE TO DO & THE STANDARDS THEY ARE EXPECTED TO ACHIEVE.

COMPETENCY & COMPETENCE


# COMPETENCY IS A PERSON-RELATED CONCEPT THAT REFERS TO THE DIMENSIONS OF BEHAVIOUR LYING BEHIND COMPETENT PERFORMANCE. # COMPETENCE IS A WORK-RELATED CONCEPT THAT REFERS TO AREAS OF WORK AT WHICH THE PERSON IS COMPETENT. # HAVING SEEN THE BASICS, LET US CONCENTRATE ON COMPETENCY.

COMPETENCY
# THE CONSTITUENTS OF COMPETENCY : WHICH ARE :-

1.MOTIVESTHE UNDERLYING NEED PATTERN THAT DRIVES, DIRECTS & SELECTS AN INDIVIDUALS BEHAVIOUR;

2. TRAITS ---GENERAL DISPOSITIONS TO BEHAVE OR RESPOND IN A CERTAIN WAY; e.g. SELF-CONFIDENCE, SELF-CONTROL, RESISTANCE TO STRESS etc.

3.SELF- CONCEPT----THE INDIVIDUALS ATTITUDES OR VALUES;

4.CONTENT KNOWLEDGE----OF FACTS OR PROCEDURES, EITHER TECHNICAL OR INTERPERSONAL ( HOW TO GIVE FEEDBACK );

5.COGNITIVE & BEHAVIOURAL SKILLS---EITHER COVERT ( e.g. DEDUCTIVE OR INDUCTIVE REASONING ) OR OBSERVABLE ( e.g. ACTIVE LISTENING ).

# TYPICAL COMPETENCIES : THERE ARE 10 MOST COMMON BEHAVIOURS SOUGHT WHICH ARE :-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

COMMUNICATION ACHIEVEMENT / RESULTS ORIENTATION CUSTOMER FOCUS TEAMWORK LEADERSHIP PLANNING & ORGANISING COMMERCIAL /BUSINESS AWARENESS FLEXIBILITY / ADAPTABILITY DEVELOPING AND PROBLEM SOLVING.

CATEGORIZATION OF COMPETENCIES

1. ENTRY LEVEL-----* FUNCTIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS & GOOD ACADEMIC RECORD. ABILITY TO IDENTIFY & DIAGNOSE KEY ISSUES, ANALYZE & DRAW ACCURATE CONCLUSIONS. SELF-MOTIVATED, COMMITTED & ENERGETIC. INITIATIVE TAKER & ENTHUSIASTIC. GOOD INTERPERSONAL SKILLS. ACCEPTS CHANGE WILLINGLY. ABILITY TO THINK INNOVATIVELY.

2. JUNIOR MANAGEMENT---- PERSONALLY ORGANISED, SYSTEMATIC, OPTIMIZES RESOURCE ALLOCATION & RESULT ORIENTED. EXCELLENT PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS. TEAM-ORIENTED. ASSUMES OWNERSHIP & RESPONSIBILITY. IS OPEN & FLEXIBLE. 3. MIDDLE / SENIOR MANAGEMENT GOOD NETWORKING WITH DIVERSIFIED COMMUNITIES BOTH INTERNAL & EXTERNAL TO THE ORG.

SHOWS GENUINE CONCERN & RESPECT & SENSITIVE TO EMPLOYEES NEEDS. DEVELOPS SUBORDINATES. ALWAYS SEEKING & BRINGING ABOUT IMPROVEMENT IN EXISTING PROCESSES & PROCEDURES. UPDATED ON RESEARCHORIENTED ON PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. HAS EXCELLENT INFLUENCING & PERSUASIVE SKILLS.

4.-------

TOP MANAGEMENT POSSESSES SOUND BUSINESS VISION. COMPLETELY ORIENTED TOWARDS WORK PROCESSES. EXCELLENT INFLUENCING SKILLS. HIGHLY PEOPLE-DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTED. EXHIBITS LEADERSHIP BY EXAMPLE.. AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED.

COMPETENCY MAPPING & ITS LINKAGE TO PERFORMANCE PLANNING 21 feb 2013 # COMPETENCY MAPPING ( C M ) IS THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING KEY COMPETENCIES FOR A PARTICULAR POSITION IN AN ORG & THEN USING IT FOR JOB EVALUATION, RECRUITMENT, TRG & DEVELOPMENT, PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT, SUCCESSION PLANNING WHICH RESULTS IN TALENT INDUCTION, MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT APPRAISALS & IN IDENTIFYING TRG NEEDS. # COMPETENCY MAPPING IS THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING KEY COMPETENCIES FOR AN ORG & THE JOBS & FUNCTIONS WITHIN IT.

# PERFORMANCE PLANNING MAY BE DEFINED AS A SYSTEMATIC OUTLINING OF THE ACTIVITIES THAT THE MANAGER IS EXPECTED TO UNDERTAKE DURING A SPECIFIED PERIOD SO THAT HE IS ABLE TO MAKE BEST CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENTAL & ORG OUTCOMES. PERFORMANCE PLANNING IS A PROCESS IN WHICH EMPLOYEES & MANAGERS WORK TIGETHER TO DETERMINE WHAT THE EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE DOING IN THE NEXT YEAR & WHAT SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE MEANS. # CM REFERS TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF PREFERRED BEHAVIOURS & PERSONAL SKILLS WHICH DISTINGUISH EXCELLENT & OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE FROM THE AVERAGE. IT EXPLAINS HOW A JOB COULD BE DONE, WHILE A COMPETENCE ONLY DESCRIBES WHAT HAS TO BE DONE; NOT HOW. CM IS A PRE-REQUISITE TO SUCCESSFUL INSTITUTION OF

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYATEM IN AN ORG BECAUSE OF THE FOLLOWING REASONS :1. IT PROVIDES STRUCTURED & DOCUMENTED PROCEDURES WHICH AID IN RECRUITMENT OF COMPETENT PERSONNEL WITH DESIRED SKIL SETS, ATTRIBUTES & TRG THEREBY REDUCING THE COST & TIME OF SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE FAILURES. IT REDUCES THE COST OF PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AS THE ORG HAS A READY INVENTORY OF REQUISITE SKILL SETS. IT HELPS IN BENCHMARKING HIGHER LEVELS OF PERFORMANCE. IT HELPS IN CREATING INDIVIDUAL LEARNING PLANS. IT HELPS IN ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHT JOB TO THE RIGHT PERSON FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE AS THE EMPLOYEES WITH REQUIRED SKILL SETS & TRG SHALL BE HANDLING IT. AND IT PROVIDES THE MANAGEMENT INPUT FOR GAP ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF THE EMPLOYEE IN THE REQUISITE BUSINESS AREAS.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT MATRIX

1. PHASE 1.----UNCONSCIOUSLY INCOMPETENT---DUE TO LACK OF PROPER FEEDBACK, LACK OF SUITABLE EXPOSURE.

2. PHASE 2.-----CONSCIOUSLY INCOMPETENT---INDIVIDUAL REALIZES HIS / HER LIMITATIONS WHEN ONE FAILS TO PERFORM.

3. PHASE 3.------ UNCONSCIOUSLY COMPETENT----AFTER BECOMING CONSCIOUSLY INCOMPETENT, INDIVIDUAL MAKES EFFORTS TO IMPROVE. AND

4. PHASE 4----CONSCIOUSLY COMPETENT---ACQUIRED SKILL IS WIDELY RECOGNIZED & IT ENHANCES MOTIVATION LEVEL OF THE INDIVIDUAL.

CONCLUSION
# EDN MAKES YOU CAPABLE FOR A JOB WHICH IN TURN GETS YOU A JOB / LIVING. ONCE ONE JOINS A COY, IS TRAINED THROUGH INDUCTION, AND STARTS ONES WORK WHICH REFLECTS ONES PERFORMANCE AND WITH PASSAGE OF TIME & GAINING EXPERIENCE, COMPETENCIES ARE UNDERSTOOD & DEVELOPED.

SUMMARY----- PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT


1.INTRODUCTION. 2. WHAT IS PA ? & PERFORMANCE COACHING. 3. WHAT IS PM ? 4. CONCEPT OF PM. 5. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION OF PM. 6. WHAT PMS ? 7. PITFALLS OF PA. 8. DIFFERENT METHODS OF PA. 9. COMPETENCY MANAGEMENT :* COMPETENCY * COMPETENCE * CATEGORIZATION OF COMPETENCIES. * COMPETENCY MAPPING & ITS LINKAGE TO PERFORMANCE PLANNING. * COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT MATRIX. 10. CONCLUSION.

COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT
IF YOU PICK THE RIGHT PEOPLE AND GIVE THEM THE OPPORTUNITY TO SPREAD THEIR WINGS - AND PUT COMPENSATION AND REWARDS AS A CARRIER BEHIND IT - YOU ALMOST DONT HAVE TO MANAGE THEM. --------- JACK WELCH
INTRODUCTION
# COMPANIES SUCCESS IN THE MARKETPLACE IS AS MUCH A FUNCTION OF THE WAY BUSINESS PRACTTIONERS MANAGE EMPLOYEES AS IT IS A FUNCTION OF COYS STRUCTURES & FINCIAL RESOURCES. COMPENSATING EMPLOYEES REPRESENTS A CRITICAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE. WITHOUT SOUND COMPENSATION SYSTEMS, COYS CANNOT ATTRACT & RETAIN THE BEST QUALIFIED EMPLOYEES. # EMPLOYEES, IN EXCHANGE OF THEIR WORK, GENERALLY EXPECT SOME APPRECIATION. MONEY IS CONSIDERED THE MOST IMPORTANT MOTIVATION FOR EMPLOYEES, THOUGH NON-FINANCIAL INCENTIVES WORK EFFICIENTLY. THE GOALS OF COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT ( C M ) ARE TO DESIGN THE LOWEST COST PAY STRUCTURE THAT WILL ATTRACT, MOTIVATE & RETAIN COMPETENT EMPLOYEES. # COMPENSATION IS WHAT EMPLOYEES RECEIVE IN EXCHANGE FOR THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORG. COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT ( C M ) HELPS THE ORG OBTAIN, MAINTAIN & RETAIN A PRODUCTIVE WORKFORCE. WITHOUT ADQUATE COMPENSATION, CURRENT EMPLOYEES ARE LIKELY TO LEAVE & IT WILL ALSO BE DIFFICULT TO RECRUIT NEW PEOPLE. THE OUTCOMES OF PAY DISSATISFACTION MAY DETRACT FROM THE OBJECTIVE OF ENHANCING ORG PRODUCTIVITY & SUGGEST A DECLINE IN THE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE. IN SEVERE CASES, PAY ISSUES MAY LOWER PERFORMANCE, INCREASE GRIEVANCES OR CAUSE WORKERS TO QUIT. # YOU AS A MANAGER WOULD PROBABLY GIVE EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION THE FIRST PLACE IN YOUR PRIORITY LIST, & RIGHTLY SO. OVER THE YEARS COMPENSATION HAS BECOM A COMPLICATED ISSUE. NOT ONLY ARE THE ISSUES OF INTERNAL EQUITY & JUSTICE IMPORTANT, BUT ALSO THE LARGER ISSUES OF THE WIDER ECONOMY & SOCIETY IMPINGE IMMEDIATELY ON THE PROBLEM OF COMPENSATION.

# FORMULATION OF RATIONAL WAGE POLICY HAS ALWAYS BEEN ONE OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT SOCIAL DEMANDS. INITIALLY AS AN ECONOMIC ISSUE IT WAS MAINLY THE CONCERN OF THE EMPLOYER. BUT, WITH THE INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS & SUBSEQUENT INDUSTRIAL BALANCE BETWEEN EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES, WAGE BARGAIN HAS BECOME A MATTER FOR THE THREE-FOLD CONCERN OF EMPLOYER, EMPLOYEE & THE STATE. # ANY RATIONAL WAGE POLICY HAS TO BE WOVEN INTO THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC TEXTURE REFLECTING THE OBJECTIVES & ASPIRATIONS OF THE PEOPLE OF A PARTICULAR COUNTRY. IT CANNOT BE DEALT WITH ON PURELY ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN ISOLATION FROM THE SOCIAL POLICY & POLITICAL CULTURE OF THAT PARTICULAR COMMUNITY.

WHAT IS COMPENSATION ?
# THE DICTIONARY MEANING OF COMPENSATION IS ----- SOMETHING GIVEN TO REDUCE OR BALANCE THE BAD EFFECT /S OF LOSS, SUFFERING OR INJURY. # MOST OF US WOULD HAVE HEARD THE TERM COMPENSATION IN THE CONTEXT OF GETTING PAID FOR THE WORK THAT WE DO. THE WORK CAN BE AS PART OF FULL TIME ENGAGEMENT OR PART TIME IN NATURE. WHAT IS COMMON TO THEM IS THAT THE REWARD THAT WE GET FOR EXPENDING OUR ENERGY NOT TO MENTION THE TIME IS THAT WE ARE COMPENSATED FOR IT. # FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE EMPLOYERS, THE MONEY THAT THEY PAY TO THE EMPLOYEES IN RETURN FOR THE WORK THAT THEY DO IS SOMETHING THAT THEY NEED TO PLAN FOR IN AN ELABORATE AND SYSTEMATIC MANNER. UNLESS THE EMPLOYER AND THE EMPLOYEE ARE IN BROAD AGREEMENT (WE USE THE TERM BROAD AGREEMENT AS IN MANY CASES, SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION ABOUT THE EMPLOYEES WORTH EXIST BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES), THE NET RESULT IS DISSATISFACTION FROM THE EMPLOYEES PERSPECTIVE AND FRICTION IN THE RELATIONSHIP. # IT CAN BE SAID THAT COMPENSATION IS THE GLUE THAT BINDS THE EMPLOYEE AND THE EMPLOYER TOGETHER AND IN THE ORGANIZED SECTOR, THIS IS FURTHER CODIFIED IN THE FORM OF A CONTRACT OR A MUTUALLY BINDING LEGAL DOCUMENT THAT SPELLS OUT EXACTLY HOW MUCH SHOULD BE PAID TO THE EMPLOYEE AND THE COMPONENTS OF THE COMPENSATION PACKAGE. SINCE, THIS ARTICLE IS INTENDED TO BE AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT, THE ART AND SCIENCE OF ARRIVING AT THE RIGHT COMPENSATION MAKES ALL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SATISFIED EMPLOYEE AND A DISGRUNTLED EMPLOYEE.

# COMPENSATION IS THE REMUNERATION RECEIVED BY AN EMPLOYEE IN RETURN FOR HIS/HER CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORGANIZATION. IT IS AN ORGANIZED PRACTICE THAT INVOLVES BALANCING THE WORK-EMPLOYEE RELATION BY PROVIDING MONETARY AND NONMONETARY BENEFITS TO EMPLOYEES. REMUNERATION MEANS MONEY PAID FOR WORK OR SERVICE.
# COMPENSATION MAY BE DEFINED AS MONEY RECEIVED IN THE PERFORMANCE OF WORK, PLUS MANY KINDS OF BENEFITS & SERVICES THAT ORGS PROVIDE THEIR EMPLOYEES. MONEY IS INCLUDED UNDER DIRECT COMPENSATION WHILE BENEFITS COME UNDER INDIRECT COMPENSATION. # COMPENSATION IS THE TOTAL PACKAGE OF TANGIBLE RETURNS ( FINANCIAL REWARDS, SERVICES & BENEFITS ) PROVIDED BY THE ORG TO EMPLOYEES IN RETURN FOR THEIR LABOUR # COMPENSATION MAY BE DEFINED AS MONEY RECEIVED IN THE PERFORMANCE OF WORK PLUS MANY KINDS OF BENEFITS & SERVICES THAT ORGS PROVIDE THEIR EMPLOYEES. # COMPENSATION REPRESENTS BOTH THE INTRINSIC & EXRTINSIC REWARDS EMPLOYEES RECEIVE FOR PERFORMING THEIR JOBS. ( INTRINSIC MEANS SOMETHING ESSENTIAL AND EXTRINSIC MEANS NOT ESSENTIAL ). # COMPENSATION REFERS TO ALL FORMS OF FINANCIAL RETURNS & TANGIBLE SERVICES & BENEFITS EMPLOYEES RECEIVE AS PART OF AN EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP. # SOME ORGs USE THE TERM, REMUNERATION, WHICH MEANS MONEY PAID FOR WORK OR A SERVICE. THUS REMUNERATION IS THE COMPENSATION AN EMPLOYEE RECEIVES IN RETURN FOR HIS OR HER CONTRIBUTION TO THE ORG. # COMPENSATION PROVIDED TO EMPLOYEES CAN BE DIRECT IN THE FORM OF MONETARY BENEFITS AND/OR INDIRECT IN THE FORM OF NON-MONETARY BENEFITS KNOWN AS PERKS, TIME OFF, ETC. COMPENSATION DOES NOT INCLUDE ONLY SALARY BUT IT IS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL REWARDS AND ALLOWANCES PROVIDED TO THE EMPLOYEES IN RETURN FOR THEIR SERVICES. IF THE COMPENSATION OFFERED IS EFFECTIVELY MANAGED, IT CONTRIBUTES TO HIGH ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY # NOW LET US UNDERSTAND SOME TERMINOLOGIES : WAGES ----- WAGES REPRESENT HOURLY RATES OF PAY. WAGES INDICATE PAYMENTS IN TERMS OF THE NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED & MAY FLUCTUATE DEPENDING UPON HOURS ACTUALLY WORKED. SALARY ----- SALARY REFERS TO THE MONTHLY RATE OF PAY, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE NUMBER OF HOURS PUT IN BY AN EMPLOYEE. THIS CONCEPT OF SALARY IMPLIES THE REMUNERATION WHACH IS UNIFORM IRRESPECTIVE OF THE NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED.

INCENTIVES ----- ANYTHING THAT MOTIVATES OR ENCOURAGES SOMEONE TO ACTION OR INCREASED EFFORT. SOMETHING THAT SETS THE TUNE OR ENCOURAGES. MANY REFER INCENTIVES AS REWARDS. FRINGE BENEFITS ----- FRINGE MEANS NOT PART OF A MAIN STREAM. THESE INCLUDE SUCH EMPLOYEE BENEFITS AS PROVIDENT FUND ( PF ), GRATUITY, MEDICAL CARE, HOSPITALISATION, ACCIDENT RELIEF, HEALTH & GROUP INSURANCE, CANTEEN, UNIFORM, RECREATION & THE LIKE. PERQUITES ------ MEANS SPECIAL RIGHT OR PRIVILEGE ENJOYED AS A RESULT OF ONES POSITION. THESE ARE ALLOWED TO EXECUTIVES & INCLUDE COY CAR, CLUB MEMBERSHIP, PAID HOLIDAYS, FURNISHED HOUSE, STOCK OPTION SCHEMES & THE LIKE. PERQUISITES ARE OFFERED TO RETAIN COMPETENT EXECUTIVES.

WHAT IS COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT ?


# COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT IS AN ADVANCED SALARY PLANNING, INCENTIVE AND STOCK-PLANNING TOOL, ENABLING MANAGERS AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENTS TO STREAMLINE THE FOCAL REVIEW PROCESS.
OBJECTIVES OF COMPENSATION # COMPENSATION OBJECTIVES ARE NOT RULES, THEY ARE GUIDELINES. BETTER THE OBJECTIVES ARE FOLLOWED, THE MORE EFFECTIVE WAGE & SALARY ADMINISTRATION WILL BE. # OBJECTIVES OF COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT, IN GENERAL, COULD BE :1. ACQUIRE QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ----- COMPENSATION NEEDS TO BE HIGH ENOUGH TO ATTRACT APPLICANTS. PAY LEVELS MUST RESPOND TO SUPPLY & DEMAND OF WORKERS IN THE LABOUR MARKET SINCE EMPLOYEES COMPETE FOR WAGES. PREMIUM WAGES ARE SOMETIMES NEEDED TO ATTRACT APPLICANTS WHO ARE ALREADY WORKING FOR OTHERS.

2. RETAIN PRESENT EMPLOYEES ------- EMPLOYEES MAY QUIT WHEN COMPENSATION LEVELS ARE NOT COMPETITIVE, RESULTING IN HIGHER TURNOVER. 3. ENSURE EQUITY ------ CM STRIVES FOR INTERNAL & EXTERNAL EQUITY. INTERNAL EQUITY REQUIRES THAT PAY BE RELATED TO THE RELATIVE WORTH OF JOBS, SO THAT SIMILAR JOBS GET SIMILAR PAY. EXTERNAL EQUITY MEANS PAYING THE WORKERS WHAT THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN OTHER FIRMS IN THE LABOUR MARKET ARE BEING PAID (BENCHMARKING ) 4. REWARD DESIRE BEHAVIOUR ------- PAY SHOULD REINFORCE DESIRED BEHAVIOURS & ACT AS AN INCENTIVE FOR THOSE BEHAVIOURS TO OCCUR IN THE FUTURE. EFFECTIVE

COMPENSATION PLANS REWARD PERFORMANCE, LOYALTY, EXPERIENCE, RESPONSIBILITIES AND OTHER BEHAVIOURS. 5. CONTROL COSTS ----- A RATIONAL COMPENSATION SYSTEM HELPS THE ORG OBTAIN & RETAIN WORKERS AT A REASONABLE COST. WITHOUT EFFECTIVE CM, A WORKER COULD BE OVER OR UNDERPAID. 6. COMPLY WITH LEGAL REGULATIONS ------ A SOUND WAGE & SALARY SYSTEM CONSIDERS THE LEGAL CHALLENGES IMPOSED BY THE GOVT & ENSURES THE EMPLOYERS COMPLIANCE. 7. FACILITY UNDERSTANDING ------ THE CM SYSTEM SHOULD BE EASILY UNDERSTOOD BY HR SPECIALISTS, OPERATING MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES. 8. FUTHER ADMINISTRATION EFFECIENCY ------ WAGE & SALARY PROGRAMMES SHOULD BE DESIGNED TO BE MANAGED EFFICIENTLY, MAKING OPTIONAL USE OF THE HRIS, ALTHOUGH THIS OBJECTIVE SHOULD BE SECODARY CONSIDERATION COMPARED WITH OTHER OBJECTIVES. # TO MEET THESE OBJECTIVES, COMPENSATION SPECIALISTS EVALUATE JOB, CONDUCT WAGE & SALARY SURVEYS & PRICE EACH JOB. THROUGH THESE STEPS, THE PAY LEVELS FOR EACH JOB IS DETERMINED. # THEIR WOULD BE DIFFERENT COMPENSATION OBJECTIVES FOR EMPLOYEES & EMPLOYERS, WHICH COULD BE :( a ) COMPENSATION OBJECTIVES FOR EMPLOYEES : TO ELIMINATE INEQUALITIES ---- EMPLOYEES ARE PAID ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENTS OF THEIR JOBS i.e. HIGHLY SKILLED JOBS ARE PAID MORE COMPENSATION THAN LOW SKILLED JOBS. TO MINIMISE POSSIBILITIES OF FAVOURITISM. TO PLAN CAREER --- JOB SEQUENCES & LINES OF PROMOTION ARE ESTABLISHED WHEREVER THEY ARE APPLICABLE. TO INCREASE MORALE & MOTIVATION ----BY PROVIDING SIMPLE COMPENSATION PROGRAMMES WHICH COULD BE EXPLAINED & BASED ON FACTS ( MORALE IS THE LEVEL OF A PERSONS CONFIDENCE , MOOD, COURAGE, ENERGY & DETERMINATION. MOTIVATION IS THE DESIRE & WILLINGNESS TO DO SOMETHING )

( b ) COMPENSATION OBJECTIVES FOR EMPLOYERS TO SYSTEMATICALLY PLAN FOR & CONTROL THEIR LABOUR COSTS.

TO DEAL WITH THE TRADE UNION, EMPLOYER CAN EXPLAIN THE BASIS OF THE WAGE PROGRAMME AS IT IS BASED ON A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF JOB & WAGE FACTS. TO REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD OF FRICTION & GRIEVANCES OVER WAGE INEQUITIES. TO ENHANCE AN EMPLOYEES MORALE & MOTIVATION BECAUSE ADEQUATE & FAIRLY ADMINISTRATED WAGES ARE BASIC TO HIS WANTS & NEEEDS. AND TO ATTRACT QUALIFIED PEOPLE BY ENSURING ADEQUATE PAYMENT FOR ALL JOBS. TO IMPROVE PUBLIC IMAGE OF THE COY.

VARIOUS TYPES OF WAGES


# THERE ARE MAINLY THREE TYPES OF WAGES ----- MINIMUM WAGE, FAIR WAGE & LIVING WAGE. # MINIMUM WAGE ------ MINIMUM WAGE IS THE ONE WHICH PROVIDES NOT MERELY FOR SUSTENANCE OF LIFE, BUT ALSO FOR THE PRESERVATION OF EFFICIENCY OF THE WORKER. ( SUSTENANCE MEANS THE PROCESS OF STRENGTHENING OR SUPPORTING PHYSICALLY OR MENTALLY ). FOR THIS PURPOSE, THE MINIMUM WAGE MUST ALSO PROVIDE FOR SOME MEASURE OF EDN, MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS & AMENITIES. MINIMUM WAGE MAY BE TIED BY AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE MANAGEMENT & THE WORKERS, BUT IS USUALLY DETERMINED THROUGH LEGISLATION ( MEANS FROM LAWS ). IN THE FIXATION OF MINIMUM WAGES, BESIDES THE NEEDS OF WORKERS, OTHER FACTORS LIKE ABILITY OF THE CONCERN TO PAY, NATURE OF THE JOBS ETC ARE ALSO CONSIDERED. # FAIR WAGES ------ FAIR WAGE IS UNDERSTOOD IN TWO WAYS. IN A NARROW SENSE, WAGE IS FAIR IF IT IS EQUAL TO THE RATE PREVALING IN THE SAME TRADE & IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD FOR SIMILAR WORK. IN A WIDER SENSE, IT WILL BE FAIR IF IT IS EQUAL TO THE PREDOMINANT RATE FOR SIMILAR WORK THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY & FOR TRADES IN GENERAL. IRRESPECTIVE OF THE WAY IN WHICH FAIR WAGE IS UNDERSTOOD, IT CAN BE FIXED ONLY BY COMPARISON WITH AN ACCEPTABLE STANDARD WAGE. SUCH A STANDARD CAN BE DETERMINED WITH REFERENCE TO THOSE INDUSTRIES WHERE LABOUR IS WELL ORGANISED & HAS BEEN ABLE TO BARGAIN WELL WITH THE EMPLOYERS. # LIVING WAGES ---- LIVING WAGE IS A STEP HIGHER THAN FAIR WAGE. LIVING WAGE MAY BE DESCRIBED AS ONE WHICH SHOULD ENABLE THE WAGE EARNER TO PROVIDE FOR HIMSELF / HERSELF & HIS / HER FAMILY NOT ONLY THE BARE ESSENTIALS OF LIFE LIKE FOOD, CLOTHING & SHELTER, BUT A MEASURE OF COMFORT INCLUDING EDN FOR CHILDREN, PROTECTION AGAINST ILL HEALTH, REQUIREMENTS OF ESSENTIAL SOCIAL NEEDS AND / OR MEASURE OF INSURANCE AGAINST THE MORE IMPORTANT MISFORTUNES INCLUDING OLD AGE. A LIVING WAGE MUST BE FIXED CONSIDERING THE GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE COUNTRY.

COMPONENTS OF COMPENSATION
# AN AVERAGE EMPLOYEE IN AN ORGANISED SECTOR IS ENTITLED TO SEVERAL BENEFITS ---BOTH FINANCIAL & NON-FINANCIAL. TYPICAL COMPENSATION OF AN EMPLOYEE COMPRISES OF WAGES & SALARY, INCENTIVES, FRINGE BENEFITS, PERQUISITES & NON-MONETARY BENEFITS. # THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION / REMUNERATION ARE GIVEN BELOW :# FINANCIAL COMPENSATION : HOURLY & MONTHLY RATED WAGES & SALARIES. INCENTIVES ---INDIVIDUAL & GP PLANS. FRINGE BENEFITS ------- P.F., GRATUITY, MEDICAL CARE, ACCIDENT RELIEF, HEALTH & GP INSURANCE PERQUISITES ----- COY CAR, CLUB MEMBERSHIP, PAID HOLIDAYS, FURNISHED HOUSE, STOCK OPTION SCHEMES, MOBILE PHONES, CREDIT CARDS ETC. # NON FINANCIAL COMPENSATION : JOB CONTEXT CHALLENGING JOB RESPONSIBILITIES. RECOGNITION GROWTH PROSPECTS SUPERVISION WORKING CONDIONS JOB SHARING JOB SATISFACTION AUTONOMY PERFORMANCE # WAGES & SALARY ------ WAGES REPRESENT HOURLY RATES OF PAY & SALARY REFERS TO THE MONTHLY RATE OF PAY, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE NUMBER OF HOURS PUT IN BY AN EMPLOYEE. WAGES & SALARY ARE SUBJECT TO ANNUAL OR PERIODICAL INCREMENTS. THESE DIFFER FROM EMPLOYEE TO EMPLOYEE & DEPEND UPON THE NATURE OF JOB, SENIORITY & MERIT.

# INCENTIVES ----- IT IS A THING THAT MOTIVATES OR ENCOURAGES SOMEONE TO ACTION OR INCREASED EFFORT. SOMETHING THAT SETS THE TUNE OR INCITIES THAT IS ENCOURAGES, THIS IS ALSO CALLED PAYMENT BY RESULTS. INCENTIVES ARE PAID IN ADDITION TO WAGES & SALARIES. INCENTIVES DEPEND UPON PRODUCTIVITY, SALES, PROFIT OR COST REDUCTION EFFORTS. # THERE ARE INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES & GP INCENTIVE PROGRAMMES. INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVES ARE APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE. WHERE A GIVEN TASK DEMANDS GP EFFORT FOR COMPLETION, INCENTIVES ARE PAID TO THE GP AS A WHOLE. THE AMOUNT IS LATER DIVIDED AMONG GP MEMBERS ON AN EQUITABLE BASIS. # FRINGE BENEFITS ----- FRINGE MEANS NOT A PART OF A MAIN STREAM. THESE INCLUDE SUCH EMPLOYEE BENEFITS AS PROVIDENT FUND ( PF ), GRATUITY, MEDICAK CARE, HOSPITALISATION, ACCIDENT RELIEF, HEALTH & GP INSURANCE, CANTEEN, RECREATION & THE LIKES. # PERQUISITES ----- MEANS SPECIAL RIGHT OR PRIVILAGE ENJOYED AS A RESULT OF ONES POSITION. THESE ARE ALLOWED TO EXECUTIVES & INCLUDE COY CAR, CLUB MEMBERSHIP, PAID HOLIDAYS, FURNISHED HOUSE, STOCK OPTION SCHEMES & LIKES. PERQUISITES ARE OFFERED TO RETAIN COMPETENT EXECUTIVES.

COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL SALARY / WAGE STRUCTURE


# SALARY / WAGE STRUCTURE MEANS HOW YOUR MONTHLY EARNINGS WILL BE DIVIDED INTO VARIOUS HEADINGS. SOME OF THE HEADINGS UNDER WHICH SALARY / WAGES ARE CONSIDERED COULD BE :-

# BASE PAY OR BASE WAGE OR BASIC PAY OR BASIC WAGE-----THE BASIC CASH COMPENSATION THAT AN EMPLOYER PAYS FOR THE WORK PERFORMED. TENDS TO REFLECT THE VALUE OF THE WORK ITSELF & IGNORE DIFFERENCES IN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTIONS. # IT IS A STABLE WAGE PAID OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. THIS COULD BE ON A MONTHLY, WEEKLY OR DAILY BASIS. THIS PAY IS THE NORMAL RATE FOR A GIVEN LEVEL OF OUTPUT. IT IS THE PRICE TO BE PAID TO GET A GIVEN JOB DONE. IT USUALLY PROGRESSES OVER TIME. # BASIC WAGE IS BUILD UPON THE STATUTORY MINIMUM WAGE, THE AWARDS OF THE INDUSTRIAL TRIBUMALS & DIRECTIVES OF THE COMMISSIONS AT THE NATIONAL & STATE LEVELS & BY COLLECTIVE BARGAINING. # THIS MINIMUM WAGE, ACCORDING TO THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 1949 REPORT OF THE FAIR WAGES COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY THE GOVT OF INDIA, SHOULD PROVIDE NOT MERELY FOR THE BARE SUSTENANCE OF LIFE BUT FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WORKERS BY PROVIDING SOME MEASURE OF EDN, MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS & AMENITIES.

# AN UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION BEHIND THE BASIC WAGE LEGISLATION IS THAT THE INDUSTRY DOES NOT HAVE THE RIGHT TO EXIST UNLESS THE MINIMUM NEEDS OF THE WORKERS ARE MET. THIS CONCEPT OF BASIC WAGE WAS INTRODUCED AFTER THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR & IT WAS BASED ON A STANDARD BUDGET CONCEPT FOR A FAMILY OF FOUR, SHOULD INCLUDE FOOD, CLOTHING, HOUSING & FUEL # DEARNESS ALLOWANCE------THE SYSTEM OF DEARNESS ALLOWANCE ( DA ) WAS INTRODUCED AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR AS A RESULT OF STEEP RISE IN PRICES OF ESSENTIAL COMMODITIES. THE DA WAS TO PROTECT THE WAGE EARNERS REAL INCOME BY NEUTRALISING THE INCREASED COST OF LIVING. THE DA, THEREFORE, WAS TO GIVE RELIEF TO THE WORKER IN INFLATIONARY CONDITIONS, BY TRYING TO OFFSET THE COST OF LIVING WITH AN ADDITIONAL ALLOWANCE. # OTHER COMPONENTS OF PAY PACKETS---BY VIRTUE OF BEING THE MEMBER OF AN ORGANISATION, AN EMPLOYEE RECEIVES A NUMBER OF OTHER BENEFITS, SOME IN CASH & SOME IN KIND. THESE ARE GENERALLY REFERRED TO AS PERQUISITES OR FRINGE BENEFITS. ( PERQUISITE MEANS A SPECIAL RIGHT OR PRIVILAGE ENJOYED AS A RESULT OF ONES POSITION. AND FRINGE MEANS NOT PART OF THE MAINSTREAM; FRINGE BENEFIT IS A BENEFIT SUCH AS A CAR OR HEALTH INSURANCE, GIVEN TO AN EMPLOYEE IN ADDITION TO THEIR SALARY OR WAGES ). MANY OF THESE HAVE NO DIRECT LINK TO THE WORK OR OUTPUT OF A WORKER. # THUS, SOME OF OTHER COMPONENTS OF PAY PACKET COULD BE :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. COMPENSATORY CITY ALLOWANCE ( CCA ) HOUSE RENT ALLOWANCE ( HRA ) LEAVE TRAVEL CONCESSION ( LTA OR LTC ) PROVIDENT FUND ( PF ) GRATUITY. GROUP LINKED INSURANCE SCHEME. PENSION FUND. MEDICAL BENEFITS. EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE SCHEME ( ESIS ) ACCIDENT & DEATH COMPENSATION WHILE ON DUTY IN ADDITION TO OTHER SCHEMES THROUGH THE COYS OWN INSURANCE PLAN. 11. LEAVE WITH PAY. 12. EDUCATION ALLOWANCES.

REWARDS & INCENTIVES

# AN INCENTIVE OR REWARD CAN BE ANYTHING THAT ATTRACTS EMPLOYEES ATTENTION & STIMULATES HIM TO WORK. HUMAN BEINGS IF LEFT TO THEIR OWN INITIATIVE, THEY WILL RARELY, RATHER NEVER, WORK EVEN CLOSER TO THEIR FULL CAPACITY. TO OBTAIN BETTER

PERFORMANCE, THEY REQUIRE TO BE MOTIVATED. FEAR & INCENTIVE ARE TWO COMMONLY USED METHODS OF MOTIVATION. # INCENTIVE IS AN INDUCEMENT GIVEN TO AN EMPLOYEE TO IMPROVE ONES EFFECTIVENESS. SUCH AN INDUCEMENT NEED NOT ALWAYS BE OF FINANCIAL NATURE. Sr STAFF & THOSE DRAWING HEAVY PAY-PACKETS GENERALLY RESPOND BETTER TO NON-FINANCIAL & SEMIFINANCIAL INDUCEMENTS WHILE WORKERS & SALARIED EMPLOYEES RESPOND MORE TO MONETARY INDUCEMENTS. # TYPES OF INCENTIVES---- THREE CATEGORIES 1. NON-FINANCIAL INCENTIVES------ARE THOSE INCENTIVES WHICH DO NOT OFFER ANY MONETARY BENEFIT. SOME EXAMPLES ----NAMES & PHOTOGRAPHS OF OUTSTANDING WORKERS ARE PUBLISHED IN COYS HOUSE JOURNAL, ISSUE OF MERIT CERTIFICATES, JOB SATISFACTION, DESIRE FOR RECOGNITION, INDIVIDUAL TAKING PRIDE IN CARRYING OUT A TASK BETTER THAN OTHERS etc. THESE ARE TERMED AS EMOTIONAL INCENTIVES BUT THEY DO NOT ACT FORCIBLY. ONLY A GOOD MANAGER CAN MAKE EFFECTIVE USE OF THESE EMOTIONAL INCENTIVES 2. SEMI-FINANCIAL INCENTIVES----ARE THOSE WHICH PROVIDE SOME MONETORY BENEFITS LIKE---INCREMENTS, PROMOTIONS, LONG SERVICE AWARDS, SPONSORED TRG, PAID HOLIDAYS, DISCOUNT PURCHASE SCHEMES, COYS CAR, BUSINESS CREDIT CARD etc. 3. FINANCIAL INCENTIVES-----ARE THOSE WHERE EARNINGS ARE RELATED TO EFFORT.---A SALESMAN GETTING COMMISSION ON HIS SALES, A WORKMAN IS PAID PREMIUM ON TIME SAVED, MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL ARE PAID INCENTIVE BONUS FOR LIMITING DOWN TIME OF THE MACHINES, A DRIVER IS PAID NO ACCIDENT INCENTIVE , ATTENDENCE BONUS / INCENTIVE etc.

OBJECTIVES OF AN INCENTIVE SCHEME


# MOST OFTEN THE OBJECTIVE OF AN INCENTIVE SCHEME IS HIGHER PRODUCTION. INCENTIVE SCHEMES, HOWEVER, CAN BE DESIGNED TO MEET OTHER OBJECTIVES WHICH COULD BE :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY. REDUCTION IN DOWN TIME OF THE MACHINES. REDUCTION IN ABSENTEEISM OF THE WORKMEN. MINIMISATION OF OVERTIME. ELIMINATION OF WASTE OF INPUTS OF PRODUCTION.

STANDARD WAGE INCENTIVE PLANS


# INCENTIVES SCHEMES ARE OF VARIOUS TYPES :1. STRAIGHT PIECE RATE METHODS. 2. STRAIGHT PIECE RATE WITH GUARANTEED BASE. 3. DIIFFERENTIAL PIECE RATE METHODS.

4. 5. 6. 7.

TIME & PIECE RATE METHODS. EFFICIENCY BASED INCENTIVE PLANS. PREMIUM BONUS SCHEMES. GP INCENTIVE SCHEMES.

# THESE SCHEMES COULD BE DIVIDED INTO TWO MAIN SCHEMES, NAMELY INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES & GP INCENTIVE SCHEMES. THEIR FUTHER CLASSIFICATION OR SCHEMES IS GIVEN BELOW :INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES :-

1. PIECE RATE METHODS-----(a ) STRAIGHT PIECE RATE METHODS. ( b) PIECE RATE WITH GUARANTED DAY ( c ) DIFFERENTIAL PIECE RATE METHOD---

RATE.

--TAYLOR SYSTEM & MERRICK SYSTEM.

2. TIME & PIECE RATE METHOD---GANT TASK BONUS SCHEME.

3.

PREMIUM BONUS SCHEMES ----(a ) HALSAY PLAN ( b ) HALSAY-WEIR PLAN ( c ) ROWAN PLAN ( d ) EMERSON EFFICIENCY PLAN. ( e ) BARTH VARIABLE SHARING PLAN. ( f ) BEDAUX POINT SYSTEM. ( g) HAYNES PLAN. AND ( h ) ACCELRATING PREMIUM PLAN.

# GP INCENTIVE SCHEME---MAINLY TWO TYPES :1. PRIESTMAN PRODUCTION PLAN. AND 2. SCALON PLAN.

WHAT IS BENEFITS & SERVICES ?


# BENEFITS & SERVICES ARE INDIRECT FINANCIAL & NONFINANCIAL PAYMENTS EMPLOYEES RECEIVE FOR CONTINUING THEIR EMPLOYMENT WITH THE COY. # BENEFITS & SERVICES, HOWEVER, ARE INDIRECT COMPENSATION BECAUSE THEY ARE USUALLY EXTENDED AS A CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENT & ARE NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO PERFORMANCE. BENEFITS APPLIES TO THOSE ITEMS FOR WHICH A DIRECT MONETARY VALUE TO THE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE CAN BE ASCERTAINED, LIKE PENSION, MEDICAL INSURANCE, HOLIDAY PAY etc. WHEREAS SERVICES COULD BE THOSE FOR WHICH A DIRECT MONEY VALUE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE CANNOT BE READILY ESTABLISHED, LIKE SOME OF THE WELFARE ACTIVITIES. # EMPLOYEE BENEFITS & SERVICES ARE ALTERNATIVELY KNOWN AS FRINGES, SERVICE PROGRAMMES, EMPLOYEE BENEFITS OR HIDDEN PAYROLL. FRINGE MEANS NOT PART OF A MAIN STREAM.

TYPES OF EMPLOYEE BENEFITS & SERVICES


# EMPLOYEE BENEFITS & SERVICES INCLUDE A MOTLEY ( MEANS VARIED MIXTURE ) CROWD OF FRINGES STARTING FROM ACCIDENT COMPENSATION PLANS TO PAID HOLIDAYS. TO HOLD THAT A BENEFIT IS A FRINGE, THREE CRITERIA NEED TO BE FULFILLED :1. IT SHOULD BE COMPUTABLE IN TERMS OF MONEY. 2. THE AMOUNT OF BENEFIT IS NOT GENERALLY PREDETERMINED. AND 3. NO CONTRACT, INDICATING WHEN THE SUM IS PAYABLE, SHOULD EXIST.

# MANY ITEMS ARE INCLUDED IN THE CATEGORY OF FRINGES WHICH ARE LISTED BELOW, WHICH ARE ONLY SUGGESTIVE :1. LEGALLY REQUIRED PAYMENTS : ( a ) OLD AGE, SURVIVORS, DISABILITY & HEALTH INSURANCE ( COMMONLY KNOWN AS SOCIAL SECURITY )

( b ) WORKERS COMPENSATION (c ) UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION. 2. CONTIGENT & DIFFERED BENEFITS : ( a ) PENSION PLANS. (b ) GP LIFE INSURANCE ( c ) GP HEALTH INSURANCE ----- MEDICAL EXPENSES, DISABILITY INCOME ( d ) GUARANTEED ANNUAL WAGE. ( e ) MATERNITY LEAVE / PATERNITY LEAVE ( f ) SICK LEAVE ( g ) SUGGESTION AWARDS. ( h ) SERVICE AWARDS 3. PAYMENTS FOR TIME NOT WORKED : ( a ) VACATIONS. (b ) HOLIDAYS. ( c ) HOLIDAYS WITH FAMILY ( OWN ) 4. OTHER BENEFITS : ( a ) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ( b ) COY CAR & SUBSIDIES ( c ) MOVING EXPENSES. ( d ) UNIFORM & TOOL EXPENSES. ( e ) EMPLOYEE MEAL ALLOWANCES ( f ) DISCOUNT ON EMPLOYERS GOODS & SERVICES. ( h ) CHILD CARE FACILITIES.

JOB EVALUATION
# JOB EVALUATION IS THE PROCESS OF ANALYSING & ASSESSING THE VARIOUS JOBS SYSTEMATICALLY TO ASCERTAIN THEIR WORTH IN AN ORG. JOBS ARE EVALUATED ON THE BASIS OF THEIR CONTENT & ARE PLACED IN THE ORDER OF THEIR IMPORTANCE. IN THIS WAY, A JOB HIERARCHY IS ESTABLISHED IN THE ORG, THE PURPOSE BEING FIXATION OF SATISFACTORY WAGE DIFFERENTIALS AMONG VARIOUS JOBS. # DEFINITIONS OF JOB EVALUATION--# THE ILO DEFINES JOB EVALUATION AS, AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE & COMPARE DEMANDS WHICH THE NORMAL PERFORMANCE OF A PARTICULAR JOB MAKES ON NORMAL WORKERS WITHOUT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES OR PERFORMANCE OF THE WORKERS CONCERNED # THE BUREAU OF LABOUR STATISTICS, USA, SAYS, JOB EVALUATION IS THE EVALUATION OR RATING OF JOBS TO DETERMINE THEIR POSITION IN THE JOB HIERARCHY. THE EVALUATION MAY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH THE ASSIGNMENT OF POINTS OR THE USE OF SOME OTHER SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR ESSENTIAL JOB REQUIREMENTS, SUCH AS SKILLS, EXPERIENCE & RESPONSIBILITY # THE OBJECTIVES OF JE, COULD BE :1. TO SECURE & MAINTAIN COMPLETE, ACCURATE & IMPERSONAL DEASCRIPTIONS OF EACH DISTINCT JOB OR OCCUPATION IN THE ENTIRE PLANT. 2. TO PROVIDE A STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE RELATIVE WORTH OF EACH JOB IN A PLANT. 3. TO DETERMINE THE RATE OF PAY FOR EACH JOB WHICH IS FAIR & EQUITABLE WITH RELATION TO OTHER JOBS IN THE PLANT, COMMUNITY OR INDUSTRY. 4. TO ENSURE THAT LIKE WAGES ARE PAID TO ALL QUALIFIED EMPLOYEES FOR LIKE WORK. 5. TO PROMOTE A FAIR & ACCURATE CONSIDERATION OF ALL EMPLOYEES FOR ADVANCEMENT & TRANSFER. 6. TO PROVIDE A FACTUAL BASIS FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF WAGE RATES FOR SIMILAR JOBS IN A COMMUNITY & IN AN INDUSTRY. AND 7. TO PROVIDE INFO FOR WORK ORGANIZATION, EMPLOYEES SELECTION, PLACEMENT, TRG & NUMEROUS OTHER SIMILAR PROBLEMS.

BASIC PROCEDURE OF JE

# IN INDIA, THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, HAS LAID DOWN THE FOLLOWING STEPS WHICH SHOULD BE TAKEN TO INSTALL A JE PROGRAMME :1. ANALYSE & PREPARE JOB DESCRIPTION. 2. SELECT & PREPARE A JE PLAN. 3. CLASSIFY JOBS---THIS REQUIRES GROUPING FOR ARRANGING JOBS IN A CORRECT SEQUENCE IN TERMS OF VALUE TO THE FIRM & RELATING THEM TO THE MONEY TERMS IN ORDER TO ASCERTAIN THEIR RELATIVE VALUE. 4. INSTALL THE PROGRAMME---EXPLAINING IT TO EMPLOYEES & PUTTING IT INTO OPERATION. AND 5. MAINTAIN THE PROGRAMME. BASIC JOB EVALUATION METHODS / SYSTEMS # JOB EVALUATION IS A SYSTEMATIC PROCESS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE WORTH OF JOBS WITHIN A SINGLE WORK ORG. # VARIOUS METHODS OF JE ARE :-

1. 2. 3. 4.

RANKING METHOD. GRADING OR CLASSIFICATION METHOD THE POINT SYSTEM METHOD. FACTOR COMPARISON METHOD.

CONCLUSION
# NOW I LEAVE IT TO YOU DECIDE WHETHER TO EARN IS EASY OR UNDERSTAND THE SUBJECT COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT. THERE ARE UNENDING INPUTS TO THIS SUBJECT & VARYING FROM ORG TO ORG & COUNTRY TO COUNTRY. # THE CM HAS TO BE MATHEMATICAL & NOTHING SHOULD BE UNSPELLED.

SUMMARY : COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT


1. INTRODUCTION 2. WHAT IS COMPENSATION ? 3. TERMINOLOGIES ----- WAGES, SALARY, INCENTIVES, FRINGE BENEFITS, PERQUITES. 4. WHAT IS CM ? 5. OBJECTIVES OF CM. 6. VARIOUS TYPES OF WAGES. 7. COMPONENTS OF COMPENSATION. 8. COMPONENTS OF INDUSTRIAL SALARY / WAGE STRUCTURE. 9. REWARDS & INCENTIVES. 10. OBJECTIVES OF INCENTIVES.

11. STANDARD WAGE INCENTIVE PLANS. 12. INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE SCHEMES. 13. GP INCENTIVE SCHEMES. 14. WHAT IS BENEFITS & SERVICES ? 15. TYPES OF EMPLOYEE BENEFITS & SERVICES. AND 16. JOB EVALUATION ------- DEFINITIONS, OBJECTIVES, BASIC PROCEDURE OF JE & BASIC JE METHODS / SYSTEMS. THIS IS JUST THE TIP OF THE ICE BERGE & SEEE HOW MUCH WE SHOULD KNOW TO EARN OUR MONEY.

AMEN

PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT ----- CONCEPT, TQM, KAIZEN & QUALITY CIRCLES


WHAT IS PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT ?
# IT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL THE ACTIVITIES THAT ARE DIRECTLY CONCERNED WITH MAKING AN ORGS PRODUCTS. IT ORGANIZES THE PROCESS OF TAKING RAW MATERIALS & TURNING THEM INTO PRODUCTS THAT SATISFY CUSTOMER DEMAND.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ( TQM )

WHAT IS QUALITY ? # THE QUALITY DEFINITION MUST BE INEXTRICABLY ( IMPOSSIBLE TO SEPARATE ) TIED TO THE MAIN OBJECT OF ANY COY, THAT IS THE GENERATION OF WEALTH. THUS THE DEFINITION MUST BE CUSTOMER ORIENTED, SINCE THE ONLY SOURCE OF SUCH WEALTH ARE CUSTOMERS, WHO EXCHANGE MONEY FOR GOODS & / OR SERVICES, THAT THEY VALUE. # HENCE, QUALITY IS MEETING THE NEGOTIATED REQUIREMENTS & EXPECTATIONS OF THE CUSTOMER. AS PER OXFORD DICTIONARY THE DEFINITION IS, DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE, RELATIVE NATURE OR KIND OR CHARACTER, GENERAL EXCELLENCE # THE TOTALITY OF FEATURES & CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT BEAR ON ITS ABILITY TO SATISFY GIVEN NEEDS. # CUSTOMER : THE CUSTOMER IS THE PERSON TO WHOM YOU PASS THE FRUITS OF YOUR LABOUR. CUSTOMERS ARE DEPENDENT ON THEIR SUPPLIERS FOR THE QUALITY INPUTS NECESSARY, TO ALLOW THEIR TASKS TO BE COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY. WE ALL ARE CUSTOMERS. WE ALL HAVE

CUSTOMERS. THE REAL INSPECTOR OF QUALITY OF YOUR PRODUCTS IS THE CUSTOMER. WHAT IS TQM ? # THE TQM CONCEPT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NUMBER OF AMERICAN MANAGEMENT CONSULTANTS, INCLUDING W. EDWARDS DEMING, JOSEPH M. JURAN, AND ARMAND V. FEIGENBAUM. ORIGINALLY, THESE CONSULTANTS WON FEW CONVERTS IN THE UNITED STATES. HOWEVER, MANAGERS IN JAPAN EMBRACED THEIR IDEAS ENTHUSIASTICALLY AND EVEN NAMED THEIR PREMIER ANNUAL PRIZE FOR MANUFACTURING EXCELLENCE AFTER DEMING # AS PER ISO8402, TQM IS, MANAGEMENT APPROACH OF AN ORG, CENTRED ON QUALITY, BASED ON THE PARTICIPATION OF ALL ITS MEMBERS & AIMING AT LONG-TERM SUCCESS THROUGH CUSTOMER SATISFACTION & BENEFITS TO ALL MEMBERS OF THE ORG & TO SOCIETY. # TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT OR TQM IS AN INTEGRATIVE PHILOSOPHY OF MANAGEMENT FOR CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES. TQM IS BASED ON THE PREMISE THAT THE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF EVERYONE INVOLVED WITH THE CREATION OR CONSUMPTION OF THE PRODUCTS OR SERVICES OFFERED BY AN ORGANIZATION, REQUIRING THE INVOLVEMENT OF MANAGEMENT, WORKFORCE, SUPPLIERS, AND CUSTOMERS, TO MEET OR EXCEED CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS. # TQM IS A COMPREHENSIVE & INTEGRATED WAY OF MANAGING ANY ORG IN ORDER TO : 1. MEET THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMERS CONSISTENTLY. 2. ACHIEVE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT IN EVERY ASPECT OF THE ORGS ACTIVITIES. # CUA, MCKONE, AND SCHROEDER (2001) IDENTIFIED NINE COMMON TQM PRACTICES :1. CROSS-FUNCTIONAL PRODUCT DESIGN

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

PROCESS MANAGEMENT SUPPLIER QUALITY MANAGEMENT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK COMMITTED LEADERSHIP STRATEGIC PLANNING CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TRAINING EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

# THE CONSTANT ATTAINMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF TOOLS, TECHNIQUES & TRG. THIS INVOLVES THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL PROCESSES, RESULTING IN HIGH QUALITY PRODUCTS & SERVICES.

# TQM IS AN EVOLVING SYSTEM FOR CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVING PRODUCTS & SERVICES TO INCREASE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN A RAPIDLY CHANGING WORLD. # A TOTAL COY-WIDE EFFORT THAT INCLUDES ALLEMPLOYEES, SUPPLIERS & CUSTOMERS & THAT SEEKS CONTINOUSLY TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS & PROCESS TO MEET THE NEEDS & EXPECTATIONS OF CUSTOMERS. # AN ORG- WIDE PROGRAMME THAT INTEGRATES ALL FUNCTIONS & PROCESSES OF THE BUSINESS SO THAT DESIGN, PLANNING, PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION & FIELD SERVICE ARE FOCUSED ON MAXIMISING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT. # TQM IS THE MUTUAL CO-OPERATION OF EVERYONE IN AN ORG & ASSOCIATED BUSINESS PROCESSES TO PRODUCE PRODUCTS & SERVICES WHICH MEET & HOPEFULLY, EXCEED THE NEEDS & EXPECTATIONS OF CUSTOMERS. TQM IS BOTH A PHILOSOPHY & A SET OF GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR MANAGING AN ORG. ( HERE PHILOSOPHY MEANS ATTITUDE THAT GUIDES ONES BEHAVIOUR )

# TQM PROCESSES ARE DIVIDED INTO FOUR SEQUENTIAL CATEGORIES: PLAN, DO, CHECK, AND ACT (THE PDCA CYCLE). IN THE PLANNING PHASE, PEOPLE DEFINE THE PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED, COLLECT RELEVANT DATA, AND ASCERTAIN THE PROBLEM'S ROOT CAUSE; IN THE DOING PHASE, PEOPLE DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT A SOLUTION, AND DECIDE UPON A MEASUREMENT TO GAUGE ITS EFFECTIVENESS; IN THE CHECKING PHASE, PEOPLE CONFIRM THE RESULTS THROUGH BEFORE-AND-AFTER DATA COMPARISON; IN THE ACTING PHASE, PEOPLE DOCUMENT THEIR RESULTS, INFORM OTHERS ABOUT PROCESS CHANGES, AND MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED IN THE NEXT PDCA CYCLE.
THE KEY ELEMENTS OF TQM

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

COMMITMENT & LEADERSHIP OF THE CEO. PLANNING & ORG. USING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES. EDUCATION & TRG. INVOLVEMENT. TEAMWORK. MEASUREMENT & FEEDBACK. ENSURING THAT THE CULTURE IS CONDUCIVE TO CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITY. ( CONDUCIVE MEANS HELPING TOWARDS )

TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

# TO SUPPORT, DEVELOP & ADVANCE A PROCESS OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT, IT IS NECESSARY FOR AN ORG TO USE A SELECTION OF TOOLS & TECHNIQUES. TOOLS & TECHNIQUES HAVE DIFFERENT ROLES TO PLAY IN CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT & IF APPLIED CORRECTLY, GIVE REPEATABLE & RELIABLE RESULTS. SOME OF THEIR ROLES COULD BE :1. SUMMARISING DATA & ORGANISING ITS PRESENTATION.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

DATA COLLECTION & STRUCTURING IDEAS. IDENTIFYING RELATIONSHIPS. DISCOVERING & UNDERSTANDING A PROBLEM. IMPLEMENTING ACTIONS. FINDING & REMOVING THE CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM. SELECTING PROBLEMS FOR IMPROVEMENT & ASSISTING WITH THE SETTING OF PRIORITIES. 8. MONITORING & MAINTAINING CONTROL. 9. PLANNING. AND 10.PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT & CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT. # THERE ARE A CONSIDERABLE NUMBER OF TOOLS & TECHNIQUES & PERHAPS THE POPULAR & MOST WELL KNOWN COULD BE :1. FLOW CHARTS. 2. CHECK LISTS. 3. THE SEVEN QUALITY CONTROL TOOLS ( QC-7 ) 4. QUALITY COSTING. 5. SPC---STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL. 6. FMEA---FAILURE MODE & EFFECTS ANALYSIS. 7. FTA---FAULT TREE ANALYSIS. 8. DOE----DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS. 9. QFD-----QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT. 10.THE SEVEN MANAGEMENT TOOLS ( M-7 ) 11.DPA---DEPARTMENTAL PURPOSE ANALYSIS. 12.MISTAKE-PROOFING. AND 13.BENCHMARKING. 14.KAIZEN.

KAIZEN
# ANYONE FAMILIAR WITH A PROCESS CAN USUALLY SUGGEST IMPROVEMENTS. THIS PRINCIPLE IS USED IN TQM, WHICH LOOKS FOR CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT. MOST OF THESE IMPROVEMENTS ARE SMALL, CAN BE ABSORBED BY THE PROCESS WITHOUT DISRUPTION & CAUSE NO MAJOR PROBLEMS IF THINGS GO WRONG. OVER TIME THE ACCUMULATED EFFECTS OF THESE SMALL CHANGES CAN GIVE DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN PERFORMANCE. IN TQM, THIS IS CALLED KAIZEN, WHICH IS JAPANESE FOR IMPROVEMENT

# KAIZEN ISA SYSTEM OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY, TECHNOLOGY,

PROCESSES, COMPANY CULTURE, PRODUCTIVITY, SAFETY AND LEADERSHIP

# KAIZEN WAS CREATED IN JAPAN FOLLOWING WORLD WAR II. THE WORD KAIZEN MEANS "CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT". IT COMES FROM THE JAPANESE WORDS ("KAI") WHICH MEANS "CHANGE" OR "TO CORRECT" AND ("ZEN") WHICH MEANS "GOOD". # KAIZEN IS A SYSTEM THAT INVOLVES EVERY EMPLOYEE - FROM UPPER MANAGEMENT TO THE CLEANING CREW. EVERYONE IS ENCOURAGED TO COME UP WITH SMALL IMPROVEMENT SUGGESTIONS ON A REGULAR BASIS. THIS IS NOT A ONCE A MONTH OR ONCE A YEAR ACTIVITY. IT IS CONTINUOUS. JAPANESE COMPANIES, SUCH AS TOYOTA AND CANON, A TOTAL OF 60 TO 70 SUGGESTIONS PER EMPLOYEE PER YEAR ARE WRITTEN DOWN, SHARED AND IMPLEMENTED.
# TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ( TQM ) PROGRAMMES ARE ORGANIZATIONWIDE PROGRAMMES AIMED AT MAXIMIZING QUALITY & CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENTS. IN USA, THIS APPROACH OFTEN GOES BY THE NAME CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT OR ZERO DEFECTS OR SIX SIGMA. IN JAPAN ITS KNOWN AS KAIZEN.
# KAIZEN IS THE KEY TO JAPANS COMPETITIVE SUCCESS. IT IS A STRATEGY TO COPE WITH THE CHALLENGES OF 1990s & BEYOND. KAIZEN STRATEGY IS THE UNIFYING, THREAD RUNNING THROUGH THE PHILOSOPHY, THE SYATEM & PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS DEVELOPED IN JAPAN OVER 40 YEARS. ITS MESSAGE IS ONE OF IMPROVEMENT & TRYING TO DO BETTER. KAIZEN SOLVES PROBLEMS BY ESTABLISHING A CORPORATE CULTURE IN WHICH EVERY FREELY ADMITS THESE PROBLEMS. ITS UNDERLYING STRATEGY IS THE RECOGNITION THAT MANAGEMENT MUST SEEK TO SATISFY THE CUSTOMER NEEDS IF IT HAS TO STAY IN BUSINESS & MAKE A PROFIT. THUS IT IS A CUSTOMER-DRIVEN STRATEGY. IT HAS GENERATED A PROCESS-ORIENTED WAY OF THINKING.

# ITS MESSAGE IS THAT NOT A DAY SHOULD GO WITHOUT AN IMPROVEMENT IN THE COY. IMPROVEMENT CAN BE OF TWO TYPES---KAIZEN & INNOVATION. KAIZEN INVOLVES SMALL IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN THE STATUS QUO AS A RESULT OF ONGOING EFFORTS. INNOVATION RELATES TO A DRASTIC IMPROVEMENT IN THE STATUS QUO AS A CONSEQUENCE OF A LARGE INVESTMENT IN TECHMOLOGY. IT INVOLVES ALL PEOPLE IN THE ORG---FROM TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT TO WORKERS.

# TO IMPLEMENT KAIZEN, THERE IS A NEED FOR SIMPLE CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES SUCH AS THE SEVEN TOOLS OF QUALITY CONTROL---PARETO DIAGRAMS, CAUSE-ANDEFFECT DIAGRAMS ( FISH DIAGRAM ), HISTOGRAMS, CONTROL CHARTS, SCATTER DIAGRAMS, GRAPHAS & CHECK-SHEETS. FREQUENTLY COMMON SENSE IS NEEDED. INSTEAD OF A LARGE INVESTMENT, IT REQUIRES A GREAT DEAL OF CONTINOUS EFFORT & COMMITMENT. IT DEMANDS VIRTUALLY EVERYONES PERSONAL EFFORTS. IT IS PEOPLE ORIENTED. IT IS MORE SUITED TO SLOW-GROWTH ECONOMY. THUS IT IS IN CONTRAST WITH THE WESTERN PHILOSOPHY OF INNOVATION. # THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF KAIZEN 1.MANAGEMENT-ORIENTED KAIZEN---- THIS STRESSES THE MOST IMPORTANT LOGISTIC & STRATEGIC ISSUES & PROVIDES THE MOMENTUM TO KEEP UP PROGRESS & MORALE. IT IS BELIEVED THAT JAPANESE MANAGEMENT MUST SPEND 50 PER CENT OF TIME ON IMPROVEMENT. IT ALSO TAKES FORM OF A GP APPROACH INCLUDING KAIZEN TEAMS, PROJECT TEAMS & TASK FORCES. JUST-IN-TIME IS AN EXAMPLE OF MANAGEMENTORIENTED KAIZEN. 2. GP ORIENTED KAIZEN --- IT IS REPRENTED BY QC CIRCLES. THE MORALE IS IMPROVED THROUGH THIS SYSTEM AS EVERYBODY MASTERS THE ART OF SOLVING IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS. 3. INDIVIDUAL ORIENTED KAIZEN--- IT IS MANIFESTED IN THE FORM OF SUGGESTIONS. IT HAS INFINITE OPPORTUNITIES. IT IS ALSO REGARDED AS A MORALE BOOSTER.

QUALITY CIRCLES
WHAT IS QUALITY CIRCLE (QC)? QUALITY CIRCLES ARE (INFORMAL) GROUPS OF EMPLOYEES WHO VOLUNTARILY MEET TOGETHER ON A REGULAR BASIS TO IDENTIFY, DEFINE, ANALYZE AND SOLVE WORK RELATED PROBLEMS. USUALLY THE MEMBERS OF A PARTICULAR TEAM (QUALITY CIRCLE) SHOULD BE FROM THE SAME WORK AREA OR WHO DO SIMILAR WORK SO THAT THE PROBLEMS THEY SELECT WILL BE FAMILIAR TO ALL OF THEM. IN ADDITION, INTERDEPARTMENTAL OR CROSS FUNCTIONAL QUALITY CIRCLES MAY ALSO BE

FORMED. AN IDEAL SIZE OF QUALITY CIRCLE IS SEVEN TO EIGHT MEMBERS. BUT THE NUMBER OF MEMBERS IN A QUALITY CIRCLE CAN VARY. OBJECTIVES OF QUALITY CIRCLES

PROMOTE JOB INVOLVEMENT CREATE PROBLEM SOLVING CAPABILITY IMPROVE COMMUNICATION PROMOTE LEADERSHIP QUALITIES PROMOTE PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT DEVELOP A GREATER AWARENESS FOR CLEANLINESS DEVELOP GREATER AWARENESS FOR SAFETY IMPROVE MORALE THROUGH CLOSER IDENTITY OF EMPLOYEE OBJECTIVES WITH ORGANIZATION'S OBJECTIVES REDUCE ERRORS. ENHANCE QUALITY INSPIRE MORE EFFECTIVE TEAM WORK BUILD AN ATTITUDE OF PROBLEM PREVENTION PROMOTE COST REDUCTION DEVELOP HARMONIOUS MANAGER, SUPERVISOR AND WORKER RELATIONSHIP IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY REDUCE DOWNTIME OF MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT INCREASE EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

QUALITY CIRCLE MEETINGS


MEETINGS ARE IMPORTANT PART OF QUALITY CIRCLE'S WORKING. MEETINGS ARE ATTENDED BY ALL THE MEMBERS OF THE QUALITY CIRCLE. IN GENERAL, MEETINGS TAKE PLACE ONCE A WEEK OR ONCE IN A FORTNIGHT. EACH MEETING LASTS FOR APPROXIMATELY ONE HOUR, THOUGH VARIATIONS ARE POSSIBLE. APART FROM THE FREQUENCY OF THE MEETINGS, WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS THE REGULARITY OF THE MEETINGS

WHAT TAKES PLACE DURING QUALITY CIRCLE MEETINGS? # ANY OF THE SEVERAL ACTIVITIES MAY OCCUR DURING A MEETING SUCH AS:

IDENTIFYING A THEME OR A PROBLEM TO WORK ON. GETTING TRAINING AS REQUIRED TO ENABLE MEMBERS TO ANALYZE PROBLEMS. ANALYZING PROBLEM(S). PREPARING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING SOLUTION(S). FOLLOW UP OF IMPLEMENTATION OF SUGGESTIONS. PREPARE FOR A PRESENTATION TO THE MANAGEMENT.

WHAT QUALITY CIRCLES ARE NOT? (MISCONCEPTS)


QUALITY CIRCLES DO NOT TACKLE JUST QUALITY PROBLEMS. QUALITY CIRCLE IS NOT A SUBSTITUTE OR REPLACEMENT FOR TASK FORCES, PRODUCT COMMITTEES, JOINT PLANT COUNCILS OR WORKS COMMITTEES, QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT, SUGGESTION SCHEMES. QUALITY CIRCLES DO NOT CHANGE THE EXISTING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OR THE CHAIN OF COMMAND. QUALITY CIRCLES ARE NOT A FORUM FOR GRIEVANCES OR A SPRING BOARD FOR DEMANDS. QUALITY CIRCLES ARE NOT A MEANS FOR THE MANAGEMENT TO UNLOAD ALL THEIR PROBLEMS. QUALITY CIRCLES ARE NOT JUST ANOTHER TECHNIQUE. QUALITY CIRCLES ARE NOT A PANACEA FOR ALL ILLS.

STRUCTURE OF QUALITY CIRCLES PROGRAM SIX BASIC ELEMENTS


CIRCLE PARTICIPANTS OR MEMBERS. CIRCLE LEADERS/DEPUTY LEADERS. PROGRAM FACILITATOR. STEERING/ADVISORY COMMITTEE. TOP MANAGEMENT.

POTENTIAL MEMBERS AND NON-PARTICIPATING MANAGEMENT/MEMBERS.

PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED BY QUALITY CIRCLES # GIVEN BELOW ARE THE MOST COMMONLY USED TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES. THESE ARE CALLED THE OLD QC TOOLS:

BRAINSTORMING. PARETO ANALYSIS. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM (OR FISH BONE DIAGRAM OR ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM). HISTOGRAM. SCATTER DIAGRAM STRATIFICATION CHECK SHEET CONTROL CHARTS AND GRAPHS

# QUALITY CIRCLES STARTED USING ADDITIONAL SEVEN TOOLS AS THEY STARTED MATURING. THESE ARE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. RELATIONS DIAGRAM. AFFINITY DIAGRAM. SYSTEMATIC DIAGRAM OR TREE DIAGRAM. MATRIX DIAGRAM. MATRIX DATA ANALYSIS DIAGRAM. PDPC (PROCESS DECISION PROGRAM CHART). ARROW DIAGRAM.

BENEFITS OF QC

SELF DEVELOPMENT. PROMOTES LEADERSHIP QUALITIES AMONG PARTICIPANTS. RECOGNITION. ACHIEVEMENT SATISFACTION. PROMOTES GROUP/TEAM WORKING.

SERVES AS CEMENTING FORCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT/NONMANAGEMENT GROUPS. PROMOTES CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT IN PRODUCTS AND SERVICES. BRINGS ABOUT A CHANGE IN ENVIRONMENT OF MORE PRODUCTIVITY, BETTER QUALITY, REDUCED COSTS, SAFETY AND CORRESPONDING REWARDS.

SUMMARY :1. WHAT IS PRODUCTIVITY ? 2. TQM ----- WHAT IS QUALITY ?, WHAT IS TQM ?, KEY ELEMENTS OF TQM, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES. 3. KAIZEN -----WHAT IS KAIZEN ? TYPES OF KAIZEN. 4. QUALITY CIRCLES ------- WHAT QC ?, OBJECTIVES OF QC, QC MEETINGS, WHAT QC ARE NOT, STRUCTURE OF QC PROGRAMMES, PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS & TECHNIQUES AND BENEFITS OF QC.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS?


# INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ( IR ) REFERS TO WORKPLACE & SOCIETAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WORKERS & EMPLOYERS & RESULTING EMPLOYMENT-RELATED OUTCOMES. # IN ITS BROADEST MEANING, IR IS, ALL ASPECTS OF PEOPLE AT WORK---KOCHAN--1980 # THE LABOUR DICTIONARY DEFINES IR AS, THE RELATIONS BETWEEN EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES IN ININDUSTRY. ( DICTIONARY MEANING OF INDUSTRY IS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CONCERNED WITH THE PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIALS & MANUFACTURING OF GOODS IN FACTORIES ) # THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION ( ILO ), GENEVA, HAS USED THE EXPRESSION TO DENOTE SUCH MATTERS AS FREEDOM FOR ASSOCIATION & THE RIGHT TO ORGANIZE, THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO ORGANIZE & THE RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING OF COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS OR CONCILIATION & ARBITRATION PROCEDDINGS & THE MACHINERY FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN THE AUTHORITIES & THE OCCUPATIONAL ORGS AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF THE ECONOMY. ( CONCILIATE MEANS TO MEDIATE IN A DISPUTE; THAT IS TRY TO SETTLE A DISPUTE BETWEEN TWO PARTIES ) # THE FIELD OF IR RECEIVED A THEORETICAL IMPETUS BY THE WORK OF LOHN T. DUNLOP IN 1958 WHO DEFINED THE SCOPE & BOUNDRY OF IR. THE SYSTEM WAS USED TO DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE COUNTRY AS DISTINGUISHED FROM ANOTHER. THE MODEL HIGHLIGHTS THAT THE IR SYSTEM AT ANY ONE POINT OF TIME IN ITS DEVELOPMENT CONSISTS OF CERTAIN ACTORS, CERTAIN CONTEXTS, AN IDEOLOGY WHICH BINDS THE IR SYATEM TOGETHER & A BODY OF RULES CREATED TO GOVERN THE ACTORS AT THE WORKPLACE & THE COMMUNITY. # IN INDIA, THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS WERE INSTTUTIONALIZED IN 1920s WHEN TRADE UNION ACT ( 1926 ) WAS FORMULATED.

# KOCHAN ( 1980 ) HAS OBSERVED THAT LIKE ANY COMPLEX SOCIAL SYSTEM, IR SYSTEMS ARE BEST UNDERSTOOD BY IDENTIFYING & ANALYSING THEIR VARIOUS COMPONENTS & HOW THEY INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER TO PRODUCE CERTAIN OUTCOMES.

# THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE IR SYSTEM ARE :1. THE ACTORS---WORKERS & THEIR ORGS, MANAGEMENT, & GOVT. 2. CONTEXTUAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS---LABOUR & PRODUCT MARKETS, TECHNOLOGY, & COMMUNITY OR THE LOCUS & DISTRIBUTION OF POWER IN THE LARGER SOCIETY. 3. PROCESS FOR DETERMINING THE TERMS & CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT----COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, LEGISLATION, JUDICIAL PROCESS & UNILATERAL MANAGEMENT DECISIONS AMONG OTHERS. 4. IDEOLOGY OR MINIMUM SET OF SHARED BELIEFS, SUCH AS THE ACTORS MUTUAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE LEGITIMACY OF OTHER ACTORS & THEIR ROLES, WHICH ENHANCE SYSTEM STABILITY. AND 5. OUTCOMES, INCLUDING WAGES & BENEFITS, RULES ABOUT WORK RELATIONS, JOB SATISFACTION, EMPLOYMENT SECURITY, PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY, INDUSTRIAL PEACE & CONFLICT & INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY.

# THE BASIC PURPOSE OF THE IR SYSTEMS CONCEPT ARE TO PROVIDE A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ORGANISING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IR & FOR UNDERSTANDING HOW VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF IR SYSTEMS COMBINE TO PRODUCE PARTICULAR OUT-COMES. # IR REFERS TO A DYNAMIC & DEVELOPING CONCEPT WHICH IS NOT LIMITED TO THE COMPLEX OF RELATIONS BETWEEN TRADE UNIONS & MANAGEMENT BUT ALSO REFERS TO THE GENERAL WEB OF RELATIONSHIPS NORMALLY OBTAINING BETWEEN EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEESA WEB MUCH MORE COMPLEX THAN THE SIMPLE CONCEPT OF LABOUR-CAPITAL CONFLICT. THE FEATURES OF IR ARE :1. IR ARE OUTCOME OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP IN AN ORG. 2. AS A REGULATED RELATIONSHIPS THE FOCUS OF IT IS ON RULE-MAKING BY PARTICIPANTS SO THAT THERE MAY BE UN-INTERRUPTED PRODUCTION. 3. THE WORK SITUATION MAY PROVIDE METHODS OF ADJUSTMENT & COOPERATION WITH EACH OTHER. 4. THE GOVT AGENCIES INVOLVE TO SHAPE THE INDUSTRIAL RELATION THROUGH LAWS, RULES & AWARDS. AND 5. THE IMPORTANT ACTORS OF IR ARE EMPLOYEES OR THEIR ORGS, EMPLOYERS & THEIR ASSOCIATES & GOVT.

# IR IS ALSO KNOWN AS LABOUR RELATIONS.

EMPLOYEE GRIEVANCES
INTRODUCTION
# THE PROCESS OF INTEGRATING INTERESTS REQUIRES BOTH PREVENTIVE & CURATIVE ACTIVITIES. DESPITE THE BEST OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ACTING & COMMUNICATING, CONFLICTS BETWEEN E-E WILL OCCUR. A TOTAL ABSENCE OF CONFLICT WOULD BE UNBELIEVABLE, BORING & A STRONG INDICATION THAT SUCH CONFLICTS ARE BEING SUPPRESSED. # ONE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A MATURE GP IS ITS WILLINGNESS & ABILITY TO BRING SUPPRESSED CONFLICTS TO THE SURFACE WHERE THEY MAY BE DISCUSSED WITH A GREATER OPPORTUNITY OF RESOLUTION. IT WOULD BE NAVE TO INSIST THAT ALL CONFLICTS CAN BE ELIMINATED IN SOME MANNER OR OTHER, BUT THEIR EXPOSURE & DISCUSSION WILL CONTRIBUTE GREATLY TOWARD THEIR REDUCTION. # CONFLICT PER SE IS NEITHER BAD NOR CONTRARY TO GOOD ORG. DISAGREEMENTS & DISSATISFACTIONS CAN LEAD TO RE-EXAMINATION OF BASIC ASSUMPTIONS & PRACTICES, TO THE END THAT ADJUSTMENTS CAN BE MADE TO IMPROVE OVERALL ORG EFFECTIVENESS.

WHAT IS GRIEVANCES ?
# THERE IS HARDLY A COY OR AN INDUSTRY CONCERN WHICH FUNCTIONS ABSOLUTELY SMOOTHLY AT ALL TIMES. IN SOME, THE EMPLOYEES HAVE COMPLAINTS AGAINST THEIR EMPLOYERS, WHILE IN OTHERS IT IS EMPLOYERS WHO HAVE A GRIEVANCE AGAINST THEIR EMPLOYEES. THESE GRIEVANCES MAY BE REAL OR IMAGINARY, VALID OR INVALID, GENUINE OR FALSE. BROADLY SPEAKING, A COMPLAINT AFFECTING ONE OR MORE WORKERS CONSTITUTES A GRIEVANCE. A COMPLAINT BECOMES A GRIEVANCE WHEN THE DISSATISFACTION, WHICH IS MOSTLY RELATED TO WORK, IS BROUGHT TO THE NOTICE OF THE MANAGEMENT. # MANY MANAGEMENTS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN A COMPLAINT & A GRIEVANCE. A COMPLAINT IS A DISCONTENT OR DISSATISFACTION THAT HAS NOT, AS YET, ASSUMED A GREATER MEASURE OF IMPORTANCE TO THE COMPLAINANT. COMPLAINTS ARE OFTEN SUBMITTED IN A HIGHLY INFORMAL FASHION. AN EMPLOYEE MAY COMPLAIN THAT IT IS TOO HOT IN THE SHOP, THAT ANOTHER EMPLOYEE WILL NOT COOPERATE OR THAT ONE HAS BEEN ASSIGNED A DISTASTEFUL JOB. THERE ARE MANY MORE COMPLAINTS THAN THERE ARE GRIEVANCES. # A COMPLAINT BECOMES A GRIEVANCE WHEN THE EMPLOYEE FEELS THAT AN INJUSTICE HAS BEEN COMMITTED. IF THE SUPERVISOR IGNORES THE COMPLAINT & THE DISSATISFACTION GROWS WITHIN THE EMPLOYEE, IT USUALLY ASSUMES THE STATUS OF A GRIEVANCE. # A GRIEVANCE, IN BUSINESS ORG, IS ALWAYS EXPRESSED, EITHER VERBALLY OR IN WRITING. IT CAN, OF COURSE, BE EITHER VALID OR RIDICULOUS & MUST GROW OUT OF SOMETHING

CONNECTED WITH COY OPERATIONS POLICY. IN MANY INSTANCES IT MUST INVOLVE AN INTERPRETATION OR APPLICATION OF PROVISION OF THE LABOUR CONTRACT.

# A WRITTEN COMPLAINT FILED BY AN EMPLOYEE & CLAIMING UNFAIR TREATMENT------DALE YODER

NATURE OF GRIEVANCE
# A GRIEVANCE MAY BE SUBMITTED BY A WORKER, OR SEVERAL WORKERS, IN RESPECT OF ANY MEASURE OR SITUATION WHICH DIRECTLY AFFECTS OR IS LIKELY TO AFFECT, THE CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT OF ONE OR SEVERAL WORKERS IN THE ORG. WHERE A GRIEVANCE IS TRANSFORMED INTO A GENERAL CLAIM---EITHER BY THE UNION OR BY A LARGE NUMBER OF WORKERS---IT FALLS OUTSIDE THE GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE & NORMALLY COMES UNDER THE PURVIEW OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING. # FOLLOWING AREAS ARE CAUSES OF EMPLOYEE GRIEVANCES :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. PROMOTION. AMENITIES. CONTINUITY OF SERVICE. COMPENSATION. DISCIPLINARY ACTION. FINES. INCREMENTS. LEAVE. MEDICAL BENEFITS. NATURE OF JOB. PAYMENT. ACTING PROMOTIONS. RECOVERY DUES. SAFETY APPLIANCES. SUPERSESSION. WORKING CODITIONS. TRANSFERS. VICTIMIZATION. 02 mar # A GRIEVANCE HAS A NARROWER PERSPECTIVE; IT IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERPRETATION OF A CONTRACT OR AWARD AS APPLIED TO AN INDIVIDUAL OR A FEW EMPLOYEES.

TYPES OF GRIEVANCES
# FROM THE CAUSES OF GRIEVANCES, WE CAN DERIVE TYPES OF GRIEVANCES, WHICH COULD BE :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CONCERNING WAGES. CONCERNING SUPERVISION. CONCERNING INDIVIDUAL ADVANCEMENT. GENERAL WORKING CONDITIONS. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.

MACHINERY FOR REDRESSAL OF GRIEVANCES


# REDRESSAL MEANS REMEDY OR SET RIGHT AN UNDESIRABLE OR UNFAIR SITUATION. # ARBITRATION CAN BE BROADLY DEFINED AS A DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROCESS IN WHICH TWO PARTIES VOLUNTARILY AGREE TO ACCEPT AN IMPARTIAL ARBITRATORS FINAL & BINDING DECISION ON THE MERITS OF THE PARTIES DISPUTE. AN AEBITRATOR SITS AS A JUDGE OVER THE PARTIES DISPUTE, HIS OR HER DECISION IS LEGALLY BINDING ON THE PARTIES & AN ARBITRATION PROCEEDING IS LESS FORMAL THAN A COURT TRIAL. # A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE IS A FORMAL PROCESS WHICH IS PRELIMINARY TO AN ARBITRATION, WHICH ENABLES THE PARTIES INVOLVED TO ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES IN A PEACEFUL, ORDERLY & EXPEDITIOUS MANNER. IT ENABLES THE COY & THE TRADE UNION TO INVESTIGATE & DISCUSS THE PROBLEMS AT ISSUE WITHOUT IN ANY WAY INTERRUPTING THE PEACEFUL & ORDERLY CONDUCT OF BUSINESS. WHEN GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MACHINERY WORKS EFFECTIVELY, IT SATISFACTORILY RESOLVES MOST OF THE DISPUTES BETWEEN LABOUR & MANAGEMENT. # AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF GRIEVANCE MACHINERY IS THE REASSURANCE GIVEN TO AN INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEE BY THE MERE FACT THAT THERE IS A MECHANISM AVAILABLE TO HIM WHICH WILL CONSIDER HIS /HER GRIEVANCE IN A DISPASSIONATE & DETACHED MANNER & THAT HIS OPINT OF VIEW WILL BE HEARD & GIVEN DUE CONSIDERATION. BUILT INTO THIS ARE SAFEGUARDS AGAINST VICTIMIZATION IF, FOR INSTANCE, THE GRIEVANCE CONCERNS A SUPERIORS ACTION. # THE PRIMARY VALUE OF A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE IS THAT IT CAN ASSIST IN MINIMIZING DISCONTENT & DISSATISFACTION THAT MAY HAVE ADVERSE EFFECTS UPON COOPERATION & PRODUCTIVITY. THE PROCEDURE ALSO HAS VALUE IN THAT IT SERVES AS A CHECK ON ARBITRARY MANAGEMENT ACTION. BEING AWARE OF THE RIGHT OF EMPLOYEE APPEAL SHOULD

HELP SUPERVISORS TO AVOID THE TENDENCY TOWARD CORRUPTION & ARBITRARINESS THAT POWER & AUTHORITY OFTEN BRING. # THE DETAILS OF A GRIEVANCE MACHINERY VARY WITH THE ORG. IT MAY HAVE AS FEW AS TWO STEPS OR AS MANY AS TEN STEPS, DEPENDING PRIMARILY UPON THE SIZE OF THE ORG. IT MUST BE CLARIFIED HERE THAT A LABOUR UNION IS NOT ESSENTIAL TO THE ESTABLISHMENT & OPERATION OF A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE. PROCEDURE : GRIEVANCES # THE AIM OF THE PROCEDURE IS TO SETTLE THE GRIEVANCE AS NEARLY AS POSSIBLE TO ITS POINT OF ORIGIN & WITHIN REASONABLE TIME. # THE MAIN STAGES THROUGH WHICH A GRIEVANCE MAY BE RAISED ARE AS FOLLOWS :1. THE EMPLOYEE ( GRIEVED ) RAISES THE MATTER WITH HIS OR HER IMMEDIATE TEAM LEADER OR MANAGER & MAY BE ACCOMPANIED BY A FELLOW EMPLOYEE OF HIS OR HER OWN CHOICE. ( HENCE THE IMPORTANCE OF AN APPOINTMENT LETTER, THROUGH WHICH THE CHANNEL OF REPORTING OR SPAN OF CONTROL IS DEFINED ). THIS SHOULD BE DONE IMMEDIATELY. 2. IF THE EMPLOYEE IS NOT SATISFIED WITH THE DECISION, THE EMPLOYEE REQUESTS A MEETING WITH A MEMBER OF MANAGEMENT WHO IS MORE Sr THAN THE TEAM LEADER OR MANAGER WHO INITIALLY HEARD THE GRIEVANCE. THIS MEETING TAKES PLACE WITHIN FIVE WORKING DAYS OF THE REQUEST & IS ATTENDED BY THE MANAGER, THE MANAGER RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONNEL, THE EMPLOYEE APPEALING AGAINST THE DECISION & IF DESIRED HIS OR HER REPRESENTATIVE. THE MANAGER RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONNEL, RECORDS THE RESULT OF THE MEETING IN WRITING & ISSUES COPIES TO ALL CONCERNED. 3.IF THE EMPLOYEE IS STILL NOT SATISFIED WITH THE DECISION, HE OR SHE MAY APPEAL TO THE APPROPRIATE DIRECTOR. THE MEETING TO HEAR THIS APPEAL IS HELD WITHIN FIVE WORKING DAYS OF THE REQUEST & IS ATTENDED BY THE DIRECTOR, THE MANAGER RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONNEL, THE EMPLOYEE MAKING THE APPEAL & IF DESIRED, HIS OR HER REPRESENTATIVE. THE MANAGER RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONNEL, RECORDS THE RESULTS OF THIS MEETING IN WRITING & ISSUES COPIES TO ALL CONCERNED. ( PLEASE NOTE HERE THAT TIME FRAME MUST BE DEFINED IN THE PROCEDURE, WHICH VARIES FROM ORG TO ORG. THE GRIEVANCES MUST BE RESOLVED IMMEDIATELY OR AT THE EARLIEST ----THIS ASPECT IS REQUIRED TO BE DEVELOPED BY HR MANAGERS ) # A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE IS A FORMAL PROCESS WHICH IS PRELIMINARY TO AN ARBITRATION, WHICH ENABLES THE PARTIES INVOLVED TO ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THEIR

DIFFERENCES IN A PEACEFUL, ORDERLY & EXPEDITIOUS MANNER. IT ENABLES THE COY & THE TRADE UNION TO INVESTIGATE & DISCUSS THE PROBLEM AT ISSUE WITHOUT IN ANY WAY INTERRUPTING THE PEACEFUL & ORDERLY CONDUCT OF BUSINESS. WHEN THE GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MACHINERY WORKS EFFECTIVELY, IT SATISFACTORILY RESOLVES MOST OF THE DISPUTES BETWEEN LABOUR & MANAGEMENT. # AN OPEN-DOOR POLICY, WHEREIN A GRIEVED EMPLOYEE CAN DIRECTLY APPROACH THE HEAD OF THE FIRM & GENERALLY APPLICABLE FOR SMALL SCALE COYS. FOR BIGGER COYS A STEPLADDER TYPE PROCEDURE IS GENERALLY FOLLOWED. # GENERALLY THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES---THREE- STEP GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE, FOUR- STEP & FIVE-STEP. THREE-STEP GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Step 1. 2. 3. Labour Representative Shop steward & aggrieved employee. Shop Committee Arbitration by an impartial third party Management Representative Foreman General Manager

FOUR-STEP GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE

Step 1. 2. 3. 4.

Labour Representative Steward & aggrieved employee. Shop Committee Local union ofrs Arbitration by an impartial third party

Management Representative Foreman. Personnel Manager President

FIVE-STEP GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE

Step 1. 2. 3. 4.

Labour Representative Union steward or employee Chief steward or business agent Coy grievance committee. Regional or District Representatives of union Arbitration by an impartial third party

Management Representative Employees immediate supervisor. Superintendent or IR Offr. IR Director or Plant Manager Top Corporate Management

5.

# BASIC ELEMENTS OF A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE--- THESE COULD BE :1. THE EXISTANCE OF A SOUND CHANNEL THROUGH WHICH A GRIEVANCE MAY PASS FOR REDRESSAL IF THE PREVIOUS STAGE OR CHANNEL HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE INADEQUATE, UNSATISFACTORY OR UNACCEPTABLE. 2. THE PROCEDURE SHOULD BE SIMPLE, DEFINITE & PROMPT, FOR ANY COMPLEXITY OR VAGUENESS OR DELAY MAY LEAD TO AN AGGRAVATION OF THE DISSATISFACTION OF THE AGGRIEVED EMPLOYEE. AND 3. THE STEPS IN HANDLING A GRIEVANCE SHOULD BE CLEARLY DEFINED. 4. THESE SHOULD COMPRISE OF :( a ) RECEIVING & DEFINING THE NATURE OF THE GRIEVANCE. ( b ) GETTING AT THE RELEVENT FACTS, ABOUT THE GRIEVANCE. ( c ) ANALYSING THE FACTS, AFTER TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL & LEGAL ISSUES INVOLVED IN THEM. ( d ) TAKING AN APPROPRIATE DECISION AFTER A CAREFUL CONSIDERATION OF ALL THE FACTS. AND 5. WHATEVER THE DECISION, IT SHOULD BE FOLLOWED UP IN ORDER THAT THE REACTION TO THE DECISION MAY BE KNOWN & IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE ISSUE HAS BEEN CLOSED OR NOT.

# IT IS RELEVENT TO NOTE THAT THE MANAGEMENT IS OFTEN GUILTY OF ERRORS IN ITS HANDLING OF THE GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL PROCEDURE. THESE ERRORS COULD BE :1. STOPPING TOO SOON THE SEARCH FOR FACTS. 2. EXPRESSING THE OPINION OF THE MANAGEMENT BEFORE ALL THE PERTINENT FACTS HAVE BEEN UNCOVERED & EVALUATED. 3. FAILING TO MAINTAIN PROPER RECORDS. 4. RESORTING TO AN EXECUTIVE FIAT ( MEANS AN OFFICIAL ORDER OR AUTHORISATION ) INSTEAD OF DISPASSIONATELY DISCUSSING THE FACTS OF THE GRIEVANCE OF THE EMPLOYEE. 5. COMMUNICATING THE DECISION TO THE GRIEVANT IN AN IMPROPER WAY. TAKING A WRONG OR HASTY DECISION, WHICH THE FACTS OR CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE CASE DO NOT JUSTIFY.

SUCCESSFUL GRIEVANCE HANDLING PROCEDURES


# AN ANLYSIS OF SUCCESSFUL GRIEVANCE HANDLING PROCEDURES INDICATES THAT THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ARE INVOLVED IN THEM :1. HELPFUL ATTITUDE & SUPPORT OF THE MANAGEMENT. 2. BELIEF ON THE PART OF ALL CONCERNED IN THE UTILITY OF THE PROCEDURE. 3. INTRODUCTION OF THE PROCEDURE WITH THE CONCURRENCE OF THE EMPLOYEES REPRESENTATIVE OR THEIR TRADE UNIONS. 4. SIMPLE, FAIR, EASILY UNDERSTANDABLE & QUICK HANDLING PROCEDURE COTAINING A TIME LIMIT FOR EACH STEP. 5. DEFINING COYS POLICIES, RULES & PRACTICES & AVAILABILITY OF COPIES AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS INVOLVED IN THE PROCEDURE. 6. DELEGATION OF APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY SO THAT ACTION MAY BE TAKEN AT ALL LEVELS OF THE MANAGEMENT. 7. THE FUNCTIONING OF THE HR DEPT IN AN ADVISORY CAPACITY AT AL THE LEVELS OF THE MANAGEMENT. 8. A FACT-ORIENTED, INSTEAD OF AN EMPLOYEE-ORIENTED, DISCUSSION OF GRIEVANCES. 9. RESPECT FOR THE DECISION TAKEN AT EACH LEVEL OF THE MANAGEMENT. 10. ADEQUATE PUBLICITY GIVEN TO THE PROCEDURE & ITS ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE COY. AND 11. A PERIODIC REVIEW OF THE WORKING OF THE PROCEDURE.

THE COLLECTIVE BARGAINING


INTRODUCTION
# INITIALLY, INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES NEGOTIATED DIRECTLY WITH A POTENTIAL EMPLOYER ON THE WAGES THEY WOULD RECEIVE FOR THE SERVICES PROVIDED. WITH THE GROWTH OF POPULATION & THE PACE OF INDUSTRIALISATION, LARGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE ENTERED THE LABOUR MARKET. THIS BROUGHT ABOUT SEVERAL CHANGES. # INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES DID NOT FIND IT CONVENIENT ANY MORE TO NEGOTIATE INDIVIDUALLY, OWING TO THE PRESSURE OF TIME, VARIANCES IN REWARDS FOR THE SERVICES RENDERED & THE ABILITY TO PUSH FOR MORE AS A GP ON THE EMPLOYEES PART. EMPLOYERS ALSO FOUND IT MORE CONVIENT TO DEAL WITH A GP RATHER THAN INDIVIDUALS. # THIS LED TO THE CONCEPT OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING. THIS CONCEPT WAS FIRST IDENTIFIED BY SIDNEY & BEATRICE WEBB IN BRITAIN & ALSO BY GOMPERS IN THE USA.

WHAT IS COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ?


# IT IS A PROCESS THROUGH WHICH REPRESENTATIVES OF MANAGEMENT & THE UNION MEET TO NEGOTIATE A LABOUR AGREEMENT. ( NEGOTIATION IS A PROCESS THROUGH WHICH TWO OR MORE PARTIES MOVE FROM THEIR INITIALLY DIVERGENT POSITIONS TO A POINT WHERE AGREEMENT IS REACHED.) # THE INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SYSTEM IS REGULATED BY THE PROCESS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING WHICH IS A SOCIAL PROCESS THAT CONTINUALLY TURNS DISAGREEMENTS INTO AGREEMENTS IN AN ORDERLY FASHION. # COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ( CB ) AIMS TO ESTABLISH BY NEGOTIATION & DISCUSSION AGREED RULES & DECISIONS ON THE MATTERS OF MUTUAL CONCERN TO EMPLOYERS & UNIONS AS WELL AS METHODS OF REGULATING THE CONDITIONS GOVERNING EMPLOYMENT.

DEFINITIONS OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING


# ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SOCIAL SCIENCES DEFINES AS--- A PROCESS OF DISCUSSION & NEGOTIATION BETWEEN TWO PARTIES; ONE OR BOTH OF WHOM IS A GP OF PERSONS ACTING IN CONCERT. THE RESULTING BARGAIN IS AN UNDERSTANDING AS TO THE TERMS OR CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH A CONTINUING SERVICE IS TO BE PERFORMED # OXFORD DICTIONARY OF HRM DEFINES AS, THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH TRADE UNIONS & EMPLOYERS NEGOTIATE COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS THAT SET THE RATES OF PAY & TERMS & CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT OF WORKERS. IT IS ALSO A PROCESS OF JOINT REGULATION &

CAN BE DIFFERENTIATED FROM UNILATERAL REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT BY EMPLOYERS OR UNIONS & LEGAL REGULATION THROUGH THE STATE # THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION ( ILO ) DEFINE CB AS, ---- NEGOTIATION ABOUT WORKING CONDITIONS & TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT BETWEEN AN EMPLOYER, A GP OF EMPLOYEES OR ONE OR MORE EMPLOYERS ORGANIZATIONS, ON THE ONE HAND & ONE OR MORE REPRESENTATIVE WORKERS ORGANIZATIONS ON THE OTHER WITH A VIEW TO REACHING AGREEMENT. # WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM THESE DEFINITIONS ?-----THESE DEFINITIONS LEAD US TO CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS & SALIENT FEATURES OF CB WHICH COULD BE :1. THE PROCESS IS COLLECTIVE BECAUSE ISSUES RELATING TO TERMS & CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ARE SOLVED BY REPRESENTATIVES OF EMPLOYEES & EMPLOYERS IN GPS RATHER THAN AS INDIVIDUALS. 2. IT IS ESSENTIALLY A GP ACTIVITY RATHER THAN AN INDIVIDUAL OR UNILATERALK ACTION. 3. FLEXIBLE ATTITUDE OF BOTH THE MANAGEMENT & THE UNION IS ENCOURAGED. 4. IT IS A BILATERAL ( INVOLVING TWO PARTIES ) PROCESS. 5. IT IS AN ONGOING & DYNAMIC PROCESS. 6. IT IS COMPLEX IN NATURE BECAUSE OF THE PROCESS & TECHNIQUES ADAPTED IN RESOLVING THE ISSUE. 7. IT PERFORMS LEGISLATIVE, JUDICIAL & EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS. ( LEGISLATIVE MEANS RELATING TO LAWS). 8. IT IS BOTH AN ART & SCIENCE. 9. IT IS A PROCESS IN THE SENSE THAT IT CONSISTS OF A NUMBER OF STEPS. THE STARTING POINT IS THE PRESENTATION OF THE CHARTER OF DEMANDS & THE LAST STAGE IS THE REACHING OF AN AGREEMENT, OR A CONTRACT WHICH WOULD SERVE AS THE BASIC LAW GOVERNING LABOUR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS OVER A PERIOD OF TIME IN AN ORG. 10. IT IS DISTINCTIVE IN NATURE AS THE RULES ARE MADE BY THE UNIONS OF WORKERS, EMPLOYERS & ORGS. 11. IT IS GOVERNED BY THE CONVENTIONS & CUSTOMS THAT PREVAIL AT THE COY LEVEL. 12. IT IS NOT JUST AN ECONOMIC PROCESS BUT MORE A SOCIO-ECONOMIC ONE. THE VALUES, ASPIRATIONS & EXPECTATIONS ALSO PLAY A SIGNIFICANT ROLE.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING PROCESS


# CB IS A PROCESS WHICH CONSISTS OF FOLLOWING STAGES :-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

PRESENTATION OF PROPOSALS BY UNIONS TO THE MANAGEMENT. HOME-WORK ON THESE PROPOSALS BY BOTH PARTIES. NEGOTIATION OF PROPOSALS LEADING TO AGREEMENT. IMPLEMENTATION OF AGREEMENT. AND REVIEW & RENEWAL OF AGREEMENT.

# PRESENTATION OF PROPOSALS----MANY ORGS TERM IT AS DEMANDS BY UNIONS. THE CB PROCESS USUALLY STARTS WITH PROPOSAL / DEMANDS BEING PRESENTED TO THE MANAGEMENT BY UNIONS. A FRESH PROPOSAL IS SUBMITTED UPON THE EXPIRY OF THE EARLIER AGREEMENT. BUT IT WOULD BE PREFERABLE TO GET THESE FRESH PROPOSALS WELL BEFORE THE EXPIERY OF EXISTING AGREEMENT SO THAT THE NEW AGREEMENT WOULD BE ANY DELAYS. TILL THE FRESH AGREEMENT IS SIGNED, THE PROVISIONS OF THE EXISTING AGREEMENT WOULD CONTINUE. # THESE PROPOSALS ARE RECEIVED BY IR DEPT WHERE AVAILABLE OR BY HR DEPT ( PM ). # HOME-WORK---THE PROPOSALS ARE STUDIED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS, BOTH FINANCIAL & NON-FINANCIAL. THIS HOME-WORK IS GENERALLY DONE BY IR DEPT / HR DEPT, FINANCE / ACCOUNT DEPT & OPERATIONS DEPT. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS HOME-WORK IS TO PREPARE FOR NEGOTITIONS. # NEGOTIATION OF PROPOSALS----AFTER THE HOME-WORK, BOTH PARTIES START NEGOTIATING & TRY TO ARRIVE AT AN AGREEMENT. ( NEGOTIATION IS A PROCESS THROUGH WHICH TWO OR MORE PARTIES MOVE FROM THEIR INITIALLY DIVERGENT POSITIONS TO A POINT WHERE AGREEMENT IS REACHED.) FOR THIS, BOTH PARTIES HAVE TO MAKE NECESSARY PREPARATIONS FOR JUSTIFYING RESPECTIVE STANDS. NEGOTIATIONS REFLECT A SENSE OF COMPROMISE IN A GIVE & TAKE SPIRIT & ALSO MANIPULATION POWER EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN PARTIES. COMPLETION OF NEGOTIATIONS LEAD TO AN AGREEMENT WHICH WHEN SIGNED BY BOTH PARTIES BECOMES A CONTRACT BETWEEN THE UNION & THE MANAGEMENT FOR A DEFINED PERIOD OF TIME. # IMPLEMENTATION OF AGREEMENT----THE CONTENTS OF THE AGREEMENT ARE COMMUNICATED TO ALL FOR EXECUTION. THIS IS CLOSELY OBSERVED BY IR / HR DEPT TO ENSURE THAT NO DISPUTES OR PROBLEMS ARISE. # REVIEW & RENEWAL---NORMALLY THESE AGREEMENTS ARE VALID FOR A SPECIFIED PERIOD; GENERALLY FOR THREE YEARS. DURING THIS TIME, BOTH PARTIES MUST REVIEW THE IMPLEMENTATION & SHOULD THERE BE ANY REQUIREMENT FOR REVISION / REVIEW MUST BE DONE. THUS THE CB IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS. # THE END OBJECTIVE OF CB SHOULD BE THAT BOTH PARTIES TRY TO ACHIEVE I AM OK SITUATION WITH A VIEW TO ACHIEVE MAX PRODUCTION & IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE.

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
# DISPUTE MEANS A DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN MANAGEMENT & EMPLOYEES THAT LEADS TO INDUSTRIAL ACTION. # CONFLICT CAN BE DEFINED AS A PROCESS IN WHICH ONE PARTY ( PERSON OR GROUP ) PERCEIVES THAT ITS INTERESTS ARE BEING OPPOSED OR NEGATIVELY AFFECTED BY ANOTHER PARTY. # AS PER THE ABOVE DEFINITION DISAGREEMENT CAN ARISE AMONG PEOPLE WHEN THEY FEEL THAT THEIR INTERESTS ARE NOT BEING DULY CONSUIERED BY THE OTHER PARTY OR PERSON. SIMPLY STATED CLASH OF INTERESTS & IDEAS AMONGST INDIVIDUALS CAN LEAD TO CONFLICT /S. # GRIEVANCE MEANS A REAL OR IMAGINED CAUSE FOR COMPLAINT.

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE ?

# THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT, 1947, DEFINES INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE AS

ANY DISPUTE OR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYERS, OR BETWEEN EMPLOYEES & EMPLOYEES OR BETWEEN EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES, WHICH IS CONNECTED WITH THE EMPLOYMENT OR NON-EMPLOYMENT OR THE TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT OR WITH THE CONDITIONS OF WORK OF ANY PERSON ---SECTION 2-k

# FROM THE PHILOSOPHY & APPROACH IMPLIED IN THE ACT, AN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE SHOULD SATISFY THREE CONDITIONS WHICH ARE :1. THE FACTUM ( REAL OR SUBSTANTIVE FACT CONCERNING THE DISPUTE )---THERE SHOULD BE A DISPUTE OR DIFFERENCE. 2. THE PARTIES TO THE DISPUTE. AND 3. SUBJECT MATTER OF THE DISPUTE ---THE DISPUTE OR DIFFERENCE MUST BE CONNECTED WITH THE EMPLOYMENT OR NON-EMPLOYMENT OR TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT OR WITH THE CONDITIONS OF LABOUR OF ANY PERSON.

# THE FOLLOWING GENERAL CONDITIONS MAY EXIST IN AN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE :1. IT SHOULD TAKE PLACE IN AN INDUSTRY. 2. IT MUST BE CONNECTED WITH EMPLOYMENT, NON-EMPLOYMENT, TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT OR CONDITIONS OF LABOUR. 3. THE DISPUTE MUST BE RELATED TO A WORKMAN OR ANY OTHER PERSON IN WHOM THE GP HAS A DIRECT & SUBSTANTIAL INTEREST. AND 4. IN A SENSE, DISPUTES ARE COLLECTIVE IN NATURE & NOT AN INDIVIDUAL MISUNDERSTANDING. HOWEVER, EVEN AN INDIVIDUAL MAY RAISE A DISPUTE IN CONNECTION WITH A TERMINATION OF SERVICE, DISMISSAL, DISCHARGE OR RETRENCHMENT.

# CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES

------ THERE COULD BE FOUR FACTORS ----

INDUSTRIAL FACTORS, NON-INDUSTRIAL FACTORS, MANAGEMENTS ATTITUDE TO LABOUR & GOVT MACHINERY.

INDUSTRIAL RELATION MACHINERY TO SOLVE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTE


# THESE COULD BE :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. NEGOTIATION CONCILIATION MEDIATOR ARBITRATION WORK COMMITTEES BOARD OF CONCILIATION.

7. COURT OF ENQUIRY 8. ADJUDICATION 9. LABOUR COURTS 10. INDUSTRIAL TRIBUNALS . 11. NATIONAL TRIBUNALS .

SUMMARY
1. WHAT IS IR ? MAJOR COMPONENTS OF IR. 2. EMPLOYEE GRIEVANCES ------ WHAT IS IT ?, NATURE, TYPES, MACHINERY FOR REDRESSAL OF GRIEVANCES, PROCEDURE, THREE STEPS, FOUR STEPS & FIVE STEPS, BASIC ELEMENTS OF GP, SUCCESSFUL GRIEVANCE HANDLING PROCEDURE.

3. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ------ WHAT IS IT ? DEFINITIONS & ANALYSIS, CB PROCESS. 4. INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES DISPUTES. ------ WHAT IS IT ?, CAUSES, MACHINERY TO SOLVE

RETIREMENT / SEPERATION

# SEPERATION MEANS CESSATION OF SERVICE WITH THE ORG FOR ONE OR OTHER REASON. THE EMPLOYEE MAY BE SEPERATED FROM PAY ROLL OF A COY AS A RESULT OF :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. RESIGNATION. DISCHARGE. DISMISSAL. SUSPENSION. RETIREMENT. LAYOFF. VRS.

RESIGNATION
# RESIGNATION MAY BE PUT IN VOLUNTARILY BY THE EMPLOYEE ON GROUNDS OF HEALTH, PHYSICAL DISABILITY, BETTER OPPORTUNITIES ELSEWHERE OR MALADJUSTMENT WITH COY POLICY & SENIORS OR MANAGERS OR FOR REASONS OF MARRIAGE ( FREQUENT IN CASE OF YOUNG GIRLS ). # MANY A TIMES AN EMPLOYEE IS ASKED TO PUT IN HIS RESIGNATION IF ONE WANTS TO AVOID TERMINATION OF SERVICES ON THE GROUND OF GROSS NEGLIGENCE OF DUTY ON ONES PART OR SOME SERIOUS CHARGE AGAINST THE EMPLOYEE. THIS IS DONE TO REDUCE DAMAGE TO THE EMPLOYEE IN HIS FUTURE.

DISCHARGE
# A DISCHARGE INVOLVES PERMENT SEPERATION OF AN EMPLOYEE FROM THE PAY-ROLL FOR VIOLATION OF COY RULES OR FOR INADEQUATE PERFORMANCE. DISCHARGE IS NOT ALWAYS A PUNISHMENT. A DISCHARGE BECOMES NECESSARY :-

1. WHEN THE VOLUME OF BUSINESS DOES NOT JUSTIFY THE CONTINUING EMPLOYMENT OF THE PERSONS INVOLVED ( DOWN-SIZING ). 2. WHEN A PERSON FAILS TO WORK ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB EITHER BECAUSE OF INCAPACITY OR BECAUSE HE / SHE HAS DELIBERATELY SLOWED DOWN ON WORK, OR BECAUSE THERE IS NO SUITABLE PLACE WHERE HE / SHE CAN BE TRANSFERRED. 3. WHEN AN INDIVIDUAL FORFEITS HIS / HER RIGHT TO A JOB BECAUSE OF ONES VIOLATION OF A BASIC POLICY OFTEN INVOLVING THE SAFETY OF OTHERS, THE MORALE & DISCIPLINE OF A GP.

# CAUSES OF DISCHARGE------A DISCHARGE SELDOM ARISES FROM A SINGLE IMPULSIVE ACT. MANY CAUSES MAY ACCOUNT FOR IT. SOME OF THESE ARE :1. FREQUENT CAUSES---INEFFICIENCY, DISHONESTY, DRUNKENNESS, CARELESSNESS OR INDIFFERENCE, VIOLATION OF RULES. 2. INFREQUENT CAUSES----ACCIDENTS, INSUBORDINATION, PERSONAL CONDUCT, UNCLEANLINESS, DESTRUCTIVE NEGLIGENCE, PHYSICAL UNFITNESS etc. 3. OTHER CAUSES----CARELESSNESS, LACK OF CO-OPERATION, LAZINESS, FREQUENT ABSENCES WITHOUT LEAVE, DISHONESTY, PREVENTING PROMOTION, ADVERSE ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE ORG.

# DISCHARGE PROCEDURE------TO AVOID UNNECESSARY GRIEVANCES ARISING FROM DISCHARGES, PROPER RULE SHOULD BE FRAMED TO GOVERN THEM. TO DEMONSTRATE THAT A DISCHARGE IS JUSTIFIED & DOES NOT ARISE OUT OF UNFAIR DISCRIMINATION OR PERSONAL PREJUDICE OF THE SUPERVISOR, FOLLOWING EVIDENCE NEEDS BE PRODUCED :1. PERMANENT RECORDS OF ALL MERIT RATINGS MADE BY THE SUPERVISORS. 2. PERMANENT RECORDS OF RATINGS OF THE DEFENDANTS TRAITS MAINTAINED BY PERSONS OTHER THAN THE FOREMAN / SUPERVISOR. 3. A MEMORANDOM BEARING ON THE EFFORTS MADE BY THE FOREMAN TO HELP THE DEFENDANT TO OVERCOME HIS / HER WEAKNESS. 4. A COPY OF ANY WARNING THAT HAD BEEN SENT TO HIM / HER. 5. A LETTER OF DISCHARGE, ESPECIALLY IF THE LETTER STATES THE CAUSE OF THE DISCHARGE.

# DICHARGE IS GENERALLY MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE STANDING ORDERS. THE ACTION TAKEN SHOULD BE BONAFIDE & IS NEITHER A PUNITIVE MEASURE NOR A CASE OF VICTIMISATION.

# THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS SHOULD BE PRESENT IN A DISCHARGE PROGRAMME :1. THE REASONS FOR DISCHARGE SHOULD BE CLEARLY MENTIONED.

2. THE INDIVIDUAL CONCERNED SHOULD BE ADEQUATELY INFORMED ABOUT THE REASONS FOR DISCHARGE. 3. THE SUPERVISOR, IN CHARGE OF INITIATING DISCHARGE ACTION, SHOULD BE FULLY CONVERSENT WITH RULES & REGULATIONS OF THE ORG. 4. THE FACTS REGARDING THE VIOLATIONS OF THE RULES & REGULATIONS SHOULD BE CAREFULLY ANALYSED & RECORDED. 5. ADEQUATE PROVISION SHOULD EXIST FOR REVIEW OF THE DISCHARGEED EMPLOYEES CASE. 6. LINE OFFICIALS MUST BE INVOLVED IN PROGRESSING THE DISCHARGE CASE. 7. THERE SHOULD BE WELL THOUGHT OUT PROCEDURE FOR SETTLING THE DISCHARGE CASE. 8. A DISCHARGE EMPLOYEE NEEDS A REASONABLE NOTICE OR AN EQUIVALENT OF PAY IN LIEU OF NOTICE. IT CARRIES WITH IT CERTAIN PENELTIES, SUCH AS DIFFICULTY OF REEMPLOYMENT, LOSS OF BENEFITS etc.

DISMISSAL
# THIS MEANS TERMINATING OF SERVICE OR CONTRACT AS A PUNISHMENT FOR A SERIOUS MISCONDUCT OR ACT OF INDISCIPLINE. THIS IS THE SUPREME PUNISHMENT WHICH AN EMPLOYER CAN GIVE FOR DISCIPLINING WORKMEN AS A LAST RESORT. IT CARRIES A STIGMA WHICH MAY PREVENT THE DISMISSED PERSON FROM GETTING ANOTHER JOB. IT IS A PERMANENT SEPERATION FROM JOB. # A DISMISSAL IS THE TERMINATION OF THE SERVICES OF AN EMPLOYEE BY WAY OF PUNISHMENT FOR SOME MISCONDUCT, OR FOR UNAUTHORISED & PROLONGED ABSENCE FROM DUTY. # BEFORE ONES SERVICES ARE TERMINATED, AN EMPLOYEE IS GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO EXPLAIN ONES CONDUCT & TO SHOW CAUSE WHY HE / SHE SHOULD NOT BE DISMISSED. THE GENERAL RULE IS THAT IN THIS PROCESS, THERE SHOULD BE NO VIOLATION OF WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE PRINCIPLE OF NATURAL JUSTICE, WHICH ENSURES THAT PUNISHMENT IS NOT OUT OF ALL PROPORTION TO ALL OFFENCE.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISCHARGE & DISMISSAL


# DISMISSAL & DISCHARGE HAVE THE SAME RESULT, THAT IS, TERMINATION OF THE SERVICE OF THE EMPLOYEE. IT IS ON THIS ACCOUNT THAT THESE TERMS ARE OFTEN USED INDISCRIMINATELY BY EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES & EVEN SOMETIMES BY THE LABOUR COURTS AS THOUGH THEY WERE INTER-CHANGEABLE. BUT THERE IS A DISTINCT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO EXPRESSIONS. THE POINTS THOSE NEED TO NOTED IN THIS CONNECTION ARE AS FOLLOWS :-

1. WHILE DISMISSAL IS A PUNISHMENT FOR SOME MISCONDUCT, DISCHARGE IS NOT ALWAYS A PUNISHMENT. 2. THE ACTS & OMMISIONS FOR WHICH THE PUNISHMENT OF DISCHARGE MAY BE INFICTED ARE GENERALLY THE SAME FOR WHICH THE EXTREME PUNISHMENT OF DISMISSAL WOULD BE WARRANTED. HOWEVER, ON CONSIDERATION OF EQUITY, EXPEDIENCY OR EXTENUATING CIRCUMSTANCES, IT MAY BE DEEMED DESIRABLE BY THE EMPLOYER TO DISCHARGE AN EMPLOYEE INSTEAD OF DISMISSING HIM / HER. ( EXPEDIENCY MEANS ADVISABLE ON PRACTICAL RATHER THAN MORAL GROUNDS. EXTENUATING MEANS LESSING THE SERIOUSNESS ) 3. DISCHARGE IS CONSIDERED A LESS SEVERE PUNISHMENT THAN THAT OF DISMISSAL, ALTHOUGH, BOTH RESULT IN THE TERMINATION OS SERVICE. THE STIGMA THAT IS ATTACHED TO THE EXPRESSION DISMISSAL MAY MAKE IT PRATICALLY IMPOSSIBLE FOR THE PERSON CONCERNED TO OBTAIN ANOTHER EMPLOYMENT, WHICH IS NOT THE CASE WITH DISCHARGE. 4. THE AGREED OR REASONABLE NOTICE MAY HAVE TO BE GIVEN IN CASE OF DISCHARGE, BUT NOT SO IN CASE OF DISMISSAL WHICH IS USUALLY SUMMARY THAT IS WITHOUT NOTICE. 5. IN CASE OF DISMISSAL, THE EMPLOYER CAN WITHHOLD HIS CONTRIBUTION TO THE PROVIDENT FUND, BONUS & GRATUITY PAYABLE TO THE EMPLOYEE & ALSO HIS / HER OTHER DUES TO MAKE UP THE LOSS CAUSED TO THE CONCERN BY HIS / HER MISCONDUCT, BUT IN THE CASE OF DISCHARGE THE EMPOYEE CONCERNED WOULD USUALLY BE ENTITLED TO THESE BENEFITS & ONES DUES. 6. FOR DISMISSING AN EMPLOYEE THE EMPLOYER HAS TO HOLD DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS. HE MAY OR MAY NOT DO SO FOR DISCHARGING AN EMPLOYEE.

SUSPENSION
# SUSPENSION MEANS PROHIBITING AN EMPLOYEE FROM PERFORMING HIS / HER DUTIES ASSIGNED TO HIM / HER & WITHHOLDING WAGES FOR SO LONG AS THAT PROHIBITION CONTINUES. DURING THE PERIOD OF SUCH PROHIBITION THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT BETWEEN AN EMPLOYER & THE EMPLOYEE IS SAID TO BE UNDER SUSPENSION, & THE EMPLOYEE IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN SUSPENDED. SUSPENSION DOES NOT MEAN TERMINATION OF SERVICE BUT ONLY DENIAL OF WORK FOR SOME TIME. # PROCEDURAL SUSPENSION IS NOT CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. POINTS TO BE NOTED ARE :1. SUSPENSION IS MADE WHEN DISCIPLINARY ACTION IS INITIATED OR ABOUT TO BE INITIATED AGAINST A PERSON FOR ANY MISCONDUCT WHICH MAY WARRANT ANY MAJOR PUNISHMENT LIKE DISCHARGE OR DISMISSAL. 2. THE DELINQUENT WORKER IS SUSPENDED IF HIS / HER PRESENCE AT WORK IS NOT CONSIDERED DESIRABLE FOR FEAR OF HIS / HER TAMPERING WITH THE RECORDS OR ANY OTHER EVIDENCE OR THE ENQUIRY BY ITSELF.

3. THE EMPLOYEE IS SUSPENDED IN THE INTEREST OF DISCIPLINE & GOOD ORDER IN THE COY & IN ALLCASES WHERE THE ACT OF MISCONDUCT COMPLAINED OF IS GRAVE & SERIOUS. 4. IT IS USUAL TO ISSUE THE SUSPENSION ORDER ALONGWITH THE LETTER OF CHARGE, BUT IF THE MANAGEMENT THINKS IT NECESSARY, SUSPENSION CAN EVEN BE BEFORE THE CHARGE-SHEET PENDING FURTHER DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS.

PAYMENT DURING SUSPENSION PERIOD


# DURING THE PERIOD OF SUSPENSION, AFFECTED EMPLOYEE IS PAID SUBSISTENCE ( SUBSIST MEANS MAINTAIN OR SUPPORT ONESELF, ESPECIALLY AT MINIMAL LEVEL ) ALLOWANCE AS FOLLOWS :1. ONE-HALF OF THE GROSS WAGES FOR THE FIRST 90 DAYS. 2. THREE-FOURTH OF THE WAGES BEYOND 90 DAYS. 3. IF THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROLONGATION IS THAT OF THE WORKMAN, THE ALLOWANCE COULD BE REDUCED TO ONE-FOURTH OF HIS / HER NORMAL EMOLUMENTS. # THIS TYPE OF PAYMENT TO THE SUSPENDED EMPLOYEE IS OBLIGATORY AS PER THE AMENDMENTS TO THE STANDING ORDERS ACT 1946.

LAYOFF
# ACCORDING TO SECTION 2 ( KKK ) OF THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT, A LAY-OFF HAS BEEN DEFINED AS, THE FAILURE, REFUSAL OR INABILITY OF AN EMPLOYER, ON ACCOUNT OF SHORTAGE OF COAL, POWER OR RAW MATERIALS, ON THE ACCUMULATIONS OF STOCKS OR BREAKDOWN OF MACHINERY FOR ANY REASON, TO GIVE EMPLOYMENT TO A WORKER WHOSE NAME IS BORNE ON THE MUSTER ROLL OF HIS INDIVIDUAL ESTABLISHMENT & WHO HAS NOT BEEN RETRENCHED # THUS, A LAY-OFF MEANS THE FAILURE, REFUSAL OR INABILITY OF AN EMPLOYER TO PROVIDE EMPLOYMENT TO WORKMEN WHOSE NAME IS BORNE ON THE MUSTER ROLL OF HIS / HER ESTABLISHMENT. IT IS RESORTED TO AS A RESULT OF SOME SUCH BONAFIDE REASONS AS FACTORS WHICH ARE BEYOND THE CONTROL OF THE EMPLOYER :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. BREAKDOWN OF MACHINERY. SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN MARKETS & LOSS OF SALES. ACCUMULATION OF STOCKS OR FINANCIAL SLUMP. SHORTAGE OF RAW MATERIAL, COAL & POWER. PRODUCTION DELAYS. OTHER TECHNOLOGICAL REASONS.

# A LAY-OFF INVOLVES A TEMPORARY OR PERMANENT REMOVAL FROM PAY-ROLL OF PERSONS WITH SURPLUS SKILLS. THE EMPLOYEE IS EXPECTED TO BE CALLED BACK IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. THE PURPOSE OF A LAY-OFF IS TO REDUCE THE FINANCIAL BURDEN ON AN ORG WHEN HR CANNOT BE UTILISED PROFITABLY. # GENERALLY, HOURLY-PAID EMPLOYEES ARE FIRST AFFECTED BY LAY-OFFS, FOLLOWED BY WHITE COLLAR & SALARIED EMPLOYEES. IN A UNIONISED ORG, THE LABOUR CONTRACT GOVERNS THE ORDER OF LAY-OFF & METHOD OF RECALL. WHOM TO LET GO & WHOM TO RETAIN IS DECIDED BY THE TPO MANAGEMENT. BUT THE GENERAL PRINCIPLE TO BE FOLLOWED IS TO LAY-OFF THE JUNIOR MOST, TEMPORARY & PROBATIONARY EMPLOYEES FIRSTLAST IN, FIRST OUT ( LIFO ); AND WHEN THEY ARE RECALLED, THE PRINCIPLE IS LOFI---LAST OUT FIRST IN.

RETRENCHMENT
# IT MEANS A PERMANENT TERMINATION OF THE SERVICES OF AN EMPLOYEE FOR ECONOMIC REASONS IN A GOING CONCERN. THE INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT, 1947, DEFINES RETRENCHMENT AS, THE TERMINATION BY THE EMPLOYER OF THE SERVICES OF WORKMEN FOR ANY REASON OTHER THAN PUNISHMENT. # IT IS TERMINATION OF SERVICE FOR REASONS OF REDUNDANCY OR SURPLUS TO REQUIREMENT. IT DOES NOT INCLUDE SEPERATION DUE TO VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT, RETIREMENT & TERMINATION ON GROUNDS OF ILL-HEALTH.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RETRENCHMENT & LAY-OFF


LAY-OFF Lay-off is the inability of the employer to provide employment to workmen due to circumstances beyond his control. It is not a termination of service. Compensation payable is half of the wages which would have been received by the laidoff worker, if he had not been laid-off. This is payable only by establishments employing 50 or more persons & if their work is not seasonal or intermittent .It is not payable to workers who are not on the pay-roll of the coy, or if they are not casual workers. Lay-off compensation can be claimed as a statutory right by the workmen if he has completed one year of continuous service or has worked for 240 days on the surface or 190 days underground in 12 calendar months. RETRENCHMENT Retrenchment is termination of service. It is a termination for reasons other than disciplinary action, retirement, illness etc.

Compensational payable is 15 days wages for every completed year of service besides one month or three months notice or pay in lieu of notice. This is payable by all coys covered by the Act irrespective of the number of employees & to all workmen, with qualifying service, except apprentices.

Compensation & notice for retrenchment are only pre-conditions for retrenchment & not a right which a retrenched worker can claim. If notice & compensation are not given, the worker will not be considered to have been retrenched. The qualifying conditions of one year continuous service will, of course, have to be fulfilled in order to receive compensation.

VRS
# THE GOVT OF INDIA ADOPTED A NEW ECONOMIC POLICY WHEREBY IT RELAXED & IN CERTAIN CASES REMOVED RESTRICTIONS ON IMPORTANT & EXPORT. THIS RESULTED IN SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN INDUSTRIAL & BUSINESS SECTORS. ONE OF THE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF LIBERALISED ECONOMIC POLICY IS THE EXIT POLICY.

# UNDER THIS POLICY THE GOVT HAS ALLOWED BUSINESS & INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, TO REDUCE THEIR EXCESS STAFF & EMPLOYEES. THE REDUCTION OF EXCESS STAFF IS A RESULT OF RESTRUCTURING OF ORGs DUE TO MODERNISING, APPLYING NEW TECHNOLOGY & NEW METHODS OF OPERATIONS, SO THAT THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANISATIONS COULD OPERATE

ECONOMICALLY & WITHSTAND THE COMPETITION WITH COMPANIES & ORGS WHICH HAVE ACCEPTED FOREIGN COLLABORATIONS, INNOVATIVE METHODS & TECHNOLOGICAL UPGRADATION, RENDERING SOME EMPLOYEES SURPLUS.

# SINCE THE PROCEDURE UNDER INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1947, FOR RETRENCHING INVOLVES SEVERAL LEGAL HURDLES & COMPLEX PROCEDURES, THE GOVT AUTHORISED VRS FOR EMPLOYEES AFTER OFFERING THEM SUITABLE VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS, & GIVING SOME TAX RELIEF ON SUCH PAYMENTS TO EMPLOYEES WHO ARE ELIGIBLE TO RETIRE VOLUNTARILY UNDER THE GUIDELINES ISSUED BY GOVT & INCOME TAX AUTHORITIES. # THE HR IN INDUSTRIAL SECTORS HAVE BECOME SURPLUS ON ACCOUNT OF EXISTING LEVEL OF TECH & WILL BECOME SURPLUS WITH ADOPTION OF NEWER TECHNOLOGIES & TECHNOLOGICAL SECTORS & IN GOVT UNDERTAKINGS. THE TRADE UNIONS HAVE BEEN OPPOSING RETRECHMENT UNDER THE EXISTING LABOUR LAWS. ( RETRENCHMENT----IF THE EMPLOYER ASKS ANY EMPLOYEE TO LEAVE THE ORG DUE TO ANY REASON BUT NOT AS A MATTER OF DISPLINARY ACTION, THEN THE EMPLOYEE IS SAID TO BE RETRENCHED. )

REASONS FOR PROPOSING VRS


1. RECESSION IN BUSINESS. ( RECESSION IS A TEMPORARY ECONOMIC DECLINE DURING WHICH TRADE & INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY ARE REDUCED.) 2. INTENSE COMPETITION WHICH MAKES THE ESTABLISHMENT UNVIABLE UNLESS DOWNSIZING IS RESORTED TO. 3. CHANGES IN TECH, PRODUCTION PROCESS, INNOVATION, NEW PRODUCT LINE. 4. REALINGMENT OF BUSINESS DUE TO MARKET CONDITIONS. 5. JOINT VENTURES WITH FOREIGN COLLABORATIONS. 6. TAKE OVERS & MERGERS. 7. BUSINESS RE-ENGINEERING PROCESS. 8. PRODUCT / TECHNOLOGY OBSOLENCENCES.

PROCEDURE FOR VRS


# THE EMPLOYER HAS TO ISSUE A CIRCULAR COMMUNICATING HIS DECISION TO OFFER VRS, MENTIONING FOLLOWING :1. THE REASONS FOR DOWNSIZING. 2. ELIGIBILITY THAT IS WHO ARE ELIGIBLE TO APPLY FOR VRS. 3. THE AGE LIMIT & THE MINIMUM SERVICE PERIOD OF EMPLOYEES WHO CAN APPLY ( AGE ABOVE 40 YEARS & MINIMUM 10 YEARS OF SERVICE IN THAT ORG ) 4. THE BENEFITS THAT ARE OFFERED.

5. THE RIGHT OF AN EMPLOYER TO ACCEPT OR REJECT ANY APPLICATION FOR VRS. 6. THE DATE UPTO WHICH THE SCHEME IS OPEN & THE APPLICATIONS ARE RECEIVED FOR CONSIDERATION BY THE EMPLOYER. 7. THE CIRCULAR MAY INDICATE INCOME TAX INCIDENCE ON ANY VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS WHICH ARE IN EXCESS OF Rs. FIVE LAKHS, WHICH IS MAX TAX FREE BENEFIT UNDER SUCH SCHEMES. 8. IT SHOULD ALSO INDICATE THAT THOSE EMPLOYEES WHO OPT FOR VRS & ACCEPT THE BENEFITS UNDER SUCH SCHEME SHALL NOT BE ELIGIBLE IN FUTURE FOR EMPLOYMENT IN THE ESTABLISHMENT.

STEPS TO BE TAKEN FOR INTRODUCING & IMPLIMATING VRS


1. IF THE COY IS PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING, OBTAIN APPROVAL OF THE GOVT. 2. IDENTIFY DEPTS / EMPLOYEES TO WHOM VRS IS TO BE OFFERED. 3. IF THERE IS A UNION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ESTABLISHMENT INVOLVE THE UNION BY COMMUNICATING TO THEM THE REASONS, THE TARGET GP & THE BENEFITS TO BE OFFERED TO THOSE WHO OPT FOR THE SCHEME. 4. FORMULATE TERMS OF VRS & BENEFITS TO BE OFFERED ARE MENTIONED IN THE CIRCULAR OR COMMUNICATION TO EMPLOYEES & DECIDE THE PERIOD DURING WHICH THE SCHEME IS TO BE KEPT OPEN. 5. MOTIVATE THE MANAGERS THROUGH COUNSELLING. 6. COUNSELLING EMPLOYEES IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF IMPLEMENTING THE SCHEME. THE COUNSELLING SHOULD INCLUDE WHAT THE RETIRING EMPLOYEE CAN DO IN FUTURE THAT IS REHABILITATION, HOW TO MANAGE THE FUNDS RECEIVED UNDER THE SCHEME & HOW TO UTILISE AVAILABLE TIME CONSTRUCTIVELY. 7. AFTER RECEIPT OF APPLICATIONS FOR ACCEPTING VRS, SCRUTINIZE, DECIDE WHOSE APPLICATIONS ARE TO BE ACCEPTED & THOSE ARE TO BE REJECTED. 8. FOR THOSE WHOSE APPLICATIONS ARE TO BE ACCEPTED PREPARE A WORKSHEET SHOWING THE BENEFITS EACH WILL RECEIVE INCLUDING OTHER DUES LIKE PF, GRATUITY, EARNED LEAVE WAGES FOR BALANCE UNAVAILED EARNED LEAVE & TAX INCIDENCE SHOULD THE VRS AMOUNT EXCEED Rs. FIVE LAKHS ( SUBJECT TO CHANGES AS PER GOVT RULES ) NOTE----EMPLOYEES WHO OFFER TO RETIRE VOLUNTARILY ARE ENTITLED AS PER LAW & RULES THE BENEFITS OF PF, GRATUITY, & SALARY FOR BALANCE OF PRIVALAGE LEAVE UPTO THE DATE OF THEIR RETIREMENT, BESIDES THE VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS.

LIMITATIONS OF VRS
1. TO CERTAIN EXTENT IT CREATES FEAR, A SENSE OF UNCERTAINTY AMONG EMPLOYEES. 2. SOMETIMES THE SEVERANCE COSTS ARE HEAVY & OUTWEIGH THE POSSIBLE GAINS. 3. TRADE UNIONS GENERALLY PROTEST THE OPERATION OF SUCH SCHEMES & MAY CAUSE DISTURBANCE IN NORMAL OPERATIONS. 4. SOME OF THE GOOD, CAPABLE & COMPETENT EMPLOYEES MAY ALSO APPLY FOR SEPERATION WHICH MAY CAUSE EMBARRASMENT TO THE MANAGEMENT & SEND WRONG SIGNALS. GENERALLY AN ORG IS KNOWN BY WHO LEAVES THE ORG.

SUMMARY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. RESIGNATION. DISCHARGE. DISMISSAL. SUSPENSION. RETIREMENT. LAYOFF. VRS.

TOTAL SUMMARY
1. HRM 2. HRP 3. T & D --- OBJECTIVES & NEEDS, TRG PROCESS, METHODS OF TRG, EVALUATION OF TRG PROGRAMMES. 4. CP & SP 5. PMS -----DEFINITION, CONCEPT & ETHICS, DIFFERENT METHODS OF PA, RATING ERRORS, COMPETENCY MANAGEMENT. 6. CM ------ CONCEPTS & COMPONENTS,JOB EVALUATION, INCENTIVES & REWARDS. 7. PM ----- CONCEPT, TQM, KAIZEN, QC 8. IR ---- GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE, CB, SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES. 9. RETIREMENT / SEPERATION.

AMEN