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How similar were the ways in which colonial powers administered their Southeast Asian colonies in the period

1870-1900? EYA (13m)

direct rule: Cochin china and Malaya indirect rule: tonkin//annam and malaya Indirect rule @tonkin&annam and indonesia in Tonkin and annam, indirect rule was applied. The French did not install their own administrative system. Instead, they wrestled power from the traditional Vietnamese authorities. The emperor retained his title but relinquished most of his political authority to the French Superior resident at Hue The six boards of traditional bureaucracy was left in place and the Mandarin System retained. However, a French advisor was appointed at each court to oversee decision-making. Additionally, the French could only occupy minor positions. Similarly in Malaya, indirect rule was applied. The British did not intend to meddle in the affairs of the local people Implemented the British Residency System: o Each sultan had to had to receive a British Resident o This resident was appointed to oversee local administrative affairs o Authority of the resident had to be recognized in court o Resident has to be consulted on all judicial and administrative affairs except those pertaining to the Muslim religion DIRECT RULE COCHIN CHINA Former Vietnamese administration with its class of mandarins was abolished and replaced with a French system with French-appointed officials. These officials were either Vietnamese Catholics or spoke French. Almost all Vietnamese provincial officials were anti-French and then were replaced by a new class of French officials known as inspectors of indigenous affairs. To show some effort that the French did not alienate the Vietnamese completely, the officials had to pass a test to indicate they had some knowledge of the Vietnamese language and culture. MALAYA British unified 4 states into a federation where centralized control was imposed (communication, transport infrastructure, taxation and judicial administration) Pangkor Agreement British residents: sultans as puppets o Federated malay states where the Sultans would have to consult the British Resident whom he has received and consult him on all administrative and judicial affairs. Basically, he had no control over anything except those pertaining to religious affairs. Rejected malay customs regarding land ownership (land titles) A western-style system of land tenure was put in place which curtailed the Malay farmers free use of land tenure which curtailed the Malay farmers free use of land. Revenue collection by inidividual bidders (not local rulers) Collection of revenue was given out to the private company or individual that submitted the highest bid to collect taxes on behalf of the British colonial authorities