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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

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ROOF LOADS FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION

Table of Contents
Page 1.0 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Changes ............................................................................................................................................ 3 2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 3 2.1 Roof Loads and Drainage ............................................................................................................... 3 2.1.1 Construction and Location .................................................................................................... 3 3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................. 39 3.1 Loss History ................................................................................................................................... 39 3.1.1 Roof Collapse-Snow, Rain and Other Roof Loads ............................................................. 39 4.0 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 39 4.1 FM Global ...................................................................................................................................... 39 4.2 Others ............................................................................................................................................ 39 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..................................................................................................... 40 A.1 Roof Loads and Drainage ............................................................................................................. 40 A.1.1 Controlled Roof Drains ........................................................................................................ 40 A.1.2 Design Roof Line ................................................................................................................ 40 A.1.3 Ponding and Ponding Cycle ............................................................................................... 40 A.1.4 Dead Load .......................................................................................................................... 40 A.1.5 Live Load ............................................................................................................................ 41 A.1.6 Total Load ........................................................................................................................... 41 A.1.7 Tributary Loaded Area (TA) ................................................................................................ 41 A.1.8 Roof Strength ...................................................................................................................... 41 A.1.9 Safety Factor ....................................................................................................................... 42 APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ..................................................................................... 42 APPENDIX E ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES AND JOB AIDS ................................................................... 43 E.1 Snow Loading Illustrative Examples ............................................................................................. 43 E.2 Roof Drainage and Rain Loading Illustrative Examples: .............................................................. 46 E.3 Job AidsSnow and Rain Loads and Drainage .......................................................................... 52

List of Figures
Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 1. Snow loads for hip and gable roofs. ................................................................................................... 9 2. Snow loads for curved roofs. ............................................................................................................ 10 3. Snow loads for valley roofs. .............................................................................................................. 11 4. (To be used with Table 4.) Snow loads for lower roofs. ................................................................... 11 5. Snow loads for lower roof of adjacent structures. ............................................................................ 14 6. Sliding snow load for lower roofs. .................................................................................................... 14 7. Snow load at roof projections. .......................................................................................................... 15 8a. Typical primary and overflow drainage systems for pitched roofs. ................................................ 16 8b. Typical primary and overflow drainage systems for flat roofs. ....................................................... 17 9. Flat and sloped roofs with interior roof drains. ................................................................................. 24 10. Sloped roof with roof edge drainage. ............................................................................................. 25 11a. Ground snow load (Pg ) in psf for western United States.To obtain kN/m2, multiply by 0.048.) . 28 11b. Ground snow load (Pg ) in psf for central United States.To obtain kN/m2, multiply by 0.048.) ... 29 11c. Ground snow load (Pg ) in psf for eastern United States.To obtain kN/m2, multiply by 0.048.) .. 30 12. Ground snow load (Pg) in kg/m2, for 50-yr MRI, for Western Europe. (To convert kg/m2 to kN/m2, multiple by 0.0098. To convert kg/m2 to psf, divide by 4.88.) (June 1984.) For further information on Germany, Switzerland and Austria, see notes for Fig. 12. .................................. 31

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Fig. 13. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for the western United States.(To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.) ........................................................................................... 33 Fig. 14. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for the central and eastern United States. (To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.) .................................................................... 34 Fig. 15. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for Puerto Rico. (To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.) ............................................................................................................................. 35 Fig. 16. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for Hawaiian Islands.(To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.) ............................................................................................................................. 36 Fig. 17. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for Alaska.(To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.) .......................................................................................................................................... 37 Fig. 18. Rainfall intensity (i) in millimeters per hour for Western Europe, 50-yr 60-minute rainfall. Multiply values on map by 1.07 to convert to 100-yr 60-minute rainfall intensities. (To convert to in./hr, divide by 25.) (November 1982.) ................................................................... 38 Fig. 19. Typical tributary loaded areas for primary and secondary members. ............................................ 42 Fig. 20. Design snow loads for Example 1. ................................................................................................. 43 Fig. 21. Design snow loads for Example 2. ................................................................................................. 44 Fig. 22. Design snow loads for Example 3. ................................................................................................. 45 Fig. 23. Design snow loads for Example 4. ................................................................................................. 46 Fig. 24a. Flat roof plan for Example 5. ........................................................................................................ 47 Fig. 24b. Sloped roof plan for Example 5. ................................................................................................... 48 Fig. 25. Roof plan for Example 6. ................................................................................................................ 49 Fig. 26. Roof plan for Example 7. ................................................................................................................ 50

List of Tables
Table 1. Ground Snow Load (Pg) for Alaskan Locations in psf (kN/sq m) ................................................... 7 Table 2. Ground Snow Load (Pg) versus Balanced Flat-Roof Snow Load (Pf), Denisty (D),and Height of Balanced Snow Load (hb) for Flat and Low-sloped Roofs ............................................. 7 Table 3. Roof Slope Factor Cs ...................................................................................................................... 8 Table 4. (To be used with Figure 4) Ground Snow Load (Pg) versus Balanced Snow Load (Pf), Density (D), Balance Snow Load Height (hb), Drift Height (hd), Max Drift Load (Pd) and Max Load (Pd+Pf) ......................................................................................................................... 12 Table 4, Continued. (To be used with Figure 4) Ground Snow Load (Pg) versus Balanced Snow Load (Pf), Density (D), Balance Snow Load Height (hb), Drift Height (hd), Max Drift Load (Pd) and Max Load (Pd+Pf) .................................................................................................................. 13 Table 5. Flow Capacity for Roof Drains and Piping1 .................................................................................. 20 Table 6. Hydraulic Head Versus Flow Capacity for Roof Scuppers ............................................................ 21 Table 7. Conversion of Rainfall Intensity to Flow Rate and Rain Load per Unit Area ............................... 22 Table 8. Hydraulic Head versus Roof Drain Flow ........................................................................................ 22

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1.0 SCOPE This loss prevention data sheet presents guidelines principally for snow and rain loadings and drainage for the design of new roofs of buildings and other structures. The emphasis is placed upon the design of new construction because structural and mechanical changes in existing buildings can be very expensive. In general, it is the function of this data sheet to present background details and guidelines for building designers to use in carrying out the requirements or intent of typical building and plumbing codes regarding design roof loads and roof drainage. It should be noted that the various guidelines presented are not based upon the worst conditions possible, or even the worst conditions recorded. A probabilistic approach is used to establish design values that reduce the risk of a snow-load-induced or rain-load-induced roof collapse to an acceptable low level. 1.1 Changes September 2006. Minor editorial changes were done for this revision. 2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS 2.1 Roof Loads and Drainage 2.1.1 Construction and Location 2.1.1.1 General 2.1.1.1.1 Roofs should be designed to withstand their dead load plus the more restrictive of the following live loads: a) The balanced (uniform) or unbalanced snow loads in accordance with Section 2.1.1.2. b) The rain loads in accordance with Section 2.1.1.3 and precluding (i.e., ruling out in advance) instability from ponding. c) Other superimposed live loads, as specified, to account for the use and maintenance of the roof and the occupancy of the building/structure. d) A minimum design live load of 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) for flat roofs, sloped roofs less than 4 in./ft (18.4%) and curved roofs with rise less than 18 of span, except when a reduction in the minimum design live load is appropriate, see Recommendation 2.1.1.1.2. 2.1.1.1.2 Reductions in the minimum roof design live load of 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) when permitted by applicable building code should be restricted for lightweight roof constructions. These constructions include all metal, insulated steel deck, boards-on-joists, plywood diaphragm, etc. Reductions in the minimum roof design live load should only be taken whenever the roof slopes at least 14 in./ft (2%) and both of the following are met: a) The resultant minimum roof design live load is greater than the snow or rain loads described in the data sheet and instability due to ponding is precluded (see Section 2.1.1.1.8). b) The roof snow load is zero or the supported combined design dead load plus live load is at least 28 psf (1.4 kN/m2). 2.1.1.1.3 During initial design, the building (structure) designer should submit the following information to Factory Mutual Engineering Association for confirmation that the design live loads and drainage of each roof are in accordance with this data sheet (if the design does not follow the guidelines of this data sheet, proposed exceptions should be identified and compared): a) Roof framing and drainage system plans, sections and details. b) The applicable building and plumbing codes. c) Identification, where a minimum design live load of 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) governs, of reductions taken in the minimum design live load for any primary or secondary members and their respective design dead and live loads. d) The ground snow load and the source if different from the guidelines of this data sheet.

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e) The balanced, unbalanced, drift and sliding surcharge snow loads and drift length, as appropriate for the roof configurations, showing loading diagrams and denoting any differences from the guidelines of this data sheet. f) The rainfall intensity for a 1-hour duration, the Mean Recurrence Interval (MRI) and the source if different from the guidelines of this data sheet. g) Primary drains and/or scuppers: type, size, maximum drainage area and flow rate, roof surface slope to drainage point or dead-flat, and whether drains are located at mid-bay. h) Overflow drainage provisions: whether over the roof edge, or overflow scuppers or drains; type, size, maximum drainage area and flow rate for scuppers and drains; height to roof edge, invert (scuppers) or inlet (drains) from the (adjacent to) design roof line; and roof surface slope to overflow point or dead-flat. i) Maximum hydraulic head and total head for primary and overflow drains and scuppers. j) Maximum design rain load for dead-flat roofs and at the low points of sloped roofs. k) Analysis method for dead-flat roofs and source used to substantiate that the roof is stable based on the design rain load of this guideline and ponding. l) Roof slope for roofs with drainage over the edge or sloped to drains or scuppers. If the slope is less than 14 in./ft (2%), substantiate with calculations that the design slope is sufficient based on Section 2.1.1.3.7.2 2.1.1.1.4 Roof drainage should be designed in accordance with one of the methods described in Section 2.1.1.3, or to applicable building and plumbing codes, whichever results in better drainage. 2.1.1.1.5 Overflow relief protection should be provided in accordance with Section 2.1.1.3.5.3. 2.1.1.1.6 Roofs should be designed for a rain load or total head consisting of the maximum possible depth of rainwater that could accumulate, as determined by the relative levels of the roof surface and overflow provisions, except for water retained (ponding) due solely to the deflected roof, as described in Section 2.1.1.3.2 and shown in Figures 8a and 8b. The roof framing designer, however, should preclude instability due to ponding based on the estimated water buildup (total head), consistent with this guideline. 2.1.1.1.7 Roofs should be designed with positive drainage: however, dead-flat roofs consistent with this guideline are acceptable. Sloping the roof surface 14 in./ft (2%) toward roof drains or scuppers or points of free drainage (roof edge) should be sufficient for positive drainage. If a slope of less than 14 in./ft (2%) is desired for positive drainage, analysis methods presented in Section 2.1.1.3.7 should be used. 2.1.1.1.8 Roof framing systems should be analyzed by the designer according to the following guidelines (as applicable), to preclude instability from ponding based on the total (dead plus live) load supported by the roof framing before consideration of ponding or by substantiating that a roof slope is sufficient. a) Dead-flat roofs: the total load supported should be the design rain load, according to Section 2.1.1.3.6, plus the dead load of the roof. An acceptable analysis method for ponding of two-way framing systems is presented in the ASD and LRFD Specifications for Structured Steel Buildings, Commentary, Chapters K2, American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). b) Sloped roofs to drains or scuppers: the total load supported should be the design rain loads, according to Section 2.1.1.3.6, distributed locally to the low areas, plus the dead load of the roof. An acceptable analysis method, conservative for sloped roofs, is the AISC method given in Part a, using an appropriate equivalent uniform load based on the design rain load distribution plus dead load for the total load supported. Also, if the design roof slope is less than 14 in./ft (2%), it should be substantiated that it is sufficient according to Section 2.1.1.3.7.2. c) Sloped roofs to free drainage over the roof edge: if the design roof slope is less than 14 in./ft (2%), it should be substantiated that it is sufficient according to Section 2.1.1.3.7.2. 2.1.1.1.9 Unless roofs are sufficiently sloped for drainage over the roof edges (see Section 2.1.1.3.7.2), drains or scuppers should be provided in quantity, placement and size as described in Section 2.1.1.3.5. 2.1.1.1.10 Roofs with controlled flow drains should have an overflow drainage system at a higher elevation as described in Section 2.1.1.3.2.4. Such roofs should otherwise be designed in accordance with this data sheet.

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2.1.1.1.11 Roof drains and vertical leaders in sizes of 4 to 6 in. (100 to 150 mm) diameter inclusive should be used, except for areas less than 2500 ft2 (230 m2), such as canopies, where 3 in. (75 mm) diameter drains may be used. It is usually impractical to use 8 in. (200 mm) diameter drains because of drainage area limitations and drain flow restrictions imposed by drainage piping and/or water buildup loads. 2.1.1.1.12 Three-sided channel type roof scuppers should be used whenever possible. For walls and parapets, the four-sided perimeter, closed type scuppers should be used (see sketch with Table 6). Scuppers and leaders or conductors should have minimum dimensions of 6 in. (150 mm) wide by 4 in. (100 mm) high and 5 in. (125 mm) diameter or equivalent, respectively. The height of the closed type scupper should be at least 1 in. (25 mm) higher than the estimated water buildup height (hydraulic head) developed behind the scupper (see Table 6). 2.1.1.1.13 To assure adequate drainage, two roof drains or scuppers, as applicable, should be installed for roof areas of approximately 10,000 ft2 (930 m2) or less. For larger areas, the number of drains or scuppers should be in accordance with Section 2.1.1.3.5.1. 2.1.1.1.14 The sizing of vertical leaders or conductors, and piping for horizontal drainage systems, should be in accordance with Section 2.1.1.3.5.4 and tabulated in Table 5. 2.1.1.1.15 Where overflow roof drains or scuppers are provided, they should be at least equivalent to the primary roof drains or scuppers, and placed and sized in accordance with Section 2.1.1.3.5 as applicable. 2.1.1.1.16 Roof overflow drain or scupper drainage systems should have vertical leaders, conductors or piping to points of discharge independent of the primary roof drainage system. If these points of discharge can experience backup, then points of free drainage, such as over-the-roof edges or through relief openings atop conductors, should be used. 2.1.1.1.17 Roofs and their drainage inlets should be inspected at least every three months and following storms. They should be cleared of obstructions or accumulations of the foreign matter (described in Section 2.1.1.4.1) as frequently as individual judgment deems necessary. 2.1.1.1.18 Existing roofs (especially lightweight roof constructions) which have severely inadequate primary drainage and no overflow relief protection should be provided with additional drainage provisions. The need for overflow drainage should be an individual judgment in conjunction with an evaluation of existing conditions. 2.1.1.1.19 Existing roofs which are severely exposed to collapse from snow loading should be reinforced in the exposed area. But, where reinforcing is impractical, the Emergency Organization should include snow removal teams. Snow removal must be safe, practical and reliable in order to be effective. A safe maximum snow depth should be determined and snow cleared from the roofs when one-half of this depth is reached. 2.1.1.1.20 Existing roofs having roof-mounted or roof- suspended equipment and structures added or modified, as described in Section 2.1.1.4.1, should have the supporting roof framing and columns structurally analyzed for the resulting dead load plus live load and reinforced as determined by a qualified engineer. 2.1.1.1.21 Rack storage structures or vertical stays should not be secured to roof framing, and bulk materials should not be placed against roof supporting walls (as described in Section 2.1.1.4.2) unless the roof and wall systems, respectively, are so designed. 2.1.1.1.22 Columns in the traffic areas of manually operated trucks or other mobile equipment should be protected and anchored as described in Section 2.1.1.4.2. 2.1.1.1.23 Suspended or otherwise supported ceilings which allow access for maintenance workers should be designed for appropriate concentrated and uniform live loads based on the anticipated maintenance work. 2.1.1.2 Snow Loads 2.1.1.2.1 General Design snow loads should be determined in accordance with the guidelines of this section. However, the design superimposed roof load should not be less than the minimum live or snow loads designated by the applicable building code or less than the rain loads covered in Section 2.1.1.3. For roofs of unusual shape or configuration, wind-tunnel or analytical modeling techniques should be used to help establish design snow loads.

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2.1.1.2.2 Snow Load Notation (For reference purposes, most of the nomenclature appears in Figure 4 of Section 2.1.1.2.9.1.) Cs = slope factor D = snow density in pcf (kN/m3) of drifted snow (i.e., density of wind blown snow) hb = height of balanced (uniform) snow load in ft (m) (i.e., balanced snow load Pf or Ps divided by D) hc = clear height from top of balanced snow load in ft (m) to the closest point(s) on adjacent upper roof; to the top of parapet; or to the top of a roof projection hd = maximum height of snow drift surcharge above balanced snow load in ft (m) hr = difference in height between the upper roof (including parapets) and lower roof or height of roof projection in ft (m) Pd = maximum intensity of drift surcharge load in psf (kN/m2 or kPa) Pf = flat-roof snow load in psf (kN/m2 or kPa) Pg = ground snow load in psf (kN/m2 or kPa) Ps = sloped-roof snow load in psf (kN/m2 or kPa) S = separation distance between buildings in ft (m) Wb = horizontal distance of roof upwind of drift in ft (m), but not less than 25 ft (7.6 m). Wb shall equal the entire upwind distance of roofs with multiple elevation differences provided the predicted drift height at each elevation difference exceeds hc Wd = width of snow drift surcharge in ft (m) 2.1.1.2.3 Ground Snow Loads Ground snow loads (Pg) used in determining design snow loads for roofs are given in the three-part map for the Contiguous United States in Figures 11a, 11b and 11c at the end of Section 2.0. The maps were prepared at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) for the ANSI/ASCE 7-88 Standard (formerly ANSI A58.1). The maps present snow-load zones with estimated ground snow loads based upon a 50-year Mean Recurrence Interval (MRI). In some areas the amount of local variation in snow loads is so extreme, it precludes meaningful mapping. Such areas are not zoned but instead are shown in black. In other areas the snow load zones are meaningful, but the mapped values within these zones should not be used for certain geographic settings such as high elevations or areas close to warmer large bodies of water (e.g., oceans and the Great Lakes). Such areas are shaded as a warning that the zoned value for those areas applies to normal settings therein. The local office of the National Weather Service, local codes or the building officials having jurisdiction should be contacted for areas not zoned or for areas of high elevation or where a more precise estimate is needed. When possible, use data based upon a 50-year MRI. Reasonable, but not exact, multiplication factors for converting from 25-year and 30-year MRI to 50-year MRI are 1.2 and 1.15, respectively. Snow loads are zero for Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Ground snow loads (Pg) for Alaska are presented in Table 1 for specific locations only and generally do not represent appropriate design values for other nearby locations. In Alaska, extreme local variations preclude statewide mapping of ground snow loads. Ground snow loads (Pg) for Canada should be taken as 1.15 times the snow component of the ground snow load in kPa units from the tabulation of 690 locations in the 1990 Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada as recalculated and mapped by the Atmospheric Environment Service (Ontario, Canada). For snow load values not included in the Supplement or where a more precise estimate is needed and including altitude effects, maps are available from the Canadian Climate Centre in Ontario. The rain component of the ground snow load, from the above sources, should be added as a uniform load to the roof snow loads of Sections 2.1.1.2.5 through 2.1.1.2.9. To convert kPa to psf, multiply kPa 20.9. Units of kPa and kN/m2 are equivalent. The 1.15 multiplier is a reasonable conversion from the 30-yr MRI basis of the Canadian Code to the 50-yr MRI for this guideline. Ground snow loads (Pg) for Western Europe are given in the map, Figure 12.
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2.1.1.2.4 Snow Density As used in this data sheet (to evaluate the heights of roof snow loads), the snow (weight) density (D) should be determined as a function of the ground snow load (Pg) according to Table 2 or the following formulas: English Units: D (pcf) = 0.13 Pg + 14 35 where Pg in psf Metric Units: D (kN/m3) = 0.43 Pg + 2.2 5.5 where Pg in kN/m2 2.1.1.2.5 Flat-Roof Snow Loads The balanced (uniform) snow load (Pf) on an unobstructed flat roof of well insulated roofs or unheated buildings, including any roof with a slope less than 5 (1 in./ft or 8%), should be determined using Table 2 or the following formulas: Pf = Pg where Pg 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) Pf = 0.9 Pg 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) where 20 < Pg 40 psf (1.0 < Pg 1.9 kN/m2) Pf = 0.8 Pg 36 psf (1.7 kN/m2) where Pg > 40 psf (1.9 kN/m2) 2.1.1.2.6 Minimum Snow Loads for Low-Sloped Roofs The minimum allowable snow loads should be the balanced snow loads (Pf) of Section 2.1.1.2.5 or Table 2 and should apply to shed, hip and gable roofs with slopes less than 15, and curved roofs where the vertical angle (see Fig. 2) from the eave to the crown is less than 10. The formulas in Section 2.1.1.2.5 satisfy the following minimum snow load guidelines: for locations where the ground snow load (Pg) is 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) or less, the flat roof snow load (Pf) for such roofs should not be less than the ground snow load (Pg); in locations where the ground snow load (Pg) exceeds 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2), the flat-roof snow load (Pf) for such roofs should not be less than 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2). In building codes, minimum roof live loads and live load reductions do not apply to snow loads. Snow or rain loads greater than such live loads govern the determination of design live loads.
Table 1. Ground Snow Load (Pg) for Alaskan Locations in psf (kN/sq m) Adak Anchorage Angoon Barrow Barter Island Bethel Big Delta Cold Bay Cordova Fairbanks Fort Yukon 20 (0.96) 45 (2.2) 75 (3.6) 30 (1.4) 60 (2.9) 35 (1.7) 60 (2.9) 20 (0.96) 100 (4.8) 55 (2.6) 70 (3.3) Galena Gulkana Homer Juneau Kenai Kodiak Kotzebue McGrath Nenana Nome Palmer 65 (3.1) 60 (2.9) 45 (2.2) 70 (3.3) 55 (2.6) 30 (1.4) 70 (3.3) 70 (3.3) 55 (2.6) 80 (3.8) 50 (2.4) Petersburg St. Paul Islands Seward Shemya Sitka Talkeetna Unalakleet Valdez Whittier Wrangell Yakutat 130 (6.2) 45 (2.2) 55 (2.6) 20 (0.96) 45 (2.2) 175 (8.4) 55 (2.6) 170 (8.2) 400 (19.0) 70 (3.3) 175 (8.4)

Table 2. Ground Snow Load (Pg) versus Balanced Flat-Roof Snow Load (Pf), Denisty (D),and Height of Balanced Snow Load (hb) for Flat and Low-sloped Roofs English Units: Ground Snow Load, Pg (psf) Balanced Flat-Roof Snow Load, Pf (psf) 5 5 10 10 15 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 20 23 27 32 36 40 48 56 Density D, (pcf) Balanced Flat-Roof Snow Load Height, hb, (ft) 16.6 1.2 17.3 1.3 17.9 1.5 18.6 1.7 19.2 1.9 20.5 2.0 21.8 2.2 23.1 2.4 80 64 90 72 100 80

14.7 0.3

15.3 0.7

16.0 0.9

24.4 2.7

25.7 2.8

27.0 3.0

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Metric Units: Ground Snow Load, Pg (kN/m2) Balanced Flat-Roof Snow Load, Pf (kN/m2) 0.25 0.25 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.0 3.0 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.7 2.4 Density D, (kN/m3) Balanced Flat-Roof Snow Load Height hb (m) 2.4 0.2 2.5 0.2 2.6 0.3 2.6 0.4 2.8 0.4 3.0 0.6 3.1 0.6 3.5 0.7 4.0 3.2 5.0 4.0

2.3 0.1

3.9 0.8

4.4 0.9

Note: Interpolation is appropriate.

2.1.1.2.7 Sloped-Roof Snow Loads The balanced (uniform) snow load (Ps) on sloped roofs, such as shed, hip, gable and curved roofs, should bedetermined by multiplying the flat-roof load (Pf) by the roof slope factor (Cs): Ps = Cs x Pf Values of Cs are given in Table 3. Cold roof values should be used. The exception is warm roof values which apply for uninsulated glass or metal panel, plastic (e.g., acrylic or reinforced plastic panels) and fabric roofs with R-value less than 1.0 ft2-hr.-F/Btu (0.2 m2-K/W) of buildings continuously heated above 60F (16C). Slippery surface values should be used where the sliding surface is of aluminum, copper, galvanized or enameled steel panels (such as on all-metal buildings) and unobstructed with sufficient space below the eaves to accept all sliding snow. Balanced load diagrams for hip and gable roofs are shown in Figure 1 and for curved roofs in Figure 2. Roof slope for curved roofs is the vertical angle (see Fig. 2) measured from the eave to the crown.
Table 3. Roof Slope Factor Cs Cs Values1,2 Roof Slope 5 14 (3 on 12) 18.4 (4 on 12) 26.6 (6 on 12) 30 33.7 (8 on 12) 45 (12 on 12) 60 70 Unobstructed Slippery Surfaces Cold Roof Warm Roof 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.94 0.74 0.79 0.62 0.73 0.57 0.66 0.52 0.46 0.36 0.19 0.14 0 0 All Other Surfaces Cold Roof Warm Roof 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.91 1.0 0.63 0.4 0.25 0 0

1. Use cold roof values unless conditions discussed in Section 2.1.1.2.7 apply. 2. Interpolation is appropriate within any column.

2.1.1.2.8 Unbalanced Roof Snow Loads Balanced and unbalanced snow loads should be considered separately. Winds from all directions should be considered when establishing unbalanced snow loads. Wind directions at 90 to each other should be considered simultaneously; however, winds from opposite directions, 180, should be considered separately. The figures of this section show the snow loads for roofs with balanced and unbalanced load diagrams. 2.1.1.2.8.1 Hip and Gable Roofs. Unbalanced snow loads should be considered, on the (downwind) leeward roof side, for roof slopes between 5 and 70 (1 on 12 and 33 on 12) inclusive. Unbalanced snow loading diagrams, cases I and II, for hip and gable roofs with roof slopes from 5 to 15 and 15 to 70, respectively, appear in Figure 1. For Case I, no reduction in snow load should be applied for roof slopes from 5 to 15 (i.e., Cs = 1.0 and Ps = Pf) and the snow surface above the eave should not be at a higher elevation than the snow above the ridge. Snow depths should be determined by dividing the snow loads by the appropriate snow density (D) from Table 2.

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Fig. 1. Snow loads for hip and gable roofs.

2.1.1.2.8.2 Curved Roofs (e.g., bow-string truss roofs). Unbalanced snow loads should be considered for slopes where the vertical angle from the eave to the crown is between 10 and 60. Portions of curved roofs having a roof slope exceeding 70 should be considered free of snow. The point at which the roof slope exceeds 70 should be considered the eave for such roofs. Unbalanced loading diagrams, Cases I, II and III, for curved roofs with roof slopes at the eave of 30, 3070, and greater than 70, appear in Figure 2. If another roof or the ground surface abuts a case II or III curved roof at or within 3 ft (0.9 m) of the eave, the snow load should not be decreased between the 30 roof slope point and the eave, but should remain constant at 2.0 Ps as shown by the dashed line. 2.1.1.2.8.3 Valley-Roofs. Valleys are formed by multiples of folded plate, gable, sawtooth and barrel vault roofs. No reduction in snow load should be applied for roof slope (i.e., Cs = 1.0 and Ps = Pf; see Section 2.1.1.2.5). For valleys formed by the minimum slopes stated in Section 2.1.1.2.8.1 and 2.1.1.2.8.2, the unbalanced snow load should increase from one-half the balanced load (0.5 Pf) at the ridge (or crown) to three times the balanced load at the valley (3.0 Pf) (see Fig. 3). The snow surface above the valley, however, should not be at a higher elevation than the snow above the ridge (or crown). Snow depths should be determined by dividing the snow loads by the appropriate snow density (D) in Table 2. The above snow load methodology is also applicable to multiple gable and barrel vault roofs. 2.1.1.2.9 Drifts on Lower RoofsSnow Loads In areas where the ground snow load (Pg) is less than 5 psf (0.25 kN/m2) or the ratio hc/hb is less than 0.2, drift loads need not be considered. Otherwise, lower levels of multilevel roofs should be designed to sustain

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Fig. 2. Snow loads for curved roofs.

localized loads from snow drifts caused by wind over higher portions of the same structure, adjacent structures or terrain feature within 20 ft (6 m). For snow drifts formed on lower roofs by windblown snow across the lower roof, see Section 2.1.1.2.9.4. 2.1.1.2.9.1 Drift Load. The drift load on lower roofs should be taken as a triangular surcharge loading superimposed on the balanced roof snow load (Pf) as shown in Figure 4. Maximum drift height (hd) in ft (m) should be determined from Table 4 or the following formulas: English Units: 4 3 hd (ft) = 0.43 Wb Pg+10 1.5 hc where Pg in psf; Wb and hc in ft

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Fig. 3. Snow loads for valley roofs.

Fig. 4. (To be used with Table 4.) Snow loads for lower roofs.

Metric Units: 3 4 hd (m) = 0.42 Wb Pg+0.48 .457 hc where Pg in kN/sq m; Wb and hc in meters Drift surcharge load (maximum intensity), Pd = hd D hc D Maximum snow load (at wall) = Pd + Pf hr D The drift surcharge load (Pd) and the maximum snow load at the wall (see Fig. 4) may also be determined by Table 4 provided the product of the density (D) times hc or hr does not govern. Drift width (Wd) should equal 4 hd except for rare cases when the calculated hd exceeds hc by more than 1 ft (0.3 m). For these cases, the minimum Wd should be established so that the cross-sectional area of the drift (0.5 Wd hc) is equal to the cross-sectional area of the hypothetical drift (0.5 hd 4 hd = 2 h2 d ) that would be computed if hd were less than hc; however, Wd should not be less than 6 hc. Thus, Wd = 4 hd, except when hd > hc + 1 ft (0.3 m), then Wd = 4 hd 6 h c
hc
2

If Wd exceeds the width of the lower roof (this occurs frequently with canopy roofs), the drift should be truncated at the far edge of the roof and not reduced to zero.

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Table 4. (To be used with Figure 4) Ground Snow Load (Pg) versus Balanced Snow Load (Pf), Density (D), Balance Snow Load Height (hb), Drift Height (hd), Max Drift Load (Pd) and Max Load (Pd+Pf) English Units: Ground Snow Load, Pg (psf) Balanced Snow Load, Pf (psf) 20 25 30 35 40 50 20 23 27 32 36 40 Density, D (pcf) Balanced Snow Load Height, hb (ft) 16.6 17.3 17.9 18.6 19.2 20.5 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0 Drift Height, hd (ft)1 Max. Drift Load, Pd (psf)1 Max. Load at Wall, Pd + Pf (psf)1 1.44 1.56 1.66 1.76 1.84 2.00 24 27 30 33 35 41 44 50 57 65 71 81 2.21 2.35 2.48 2.60 2.71 2.91 37 41 44 48 52 60 57 64 71 80 88 100 3.17 3.35 3.52 3.67 3.81 4.05 53 58 63 68 73 83 73 81 90 100 109 123 4.39 4.62 4.83 5.01 5.19 5.50 73 80 86 93 100 113 93 103 113 125 136 153 5.24 5.50 5.74 5.96 6.16 6.51 87 95 103 111 118 133 107 118 130 143 154 173 5.91 6.20 6.46 6.71 6.92 7.32 98 107 116 125 133 150 118 131 143 157 169 190 6.48 6.80 7.08 7.34 7.58 8.00 108 118 127 137 146 164 128 141 154 169 182 204 6.99 7.32 7.62 7.89 8.14 8.59 116 127 136 147 156 176 136 150 163 179 192 216 7.84 8.21 8.54 8.84 9.11 9.61 130 142 153 164 175 197 150 165 180 196 211 237 8.56 8.98 9.31 9.64 9.93 10.5 142 155 167 179 191 215 162 178 194 211 227 255

5 5

10 10

15 15

60 48

70 56

80 64

90 72

100 80

14.7 0.3 Upwind Distance Wb (ft) 25

15.3 0.7

16.0 0.9

21.8 2.2

23.1 2.4

24.4 2.7

25.7 2.8

27.0 3.0

50

100

200

300

400

500

600

800

1000

0.97 14 19 1.61 24 29 2.42 36 41 3.44 51 56 4.15 61 66 4.72 69 74 5.20 76 81 5.62 83 88 6.34 93 98 6.94 102 107

1.16 18 28 1.85 28 38 2.72 42 52 3.82 58 68 4.59 70 80 5.20 80 90 5.72 88 98 6.17 94 104 6.94 106 116 7.59 116 126

1.31 21 36 2.04 33 48 2.96 47 62 4.12 66 81 4.94 79 94 5.58 89 104 6.13 98 113 6.61 106 121 7.43 119 134 8.11 130 145

2.14 47 95 3.08 67 115 4.27 93 141 5.78 126 174 6.83 149 197 7.67 167 215 8.37 182 230 8.99 196 244 10.0 219 267 10.9 238 286

2.26 52 108 3.24 75 131 4.47 103 159 6.02 139 195 7.11 164 220 7.97 184 240 8.70 201 257 9.34 216 272 10.4 241 297 11.4 262 318

2.37 58 122 3.38 82 146 4.65 113 177 6.25 153 217 7.37 180 244 8.26 202 266 9.01 220 284 9.67 236 300 10.8 264 328 11.7 286 350

2.47 63 135 3.51 90 162 4.81 124 196 6.45 166 238 7.60 195 267 8.52 219 291 9.29 239 311 9.97 256 328 11.1 286 358 12.1 311 383

2.57 64 144 3.62 98 178 4.96 134 214 6.64 179 259 7.82 211 291 8.76 237 317 9.55 258 338 10.3 278 358 11.4 308 388 12.4 335 415

Note: Interpolation is appropriate. 1 The drift height (hd), maximum drift load (Pd) and maximum load at wall (Pd + Pf) are limited to hc, (hc D) and (hr D), respectively.

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Table 4, Continued. (To be used with Figure 4) Ground Snow Load (Pg) versus Balanced Snow Load (Pf), Density (D), Balance Snow Load Height (hb), Drift Height (hd), Max Drift Load (Pd) and Max Load (Pd+Pf) Metric Units: Ground Snow Load, Pg (kN/sq m) Balanced Snow Load, Pf (kN/sq m) 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.0 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.7 Density, D (kN/cu m) Balanced Snow Load Height, hb (m) 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 Drift Height, hd (m)1 Max. Drift Load, Pd (kN/sq m)1 Max. Load at Wall, Pd + Pf (kN/sq m)1 .46 .51 .53 .59 .66 .67 1.14 1.34 1.38 1.66 1.97 2.07 1.74 2.24 2.38 2.92 3.67 3.77 .59 .65 .67 .74 .82 .83 1.47 1.70 1.75 2.08 2.45 2.53 2.07 2.60 2.75 3.34 4.15 4.23 .86 .94 .97 1.06 1.15 1.16 2.15 2.45 2.52 2.96 3.44 3.61 2.75 3.35 3.52 4.22 5.14 5.31 1.10 1.2 1.23 1.34 1.44 1.46 2.76 3.13 3.20 3.74 4.33 4.54 3.36 4.03 4.20 5.00 6.03 6.24 1.51 1.63 1.67 1.8 1.94 1.96 3.77 4.25 4.34 5.04 5.81 6.08 4.37 5.15 5.34 6.30 7.51 7.78 1.63 1.76 1.80 1.94 2.09 2.11 4.08 4.59 4.69 5.44 6.26 6.55 4.68 5.49 5.69 6.70 7.96 8.25 1.79 1.94 1.98 2.13 2.29 2.31 4.48 5.03 5.14 5.96 6.86 7.17 5.08 5.93 6.14 7.22 8.56 8.87 1.93 2.09 2.13 2.29 2.46 2.49 4.83 5.42 5.54 6.41 7.37 7.71 5.43 6.32 6.54 7.67 9.07 9.41 2.02 2.18 2.22 2.39 2.56 2.59 5.05 5.66 5.78 6.68 7.58 8.03 5.65 6.56 6.78 7.94 9.38 9.73 2.38 2.56 2.61 2.80 3.00 3.03 5.94 6.65 6.79 7.84 8.99 9.40 6.54 7.55 7.79 9.10 10.69 11.10

0.25 0.25

0.5 0.5

3.0 2.4

4.0 3.2

5.0 4.0

2.3 0.1 Upwind Distance Wb (m) 10

2.4 0.2

3.5 0.7

3.9 0.8

4.4 0.9

15

30

50

100

120

150

180

200

300

.37 .85 1.10 .49 1.13 1.38 .74 1.69 1.94 .96 2.20 2.45 1.32 3.05 3.30 1.44 3.30 3.55 1.58 3.64 3.89 1.71 3.93 4.18 1.79 4.11 4.36 2.11 4.86 5.11

.43 1.04 1.54 .56 1.35 1.85 .83 1.99 2.49 1.07 2.56 3.06 1.46 3.51 4.01 1.58 3.80 4.30 1.74 4.18 4.68 1.88 4.51 5.01 1.96 4.70 5.20 2.31 5.54 6.04

.77 2.68 5.08 .91 3.18 5.58 1.31 4.58 6.98 1.63 5.72 8.12 2.18 7.62 10.02 2.34 8.17 10.57 2.56 8.96 11.36 2.75 9.62 12.02 2.86 10.01 12.41 3.34 11.70 14.10

.85 3.30 6.50 1.03 4.03 7.23 1.42 5.55 8.75 1.77 6.91 10.11 2.35 9.16 12.36 2.52 9.84 13.04 2.76 10.75 13.95 2.96 11.53 14.73 3.08 12.00 15.20 3.59 14.00 17.20

.91 4.02 8.02 1.11 4.89 8.89 1.52 6.69 10.69 1.89 8.30 12.30 2.49 10.97 14.97 2.68 11.78 15.78 2.92 12.85 16.85 3.13 13.78 17.78 3.26 14.34 18.34 3.8 16.71 20.71

Note: Interpolation is appropriate. 1 The drift height (hd), maximum drift load (Pd) and maximum load at wall (Pd + Pf) are limited to hc, (hc D) and (hr D), respectively.

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2.1.1.2.9.2 Adjacent Structures and Terrain Features. A drift load should be applied to lower roofs or structures sited within 20 ft (6 m) of a higher structure or terrain feature (i.e., tanks, hills) as shown in Figure 5. The drift load should be determined using the methodology of Section 2.1.1.2.9.1; the factor 1-S/20 with S in ft (1-S/6 with S in meters) should be applied to the maximum intensity of the drift Pd to account for the horizontal separation between structure S, expressed in ft (m). Drift loads need not be considered for separations greater than 20 ft (6 m).

Fig. 5. Snow loads for lower roof of adjacent structures.

2.1.1.2.9.3 Sliding Snow. Lower roofs which are located below roofs having a slope greater than 20 should be designed for an increase in drift height of 0.4 hd, except that the total drift surcharge (hd + 0.4 hd) should not exceed the height of the roof above the uniform snow depth, hc, as shown in Figure 6. Sliding snow need not be considered if the lower roof is separated a distance S greater than hr, or 20 ft (6 m), whichever is less.

Fig. 6. Sliding snow load for lower roofs.

2.1.1.2.9.4 Roof Projections and Parapets. Projections above lower roofs, such as high bays or higher roofs of the same building, penthouses and mechanical equipment, can produce drifting on the lower roof as depicted in Figure 7. Such drift loads should be calculated on all sides of projections having horizontal dimensions (perpendicular to wind direction) exceeding 15 ft (4.6 m) using the methodology of this Section, even though the surcharge loading shape may be quadrilateral rather than triangular. To compensate for a

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probable lower drift height, three-quarters of the drift height (hd) should be used, based upon a value of Wb taken as the maximum distance upwind from the projection to the edge of the roof. Drift loads created at the perimeter of the roof by a parapet wall should be computed using one-half of the drift height (hd) with Wb equal to the length of the roof upwind of the parapet.

Fig. 7. Snow load at roof projections.

2.1.1.3 Rain Loads 2.1.1.3.1 General Design rain loads should be determined in accordance with the guidelines of this section. However, the design superimposed roof load should not be less than the minimum live or rain loads designated by the applicable building codes or the snow loads given in Section 2.1.1.2. 2.1.1.3.2 Bases for Design Rain Loads Minimum roof live loads and live load reductions in building codes do not apply to rain loads. Rain or snow loads greater than such live loads govern the determination of design live loads. Rain loads should be designed in accordance with the following guidelines, or for applicable building and plumbing codes, whichever is the more restrictive: 2.1.1.3.2.1 Roof Drainage Systems. Roof drainage systems should be designed in accordance with one of the methods discussed in this section, or the applicable codes, whichever results in better drainage. 2.1.1.3.2.2 Roof Stability. Roofs should be designed to preclude (i.e., ruling out in advance) instability from ponding. 2.1.1.3.2.3 Drainage System Blockage. Roofs should be designed to sustain the load of the maximum possible depth of water that could accumulate if the primary drainage system of the roof is blocked. The design rain load or load due to the depth of water (total head) should be determined by the relative levels of the roof surface (design roof line) and overflow relief provisions, such as flow over roof edges or through overflow drains or scuppers. Roof instability due to ponding (the retention of water due solely to the deflected roof framing) should be considered in this situation. If the overflow drainage provisions contain drain lines, such lines should be independent of any primary drain lines. (See Figs. 8a and 8b.) 2.1.1.3.2.4 Controlled Drainage Provisions. Roofs with controlled flow drains should be equipped with an overflow drainage system at a higher elevation which prevents rainwater buildup on the roof above that elevation, except for the resulting hydraulic head (e.g., see typical roof drains in Fig. 8a). Such roofs should be designed to sustain the load of the maximum possible depth of water to the elevation of the overflow drainage system plus any load due to the depth of water (hydraulic head) needed to cause flow from the overflow drainage system. Roof instability, due to ponding, should be considered in this situation. Likewise, the overflow drainage system should be independent of any primary drain lines.

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Fig. 8a. Typical primary and overflow drainage systems for pitched roofs.

2.1.1.3.3 Rainfall Intensities Roof drainage provisions should be designed to handle a rainfall intensity of at least a 1-hr event with a 100-yr MRI. Rainfall intensity (i) is expressed in inches (mm) per hour. Rainfall intensity maps are shown at the end of Section 2.0 (see Figs. 1317) for the Western U.S., Central and Eastern U.S., Puerto Rico, Hawaiian Islands and Alaska. Interpolation is appropriate between rainfall intensity lines. These maps were obtained from various Technical Papers of the U.S. Weather Bureau. Note: The rainfall intensities will not necessarily correspond along the common boundary of the Western and Central U.S. because the Central and Eastern U.S. map is newer [1977 vs. 1961].) The values expressed in inches are the most intense 60-min duration rainfalls having a 1% probability of being exceeded in one year. This is commonly designated as the 100-yr 1-hr rainfall. Rainfall intensity (i) map for Western Europe is shown in Figure 18. The values on the map are expressed in millimeters per hour and a 50-yr return period or 50-yr 1-hr rainfall. To convert the values to 100-yr 1-hr rainfall for data sheet use, multiply the values by 1.07. (To convert millimeters to inches divide by 25.) Rainfall intensity (i) for locations in Canada should be taken as 4.0 times the values tabulated by the Atmospheric Environment Service (Ontario, Canada) in the 1990 Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada. The tabulation presents the probable rainfall intensity in millimeters for a 15-min duration and a 10-yr return period or 10-yr 15-min rainfall. To convert millimeters to inches divide by 25. The 4.0 multiplier is a slightly conservative conversion from the 10-yr 15-min rainfall basis of the Canadian Code to the 100-yr 1-hr rainfall of this guideline. In areas outside of those covered by the maps and tabulation, or in local areas of intense rainfall history, the rainfall intensities should be obtained from local meteorological stations based upon a 1-hr duration rainfall and a 100-yr MRI. Reasonable, but not exact, multiplication factors for converting a 1-hr duration rainfall of 30-yr and 50-yr MRI to a 100-yr MRI are 1.2 and 1.07, respectively.

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Fig. 8b. Typical primary and overflow drainage systems for flat roofs.

2.1.1.3.4 Stability Against Ponding Roof instability due to ponding can be minimized or controlled in the initial roof design by one or a combination of the following methods: a) Provide sufficient overflow relief protection to remove the water before it reaches an excessive depth. b) Slope the roof sufficiently to assure that water will flow off the edges of the roof. c) Provide a sufficiently stiff and strong roof to limit the amount of deflection and to withstand ponding as well as the total load. d) Specify camber for roof supporting members (e.g., open web joists, structural shapes and plate girders of steel). (Note: The Standard Specifications of the Steel Joist Institute specifies camber for all joist series except K-Series [Open Web] Joists, which are optional with the manufacturer [see Section 2.1.1.3.7.2, Part e.) Design standards, such as the AISC Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings, require that roof systems be investigated by structural analysis to assure adequate strength under ponding conditions, unless the roof surface is provided with sufficient slope toward points of free drainage or other means to prevent the accumulation of water. The AISC Specifications permit a reduction in safety factor to 1.25 with respect to stress due to ponding plus the total load supported by the roof (i.e., design rain and dead loads). 2.1.1.3.5 Roof Drains and Scuppers Roof drains may be used for a conventional or controlled drainage system. Roof drains and scuppers may be utilized separately or in combination for primary or overflow drainage systems. The sections to follow, when referring to drains, apply to both conventional and controlled flow drains, unless otherwise noted. 2.1.1.3.5.1 Quantity. At least two roof drains or scuppers should be provided for total roof areas of 10,000 ft2 (930 m2) or less. For larger roof areas, a minimum of one drain or scupper should be provided for each

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10,000 ft2 (930 m2) of roof area, except the roof area may be increased to 15,000 ft2 (1400 m2) with a minimum drain diameter of 6 in. (150 mm) or scupper width of 8 in. (200 mm). 2.1.1.3.5.2 Placement. The placement of (primary) roof drains or scuppers are influenced by the roof structures support columns and walls, expansion joints, roof equipment and other projections. Preferably, roof drains should be located at mid-bay low points, or within 20% of the corresponding bay spacing from the low points in each direction. If roof drains or scuppers are located at points of little deflection, such as columns and walls, the roof surface should be sloped toward them at least 18 in./ft (1%) to compensate for minimum deflections at these locations. In general, interior (non-perimeter) drains should not be located more than 50 ft (15 m) from the roof perimeter nor more than 100 ft (30 m) apart. Exception: distances of 75 ft (23 m) from the perimeter, and 150 ft (46 m) apart, may be used with a minimum drain diameter of 6 in. (150 mm). Scuppers (primary) should be placed level with the roof surface in a wall or parapet as determined by the roof slope and the contributing area of the roof, but should not be located more than 50 ft (15 m) from a roof juncture nor more than 100 ft (30 m) apart along the roof perimeter, except 60 ft (18 m) and 125 ft (38 m), respectively, may be used with a minimum scupper width of 8 in. (200 mm). Careful consideration of the above during the design phase is essential to provide adequate and uniform drainage of each roof section. 2.1.1.3.5.3 Overflow Relief Protection. Overflow drainage should be provided for both dead-flat and sloped roofs to prevent any possibility of water overload. The overflow relief provision establishes the maximum possible water level based on blockage of the primary drainage system. The provision should be in the form of miminal height roof edges, slots in roof edges, overflow scuppers in parapets or overflow drains adjacent to primary drains, see Figures 8a and 8b. The overflow relief protection should provide positive and uniform drainage relief for each roof section with drainage areas preferably not exceeding those of the primary drainage or the drainage area limits in Section 2.1.1.3.5.1. Flow through the primary drainage system should not be considered when sizing overflow relief drains and scuppers. The inlet elevation of overflow drains and the invert elevation (see sketches in Table 6) of overflow scuppers should be not less than 2 in. (50 mm) nor more than 4 in. (100 mm) above the low point of the (adjacent to) roof surface unless a safer water depth loading, including the required hydraulic head to maintain flow, has been determined by the roof framing designer. 2.1.1.3.5.4 Drainage System Sizing. After the rainfall intensity for a given location has been determined (Section 2.1.1.3.3), one can determine the number and sizes of roof drains and/or scuppers, as well as the sizes of vertical leaders or conductors and horizontal drainage piping, for either primary or overflow drainage systems, as follows: 1. Sizing Conventional Roof Drains/Vertical Leaders and Scuppers a. Determine the total number of roof drains or scuppers needed: Equation 1.1 n= English Units

A ; or n = (for 6 in. dia. drains and A 10,000 15,000 8 in. wide scuppers per Section 2.1.1.3.5.1)

Where n = number of drains needed (nearest higher whole no. 2) A = total roof drainage area (ft2) Equation 1.2 n= A 930 Metric Units ; or n = A 1400 (for 150 mm dia. drains and 200 mm wide scuppers per Section 2.1.1.3.5.1)

Where n = Number of drains needed (nearest higher whole no. 2) A = Total roof drainage area (m2)

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b. Determine the flow rate needed per roof drain, leader or scupper: Equation 2.1 English Units

Q = 0.0104 i A (See Note below) n Where Q i A n = = = = drain, leader or scupper flow needed (gpm) rainfall intensity (in./hr), Section 2.1.1.3.3 total roof drainage area (ft2) number of drains needed (Equation 1.1) Metric Units

Equation 2.2

Q = 0.0167 i A (See Note below) n Where Q = drain, leader or scupper flow needed (dm3/min) i = rainfall intensity (mm/hr), Section 2.1.1.3.3 A = total roof drainage area (m2) n = number of drains needed (Equation 1.2) Note: The above coefficients (0.0104 or 0.0167) times i convert the rainfall intensity to an (average) flow rate per unit area (see Table 7); however, these coefficients may vary for controlled drainage systems (see Sizing Controlled Roof Drain/Vertical Leaders below). c. Determine the size needed for roof drains, leaders or scuppers: Drains and vertical leaders Apply the flow, Q, needed per drain or vertical leader to Table 5 and select a drain or vertical leader diameter which provides adequate flow capacity. Scuppers Apply the flow, Q, needed per scupper to Table 6 and select a scupper type and size which provides adequate flow capacity. 2. Sizing Controlled Roof Drains/Vertical Leaders: a) The methodology of this section should also be used for controlled drainage systems by simply converting the rainfall intensity to the design peak flow rate rather than to the (average) flow rate. b) The design peak flow rate is usually approximated at twice the average flow rate for a controlled drain-age system.

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Table 5. Flow Capacity for Roof Drains and Piping1 Diameter of Drain or Pipe in. 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 Diameter of Drain or Pipe mm 75 100 125 150 200 255 305 380 Roof Drains and Vertical Leaders gpm 90 180 360 540 2 1170 Roof Drains and Vertical Leaders dm3/min 340 680 1360 2040 2 4420 English Units: Horizontal Drainage Piping, gpm Slopes in. per ft
1 8

Slope

14

Slope

12

Slope

34 48 69 78 110 157 139 197 278 223 315 446 479 679 958 863 1217 1725 1388 1958 2775 2479 3500 4958 Metric Units: Horizontal Drainage Piping, dm3/min Slopes percentages 1 Slope 130 295 525 845 1815 3265 5255 9385 2 Slope 180 415 745 1190 2570 4605 7410 13,245 4 Slope 260 595 1050 1690 3625 6530 10,500 18,770

1 To ensure achieving these flow capacities, roof drains must be placed at mid-bay, or the roof surfaces must be sloped toward the roof drains (see Sections 2.1.1.3.5 and 2.1.1.3.7). 2

Design flow of this capacity is impractical; water must build up approximately 4.5 in. (113 mm) to achieve this flow.

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Table 6. Hydraulic Head Versus Flow Capacity for Roof Scuppers (Depth of water over invert versus flow of water through scupper)

CHANNEL TYPE SCUPPER Flow (gpm) = 2.9 bH when h H; unitsin.


1.5

CLOSED TYPE SCUPPER Flow (gpm) = 2.9 b(H1.5h11.5) when h < H; unitsin. Flow (dm3/min) = 0.0034 b(H1.5h11.5) when h < H; unitsmm English Units Scupper Flows, gpm

Flow (dm3/min) = 0.0034 bH1.5 when h H; unitsmm

Water Buildup H, in. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 18 50 90 140 194 255 321 393

Channel Type hH Width b, in. 8 24 66 120 186 258 340 428 522 12 36 100 180 280 388 510 642 786 24 72 200 360 560 776 1020 1284 1572 6

Closed Type Height h = 4 in. 8 12 Width b, in. 24 6 Height h = 6 in. 8 12 24

(see channel type) (see channel type) 177 206 231 253 236 274 308 338 Metric Units Scupper Flows, dm3/min 354 412 462 506 708 824 924 1012

303 343

404 456

606 686

1212 1372

Water Buildup H, mm 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 150 63 178 327 505 705 927 1168 1427

Channel Type hH Width b, mm 200 84 237 437 673 940 1236 1558 1903 300 126 356 656 1009 1411 1854 2337 2855 500 210 595 1093 1682 2351 3090 3894 4758 150

Closed Type Height h = 100 mm 200 300 Width b, mm 500 150 Height h = 150 mm 200 300 500

(see channel type) (see channel type) 642 749 841 923 856 998 1121 1230 1284 1497 1681 1846 2141 2495 2802 3076

1105 1249

1474 1665

2211 2498

3684 4163

Notes: Whenever h H for a closed type scupper, the scupper flows under channel type scuppers are appropriate. Interpolation is appropriate.

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Roof Loads for New Construction


FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Table 7. Conversion of Rainfall Intensity to Flow Rate and Rain Load per Unit Area Rainfall Intensity, i in./hr 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Rainfall Intensity, i mm/hr 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 200 300
Note: Interpolation is appropriate.

English Units: Flow Rate gpm/ft2 .0104 .0156 .0208 .0260 .0312 .0364 .0416 .0468 .0520 .0572 .0624 .0728 .0832 .0936 .1040 Metric Units: Flow Rate dm3/min per 1 m2 0.42 0.5 0.58 0.67 0.75 0.83 0.92 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 3.3 5.0

Rain Load/hr, psf 5.2 7.8 10.4 13.0 15.6 18.2 20.8 23.4 26.0 28.6 31.2 36.4 41.6 46.8 52.0 Rain Load/hr, kilonewtons (kN) per 1 m2 .25 .29 .34 .39 .44 .49 .54 .59 .69 .79 .88 .98 1.96 2.94

Table 8. Hydraulic Head versus Roof Drain Flow Hydraulic Head (Approx. Water Depth Over Inlet) 1.0 in. (25 mm) 1.5 in. (38 mm) 2.0 in. (50 mm) 2.5 in. (63 mm) 3.0 in. (75 mm) 3.5 in. (88 mm) 4.0 in. (100 mm) 4.5 in. (113 mm)
Note: Interpolation is appropriate.

4 in. (100 mm) 80 120 170 180 (300) (450) (640) (680)

Drain Diameter 6 in. (150 mm) Approximate Flow in gpm (dm3/min) 100 (380) 140 (530) 190 (720) 270 (1020) 380 (1440) 540 (2040)

8 in. (200 mm) 125 (470) 170 (640) 230 (870) 340 (1290) 560 (2120) 850 (3220) 1100 (4160) 1170 (4430)

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c) The peak flow rate is the limited (controlled) flow rate required to maintain a predetermined depth of water on a roof and drain the roof within a given 24-hour or 48-hour period. It varies according to the controlled drainage design criterion, rainfall intensity and roof slope configuration. 3. Sizing Horizontal Drainage Piping: a) Determine the flow, Qp, needed per horizontal drainage pipe section: Qp = Q times the number of drains serviced by the pipe section b) Determine the size of horizontal drainage piping needed: Apply the flow, Qp, needed per pipe section to Table 5 and select the pipe diameter and slope which provides adequate flow capacity. 2.1.1.3.6 Rain Loads with Drains and/or Scuppers 2.1.1.3.6.1 Adequate Roof Strength. It is imperative that all roof structures be strong enough to support the maximum buildup of water that could accumulate if the primary drainage system is blocked. Roof structures must also preclude instability due to ponding. In determining the corresponding load (total head), one should include the loads due to the depth of water from the roof surface (design roof line) to the overflow provision (i.e., roof edges, overflow drains or overflow scuppers) plus the depth of water (hydraulic head) needed to cause the water to flow out of the overflow drainage system. The load due to ponding (the retention of water due solely to the deflected roof framing) should not be included. However, it is accounted for in the roof stability analysis. The typical primary and overflow drainage systems shown in Figures 8a and 8b illustrate total head, hydraulic head and ponding. 2.1.1.3.6.2 Hydraulic Head. The water depth needed to cause flow out of overflow drainage systems should be determined as follows: a) Roof Edgesneglect the negligible hydraulic head needed to cause flow across a roof and over its edges. b) Overflow Roof Drainsuse Table 8 with the needed flow rate Q (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4), under an appropriate drain diameter and determine the approximate depth of water over the drains inlet, by interpolation when necessary. c) Overflow Roof Scuppersuse Table 6 with the needed flow rate, Q (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4), under an appropriate scupper type and size, and determine the approximate depth of water over the scupper s invert, by interpolation when necessary. 2.1.1.3.6.3 Design Rain Load. The general expression given below for the design rain load for roof supporting members is the total head times the weight of the water. Total head is measured from the design roof line to the maximum water level (overflow discharge), as illustrated in Figures 8a and 8b of Section 2.1.1.3.2.3. The total head includes the depths of water from the design roof line to the overflow provision plus the hydraulic head corresponding to either an overflow drain or scupper. In addition, the roof framing designer should prepare calculations substantiating that the roof design precludes roof instability due to ponding. Structural roof support members should be designed to support at least a 3 in. (75 mm) depth of water on dead-flat roofs, or at least a 6 in. (150 mm) depth of water at the low point locations of drains and scuppers on sloped roofs, but not less than the total head. The actual rain load distribution to the structural members will depend upon any roof slope and the overflow relief provisions. Total Head = Maximum water depth from design roof line to overflow discharge level including any hydraulic head (see Section 2.1.1.3.6.2). English Units: Design Rain Load (psf) = Total Head (in.) 5.2 15 psf for dead-flat roofs and 30 psf at low-point of sloped roofs. Metric Units: Design Rain Load (kN/m2) = Total Head (mm) 0.01 0.7 kN/m2 for dead-flat roofs and 1.4 kN/m2 at low-point of sloped roofs.

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2.1.1.3.7 Roof Slope 2.1.1.3.7.1 Roofs with Drains. To ensure that the points of maximum sag are no lower than the roof surface between these points and the drains of roofs with interior drainage, a positive drainage slope of at least 14 in./ft (2%) should be provided. In Figure 9 this is illustrated in the sloped roof detail where ponding occurs locally at the origin; whereas in the flat roof detail ponding occurs in every bay.

Fig. 9. Flat and sloped roofs with interior roof drains.

If a slope less than 14 in./ft (2%) is desired, the needed slope should be individually determined by deflection analysis. If water must flow across one bay into another, relatively complicated two-way deflection analysis is involved. The guidelines of Section 2.1.1.3.7.2 for roof slope with edge drainage are appropriate. The roof framing designer should prepare calculations according to these guidelines, or other appropriate method, to substantiate that the design slope is sufficient to preclude roof instability from ponding. 2.1.1.3.7.2 Roofs with Edge Drainage. If drains are not provided and drainage is accomplished by causing the water to flow off the perimeter of the roof or if drains or scuppers are located only at the perimeter, sufficient roof slope is vital, preferably at least 14 in./ft (2%). Under these circumstances, sufficient slope is needed to overcome the deflections caused by the dead load of the roof plus the weight of the 1-hour design storm less the effect of any specified camber. This is achieved when the actual downward pitch of the roof surface exceeds the upward slope for all deflected roof framing at or near their downward support column (or wall). (See Fig. 10) If a design roof slope (Sd) less than 14 in./ft (2%) is desired, the roof framing designer should prepare calculations, according to the following guidelines or other appropriate method, to substantiate that the design slope is sufficient to preclude roof instability from ponding: a) The actual slope (Sa) under the dead load of the roof less the upward camber, when specified, should be at least 18 in./ft (1%).

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Page 25

Fig. 10. Sloped roof with roof edge drainage.

b) The actual slope (Sa), upward from the perimeter of the roof, under the dead load of the roof plus 1-hour of rain load (see Table 7), less the upward camber, when specified, should be greater than zero (i.e., upward positive slope, not flat). c) All primary and secondary members perpendicular to the roof edge, for the entire roof slope, should have actual slopes (Sa), calculated by the roof designer, meeting the slope criteria of a) and b) as follows: English Units:
(D.L.) L Sa (%) = Sd (%) + 240 (Camber) 1% L 1.44 24 E I
3 3

Sa (%) = Sd (%) + 240 (Camber) (D.L. + 5.2 i) L 0% L 1.44 24 E I

Where: Sa and Sd are the actual and design roof slopes in percent, respectively. D.L. is the roofs dead load in psf Camber, upward camber in inches when it is specified (not optional) by fabrication specifications, see Part e. i, rainfall intensity in in./hr L, span length of member in inches E, modulus of elasticity of members material, psi I, effective moment of inertia of member, (in.)4 per inch of (tributary loaded) roof width To convert roof slope (percent) to in./ft multiply percent by 0.12

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Roof Loads for New Construction


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Metric Units:
Sa (%) = Sd (%) + Sa (%) = Sd (%) + 0.24 (Camber) L

(D.L.) L 24 E I

1%

0.24 (Camber) (D.L. + 0.01 i) L 3 > 0% L 24 E I

Where: Sa and Sd are the actual and design roof slopes in percent, respectively. DD.L., Roofs dead load in kN/m2 Camber, upward camber in mm when it is specified not optional by fabrication specifications, see Part e. i, rainfall intensity, in mm/hr L, span length of member in meters E, modulus of elasticity of members material, in kN/m2 I, effective moment of inertia of member, in (m)4 per meter of (tributary loaded) roof width d) If secondary members are parallel to relatively stiff perimeter walls (e.g., masonry or metal panel walls), the actual roof slope should be increased to compensate for maximum deflection (adjusted for any specified camber) of the secondary member closest to the wall. Therefore, the actual slope computed in the equations of Part c above should be adjusted by a decrease as follows: Sa Decrease (%) = (Max. Deflection of secondary member) 100 (Distance secondary member from wall) where: deflection and distance are in the same units (e.g., in. or mm) e) The following are cambers specified in the Standard Specifications of the Steel Joist Institute (SJI) for LH-Series (Longspan) and DLH-Series (Deep Longspan) Joists and Joist Girders:
Top Chord Length ft (m) 20 ( 6) 30 ( 9) 40 (12) 50 (15) 60 (18) >60 (>18) Approximate Camber in. (mm) 14 ( 6) 38 (10) 58 (16) 1 (25) 112 (38) See SJI Specifications

The above cambers should not be assumed for K-Series (Open Web) Joists because it is optional with the manufacturer. 2.1.1.4 Other Roof Loads 2.1.1.4.1 Roof Overloading Subjecting the roofs of buildings and other structures (e.g., silos) to temporary or fixed loads which were not anticipated at the time of initial roof design creates the possibility of roof overloading and subsequent collapse. Roofs are seldom designed to withstand accumulation of coal or cement dust, sand, sawdust, wood chips, spillages from baghouses and conveyors and other debris. Any such accumulations on roofs should be removed since they normally prevent adequate roof drainage, and may greatly increase the total roof live load and significantly compromise the design live load. Another source of possible overloading is the addition or modification of roof-mounted or roof-suspended equipment and structures. These fixed loads become critical if coupled with other loadings such as rain and snow. Thus, suitable structural reinforcement is warranted. 2.1.1.4.2 Indirect Roof Overloading The overloading and collapse of the primary vertical support elements of the roof structure, such as columns and bearing walls, is another cause of roof collapse. Columns adjacent to traffic aisles for manually operated fork-lift and other trucks are vulnerable to upset if not adequately protected.

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The baseplates of these columns should be anchored to their foundations with a minimum of four 1 in. (25 mm) diameter anchor bolts, and protected with concrete curbing or concrete-filled pipe bumpers to resist and/or prevent impact loads from these vehicles. Walls, particularly masonry, should not be laterally loaded by placing bulk materials (e.g., sand) or rolled products (e.g., carpets or paper) against them, unless the wall and roof structure is designed to resist significant lateral loads. Likewise, rack storage structures or vertical stays, for confining rolled products in storage, should not be secured to the roof framing system unless the framing and bracing systems are designed to resist significant laterally-induced loads.

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Roof Loads for New Construction


FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

130

125
20 15
I S O

120

115

110

105

45
10

15
Y G

20
L R W 15

25 15 20
G W

50
35
W

35 30

10 10 15 15 10 10 15 15
B

35
F

G W

35 30
K P

40
M

20
F

15

35
W

40

30
D M W V A

25
F

25 30 40 35
S B R N

15 10 Zero
B B V

20
10 S A

20

30
B I C

25 10
W S

25 20
B 15 M

15
C
C

40
F

40
L

10
Y P G O

15 20 P

20
R

10R 5 O

15
K

5 10
R

20 20 25 N
L

45
H K

15

P B W

5C

15 15 5 10

15
R

10
S

10

20 15
L W B R F 15

10

20 15 20
L C

20 20

20
H L W V

Zero
L

5
L

A E T E W

J R P M

20 20
B

15
N

20
W M

15

15 15
H 10 H Y

15
K F F C

35

Zero
I M H

5
L S

20
C

40
10
L

Zero 15 20

10
R

15

5 Zero
R

15 10
W

Y A

10
C T

15 10
A L Q B T

5
T

15

15 10

10
L

Zero
E I P W P G

Zero Zero

15

10
L

20 15 10

20

10
V

15

35
10

30
Y

5
T

5
F A S

Zero

30 100

25 115
Dots are included to assist in defining the position of boundaries. The letter adjacent to the dot is the first letter of the place name there. In these areas extreme local variations in snow loads preclude mapping at this scale The zoned value is not appropriate for certain geographic settings, such as high country in these areas

110

105

50 50

100 Kilometers 0 50 Miles

200 100

Fig. 11a. Ground snow load (P g) in psf for western United States. To obtain kN/sq m, multiply by 0.048.)

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Page 29

105
35
W W

100

95

90

85 50

35 30

35
F

G W

35 30
P

40
M

40
N W

35
W

40

L P

60
C M F

G B

50
T K

70
G

25
F

25 30
K 40 R N

30
B

50 40
A H J

20

70
H

60 60 M
I W

35
S

30

35
H W

60 B 70
S A

45
W

25
S

60
L

50 50 60 W
A C

25 20
B 15 M

40
F

60

20
R

15
K

20 20 25 N
L

30
H P K H

60
B M E

45

15

50
F F S O A

40 L 50 A 40
E S D R M N

10 20
S L R F 15

10

35

40

40

20 15 20
L C

20 20 15

20
H L W V O

35
M 30 W

25

35 30

30
N

25
P

20
L

40

20
B

25
E

15
K F F C M

20

40

20
C S

20
L G

E S

10

15
A Q B L T

15

15 10

10
L

15
W

D P

15
A

10

20 15 10

20
L

10
O P L

35 10
V

15

35
10
M C C

5 10 5
L

5 5 5
F A S T W

30

Zero

Zero
S H

30
Zero

100
Dots are included to assist in defining the position of boundaries. The letter adjacent to the dot is the first letter of the place name there. In these areas extreme local variations in snow loads preclude mapping at this scale The zoned value is not appropriate for certain geographic settings, such as high country in these areas

95
50 50 0 0 100 Kilometers 50 Miles 100 200

90

Fig. 11b. Ground snow load (P g) in psf for central United States. To obtain kN/sq m, multiply by 0.048.)

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Roof Loads for New Construction


FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

100 90
L

70 80
E

70

60

60
W

N 70

40 50
A

60
C W

50 50 60 W
A S C

60 60 P 50 40
C C

60
C

50 30 35
G N B F B

40 40
R G E I T G P O S R W A S U N W

50
N

G S A

30

S N

W W

40
G K

30 35

40

35
L J

30 25
D

40
F

35

35 N

20

35
M 30 W R

40
P

25
T 30

35 30
Y R

20
S F

30
A Y P W N

25
C

25
N P

25

30 20 S 15

35 25 30 25

30

20

35

25 20 30 25 15

20
C C

V S

25 20
W L

15
D P C C S I

20
W

T L

15
S

10

10 10

10
L M C W D C

J C H G C

10
C C T G

5
M

5
F T W

Zero

ro

Zero

Dots are included to assist in defining the position of boundaries. The letter adjacent to the dot is the first letter of the place name there. In these areas extreme local variations in snow loads preclude mapping at this scale The zoned value is not appropriate for certain geographic settings, such as high country in these areas

50 50

0 0

100 Kilometers 50 Miles

200 100

Fig. 11c. Ground snow load (P g ) in psf for eastern United States. To obtain kN/sq m, multiply by 0.048.)

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Page 31

30 65

25

20

15

10

10

15

20

25

30

35

240 250 240 500 500


Reykjavik

400

300

290 260 290 260

SE A

260 500 350 500 300 400 300 250 250


Helsinki

65
260

60

IA

Trondheim

220 200 180 240

RW

EG
350

NO

450 200 300 300

400 400 150 50 65 85 110 110 65 65 85 50


Belfast Dublin Liverpool Birmingham

500

350

250 350 250

300 200 150

15 0 13 0

240 220 180 200


Tallinn

60

250

55
85 40
Glasgow

150
Starvnger

Inverness

150

Stockholm

600 250

200 450 150


Goteborg

150
Riga

ATL OC AN TIC EA N

50

NORTH S EA
100

100

200

BALTIC SEA
Vilnius

55

65
Copenhagen

50

65

65

50
55

40 40
Amsterdam

70

95
Hamburg

Essen

30

London

The Hague

95 40 110 180

W arsaw

40 40 90 110 40
Paris

135 Berlin 135 220


Frankfurt

30 70 50 40 40

Brussels

110

50
Prague

95
135 135
220

70 120

135 170 145


Munich

45

50 70 40 40 50
Bordeaux 100

150 100 200


Lyon

150

Vienna Budapest

145
Bern

220 90 90

200 90
Milan

45
Belgrade

40 60
Porto

60 100

200

40 60 40

AD
90

40

40

50 60 200
Lisbon

50 60 80 200 120 100 120

100

60

200 50100 60

60Florence 180 60 60 120 150

RI

AT

100
Barcelona

Marseille Rome

90

IC
60

SE

Sofia

A
Tirane

80 60 80

Madrid

60

Taranto

60 100 200 60 60 60 60

40

80

Sevilla

50 50 50

35

50

MEDIT ERRA N

EA N SE A

60

Palermo

60 60 60

20 35
0 200 Kilometers 0 100 200 300 400

10

15

Miles

Fig. 12. Ground snow load (Pg) in kg/m 2, for 50-yr MRI, for Western Europe. (To convert kg/m 2 to kN/m 2, multiple by 0.0098. To convert kg/m 2 to psf, divide by 4.88.) (June 1984) For further information on Germany, Switzerland and Austria, see notes for Fig. 12.

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Notes for Figure 12: The ground snow load map for Europe is to be used when the property is located in the countries indicated. Interpolation for snow loadings between isopleth lines is generally acceptable in regions not having high hills or mountains (see footnote). The snow loadings for Switzerland, Austria and Germany should be determined by the discussion below. Switzerland The following is from the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects. For H < 2000 m:

Ps = 40 +

( )

H , but at least 90 kg/m2 55

where H is the altitude above sea level in meters and Ps is the snow load for the altitude in question. For H > 2000 m: Use measured snow loads. Austria Snow load is not always in direct proportion to altitude above sea level. The following guidelines are approximate and should be confirmed with local data.
Altitude (m) Up to 300 300-500 500-750 750-1000 1000-1500 1500-2000 2000-3000 Snow Load (kg/m2) 75 75-100 100-160 160-200 200-300 300-400 400-600

Germany For Germany multiply the loads shown on the map by the following:
Altitude (m) 700-800 800-900 900-1000 Multiplier 1.3 1.6 1.9

Footnote. This guideline should be used with caution when the building is to be located on a high hill or mountain. In that case, consult local records for maximum weight of snowfall. To convert kg/m2 to kN/m2, multiply by 0.0098. To convert kg/m2 to psf, divide by 4.88.

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Page 33

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

1.0
45
1. 5

1.0

1.0

1.0
1.0
1.0

1.5

OC EA

2.0
1.5
2.5

50

PA CIF

IC

40

1.5

1.5 2 .0
45

1.5

2.5

2.0 2.5 2.0

1.5

1.5
1.0 1.5

3.0

2.0

35

40

3.0 2.0

1.0 2 .5

30

1.5

1.5 1.5

35
1.5 2.0 2.5
3.0 3.0

200 Kilometers

400

2.5 2.0

2.0

2.5

3.0

25

100

200

300

30

Miles

20 115 110 105 100

25

100 Year 1 hour duration

Source: U.S.Weather Bureau, Technical Paper No. 40, 1961

Fig. 13. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for the western United States

2006 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

110

105

100

95

90

85

80

75

70

65

50

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Page 34

2. 0
45
2.7 5
RIOR LAKE SU PE

2.75
2.5 2. 25
AN LAKE MIC HIG

3.0
LAKE HUR ON

2. 0 2.25 2.25
2.25
2.25
LAK E ONTAR IO

2. 25 2.25 2.25 2.5 2 .25 2.5


2.5
2.25

45
2.75
2.5

3 .25
2.5

2.25
LAKE ERIE

2. 25

2. 5

40
5 2.7

3.0
2.5 3.0
2.75

2.75

2.75 2.75

2 .5

40
2.75

3.25 3.25

3.0

A TL A NT IC O

3.25

CEA N

3.75

3. 0

2. 6

3.25 3.5 3.75


4. 0

35

3 .2 5

3.75

3.5

3 .25

35
3.5
3 .7 5
4.25

4 .0
Legend:

4.25

3 .2 5

3 . 75

100-YEAR 60-MINUTE PRECIPITATION (INCHES) * KEW WEST. FLORIDA VALUE


REPRESENTATIVE FOR FLORIDA KEYS

30 0 200 Kilometers 0 100 200 300


4.5

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4.0 4. 25

2 .5 2.75 3.0

400

2 .5

30
4.75

2. 75
4.75

3 .0 3.2 5

Miles 25
4.5
XICO GULF OF ME

3.5

4 .5
4.25

4.5

5.0

25 100 95 90 85

4.28

Roof Loads for New Construction

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

105

80

75

Fig. 14. Rainfall Intensity (i) in inches per hour for the central and eastern United States.

100-YEAR 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES)

6745'

6730'

6715'

670'

6645'

6630'

6615'

660'

6545'

65

6515'

1845'
ATLANTIC OCEAN
4 4 3.5 4 4.5 5
CULEBRA ISLAND 3.1

1845'

1830'
4 Min Val 3.4

4.5 4.5 4

1830'

1815'
4 6.5 6 5.5

4.5 5

1815'
5.5
5.5 4.6 VIEQUES ISLAND

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

MONA ISLAND

3.1

180'
4.5 5 4.5 5 4.5 4 4 5 5.5

Roof Loads for New Construction

180'

2006 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

1745'

1745'

1730' 6730' 6715' 670' 6645' 6630' 6615' 660' 6545'


0 10

1730' 6530'
20 30 Kilometers 0 10 Miles 20 30 40

6745'

6515'
50

1-54

Page 35

Source: U.S. Weather Bureau, Technical Paper No.42, 1961

Fig. 15. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for Puerto Rico. (To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.)

1600'
4 7 2.5 3 4 5 4 5.5 5 5 6 6

15930' 1580' 1570' 15630' 1560'

1-54

Page 36

100-YEAR 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES)

MOLOKAI

220'
3 4 3 6 6
7 8

220'
4 3 5 2.5 2.5 2.5

KAUAI
210'
3
3 45

LANAI
1.5 2 3 2.5

NIHAU
2130'
6.5 3 3

2130'
3

3 2.5 2.5 3
4

MAUI
5 6 7 8 5 3 4

210'

1600' 15930'

OAHU
2.5 3 3

KAHOOLAWE
2030' 1570'

2.5 2.5 2.5

1560'
45 6 5.5 5 6 5 44

15530'

1550'

1580'

2.5

15630'

2030' 1560'

200' 160 22
KAUAI NIHAU OAHU

200' 159 158


2 6 7

2.5

157

156

155 22

2.5

2.5 2

1.5

2.5

1930' 21
6 5 4

2.5

MOLOKAI

1930' 21
LANAI KAHOOLAWE MAUI

2.5 2 2

1.5

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20
3

2.5

20
HAWAII

190'

190'

HAWAII
15530' 1550' 19 19 160 159 158 157 156 155

1560'

20

40

60

0 0

20

40 Kilometers 10 20 30

60 40

Kilometers 10 20 30 Miles

40

Miles

Roof Loads for New Construction

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Source: U.S. Weather Bureau, Technical Paper No. 43, 1962

Fig. 16. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for Hawaiian Islands. (To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.)

175
Barrow
0.4
0.5 Umiat .5 0.5 Kotzebue
Shungnak Fort Yukon 0.6
0.8 Nome 0.8 Takotna Anchorage 0.6
0.8 0.7 Mekoryuk 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Kodiak 1 1 1.4 1.2
1.4

170

165

160

155

150

145

140

135

130

0.4 Kaktovik

70
Point Lay

70

0.5 0.6 0.7


Galena 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.6
Northway 0.9 Bethel 1.4
1.2 1.2

65
Fairbanks 1 0.8 0.9 0.7

65

Gambell 0.48
0.5 0.8

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

1.4 1 1
1.2 Yakutat 1.2 1.2 1

60
0.49 King Salmon 0.6 0.57 St. Paul
St. George Chignik Cold Bay Dutch Harbor 0.88 0.8 1 1.2 Meshik 1

Cordova

60
Juneau 0.6 0.8
0.8 1 1 0.6 Ketchikan 1.2

Roof Loads for New Construction

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0.6

55

1 Metlakatla

55

0.80

0.90

Adar

Atka

175

170

165

160

155

150

145

140
0 0

135
100 200 Kilometers 100 Miles

130
300

1-54

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200

Fig. 17. Rainfall intensity (i) in inches per hour for Alaska. (To convert to millimeters per hour multiply by 25.4.)

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NORWEGIAN SEA
Trondheim 32 37

43 32 32

65

54 43 37 32 37 Oslo 32 Stockholm 43 Glasgow 37 32 32 54 27 Belfast Dublin Liverpool 32 37 32 32 32 32 Brussels Essen 64 32 48 32 32 48 48 48 32 59 48 107 48 Lisbon 70 43 37 54 70 Barcelona 86 64 64 128 48 59 96 107 96 59 48 70 Florence 128 86 32 Bordeaux 48 96 64 Milan 54 32 Yon 43 48 134 54 64 Bern 54 54 Paris 32 54 86 80 Munich 70 Vienna 32 32 43 Berlin 64 32 Frankfurt 32 32 48 54 Prague 70 64 48 48 32 48 32 43 54 Copenhagen 43 32 43

54

60
27

NORTH SEA

32 37 43 48 43 48 Hamburg

27

BALTIC SEA

55

43 54

37 Birmingham London 48

32

Wars

50

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Budapest

54 59

86

45
Belgra

43

Madrid

AD
96

48

RI AT IC

SE A

54 107 70 59

128

70

59 48 43

Taranto 48

T irane

59

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

59 75 54 64 Palermo 54 75 75

40

86

10

15

20

200 Kilometers

400

100

200

300

Miles

Fig. 18. Rainfall intensity (i) in millimeters per hour for Western Europe, 100-yr 60-minute rainfall. (To convert to in./hr, divide by 25.)

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3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS 3.1 Loss History 3.1.1 Roof Collapse-Snow, Rain and Other Roof Loads Large accumulations of snow, rain or other means of overloading the roofs of industrial or commercial buildings can play havoc with business operations. According to the FM Global Research loss statistics, over 1700 losses occurred, some involving multiple buildings and/or structures which suffered roof collapses from 1977 through 1996 as a result of such roof overloadings. The primary cause of rain overloading is ponding water accumulating in depressions and the excessive buildup of rainwater on roofs. Most rain loading collapses occur on essentially flat roofs, slopes of 18 in./ft (1%) or less, of relatively lightweight construction and designed for minimum live loads. A roof designed as dead-flat or sloped only 18 in./ft (1%) to either interior drains or free drainage (roofs edges) probably contains low spots by the time it is constructed. Water ponding on a roof surface will remain until it evaporates. Ponding can be troublesome because it may involve freeze-thaw cycles or prolonged moisture, both of which are detrimental to the roofing materials. The National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) recommends a minimum 14 in./ft (2%) slope on roofs. The most serious difficulty with ponding is that it can lead to overload problems on the roof structure. As rainwater or snow meltwater flows to low areas, these areas tend to sag increasingly, allowing a deeper pond to form. If the roof structure does not possess enough stiffness to resist this progression and stabilize, collapse by localized overloading results. This mechanism is commonly known as the ponding cycle and it has been responsible for most roof collapses due to rain loads or the combination of rain and snow loads. Lightweight, flexible roof structures are particularly susceptible because they do not have enough stiffness to resist or stabilize the ponding cycle. Theoretical calculations for ponding are very complicated. The AISC Specifications describes a method for determining minimum stiffness necessary for two-way framing systems to preclude roof instability or the prevention of ponding collapse. Excessive buildup of rainwater is also caused by inadequate interior drains or perimeter scuppers, rainfall intensities greater than predicted, clogged drainage devices, and the backup of storm drainage systems. All of the above caused overloading and subsequent roof collapse. When code guidelines for live load reductions are followed, the practical result is that very flexible roofs are constructed which are highly susceptible to ponding and frequently unable to resist rain or unbalanced snow loads. 4.0 REFERENCES 4.1 FM Global Data Sheet 1-14, Construction Systems. Data Sheet 1-55, Weak Construction and Design. 4.2 Others American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Allowable Stress Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Commentary K, Chapter K2. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, Commentary K, Chapter K2. American Iron and Steel Institution (AISI), Base Test Method for Purlins Supporting a Standing Seam Roof. American Iron and Steel Institution (AISI), Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. ANSI A58.1, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ANSI/ASCE 7-88, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Arctic Environmental Information and Data Center (AEIDC).

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Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Eurocode 1: Part 2.3 Action on Structures Snow Loads, DD ENV 1991-2-3:1966. National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA). National Weather Service, Technical Notes. 1990 Supplement to the National Building Code of Canada. Standard Specifications of the Steel Joist Institute (SJI) for LH-Series (Longspan), DLH-Series (Deep Longspan) Joists and Joists Girders and K-series (Open Web) Joists. Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects, Snow Loads. The Division of Building Research, National Research Council, and the Meteorological Branch, Department of Transport, Canada. U.S. Weather Bureau, Technical Papers. APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS The following discussion of terms will facilitate use of this data sheet. When using building and plumbing codes, use the interpretations provided therein. A.1 Roof Loads and Drainage A.1.1 Controlled Roof Drains The design of controlled roof drains is similar to conventional roof drains. The difference is that controlled drains are equipped with restrictive devices to accurately set the flow characteristics to the controlled drainage requirements. The purpose of controlling roof drains is to have the roof serve as a temporary storage reservoir of rainwater (e.g., to prevent flooding of storm sewers). A.1.2 Design Roof Line The design roof line is an imaginary line established during the design stage, as either dead-flat or sloped, by setting elevations at points of support (i.e., columns or walls) for roof framing members. The design roof line is not the actual roof line because framing members sag under the dead weight of the roof system, and sag additionally under super-imposed live loads such as snow and rain. (See Figs. 8a and 8b.) A.1.3 Ponding and Ponding Cycle Ponding refers to the retention of water due solely to the deflection of relatively flat roof framing (see Figs. 8a and 8b). The deflection permits the formation of pools of water. As water accumulates, deflection increases, thereby increasing the capacity of the depression formed. This phenomenon is known as the ponding cycle. The amount of water accumulated is dependent upon the flexibility of the roof framing. If the roof framing members have insufficient stiffness, the water accumulated can collapse the roof. A.1.4 Dead Load The dead load of the roof is the weight of its permanent or fixed components including supporting members, deck, insulation, roof covering, gravel and suspended or supported ceilings or equipment, such as heaters, lighting fixtures and piping, which were anticipated at the time of design. In some cases, dead loads which were not anticipated are added to existing buildings or an allowance for future dead loads was included in the design dead load. For the purposes of this data sheet, any portion of the dead load exceeding the design dead load should be subtracted from the design live load; any unused portion of the design dead load may be added to the design live load. Dead load is normally expressed in pounds per square foot (psf), kilonewtons per square meter (kN/m2) or kilopascal (kPa).

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A.1.5 Live Load The live load of the roof is the weight allowance for temporary or movable loads, such as rain, snow or construction materials, equipment and workers, which will occasionally be present. The design live load represents the superimposed weight which the roof system can support, within allowable design parameters, beyond its own dead load. In cases where re-roofing materials or equipment or structures which were not included in the design dead load are added to the roof system, their weight should be subtracted from the design live load. Most building codes and design standards permit reductions in minimum (roof) design live loads, excluding snow or rain loads, based on the tributary loaded areas supported by roof members (joists, beams, etc.). This data sheet restricts live load reductions for lightweight roof constructions, see Section 2.1.1.1.2. Usually the minimum design live load is 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) with a reduction to 16 psf (0.8 kN/m2) for members supporting a tributary area of 201 to 600 ft2 (19 to 56 m2), and a reduction to 12 psf (0.6 kN/m2) for members supporting a tributary area greater than 600 ft2 (56 m2). This means that roofs assumed to have a 20 psf (1.0 kN/m2) live load capacity, as commonly stated on the roof plan drawings, may actually only have an effective load capacity of 12 psf (0.6 kN/m2). Usually, only the design calculations identify whether live load reductions have been taken. When code guidelines for live load reductions are followed, the practical result is that very flexible roofs, highly susceptible to ponding and frequently unable to resist rain or unbalanced snow (drifts) loads, are constructed. It is likely that live load reductions have been applied to minimum design live loads, even in new construction, when rain loads due to drainage system blockage is not considered or appropriately understood (Section 2.1.1.3.2). Live load is usually expressed in pounds per square foot (psf), kilonewtons per square meter (kN/m2) or kilopascal (kPa). A.1.6 Total Load The total load of the roof is the combination of the dead plus live loads, excluding wind and earthquake loads. The design total load should be effectively resisted by each of the structural members of the roof system. Building codes and design standards establish allowable (design) working stresses and deflection limits, and these may only be exceeded when considering dead and live loads in combination with wind or earthquake loads. A.1.7 Tributary Loaded Area (TA) The TA is that area of the roof supported by a roof (supporting) member. Tributary loaded areas for typical primary and secondary members are illustrated in Figure 19. For secondary members, such as joists, the TA is the joist length times the joist spacing. For primary members, such as beams or trusses usually supporting uniformly spaced joists, the TA is the beam or truss length times its spacing. As a rule of thumb, the TA for primary members is the area of a bay (a layout of four columns constitutes a bay) or precisely the product of the average column spacing in each direction. An exception to the rule of thumb is construction with members framed along exterior column lines or along double column lines at expansion joints; then the TA is the member length times one-half the member spacing plus the roof overhang beyond the column centerline. All of the above is applicable to single span or cantilevered roof framing (Data Sheet 1-14, Construction Systems).

A.1.8 Roof Strength The term roof strength and total roof strength, for the purposes of this data sheet, are used interchangeably with design live load and total load, respectively. Roof strength is the measure of a roof assembly and supporting systems ability to support loads above the design dead load without exceeding the allowable design parameters. Total roof strength is the measure of the roof systems ability to support the design dead plus live loads without exceeding the allowable design parameters. Roof strengths are also expressed in psf, kN/m2 or kPa. Steel roof deck manufacturers often provide allowable uniform total load tables in their catalogs. This can be misleading since the strength of members supporting the deck is governed by the design total load and not the load capacity of the roof deck. The supporting members, because of this difference, will usually collapse well before a failure of the deck occurs. The primary determinant of roof strength, therefore, is the roof supporting members with appropriate adjustment for any live load reductions.
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Fig. 19. Typical tributary loaded areas for primary and secondary members.

A.1.9 Safety Factor The safety factor of a structural member is defined as the ratio of its strength (yield stress) to its maximum anticipated design stress (working stress). In steel design using elastic-design methods, a design stress equal to two-thirds of the minimum yield stress of the material is often used. This results in a safety factor equal to 1/0.67 or 1.5. While it is helpful to recognize this safety margin, it is equally important to understand that safety factors are provided for the many uncertainties associated with materials, design, fabrication, installation and unpredicted loads in excess of design values. The building designer should not compromise or use any portion of the safety margin for design purposes except when permitted for ponding analysis and wind or earthquake load combinations. Loads in excess of design values may occur when based on this guideline, which establishes design values that reduce the risk of load-induced collapse to an acceptable low limit. The implications of such excess loads, however, should be considered. For example, if a roof is deflected at the design snow load so that slope-to-drain is eliminated, excess snow load may cause ponding and perhaps progressive failure. The rain-load to dead-load or snow-load to dead-load ratios of a roof structure are an important consideration when assessing the implications of excess loads. If the design rain or snow load is exceeded, the percentage increase in total load is greater for a lightweight structure (all metal, insulated steel deck or boards-on-joists roof constructions) than for a heavy structure (concrete deck or plank-on-timber constructions). Thus, the lower the safety margin (expressed as a load), the higher the probability for roof collapse due to snow or rain excess loads. This fact is supported by collapse loss history. APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY September 2006. Minor editorial changes were done for this revision. May 2006. Minor editorial changes done for this revision. September 2004. Minor editorial changes were done for this revision. September 2001. Redrawn maps for ground snow load and rainfall intensity were updated.

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January 2001. This revision of the document has been reorganized to provide a consistent format. GIRTS Issued: Subject: ZEE SECTION PROPERTIES 2/1/93 Table C-22. APPENDIX E ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES AND JOB AIDS E.1 Snow Loading Illustrative Examples The following examples illustrate the methods used to establish design snow loads for most of the roof configurations discussed in the data sheet. Example 1: Determine the balanced and unbalanced design snow loads for a proposed building for Milwaukee, WI. It has galvanized steel, insulated panels on a gable roof, sloped 8 on 12 (see Fig. 20). a) Ground snow load (Pg) from Figure 11b: Pg = 30 psf (1.4 kN/m2) b) Flat-roof snow load (Section 2.1.1.2.5 or Table 2) Pf = 0.9 Pg = 0.9 (30) = 27 psf (1.3 kN/m2) c) Sloped-roof (balanced) snow load (Section 2.1.1.2.7): Ps = CsPf = 0.66 (27) = 18 psf (0.9 kN/m2) where Cs = 0.66 (Table 3 for slippery, cold, 8 on 12 sloped roof) d) Sloped-roof (unbalanced) snow load (Section 2.1.1.2.8.1): 1.5 Ps = 1.5 (18) = 27 psf (1.3 kN/m2) e) See Figure 20 for both snow loading conditions.

Fig. 20. Design snow loads for Example 1.

Example 2: Determine the roof snow load for a proposed (bow-string truss) curved roof building for Boston, MA. The building has an 80 ft clear span and 15 ft rise, circular arc wood deck roof construction with insulation and built-up roofing (see Fig. 21). a. Ground snow load (Pg) from Figure 11c: Pg = 30 psf (1.4 kN/m2) b. Flat roof snow load (Section 2.1.1.2.5 or Table 2): Pf = 0.9 (30) = 27 psf (1.3 kN/m2) c. Vertical angle measured from eave to crown (see Fig. 21): Tangent of vertical angle = Vertical angle = 21
1 2

rise span

= 15 = 0.375 40

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Fig. 21. Design snow loads for Example 2.

d. Sloped-roof (balanced) snow load: Ps = Cs Pf = 1.0 (27) = 27 psf (1.3 kN/m2) where Cs = 1.0 (Table 3 for cold, other surface roof) e. Unbalanced snow loads (Section 2.1.1.2.8.2): Eave slope = 41 (see Fig. 21) The 30 point is 30 ft (9.1 m) from the centerline (see Fig. 21). Unbalanced load at crown w/slope of 30 (Fig. 2, Case I): 0.5 Ps = .5 (27) = 14 psf (0.6 kN/m2) Unbalanced load at 30 point (Fig. 2, Case II): 2 Ps = 2(27) = 54 psf (2.6 kN/m2) Unbalanced load at eave (Fig. 2, Case II): 2 Ps (1 eave slope 30 ) 40 227 (1 41 30) = 39 psf (1.9 kN/m2) 40 f. See Figure 21 for both loading conditions. Example 3: Determine the design snow loads for the upper and lower flat roofs for a proposed building to be located in Lansing, MI. The elevation difference between the roofs is 10 ft (3 m). The upper roof is 200 ft (61 m) wide and the lower roof is 40 ft (12.2 m) wide (see Fig. 22). a) Ground snow load (Pg) from Figure 11c: Pg = 35 psf (1.7 kN/m2) b) Flat-roof (balanced) snow load for either roof (Section 2.1.1.2.5) Pf = 0.9 (Pg) = 0.9 (35) = 32 psf (1.5 kN/m2) c) Maximum snow load at wall (lower roof) (Section 2.1.1.2.9.1): Max. load at wall = Pd + Pf hr D from Table 4, with Pg = 35 psf and Wb = 200 ft; D = 18.6 pcf and Pd + Pf = 125 psf 10 18.6 = 186 psf Max snow load (lower roof) = 125 psf (6 kN/m2)

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Fig. 22. Design snow loads for Example 3.

d) Drift width (Section 2.1.1.2.9.1): Wd = 4 hd when hd hc + 1 ft from Table 4, with Pg = 35 psf and Wb = 200 ft; hd = 5.01 ft Wd = 4 (5.01) = 20 ft (6.1 m) e) See Figure 22 for snow loads on both roofs. Example 4: Determine the design snow loads for the upper and lower flat roofs of the proposed building in Example 3, if the upper roof is 40 ft (12 m) wide and the lower roof is 200 ft (61 m) wide (see Fig. 23). (Note: This roof configuration forms the greatest snow drift by windblown snow across the lower roof because the lower roof is much wider than the upper roof, see Section 2.1.1.2.9.4.) a) Items a and b from Example 3 are applicable. b) Maximum snow load at wall (lower roof) (Section 2.1.1.2.9.4): Max. load at wall = 34 (Pd) + Pf from Table 4, with Pg = 35 psf and Wb = 200 ft; Pd = 93 psf, Pf = 32 psf Max snow load (lower roof) = 34 (93) + 32 = 102 psf (4.9 kN/m2) c) Drift width (Section 2.1.1.2.9.1) Wd = 34 (4hd); from Table 4, with Pg = 35 psf and Wb = 200 ft; hd = 5.01 ft Wd = 34 (45.01) = 15 ft (4.6 m) d) See Figure 23 for snow loads on both roofs.

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E.2 Roof Drainage and Rain Loading Illustrative Examples:

Fig. 23. Design snow loads for Example 4.

The following examples illustrate the methods used to establish design rain loads and roof drainage for some of the roof drainage systems discussed in the data sheet. Example 5: A proposed building for Dallas, TX, has a roof, 168 ft (57 m) by 336 ft (102 m), with bay dimensions, 28 ft (9 m) by 28 ft (9 m). Joists are spaced 5.6 ft (1.8 m) o.c., normal to beams which span from column to column. The roof edge has a continuous cant 3-12 in. (88 mm) high except a varying height parapet, 10-12 in. (267 mm) max where scuppers are shown. Size the (primary) roof drains and overflow provisions (using roof edges or scuppers as appropriate), denoting the required hydraulic head at the primary drainage device (drains), and the total head at the overflow provisions (roof edges or scuppers) and the design rain load to be used by the roof framing designer, when: a) The roof is dead-flat with interior roof drains (at mid-bay) and roof edge overflow relief as shown in Figure 24a. b) The roof is sloped, 14 in./ft (2%), to the low-point line where roof drains are placed. Overflow relief is by scuppers set 3-12 in. (89 mm) above the low-point line at the perimeter of the roof as shown in Figure 24b. Solution (a.) Flat Roof Figure 24a 1. Rainfall intensity (Fig. 14): i = 4 in./hr (100 mm/hr) 2. Number of drains needed (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4, Part 1.a): A n= = 168 336 = 3.8 8 (using eight 6 in. [150 mm] dia. drains) 15,000 15,000 3. Flow rate needed per drain (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4, Part 1.b): Q = 0.0104 i A = 0.0104 4 168 336 n 8 Q = 294 gpm (1110 dm3/min)

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4. Roof drain size needed (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4, Part 1.c): According to Table 5, with 6 in. dia. drain, Q = 540 294 gpm (with 150 mm dia. drain, Q = 2040 1110 dm3/min) 5. Hydraulic head at drain inlet (Section 2.1.1.3.6.2 and Table 8): Hydraulic head (by linear interpolation) = 2.5 + (294 270) (1/2) (380 270)

Hydraulic head = 2.6 in. (65 mm) < 3.5 in. (88 mm) roof edge height Therefore, overflow relief allows the needed drain flow. 6. Total head at roof edge overflow provision (See Fig. 8b): Total head = Roof edge height Total head = 3.5 in. (88 mm) 7. Design rain load (Sect. 2.1.1.3.6.3): Design rain load (psf) = Total head5.215 psf. Design rain load = 3.55.2 = 18.2 psf (0.86 kN/m2)

Fig. 24a. Flat roof plan for Example 5.

8. The flat roof should support the maximum depth of water of 3.5 in. (88 mm) or 18.2 psf (0.86 kN/m2) over its entirety. The roof framing designer should check the roof for instability due to ponding based on this load. Installing wide, low hydraulic head scuppers along the roof edges could reduce the design rain load and also the minimum design live load for the roof framing, see Section 2.1.1.1.2. (Note: Snow load should not govern at this location.) Solution (b.) Sloped Roof Fig. 24b 1. Items 1 through 5 from Solution (a) are applicable.

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2. Number of scuppers needed (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4, Part 1.a): A = 3.8 4 (using four 8 in. [200 mm] min. width scuppers) n= 15,000 3. Flow rate needed per overflow scupper (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4, Part 1.b): Q = 0.0104 i A = 0.0104 4 168 336 n 4 Q = 587 gpm (2220 dm3/min) 4. Overflow scupper size needed (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4, Part 1.c): Size of four overflow scuppers to be equivalent to the eight roof drains (Sect. 2.1.1.1, Recommendation 2.1.1.1.15.): Needed flow capacity Q = 8 (540) = 1080 gpm (4090 dm3/min) 4 Select equivalent scupper from Table 6 for needed flow capacity Q (Part 4). Assume a scupper, 7 in. (180 mm) by 24 in. (610 mm) wide with H = h. Flow capacity (under channel type) Q = 1284 1080 gpm (4860 4080 dm3/min). According to Sect. 2.1.1.1, Recommendation 2.1.1.1.12, the scupper height h should be 1 in. (25 mm) higher than the (estimated) water depth H. Check Table 6 for H = 71 = 6 in. (150 mm) under channel type (H < h) for the needed flow rate (Part 3): Q = 1020 587 gpm (Q = 3860 2220 dm3/min)

Fig. 24b. Sloped roof plan for Example 5.

5. Hydraulic head (H) at scupper (Section 2.1.1.3.6.2 and Table 6): Hydraulic head (H) = 4 + 587 560 = 4.1 in. (103 mm) 776 560

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6. Total head at scupper overflow provision (see Fig. 8b) w/scupper set 3.5 in (88 mm) above roof surface: Total head = hydraulic head (H) + height to scupper invert Total head = 4.1 + 3.5 = 7.6 in. (190 mm) 7. Design rain load at low-point line (overflow scuppers) [Sect. 2.1.1.3.6.3]: Design rain load (psf) = total head (max) 5.2 30 psf (1.5 kN/m2) Design rain load (max) = 7.6 5.2 = 39.5 psf (1.9 kN/m2) 8. The sloped roof should support a maximum depth of water of 7.6 in. (190 mm) at the low-point line of the roof and a maximum average depth of water, of 3.8 in. (95 mm) or 19.8 psf (1 kN/m2) across the valley of the sloped roof. The roof framing designer should check the roof for instability in the roof valley due to ponding based on the design rain loads. Above the valley of this sloped roof, applicable code permitting, the roof beams and joists may qualify for reductions in the minimum design live loads, see Section 2.1.1.1.2. Example 6: A proposed building to be located in St. Louis, MO, has a roof 200 ft (61 m) by 400 ft (122 m) and it has six roof drains (at mid-bay). Overflow drains are placed adjacent to the primary drains and set 3 in. (75 mm) above the roof surface. The roof slopes 14 in./ft (2%) as shown in Figure 25. Size the primary and overflow roof drains, denoting the required hydraulic head above the overflow roof drains and the total head and the design rain load to be used by the roof framing designer.

Fig. 25. Roof plan for Example 6.

a) Rainfall intensity (i) Figure 14 i = 3.3 in./hr (84 mm/hr) b) Total number of drains (primary and overflow) needed: (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4 Part 1.a) A n= = 200 400 = 5.3 6 (using six 6 in. dia [150 mm] drains) 15,000 15,000 c) Flow rate needed per drain (primary and overflow) (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4 Part 1.b): Q = 0.0104 i A = 0.0104 3.3 200 400 n 6 Q = 458 gpm (1730 dm3/min)

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d) Size of the primary and overflow drains (as equivalent) and their hydraulic heads: Select a 6 in. dia. drain (Table 5); Q = 540 458 gpm (150 mm dia. drain; Q = 2040 1730 dm3/min) Hydraulic head (Table 8 by interpolation) = 3 + (12) (458 380) (540 380) Hydraulic head = 3.25 in. (83 mm) e) Total head at overflow drains (Fig. 8a): Total head = hydr. head (max) + height to overflow drain inlet Total head (max.) = 3.25 + 3.0 = 6.25 in. (159 mm) f) Design rain load at low point of roof (Section 2.1.1.3.6.3): Design rain load (psf) = total head (max) 5.2 30 psf (1.5 kN/m2) Design rain load (max.) = 6.25 5.2 = 32.5 psf (1.6 kN/m2) g) In the low areas of the roof, at the roof drains, the design rain load (max.) will be 32.5 psf (1.6 kN/m2) but it will rapidly reduce with the roof slope of 14 in./ft (2%) away from the low areas and possibly qualify for live load reductions, see Section 2.1.1.1.2. The roof designer should check the roof for instability in the low areas due to ponding based on the design rain loads. Example 7: A proposed building to be constructed of tilt-up walls and a plywood diaphragm roof is to be located in Santa Cruz, CA. The roof is 150 ft (46 m) by 500 ft (152 m) and it has five roof drains near the perimeter (at mid-bay) and five overflow scuppers in the parapet walls set 4 in. (100 mm) above the low-point of the roof and 2 in. (50 mm) above the adjacent roof surface. The roof slopes, 14 in./ft (2%), from a high-point line along one side of the building to roof drain cricket areas along the opposite side of the building (see Fig. 26). Size the (primary) roof drains and overflow scuppers, denoting the required hydraulic heads at the drains and scuppers and the total head and design rain load to be used by the roof framing designer.

Fig. 26. Roof plan for Example 7.

a) Rainfall intensity (Fig. 13): i = 2 in./hr (50 mm/hr)

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b) Total number of drains and scuppers needed (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4): A n= (using five 6 in. dia. drains and five 8 in. wide scuppers [150 mm dia. drains and 15,000 200 mm wide scuppers]) c) Flow rate needed per drain and scupper (Section 2.1.1.3.5.4): Q = 0.0104 i A = 0.0104 2 150 500 n 5 Q = 312 gpm (1180 dm3/min) d) Size of (primary) drains and their hydraulic head: Select a 6 in. dia. drain (Table 5); Q = 540 312 gpm (150 mm dia. drain, Q = 2040 1180 dm3/min) Hydraulic head at drains (Table 8 by interpolation) Hydraulic head at drains = 2.5 + (1/2) (312 270) 380 270 Hydraulic head at drains = 2.7 in. (68 mm) e) Size of overflow scuppers, equivalent to the roof drains (Sec. 2.1.1.1, Recommendation 2.1.1.1.15), and their total head (similar to Fig. 8b): Select an equivalent scupper from Table 6 with flow Q 540 gpm (2040 dm3/min):A channel scupper, 4 in. (100 mm) high by 24 in. (610 mm) wide: scupper flow capacity Q = 560 540 gpm (2120 2040 dm3/min). According to Section 2.1.1.1, Recommendation 2.1.1.1.12, the scupper height h should be 1 in. (25 mm) higher than the (estimated) water buildup H. Checking Table 6 for h = 4-1 = 3 in. (75 mm) for the needed flow rates: Q = 360 312 gpm (Q = 1360 1180 dm3/min) f) Hydraulic head (H) at scupper (Section 2.1.1.3.6.2 and Table 6): Hydraulic head (H) = 2 + 312 200 = 2.7 in. (68 mm) 360 200 g) Total head at low point of roof = hydraulic head (H) + height to scupper from the roofs low-point. Total head at low-point (max.) = 2.7 in. + 4 in. = 6.7 in. (168 mm) Total head adjacent to scuppers = hydr. head (H) + height to scupper from adjacent roof surface. Total head at scuppers = 2.7 in. + 2 in. = 4.7 in. (119 mm) h) Design rain load at roof drains, low-point of roof (Sect. 2.1.1.3.6.3): Design rain load (psf) = total head (max.) 5.2 30 psf (1.5 kN/m2) Design rain load (max.) at drains = 6.7 5.2 = 34.8 psf (1.7 kN/m2) i) Design rain load at scuppers (Section 2.1.1.3.6.5) Design rain load = total head (max) 5.2 psf (Note: minimum rain load does not apply because scupper is not at roofs low-point.) Design rain load at scuppers = 4.7 5.2 = 24.4 psf (1.2 kN/m2) j) In the low areas at the roof drains, the design rain load will be 34.8 psf (1.7 kN/m2), but it will rapidly decrease with the roof slope of 14 in./ft (2%) away from the low cricket areas and possibly qualify for live load reductions, see Section 2.1.1.1.2. The roof designer should check the roof for instability in the low areas due to ponding, based on the design rain loads.

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

E.3 Job AidsSnow and Rain Loads and Drainage

NOTE: Reference to Section, Figure and Table numbers is to Section 2.0. Most referenced Figures from Section 2.0 are reproduced in this Job Aid.

Part 1. Roof Snow Loads (New Construction)

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Part 2. Flat-Roofs and Low-Sloped Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.5/2.1.1.2.6)

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Part 3. Sloped-Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.7/2.1.1.2.8.1)

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Part 4. Sloped-Roofs (Continued)

Fig. 1. Snow loads for hip and gable roofs.

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Part 5. Curved Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.8.2)

Fig. 2. Snow loads for curved roofs.

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Part 6. Valley-Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.8.3)

Note: The above snow methodology is also applicable to multiple gable and barrel vault roofs.

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Part 7. Lower-Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.9)

Fig. 4. (To be used with Table 4) Snow loads for lower roofs

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Part 8. Lower Detached Roofs From Adjacent Structure or Terrain Feature (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.9.2)

Fig. 5. Snow loads for lower roof of adjacent structures.

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Part 9. Sloped Roofs Sliding Snow Onto Lower Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.9.2)

Fig. 6. Sliding snow load for lower roofs

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Part 10. Roof Projections and Parapets (Ref Sect 2.1.1.2.9.4)

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Part 11. Roof Rain Loads (New Contruction)

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Part 12. Roof Drains and Scuppers (Ref Sect 2.1.1.3.5)

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Part 13. Roof Drains andScuppers (Continued) (Ref Sect 2.1.1.3.5)

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Part 14. Overflow Relief Provisions (Ref Sect 2.1.1.3.5.3)

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Part 15. Overflow Relief Provisions (Continued) (Ref Sect 2.1.1.3.5.3)

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Part 16. Sloped Roofs (Ref Sect 2.1.1.3.7)

(Job Aids May 1998)

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