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Kosovo and Mctohija

Living in thc ¡nclavc
¡ditcd by
Ðušan T. 8ataković
BELGRADE 2007
Edited by
DUSAN T. BATAKOVIC
SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS
INSTITUTE FOR BALKAN STUDIES
SPECIAL EDITIONS 96
37;7>7)6,5-<7012)
41>16/16<0--6+4)>-
8]JTQ[PMLJa
Institute for Balkan Studies
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Belgrade, 35 Knez Mihailova St.
e-mail: balkinst©sanu.ac.yu
www.balkaninstitut.com
:M^QM_MLJa
Nada Milosevic Djordjevic, corresponding member, SASA
Vojislav Pavlovic, Institute for Balkan Studies
Koso.o and Metohija – Li.ing in the Encla.e is printcd with financial support
lrom thc Ministry ol Scicncc ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia
Co n t e n t s
Ioreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¸
Dušan T. Bataković
Koso.o and Metohija: Identity, Feligions . Ideologies . . . . . . . . . . µ
Miloš Luković
Koso.ska Mitro.ica: Present and Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8¸
Helena Zdravković
Historical !ictimage of Koso.o Serbs and Ælbanians. . . . . . . . . . . . +o¸
Valentina Pitulić
Folklore in the Serb Encla.e: Preser.ing Identity in Hostile En.ironment +¸+
Harun Hasani
Migrations of Goranies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +¡¸
Radivoje Mladenović
Te Sirinićka Župa: Štrpce Municipality –Historical Background
and Current Field Fesearch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +¡¡
Mirjana Menković
Te Encla.e of !elika Hoča: Cultural Heritage as a Means of Socio-economic
Fene.al and Preser.ation of Serbian Identity in Koso.o and Metohija . +¸¡
Miloš Luković
T.int.ars in Uroše.ac, Lipljan, Obilić, Priština and Koso.ska Mitro.ica ::¡
Dušan T. Bataković
Sur.i.ing in Ghetto-like Encla.es: Te Serbs of Koso.o
and Metohija :,,,–:cc¸ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :¸µ
Appendix
Chaos and disorder: Koso.o and Metohija four years later by Fr. Sava Janjić . :6¡
Foma in Koso.o and Metohija: Ærguments against independence
of Koso.o and Metohija by Rajko Ðjurić. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :8¸
Belgrade !aledictory : March : :cc¸ by Julian Harston . . . . . . . . . . . :8¸
Koso.o and Metohija at the Crossroads by Fr. Sava Janjić. . . . . . . . . . . :µ¸
Te !isoki Dečani Monastery Land Issue by \isoki Ðcčani Monastcry . . . ¸o¡
Koso.o Future Status by Joscph K. Gricboski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¸+¡
Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¸+µ
Ioreword
Tis collcction ol papcrs is dcvotcd to thc postwar situation in Scrbia’s
troublcsomc autonomous provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija, which, altcr
thrcc months ol continuous NATÒ air strikcs in +µµµ, cvcntually was, in
Junc +µµµ, cntrustcd to thc Unitcd Nations !ntcrim Administration ol
Kosovo (UNM!K) by UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡.
Most ol thc prc and post+µµµ writings on Kosovo havc bccn lo
cuscd on oltcn dramatic dcvclopmcnts rcvolving around thc Albanian na
tional causc in thc Provincc, and thc suffcring ol Albanians altcr thcy wcnt
into lullscalc uprising. As thcy arc thc majority population in Kosovo (an
cstimatcd scvcnty to scvcnty fivc pcrccnt ol thc Provincc’s population prior
to thc bombing), rcscarchcrs and analysts worldwidc havc conccntratcd
primarily on thcir problcms, somchow oblivious to thc lact that dcspitc
thcir dcnsc conccntration in ccrtain arcas ol Kosovo, thc Kosovo Albanians
havc only bccn thc largcst cthnic minority (cightccn pcrccnt) within thc
wholc Rcpublic ol Scrbia, lcgal succcssor both ol thc Fcdcral Rcpublic ol
Yugoslavia (+µµ:–:oo¸) and ol thc Statc Union ol Scrbia and Montcncgro
(:oo¸–:oo6). Tcrclorc, it should bc undcrscorcd oncc morc that thcrc is no
such thing as a scparatc Kosovo idcntity lor thc population ol thc Provincc,
dividcd, lor ccnturics, into Albanians and Scrbs as thc main rivalling com
munitics.
Contrary to thc widcsprcad intcrcst in thc Albanian sidc ol thc prob
lcm, this collcction ol papcrs locuscs on thc ncglcctcd dcvclopmcnts among
thc discriminatcd, harasscd and pcrsccutcd Kosovo Scrbs and othcr non
Albanian cthnic groups, lorccd to livc, undcr difficult conditions, within
isolatcd cnclavcs, oltcn hcavily guardcd by thc NATÒlcd military contin
gcnts ol KFÒR, whosc lorccs havc bccn scalcd down lrom ¡8,ooo soldicrs
lrom various statcs in Junc +µµµ to +6,ooo in :oo¸.
Ranging lrom gcncral historical ovcrvicws, multidisciplinary socio
logical and communicological approachcs (Hclcna Zdravković), rcgional
and micro historics (Miloš Luković), to important cultural hcritagc sitcs
(Mirjana Mcnković on \clika Hoča) and casc studics ol ccrtain communi
tics (Radivojc Mladcnović on Sirinićka Župa), lolklorc as thc way ol prc
scrving onc’s cndangcrcd idcntity (\alcntina Pitulić), or spccific historic
arcas (Gora by Harun Hasani), thc volumc is locuscd on various aspccts ol
thc cxtrcmcly complicatcd strugglc lor survival ol thc Scrbs and othcr non
Albanian communitics. Two cxtcnsivc papcrs ol Ð. T. 8ataković arc histori
cal survcys ol thc past, including thc most rcccnt dcvclopmcnts, covcring
thc wholc phcnomcnon ol thc ScrbAlbanian disputc ovcr Kosovo, cut into
two diffcrcnt phascs by thc +µµµ NATÒ bombing.
Tc Appcndix brings important documcntary matcrial conccrning
thc situation altcr thc :oo¡ March pogrom and thc :oo¸ pcrspcctivcs lrom
insidc Mctohija (Fr. Sava Janjić ol thc Ðcčani Monastcry), a balanccd vicw
ol Julian Harston, thc outgoing UN rcprcscntativc in 8clgradc (Belgrade
!aledictory), as wcll as a papcr on thc difficult position ol thc Kosovo Roma
(Rajko Ðjurić). Tc volumc also bring out a kcy documcnt, with analysis,
on thc cndangcring ol thc propcrty ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church by
local Albanian authoritics, as wcll as an important insight ol thc Vashing
ton Ð.C.bascd !nstitutc ol Rcligion, gaincd during a visit to Kosovo and
Mctohija, with possiblc outcomcs ol thc Provincc’s unccrtain luturc.
!t is ol utmost importancc to mcntion hcrc thc valuablc collaboration
ol 8iljana Sikimić ol thc !nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, who suggcstcd scvcral
papcrs lrom hcr volumc on cnclavcs prcviously publishcd in thc Scrbian
languagc, as wcll as ol Andrija Stupar, lor his shrcwd advicc and tirclcss
copycditing ol thc main articlcs in this volumc, thus lacilitating thc dcli
catc work ol thc !nstitutc staff (Marina AdamovićKulcnović and Kranislav
\ranić) involvcd in thc prcparation ol thc tcxts lor printing.
Editor
Ðušan T. 8ataković
Kosovo and Metohija
IDENTITY, FELIGIONS . IDEOLOGIES
Conflicting historical traditions:
Serbian Jerusalem .s. ancient Ælbanian land
Tc notion ol “Kosovo” carrics diffcrcnt, indccd opposing, mcanings lor
thc diffcrcnt national communitics ol Kosovo and Mctohija. For thc Scrbs,
Kosovo abovc all significs an ancicnt Scrbian tcrritory, a Scrbian “Holy
Land”, thc imprcssivc cultural and cconomic risc ol which was in thc latc
mcdicval pcriod brutally brought to a halt by thc Òttoman conqucst and
cut off lrom its ¡uropcan and Christian background. Tc Scrb popular and
Romantic traditions both highlight thc “suffcring ol Kosovo”, prcsagcd by
thc lamous battlc ol Kosovo in +¸8µ. Surrcndcr to thc Òttomans bccamc
a rcality lor thc majority ol Christian Òrthodox Scrbs by thc middlc ol
thc filtccnth ccntury, as scvcral Scrb rcalms in thc southcrn 8alkans and
in 8osnia lcll onc altcr anothcr: thc Ðcspotatc ol Scrbia (covcring today’s
ccntral Scrbia including Kosovo), and a numbcr ol rcmaining indcpcndcnt
or scmiindcpcndcnt Scrbinhabitcd princcdoms (+¡¡µ–+¡8+) including
Hcrzcgovina and Montcncgro.
+
!n thc Scrbian languagc, thc word Kosovo (kos mcaning thc blackbird,
and Koso.o, a ficld ol blackbirds) combincd with anothcr historical namc,
Mctohija (dcrivcd lrom thc Grcck word metochion, pl. metochia, mcaning
monastic posscssions), is thc official namc ol thc southcrn provincc ol Scrbia
with its +,¸oo churchcs and monastcrics scattcrcd all ovcr thc arca. Although
its majority population is now Albanian, Kosovo is sccn as cpitomizing both
thc national and cultural idcntity ol thc wholc Scrbian nation. As thc politi
cal and cultural corc ol mcdicval Scrbia, Kosovo gavc two ol Scrbia’s thrcc
most important mcdicval dynastics, thc Housc ol HrcbcljanovićLazarcvić
+
Radc Mihaljčić, Te Battle of Koso.o in History and in Popular Tradition (8clgradc:
8!GZ, +µ8µ), Nada MilošcvićÐjordjcvić, Koso.ska epika (8clgradc: Zavod za
udžbcnikc i nastavna srcdstva, +µµo).
Kosovo and Mctohija +o
(+¸¸+–+¡:¸) and thc Housc ol 8ranković (+¡:¸–+¡¡µ). Tcy rulcd Scrbia
during thc dccisivc nincty ycars bctwccn thc 8attlc ol Maritsa (+¸¸+) and
thc final Òttoman conqucst in thc middlc ol thc filtccnth ccntury (+¡¡µ).
Tc Kosovo tradition bccamc cstablishcd as a popular lcgcnd undcr
thc auspiccs ol thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć (+¡¡¸–+¸66), thc rcstorcd Scrbian
Òrthodox Church in thc first ccntury ol Òttoman domination. Tc Lcgcnd
ol Kosovo gradually mcrgcd with popular tradition, taking on almost myth
ic proportions, and cmcrgcd as a corncrstonc ol modcrn Scrb idcntity in
thc agc ol nationalism. For thc avcragc Scrb ol today, thc word Kosovo still
stands lor an ancicnt and sacrcd Scrbian land, whcrc thc Scrbs havc bccn
systcmatically pcrsccutcd and cxpcllcd lrom, lor bcing Slavic and Christian
Òrthodox, ovcr thc last thrcc ccnturics, with thc cxccption ol rcccnt pcriods
ol occasional rcprcssion against thc Albanians.
Vithin this lramc ol pcrccption, not only wcrc thc conqucrors — thc
Òttoman Turks — sccn as pcrsccutors, but also thcir local allics, abovc all
Muslim Albanians — lcgal and illcgal immigrants dcsccnding lrom thc
highlands ol northcrn and ccntral Albania and scttling in thc plains ol
Mctohija and Kosovo at various timcs during Òttoman rulc (+¡¡¡–+µ+:),
undcr thc !talian Fascist and Gcrman Nazi occupation (+µ¡+–+µ¡¡), and
undcr Tito’s communist rcgimc (+µ¡¡–+µµo). !n +µ68, supportcd by thc
lilctimc dictator ol communist Yugoslavia J. 8. Tito and in thc contcxt ol
lurthcr dcccntralization ol thc communist lcdcration, thc Albanian com
munist lcadcrship ol Kosovo succccdcd in banning thc namc Metohija, sccn
as too much Christian Òrthodox and Scrbian lor thc dcsircd political imagc
ol thc Albaniandominatcd Provincc ol Kosovo. !n +µµo, thc tcrm Mcto
hija was rcintroduccd, as thc official part ol thc namc ol thc Provincc altcr
its autonomy was limitcd and thc provincc rcturncd undcr thc jurisdiction
ol Scrbia.
Vavcs ol spiraling violcncc continucd, rcmaining thc main charac
tcristic ol Kosovo and Mctohija history. As a phcnomcnon ol longue duree,
thc ScrbianAlbanian rivalry in KosovoMctohija has bccn markcd by thc
combincd cffccts ol social discontcnt and rcligious and cthnic strilc, pro
ducing scvcral wavcs ol mass migrations during thc last thrcc hundrcd ycars.
Muslim Albanians lrom thc highlands ol northcrn and ccntral Albania,
thc poorcst rcgion ol Turkcyin¡uropc, wcrc stcadily scttlcd in thc lcrtilc
plains ol Mctohija and Kosovo by thc Òttoman authoritics, and thcir main
rivals thcrc wcrc Christian Òrthodox Scrb pcasants, as thcy occupicd most
ol thc arablc land.
Òccasional instanccs ol intcrcthnic and intcrrcligious coopcration, as
wcll as rarc attcmpts ol mutual communal assistancc — usually shortlivcd
and only supcrficially tolcrant — wcrc not thc prcvailing political practicc.
!n spitc ol ccrtain cfforts during thc last two ccnturics, lor thc two main
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ++
Kosovo communitics, Albanian and Scrb, as wcll as lor thc othcr nonAl
banians in thc arca (Goranics, i.c. thc Muslim Slav, Scrbianspcaking com
munity ol thc Gora rcgion, Roma with scvcral namcs and dcnominations,
cthnic Turks, othcr Muslim Slavs, rcnamcd 8osniaks sincc +µµµ, cthnic
Croats), intcrcthnic communication rcmaincd vcry limitcd. Furthcrmorc,
intcrcthnic communication lailcd to survivc thc mounting ScrbianAlba
nian conflict at thc cnd ol thc twcnticth ccntury.
:
!ntcrcthnic distancc in
Kosovo and Mctohija has rcmaincd highcst within thc wholc ol Scrbia,
with no tangiblc improvcmcnts altcr thc +µµµ NATÒ bombing campaign
(¸8,ooo combat sortics bctwccn :¡ March and +o Junc +µµµ) and thc rc
sulting cstablishmcnt ol thc UN administration (UNM!K) in Junc +µµµ.
For thc avcragc Albanian ol today, on thc othcr hand, thc word Koso
vo (or Koso.a in Albanian) symbolizcs an “ancicnt Albanian land” dircctly
linking thc ancicnt !llyrians ol Ðardania with thc modcrn Albanian com
munity in this tcrritory. Tc common scllpcrccption ol thc Kosovo Alba
nians is that ol thc grcatcst victims ol 8alkan history — in particular prior
to and altcr thc 8alkan Vars (+µ+:–+µ+¸) — dcprivcd ol thc right to lorm
a singlc statc with thc rcst ol thcir lcllow Albanians, all proud dcsccndants
ol ancicnt !llyrians.
Although intcrprctablc as a 8alkan instancc ol “invcnting tradition”
and having littlc to do with thc cstablishcd and vcrifiablc historical lacts,
thc myth ol thc !llyrian origin ol modcrn Albanians was a powcrlul idcol
ogy that cffcctivcly bound togcthcr vcry diffcrcnt rcligious groups and clans
togcthcr in thc latc ninctccnth and thc first hall ol thc twcnticth ccntury.
¸

!n morc rcccnt timcs, lor thc Albanians, Kosovo has bccomc thc symbol ol
Ðiaspora nationalism nurturcd by thcir constant dcmographic growth as
a lorm ol cthnic lcgitimization ovcr thc disputcd tcrritory. !n thc casc ol
Kosovo, thc Ðiaspora typc ol nationalism is almost synonymous with thc
dcsirc lor complctc and unrcstrictcd cthnic control ovcr a disputcd arca.
¡

:
Cf. Gcr Ðuijzings, Feligion and the Politics of Identity in Koso.o (London: Hurst & Co,
:ooo). Anothcr sympathctic, usclul but incomplctc survcy highlighting mostly thc posi
tivc aspcct ol intcrcthnic rclations, in particular bctwccn Scrbs and Albanians, is avail
ablc in thc journalistic narrativc ol Pctrit !mami, Srbi i Ælbanci kro. .eko.e (8clgradc:
Radio 8µ:, +µµ8).
¸
¡ric Hobsbawm, “!ntroduction: !nvcnting Traditions” in ¡ric Hobsbawm & Tcr
cncc Rangcr, cds., Te In.ention of Tradition (Cambridgc: Cambridgc Univcrsity Prcss,
+µµ:), +–:.
¡
Cf. standard works in ¡nglish and Frcnch: Alcx N. Ðragnich & Slavko Todorovich,
Te Saga of Koso.o. Focus on Serbian-Ælbanian Felations (8ouldcr: ¡ast ¡uropcan Mon
ographs, Columbia Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¡), Arshi Pipa & Sami Rcpishti, cds., Studies
on Koso.a (¡ast ¡uropcan Monographs, 8ouldcr: Columbia Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¡),
Radovan Samardžić, cd., Le Koso.o-Metohija dans l ’histoire serbe (Lausannc: L’Agc
Kosovo and Mctohija +:
Tis practicc has its roots in thc ninctccnth ccntury, in thc Romantic pcriod
ol “national awakcning”. 8oth Kosovo and Mctohija (in Albanian known as
Fafshte e Dukadjinit) wcrc lrom thc midninctccnth ccntury widcly known
as Ærna.utluk, a tcrm synonymous with lawlcss tcrritory on thc pcriphcry
ol thc crumbling Òttoman ¡mpirc, thus linking thc notion ol a Muslim
Albanian with constant rcbcllion against Òttoman ccntral authority.
¡

Ncvcrthclcss, thcrc is no rcliablc cvidcncc lor cthnic continuity bc
twccn ancicnt !llyrians and prcscntday Albanians. Tc hugc gap in thc
historical rccord bctwccn thc sixth and clcvcnth ccnturics, howcvcr, has
produccd littlc cffcct on Albanian national mythology, or on thc inclusion
ol thc !llyrian myth as an ingrcdicnt ol modcrn Albanian national idcntity.
As rcgards to Kosovo — as an allcgcd !llyrianAlbanian tcrritory — a two
stcppcd approach has bccn applicd. First, thc missing link in thc allcgcd
!llyrianAlbanian continuity was lound in thc ancicnt tribc ol Ðardani
ans. Tc sccond stcp was to multiply cfforts aimcd at “unmasking Scrbian
d’Hommc, +µµo), Koso.o, Past and Present (8clgradc: !nstitutc lor !ntcrnational Affairs,
+µ8µ), Ðušan T. 8ataković, Te Koso.o Chronicles (8clgradc: Plato, +µµ:), !dcm, Koso.o.
La spirale de la haine (Lausannc: L’Agc d’Hommc, +µµ¸, :nd cd. +µµ8), 8ranislav Krstić,
Koso.o. Facing the Court of History (Ncw York: Humanity 8ooks, :oo¡).
Cf. also in Scrbian: Ðjoko Slijcpčcvić, Srpsko-arbanaški odnosi kro. .eko.e s posebn-
im os.rtom na no.ije .reme (Himclstir: ¡parhija zapadnocvropska, +µ8¸), Ðimitrijc
8ogdanović, Knjiga o Koso.u (8clgradc: SANU, +µ8¡), Atanasijc Jcvtić & Živorad
Stojković, cds., Zadužbine Koso.a. Spomenici i .namenja srpskog naroda (Prizrcn–8cl
gradc: ¡parhija Raškoprizrcnska, +µ8¸), Ð. T. 8ataković, Koso.o i Metohija. Istorija i
ideologija (8clgradc–\aljcvo: Hrišćanska misao, +µµ8), Koso.o i Metohija u .elikoalban-
skim plano.ima :·¸·–:ccc (8clgradc: !nstitut za savrcmcnu istoriju, :oo+).
Tc papcrs by Scrbian, Albanian and Vcstcrn scholars rcflccting diffcrcnt vicws ol thc
problcm availablc in thc collcction: Koso.o´a. Confrontation or Coexistence, cds. Gcr Ðui
jzings, Ðusan Janjic & Shkclzcn Maliqi (Pcacc Rcscarch Ccntrc: Univcrsity ol Nijmcg
cn & Political Cultural Ccntrc o¡:, +µµ6). Quitc usclul lor thc rcccnt dcvclopmcnts
is also Tanos \crcmis & ¡vangclos Kolos, cds., Koso.o. Æ.oiding another Balkan !ar
(Athcns: ¡L!AM¡P, +µµ¡), Villiam Joscph 8ucklcy, cd., Koso.o. Contending !oices on
Balkan Inter.entions (Grand Rapids, Michigan–Cambridgc UK: Villiam 8. ¡crdmans,
:ooo), also usclul is “Kosovo. Six sièclcs dc mémoircs croisécs”, Les Ænnales de l ’autre
Islam ¸, Actcs du colloquc tcnuc cn +µµµ (Paris : !NALCÒ, :ooo). Tc standard Gcr
man/Austrian approach availablc in Jcns Rcutcr, Die Ælbaner in Jugosla.ien (Munich,
+µ8o), Vollgang Pctritch, Karl Kascr & Robcrt Pichlcr, cds., Koso.o´Koso.a. Mythen,
Daten, Fakten (Klagcnlurt & \icnna: Vicscr \crlag, +µµµ).
¡
Nathalic Claycr, “Kosovo: lc bcrccau du nationalismc albanais au X!X
èmc
sièclc:”, Les
Ænnales de l ’autre Islam ¸ (:ooo), +6µ–+8:.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija +¸
myths” about Kosovo through thc rapid growth ol ostcnsibly scholarly pub
lications.
6

Ðuc to this idcological pattcrn imposcd on Albanian historiography
both by national romanticism and thc Stalinisttypc communist rcgimc ol
¡nvcr Hoxha, Kosovo camc to bc pcrccivcd by thc wholc Albanian nation
as an “occupicd cthnic tcrritory”.
¸
Tc contrasting vcrsions ol thc historical
past ol Kosovo and Mctohija bccamc a significant lactor causing thc pro
lound political and cultural distrust bctwccn Scrbs and Albanians.
Ncvcrthclcss, thc usual approach, oltcn lacking rcliablc scholarly
background, is to comparc thc Scrbian historical account, ovcrwhclmingly
bascd on vcrifiablc data, with Albanian romantichistorical thcscs that havc
significantly lcss backing in sourccs, in ordcr to offcr a kind ol “balanccd”
vcrsion ol history. Howcvcr, such attcmpts to find a middlc ground usually
producc a distortcd and misguidcd vicw ol thc rcgion’s past.
Te rise and fall of medie.al Serbia
Prcscntday KosovoMctohija is a small (+o,88¸ sq km) but lcrtilc and
mincralrich rcgion. An autonomous provincc within Scrbia inhabitcd by
Albanians and Scrbs as thc two main cthnic groups, thc rcgion has had a
long and turbulcnt past. Until thc carly Middlc Agcs it was succcssivcly
includcd into diffcrcnt Roman and 8yzantinc provinccs and inhabitcd by
diffcrcnt cthnic groups. !ts prcRoman population ol varicd origin (!llyrian
in thc wcst and Tracian in thc cast and south) was gradually Romanizcd
during thc long rulc ol both Romc and Constantinoplc.
8

6
Cf. a typical cxamplc: Ali Jakupi, “Òrigins and Motivcs ol Scrbian Myths in Kosovo”,
Eurobalkans ¸¡–¸¡ (Spring/Summcr, Athcns, +µµµ), :+–:¸. Notoriously proAlbanian
as rcgards thc Kosovo issuc is Nocl Malcolm, Koso.o. Æ Short History (London: Mac
millan, +µµ8). Cf. thc rcvicw ol Malcolm’s book by Alcksa Ðjilas, “!magining Kosovo:
A 8iascd Ncw Account Fans Vcstcrn Conlusion”, Foreign Æffairs (Ncw York: Council
on Forcign Rclations !nc., vol. ¸¸, no. ¡, Scptcmbcr +µµ8). Morc balanccd, but still
incomplctc is Miranda \ickcrs, Bet.een Serb and Ælbanian. Æ History of Koso.o (Lon
don: Hurst & Company, +µ88). !n thc Frcnchspcaking countrics, an ardcnt supportcr
ol thc most prolific proAlbanian positions is a gcography prolcssor at thc Univcrsity
ol Toulousc, Michcl Roux, Les Ælbanais en Yougosla.ie. Minorite nationale, territoire et
de.eloppement (Paris: ¡ditions dc la Maison dcs Scicnccs dc l’Hommc, +µµ:).
¸
Cf. morc in thc standard ¡. Hohxasponsorcd, Stalinisttypc vcrsion ol thc ancicnt
!llyrian origin ol Albanians: A. 8uda, cd., Ælbanians and Teir Territories (Tirana: 8
Ncntori: Acadcmy ol Scicncc, +µ8¡).
8
Illyriens et Ælbanais, cd. Milutin Garašanin (8clgradc: Académic scrbc dcs scicnccs ct
dcs Arts, +µµo), bilingual Scrbian and Frcnch cdition.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡
Vith thc scttlcmcnt ol Slavs during thc scvcnth ccntury most ol
thc ccntral 8alkans bccamc a ficl ol diffcrcnt Slavic tribcs undcr strongcr
or wcakcr control ol 8yzantium. A lormcr 8ulgarian and 8yzantinc pos
scssion, thc rcgion that has comc to bc known as KosovoMctohija was
intcgratcd bctwccn thc carly twcllth ccntury and thc middlc ol thc filtccnth
ccntury into thc mcdicval Scrbian statc: thc Kingdom (+:+¸–+¸¡6), ¡mpirc
(+¸¡6–+¸¸+), various princcdoms (+¸¸+–+¡o:) and thc Ðcspotatc ol Scrbia
(+¡o:–+¡¡µ). As a prcdominantly Scrbinhabitcd arca KosovoMctohija
bccamc thc prcstigious ccntrc ol thc main Scrbian political and cultural in
stitutions.
µ
As an arca rich in natural rcsourccs it was suitablc lor cultivation,
lor cxploiting silvcr and gold mincs around which thrivcd mining towns, lor
building lortrcsscs, palaccs, churchcs and monastcrics.
+o
Trcc important bishoprics (Hvosno, Prizrcn, Lipljan) wcrc loundcd
in Kosovo and Mctohija in thc carly thirtccnth ccntury undcr thc first Scr
bian Archbishop, Sava Ncmanjić, thc luturc St. Sava: “Scrbia was ncvcr to
lall undcr strong Catholic influcncc |…| Sava’s first task was to placc all
Scrbian tcrritory undcr thc jurisdiction ol its ncw archbishop. Tis ncccs
sitatcd thc ousting in +::o ol Grcck bishops lrom thc rcccntly acquircd
towns ol Prizrcn and Lipljan. Sava thcn procccdcd to construct Scrbia’s
Church administration, dividing all Scrbia’s tcrritory (including Zcta and
Hum) up into about tcn bishoprics”.
++

Furthcrmorc, KosovoMctohija was an important political and com
mcrcial crossroads lor thc major 8alkan roads lcading lrom 8osnia and
Rascia to Maccdonia, and ccntral Scrbia to Ðioclca (Ðuklja, latcr callcd
Zcta, prcscntday Montcncgro) and othcr ports in thc south ol thc castcrn
Adriatic coast.
Vithin a ccntury, Kosovo, thc northcrn part ol KosovoandMcto
hija, bccamc covcrcd by lortrcsscs and palaccs ol thc Scrbian rulcrs and thcir
prospcring nobility. Tc citics ol Priština, Prizrcn and cspccially thc pros
pcrous mining town ol Novo 8rdo wcrc among thc richcst in thc wcstcrn
8alkans in thc lourtccnth and first hall ol thc filtccnth ccntury. Tc Plain
ol Kosovo (Koso.ska ra.nica) — strctching lrom Mitrovica to Kačanik —
µ
For morc, scc 8ariša Krckić, “Mcdicval Scrbia: Tc Ncmanyids and 8yzantium” in
Spcros \ryonis Jr., cd., By.antine Studies. Essays on the Sla.ic !orld and the Ele.enth
Century (Ncw Rochcllc, Ncw York: Aristidc Ð. Caratzas Publishcr, +µ8¡), ¡¸–¡:, Sima
M. Ćirković, La Serbie au Moyen Æge (Paris: Zodiaquc, +µµ:).
+o
Ðcsanka Kovačcvić, “Ðans la Scrbic ct la 8osnic mcdicvalcs: Lcs mincs d’or ct
d’argcnt“, Ænnales, Economies, Ci.ilisations, vol. : (Paris: Armand Colin, +µ6o), :¡8–
:¡8.
++
John \. A. Finc Jr., Te Late Medie.al Balkans. Æ Critical Sur.ey from the Late T.elfth
to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbor: Tc Univcrsity ol Michigan Prcss), ++¸.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija +¡
was dottcd with morc than +¸o churchcs built by Scrbian rulcrs, church
dignitarics and local noblcmcn. Tc Scrbian Archbishopric, loundcd and
initially scatcd in Rascia (+:+µ), was rclocatcd to Pcć in thc Hvosno arca
(latcr callcd Mctohija) and, undcr ¡mpcror Stclan Ðušan, clcvatcd to a
Patriarchatc in +¸¡6.
Hvosno or Mctohija, thc wcstcrn part ol thc prcscntday provincc ol
Kosovo and Mctohija (¡,68¡ sq km in arca), was covcrcd with a nctwork ol
largc and rich monastcrics built by thc Scrbian kings, such as Ðcčani and
thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć, and a significant numbcr ol latc mcdicval churchcs
crcctcd by local Scrbian noblcmcn (c.g. Òrahovac, \clika Hoča, Crkolcz,
\agancš, Zočištc, Ubožac, Ðolac, Prizrcn ctc). Most ol Mctohija’s dcnscly
populatcd villagcs wcrc grantcd to thc major royal loundations (monastcr
ics) crcctcd bctwccn thc latc twcllth and midlourtccnth ccnturics, hcncc
its namc Metohija.
+:
Tc monastcry ol Ðcčani alonc had morc than :,¡oo
sq km ol cstatcs, including villagcs, lorcsts and vincyards. Tc monastcry ol
Holy Archangcls was grantcd an cvcn largcr cstatc, not only in Mctohija
itscll but also in thc ncighbouring arcas ol today’s Maccdonia and Albania,
strctching lrom Šar Mountain to Allcssio on thc Albanian coast. Hugc cs
tatcs wcrc donatcd to thc Scrbian monastcry ol Chilandar |Hilandar| on
Mount Athos.

Tc prospcring Scrbian cconomy, cspccially thc cxploitation
ol mincs, rich in silvcr and gold, and largc cstatcs that thc rulcrs grantcd to
thc Church, madc thc mcdicval Scrbian monastcrics prcstigious ccntcrs ol
sophisticatcd culturc and civilization. !n thc lourtccnth ccntury, thcrc wcrc
morc than :oo churchcs and monastcrics throughout Mctohija, and many
othcrs wcrc built in thc lollowing dccadcs.

Among thc most important royal cndowmcnts arc: Tc Mothcr ol
God ol Ljcviša (Bogorodica Lje.iška), a bishopric scat in Prizrcn built on
thc loundations ol an carlicr 8yzantinc church by King Uroš ! Ncmanjić
(+:¡¸–+:¸6) and his powcrlul succcssor King Stclan Uroš !! Milutin (+:8+–
+¸:+). King Milutin, thc main patron ol thc rcvitalizcd mining industry in
Scrbia, also built two largc monastcrics in Kosovo: thc monastcry ol St.
Stclan at 8anjska ncar Zvcčan in northcrn Kosovo, and thc monastcry ol
Gračanica ncar Priština in ccntral Kosovo. Comparing Salisbury Cathcdral
with Gračanica, Stcvcn Runciman said that “thc lormcr may soar gracclully
hcavcnward, thc lattcr with thc simplicity ol its dcsign, thc comprchcnsivc
+:
Milisav Lutovac, La Metohija – etude de geographie humaine (Paris: !nstitut d’étudcs
Slavcs ct Librairic ancicnnc Honoré Champion, +µ¸¡).

Miloš 8lagojcvić, Te Estates of Chilandar Monastery in Koso.o and Metohija, ::th–
:¸th Centuries (8clgradc: Zavod za udžbcnikc, :oo6), ¸+–¡¡ (multilingual cdition).

Gojko Subotić, Te Ært of Koso.o. Te Sacred Land (Ncw York: Monacclli Prcss,
+µµ8).
Kosovo and Mctohija +6
cconomy ol its balancc and its intcrior, is thc work ol a pcoplc no lcss spiri
tual but lar morc sophisticatcd and culturcd.”


Tc complcx ol thrcc churchcs known as thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć
(Holy Apostlcs, Holy \irgin, and St. Ðcmctrios) bcgan to bc built in thc
midthirtccnth ccntury and was cvcntually complctcd in thc +¸:os by
Archbishop Ðanilo !!.
+6
Tc monastcry ol Ðcčani ncar Pcć, with its church
dcdicatcd to thc Pantocrator, was intcndcd as thc luncrary church ol King
Stclan Uroš !!! Ðcčanski (+¸:+–+¸¸+). Tc monumcntal monastic complcx
ol Ðcčani was cvcntually complctcd by his son and hcir King Stclan Uroš
!\ — luturc ¡mpcror Stclan Ðušan.

Tc Holy Archangcls ncar Prizrcn,
by lar thc largcst mcdicval Scrbian monastcry, was thc cndowmcnt ol Stc
lan Ðušan, crcctcd shortly altcr his coronation in Skopljc as “¡mpcror ol
Scrbs and Grccks” in +¸¡6. Tc cathcdral ol thc Holy Archangcls was thc
most monumcntal church built in thc 8yzantinc Commonwcalth in thc
lourtccnth ccntury.
+8

Tc Scrbian monastcrics in KosovoandMctohija hcld in thcir li
brarics, in mcdicval timcs alonc, at lcast ¸,¡oo manuscripts, with Pcć and
Ðcčani as thc most important ccntrcs. Scvcral thousand ncw manuscripts
and printcd books wcrc produccd during thc lollowing two ccnturics ol thc
Church’s organizcd activity undcr Òttoman rulc (+¡¡¸–+¸¸6). Tc most
prolific gcnrcs ol Scrbian mcdicval litcraturc wcrc hagiography, biographics
ol thc saintcd rulcrs and church dignitarics (bishops, archbishops and pa
triarchs), and memoria, eulogies, hymns, and othcr lorms ol dcvotional litcra
turc, writtcn in or translatcd into Òld Church Slavonic.


!n thc proccss ol rapid disintcgration ol Stclan Ðušan’s ¡mpirc un
dcr his wcak hcir ¡mpcror Uroš ! (+¸¡¡–+¸¸+) — thc last rulcr ol thc
Ncmanjić dynasty — KosovoandMctohija camc undcr thc control ol
powcrlul rcgional lords bclonging to thc highcst ranks ol ¡mpcror Ðušan’s

Stcvcn Runciman, Te By.antine Ci.ili.ation (London: Mcthucn & Co, +µ¸¡), :8¡.
+6
\ojislav J. Ðjurić, Sima M. Ćirković & \ojislav Korać, Pećka Patrijaršija (8clgradc &
Priština: Jugoslovcnska knjiga & Jcdinstvo, +µµo).

Cf. comprchcnsivc study by 8ranislav Todić & Milka ČanakMcdić, Manastir Dečani
(8clgradc: Muzcj u Prištini, Mncmosync & Manastir \isoki Ðcčani, 2005).
+8
For morc, scc Ð. Òbolcnsky, By.antine Common.ealth: Eastern Europe, ¸cc–:,¸·
(Ncw York: Pracgcr, +µ¸+).

!n thc carly +µ8os thc Christian Òrthodox Scrbian monastcrics in Kosovo and Mcto
hija had only ¸¡µ Scrbian manuscripts dating lrom thc mcdicval and Òttoman pcriods,
+¡o ol thc most prccious mcdicval manuscripts wcrc burnt togcthcr with thc cntirc
National Library in 8clgradc during thc indiscriminativc Nazi carpct bombing on 6
April +µ¡+. Cf. Ðimitrijc 8ogdanović, “Rukopisno naslcdjc Kosova” in Zbornik okruglog
stola o naučnom istraži.anju Koso.a (8clgradc: SANU, Naučni skupovi, vol. XL!!, +µ88),
¸¸–¸µ.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija +¸
nobility which subscqucntly cmcrgcd as indcpcndcnt local rulcrs. Altcr thc
dclcat ol Scrbian armics in Maccdonia at thc 8attlc ol Maritsa in Scptcm
bcr +¸¸+, it was Princc Lazar Hrcbcljanović (+¸¸+–+¸8µ) ol Kosovo, thc
most distinguishcd among Ðušan’s noblcs, who cmcrgcd as thc strongcst
rcgional lord capablc ol bringing togcthcr thc rivalling lcudal princcs ol
thc lormcr ¡mpirc. Having cstablishcd control ovcr thc rich mining arcas
ol thc lormcr Scrbian ¡mpirc in Kosovo, Princc Lazar lormcd a rcliablc
Kosovo and Mctohija +8
matrimonial alliancc ol rcgional lords lor thc dclcncc ol Scrbia against thc
Òttoman invasion.
:o

Although thc initial Òttoman raids into Scrbia wcrc succcsslully rc
pulscd (+¸8+, +¸8¡/86, +¸88), in +¸8µ thc Òttoman thrcat bccamc immi
ncnt. Tc dccisivc battlc bctwccn thc Scrbian (supportcd by thcir allics lrom
thc 8osnian kingdom) and Òttoman armics (supportcd by many ol thc
Sultan’s Slav vassals) took placc on Koso.o Polje (Tc Ficld ol 8lackbirds),
on St. \itus Ðay (!ido.dan) or +¡ Junc +¸8µ. 8oth rulcrs, Princc Lazar
and Sultan Murad !, pcrishcd in thc battlc. Princc Lazar’s soninlaw, \uk
8ranković — most likcly unjustly rcmcmbcrcd in cpic tradition as a trai
tor who slid out ol thc battlc during its crucial phasc — rcmaincd thc solc
indcpcndcnt rcgional rulcr until +¸µ:, whcn hc acccptcd vassalagc to thc
Òttomans.
:+
Tc immcdiatc outcomc ol thc battlc, which cngagcd somc ¸o,ooo
troops on both sidcs, was not pcrccivcd as an Òttoman victory. Tc first
rcports claimcd thc victory ol thc Christian Scrbian armics, and various
sourccs confirmcd hcavy losscs on both sidcs. Most ol thosc contcmporary
sourccs that did not pcrccivc thc outcomc ol thc battlc as a triumph ol thc
Christian lorccs cmphasizcd that nonc ol thc armics cmcrgcd victorious. !t
was only latcr, as thc lcgcnd surrounding thc +¸8µ 8attlc ol Kosovo grcw,
that thc Òttomans bcgan to claim thcir victory, whilc thc Scrbs, dccply al
lcctcd by thc postKosovo political situation markcd by unscttlcd intcrnal
strilc cvcntually lcading to thc final Òttoman conqucst, bcgan to dcscribc
thc battlc as a tragic dclcat.
::

8c that as it may, thc 8attlc ol Kosovo had larrcaching political
conscqucnccs lor thc luturc ol Scrbia. Ònly a ycar altcr thc 8attlc, Scrbia
bccamc a vassal ol thc Òttoman ¡mpirc.

Noncthclcss, prcscntday Koso
voandMctohija with its rich mining ccntrc ol Novo 8rdo (scizcd by thc
:o
Sima M. Ćirković, “Scrbia on thc ¡vc ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo” in Vaync S. \uchin
ich & Tomas A. ¡mmcrt, cds., Koso.o. Legacy of a Medie.al Battle (A Modcrn Grcck
Studics Ycarbook Supplcmcnt vol. +) (Minncapolis: Univcrsity ol Minncsota, +µµ+),
+–+¸.
:+
Tomas A. ¡mmcrt, Serbian Golgotha. Koso.o :¸·, (8ouldcr: ¡ast ¡uropcan Mono
graphs, Columbia Univcrsity Prcss, +µµo).
::
Nicholas J. C. Pappas & L. 8rigancc Pappas, “Tc Òttoman \icw ol thc 8attlc ol Ko
sovo” in \uchinich & ¡mmcrt, cds., Koso.o, ¡+–¡µ, Cf. also in thc samc book Stcphcn
V. Rcinart, “A Grcck \icw on thc 8attlc ol Kosovo“, 6+–88.

¡mmcrt, Serbian Golgotha, ¡:–6o. S. M. Ćirković, cd., Koso.ska bitka u istoriografiji
|Tc 8attlc o Kosovo in Historiography| (8clgradc: !storijski institut, +µµo), Nikola
Tasić, cd., Koso.ska bitka :¸·,. i njene posledice (Die Schlaht auf dem Æmselfeld :¸·, und
ihre Folgen) (8clgradc: !nstitutc lor 8alkan Studics, +µµ+) (bilingual Scrbian and Gcr
man cdition).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija +µ
Òttomans only in +¡¡¡) rcmaincd a bordcr rcgion ol cxccptional cconomic
and spiritual importancc until thc vcry cnd ol thc Scrbian mcdicval statc
— undcr thc first Ðcspot Stclan Lazarcvić (+¸8µ–+¡:¸), and his lcss suc
ccsslul succcssors ol thc 8ranković dynasty (+¡:¸–+¡¡µ).


A sccond battlc ol Kosovo, with János Hunyady at thc hcad ol a
Hungarian–Vallachian alliancc, took placc on +¸–:o Òctobcr +¡¡8 and
cndcd in disastcr lor thc crusading Christian troops, dcprivcd ol support ol
thc ailing Ðcspot Ðjuradj 8ranković, rcluctant to vcnturc into anothcr risky
war. Ðcspitc lrcqucnt raids and pillaging, KosovoandMctohija rcmaincd
an important rcgion, in particular lor thc cconomy and cultural dcvclop
mcnt, until +¡¡¡, whcn Scrbia, on top ol major sctbacks suffcrcd in prcvious
dccadcs, lost Novo 8rdo and Prizrcn. Vhat had rcmaincd ol thc Ðcspotatc
ol Scrbia cvcntually yicldcd undcr thc ovcrwhclming Òttoman onslaught
on its ncw capital Smcdcrcvo in +¡¡µ.


Tc rural population ol mcdicval Kosovo and Mctohija can bc idcn
tificd duc to thc chartcrs issucd by thc Scrbian rulcrs, containing dctailcd
data on taxcs, pcasant houscholds, lamily namcs, origin, ctc. Tc pcrsonal
namcs and most placcnamcs arc prcdominantly Scrbian. Fcudal obliga
tions ol scrls wcrc known as thc “Scrbian Law”, whilc thc nomadic rural
population was covcrcd by thc “\lach Law”. Albanians arc occasionally rc
lcrrcd to as nomads living in thc bordcrland bctwccn Mctohija and Albania
(uppcr and lowcr Pilot arca). Tc +¡¡¡ Òttoman ccnsus shows that only 8o
ol 6oo villagcs had houschold hcads bcaring typical Albanian namcs.
:6

Urban ccntcrs in Kosovo and Mctohija, as clscwhcrc in latc mcdi
cval Scrbia, wcrc morc multicultural than rural arcas. Undcr 8yzantinc rulc,
thc towns ol prcscntday KosovoandMctohija had a significant Grcck
population, including administrativc and church officials, whilc Slav or Scrb
mcrchants lrom thc Adriatic coast, mostly Roman Catholics lrom Ragusa
(Ðubrovnik) and Cattaro (Kotor), wcrc continuously cngagcd in tradc and
busincss in thc arca. Following thc activation ol thc rich mincs ol Trcpča,
Novo 8rdo and Janjcvo in thc carly lourtccnth ccntury, thcir numbcr, along
with that ol Saxon mincrs, considcrably incrcascd.

Undcr Ðcspot Stclan
Lazarcvić, thc northcrnmost city, 8clgradc, bccamc Scrbia’s capital and cul

Cf. \ojislav Jovanović, Sima Ćirković, ¡mina Zcčcvić, \ujadnin !vanišcvić & \csna
Radić, No.o Brdo (8clgradc: !nstitutc lor thc Protcction ol Cultural Monumcnts ol thc
Rcpublic ol Scrbia, 2004). 8ilingual Scrbian and ¡nglish cdition.

Momčilo Sprcmić, Despot Djuradj Branko.ić i njego.o doba (8clgradc: SKZ, +µµ¡).
:6
Ò. Zirojcvić, “Lcs prcmicrs sièclcs dc la domination étrangèrc” in Koso.o-Metohija
dans l ’histoire, ¡+–¡6, 8ataković, Koso.o Chronicles, ¡¡.

Scc Ðcsanka Kovačcvić, “Ðans la Scrbic ct la 8osnic médiévalcs: Lcs mincs d’or ct
d’argcnt”, Ænnales, Economies, Ci.ilisations, vol. : (+µ6o), :¡¸–:¡8.
Kosovo and Mctohija :o
tural hub, whilst thc southcrn town ol Novo 8rdo in Kosovo rcmaincd thc
main cconomic ccntcr, as tcstificd by thc “Law on Mincs” (Fudarski .a-
konik) issucd thcrc in +¡+:.
:8

Tc prcscncc ol a ccrtain numbcr ol Albanian mincrs ol thc Roman
Catholic ritc was rccordcd in Novo 8rdo in thc +¡¸os, but thc wholc arca,
both rural and urban, rcmaincd prcdominantly inhabitcd by Christian Òr
thodox Scrbs. 8csidcs Scrbian Òrthodox churchcs and monastcrics, thc ur
ban ccntcrs ol Kosovo and Mctohija disposcd with scvcral Roman Catholic
parishcs, lor Saxons, \cnctians, Ragusans and othcr lorcign tradcrs.


Ottoman rule: Conquest and decline
From thc middlc ol thc filtccnth to thc carly twcnticth ccntury, thc wholc
ol Kosovo and Mctohija was part ol thc Òttoman ¡mpirc. Conqucrcd in
+¡¡µ, thc Ðcspotatc ol Scrbia, Kosovo and Mctohija includcd, was orga
nizcd into scvcral Òttoman administrativc units (sanjaks), whilc most ol
thc nobility that had not pcrishcd in thc wars cmigratcd to ncighbouring
Hungary, whcrc thcy kcpt rcsisting thc Òttomans until thc +¡:6 8attlc ol
Mohács. !n Òttomanhcld Scrbia a ccrtain numbcr ol lormcr Scrb lcu
dal lords cntcrcd into thc Òttoman sipahi systcm and wcrc cvcntually !s
lamizcd. 8cing Christian Òrthodox, thc majority ol Scrbs, both urban and
rural, as wcll as all othcr nonMuslim cthnic groups (“pcoplc ol thc book”),
bccamc reaya, sccondclass citizcns undcr thc Òttoman !slamic ordcr. Apart
lrom lcgalizcd rcligious discrimination, discrimination bccamc cvidcnt in
all sphcrcs ol cvcryday lilc.
Tc lowcrcd status ol thc Christian population also implicd social dc
pcndcncc, as most ol thc Christian Òrthodox Scrbs wcrc rcduccd to land
lcss pcasants liablc to paying lcudal taxcs. Tcy wcrc, likc othcr Christians,
not only obligcd to drcss diffcrcntly, to pay additional tax in licu ol military
scrvicc, but thcy wcrc dcprivcd ol such rights as riding a horsc, posscssing
or carrying arms, and so on. Nor had thc Christians thc right to rcpair thcir
churchcs or ring church bclls without pcrmission ol thc Òttoman authori
tics. !t was, howcvcr, possiblc to rcbuild somc ruincd churchcs, but only with
thc authorization ol thc Òttoman administration.
Prizrcn Cathcdral, dcdicatcd to thc Mothcr ol God ol Ljcviša, was
convcrtcd to a mosquc probably immcdiatcly altcr thc Òttoman conqucst,
thc samc dcstiny bclcll thc monastcry ol St. Stclan at 8anjska, onc ol thc
:8
S. M. Ćirković, “Lc Kosovo Mctohija au Moycn Agc” in Koso.o-Metohija dans l ’histoire
serbe, :¸–:¸.

S. M. Ćirković, “Tc Cradlc ol Scrbia” in Koso.o. Past and Present, cd. Ranko Pctković
(8clgradc: Rcvicw ol !ntcrnational Affairs, +µ8µ), :¡–:¸.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija :+
most imprcssivc loundations ol King Stclan Uroš !! Milutin (+:8+–+¸:+).
Stclan Ðušan’s main cndowmcnt, thc monumcntal Church ol thc Holy
Archangcls ncar Prizrcn, whcrc hc had bccn solcmnly buricd in +¸¡¡, was
abandoncd as carly as +¡+µ and turncd into ruins by thc cnd ol thc ccn
tury. Marblc blocks lrom thc ruincd Holy Archangcls wcrc rcuscd lor thc
rcmarkablc Sinan Pasha Mosquc in Prizrcn in +6+¡. Most ol thc Scrbian
monastcrics and churchcs wcrc dcvastatcd and lclt in ruins, whilc many
villagc churchcs wcrc complctcly abandoncd. Not many wcrc rcstorcd until
altcr thc libcration ol Kosovo and Mctohija in +µ+:. Tc monastcrics ol
Ðcčani, Gračanica and Patriarchatc ol Pcć wcrc pcrmittcd to pcrlorm rc
ligious scrviccs and thcir mcdicval cstatcs, although scvcrcly rcduccd, wcrc
rcconfirmcd by Òttoman firmans.
Torough archacological survcys havc shown that most ol thc ap
proximatcly +,¸oo monastcrics, churchcs, hcrmitagcs and othcr monumcnts
thc Scrbs built, or rcbuilt on thc loundations ol carlicr 8yzantinc churchcs
in thc arca ol Kosovo and Mctohija, datc lrom thc thirtccnth to thc fil
tccnth ccntury. Tc magnitudc ol thc havoc wrought by thc conqucst can
bc sccn lrom thc carlicst Òttoman rcgistcrs combincd with ccnsuscs (deft-
ers): in +¡¡¡ Òttoman rcgistcr, apart lrom thc Monastcry ol Ðcvič in thc
Ðrcnica arca, thcrc wcrc only tcn to lourtccn activc Christian Òrthodox
churchcs out ol probably hundrcds activc prior to thc conqucst. Altcr thc
consolidation ol Òttoman rulc in thc middlc ol thc sixtccnth ccntury, thcir
numbcr significantly incrcascd — filtythrcc churchcs, including clcvcn
monastcrics. Tc largc monastcrics such as Ðcčani, thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć
and Gračanica to a lcsscr cxtcnt wcrc sparcd lrom dcstruction. Ncvcrthclcss,
thcir prcviously wcalthy land posscssions wcrc rcduccd to a handlul ol land
cstatcs in thc surrounding villagcs. Tc firmans thc Òttoman sultans grantcd
to thcsc thrcc main monastic communitics compriscd, apart lrom paying
taxcs, thc obligation to pcrlorm diffcrcnt scrviccs, including thc scrvicc ol
lalconry as wcll.
¸o
!n thc Sanjak ol Prizrcn, according to thc +¡¸+ Òtto
man ccnsus, thcrc wcrc thirtyonc Christian Òrthodox churchcs and mon
astcrics, dcpcndcncics ol thc Sultan or thc local sanjak-bey.
¸+
!n thc arca ol
Mount Čičavica, rcmcmbcrcd as thc “Scrbian Holy Mountain” in popular
tradition, thcrc wcrc, according to thc Òttoman ccnsuscs ol +¡:¡–:6 and
+¡¡¡–¡¡, “a total ol filtytwo monastcrics and churchcs”.
¸:
¸o
Zirojcvić, “Lcs prcmicrs sièclcs”, ¡o–¡6.
¸+
Òlga Zirojcvić, “Crkvc i manastiri u Prizrcnskom sandžaku”, Koso.sko-metohijski
.bornik vol. + (8clgradc: SANU, +µµo), +¸¸–+¡+.
¸:
So lar thirtysix sitcs ol lormcr churchcs havc bccn lound whilc “thcrc is a traditional
bclicl among thc Scrbian and Albanian pcoplc that on Čičavica thcrc arc scvcntyscvcn
spring wclls, scvcntyscvcn strcams and scvcntyscvcn churchcs”.
Kosovo and Mctohija ::
Tc rccstablishmcnt ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church undcr as thc
Patriarchatc ol Pcć in +¡¡¸ markcd thc bcginning ol a vigorous rcligious
rcnaissancc ol thc Scrbian millet. Tc rcasscmbling ol thc Christian Òrtho
dox into onc rcligious community (millet) undcr thc ccntral authority ol thc
patriarchs ol Pcć brought about a trcmcndous changc in thcir gcncral posi
tion within thc rigid thcocratic structurc ol thc powcrlul Òttoman ¡mpirc.
Sokollu MchmcdPasha (Mchmcdpaša Sokolović), thc Òttoman vizicr ol
Scrbian dcsccnt, installcd his first cousin Makarijc Sokolović (+¡¡¸–+¡¸+)
on thc Scrb patriarchal thronc and grantcd him thc samc privilcgcs as thosc
cnjoycd by thc ¡cumcnical patriarch ol Constantinoplc.
¸¸

Tc Scrbian patriarchs had thc right to disposc with church propcrty,
to collcct church tax, to dccidc on hcirlcss propcrty, to confirm all guild
rcgulations, and to prcsidc ovcr civil and criminal cascs, all within a scll
govcrning Scrbian community. As thc hcad ol thc Scrbian millet, thc pa
triarch ol Pcć bccamc a rcal etnarch ol all Christian Òrthodox Scrbs that
wcrc undcr thc jurisdiction ol thc rcstorcd Scrbian Patriarchatc. Patriarch
Makarijc was succccdcd by othcr mcmbcrs ol thc Sokolović lamily—An
tonijc (+¡¸+–+¡¸¡), and, altcrnating with onc anothcr, Gcrasim and Sa
vatijc (+¡¸¡–+¡86/¸).
¸¡
Tc Patriarchatc ol Pcć organizcd a proficicnt and lullscalc rcvival
ol mcdicval Scrbian cults and, in parallcl, obtaincd thc Sublimc Portc’s pcr
mission to rcstorc lully or partially many dcmolishcd or damagcd churchcs
and monastcrics. 8ascd on thc tradition ol mcdicval Scrbia, thc Patriarchatc
ol Pcć was largcly pcrccivcd, cspccially by thc Christian Òrthodox Scrbs in
Kosovo and Mctohija, as a structural continuation ol mcdicval Scrbia that
through its chanccry, financial and judicial lunctions bccamc instrumcntal
in prcscrving both rcligious and cthnic idcntity.
Tc scllgovcrning church communitics (crk.ene opštine), undcr thc
auspiccs ol local bishops, bccamc thc pillar ol thc cvcryday lilc ol both rural
and urban mcmbcrs ol thc Scrbian millet. Tc patriarchs had lcgal authority
ovcr ccrtain tradc guilds in towns, and disputcs within thc Scrbian mil-
let wcrc usually scttlcd through thc combincd implcmcntation ol common
law, patriarchal dccrccs and thc Codc ol ¡mpcror Stclan Ðušan (Dušano.
.akonik), thc most cnduring lcgal documcnt ol mcdicval Scrbia, uscd by
various Scrbian communitics until thc latc cightccnth ccntury.
¸¸
Radovan Samardjitch (Radovan Samardžić), Mehmed-Pacha Sokolo.itch (Lausannc:
L’Agc d’Hommc, +µµ¡), also availablc is a Turkish translation ol this important histori
cal biography.
¸¡
Tc list ol patriarchs ol Pcć with prccisc datcs ol thcir rulc in Ð. T. 8ataković, cd.,
Histoire du peuple serbe (Lausannc: L’Agc d’Hommc, :oo¡), ++: (list cstablishcd by A.
Fotić).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija :¸
¡pic poctry, sprcad widcly ovcr thc ccnturics by giltcd bards play
ing thc gusle (oncstringcd violin), scnt a powcrlul cmotional and political
mcssagc. Tc cpic ballads, with thc Kosovo covcnant as thcir ccntral thcmc,
immortalizcd national hcrocs and rulcrs, both mcdicval and prcmodcrn,
thus cultivating thc spirit ol dcfiancc and nurturing thc hopc ol lorthcom
ing libcration lrom Òttoman domination. ¡pic pocms about thc 8attlc ol
Kosovo and its hcrocs dcscribcd thc tragic dcstiny ol thc last Ncmanjićs, thc
hcroism ol Princc Lazar and his valiant knight Miloš Òbilić, thc assassin ol
thc Òttoman Sultan Murad at thc 8attlc ol Kosovo. Tc trcachcry ol \uk
8ranković, Princc Lazar’s soninlaw, bccamc a symbolic justification lor
thc tragic conscqucnccs ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo.
¸¡

According to thc cpic lcgcnd, on thc cvc ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo
in +¸8µ, Princc Lazar chosc thc hcavcnly kingdom ovcr thc carthly onc,
lrccdom ovcr slavcry. !t was dcscribcd in thc cpic song thc Do.nfall of the
Serbian Empire, considcrcd as “pcrhaps thc bcstknown summing up ol thc
wholc Kosovo myth, and Lazar’s choicc is, ol coursc, ‘a rcpctition and thc
pcriphrasis ol similar points madc in Scrbian historical litcraturc in thc
Middlc Agcs’.”
¸6
Transccnding thcir rcal historical contcxt, many ol thcsc
ballads, highly popular among thc rural population, wcrc sung, as tcstificd
by lorcign travcllcrs, throughout Scrbinhabitcd lands, lrom Montcncgro,
Hcrzcgovina, 8osnia and Slavonia to Croatia and Ðalmatia, and lrom
southcrn Hungary to Slavic Maccdonia.
Demographic profiles: Urban and rural society
Tc urban landscapc ol Kosovo and Mctohija undcr thc Òttomans was
mainly shapcd by !slam and its culturc. Most ol thc Òrthodox churchcs in
thc towns wcrc convcrtcd to mosqucs, and many ncw mosqucs wcrc crcctcd
soon altcr thc cstablishmcnt ol thc Òttoman administration, lrom Priština
and \učitrn to Zvcčan and Prizrcn. ¡vcn scvcral ol about a dozcn Ro
man Catholic churchcs, built undcr thc Ncmanjićs mostly lor thc colonics
ol Saxon mincrs and Ragusan mcrchants in Novo 8rdo, Stari Trg, Trcpča
and Janjcvo, wcrc gradually convcrtcd to mosqucs. Ncvcrthclcss, thc Roman
Catholic communitics hcadcd by local chaplains rcmaincd in thc arca and
¸¡
!van 8ožić, “Ncvcrstvo \uka 8rankovića” in !van 8ožić & \ojislav J. Ðjurić, cds., Le
Prince La.are (8clgradc: Filozolski lakultct, +µ¸¡).
¸6
Svctozar Koljcvić, “Tc 8attlc ol Kosovo in its ¡pic Mosaic” in Koso.o. Legacy, +:8.
Additional comprchcnsivc analysis is availablc in Svctozar Koljcvić, Te Epic in the
Making (Òxlord: Clarcndon Prcss, +µ8o).
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡
wcrc additionally strcngthcncd by Roman Catholic Albanians ncwly scttlcd
in somc urban ccntcrs.
¸¸

Analysis ol thc carlicst Òttoman rcgistcrs shows that thc dcmo
graphic composition ol Kosovo and Mctohija did not altcr much during thc
lourtccnth and filtccnth ccnturics. Tc smallinnumbcr Muslim popula
tion consistcd largcly ol mcmbcrs ol thc Òttoman administration and mili
tary, csscntial in maintaining ordcr, whcrcas ¡astcrn Òrthodox Christians
continucd to prcdominatc in rural arcas. Kosovo and parts ol Mctohija wcrc
rcgistcrcd in +¡¡¡ undcr thc namc !ilayeti !lk, altcr \uk 8ranković who
oncc rulcd this vast arca. Somc ¸¡,ooo inhabitants livcd in ¡µo rcgistcrcd
villagcs.
¸8
A placcnamcs analysis ol somc 8,¡oo pcrsonal namcs shows that
Slav and Christian namcs wcrc hcavily prcdominant.
¸µ

Howcvcr, Christian Òrthodox Scrb tcnant larmcrs who paid taxcs
and lulfillcd additional obligations towards thc ¡mpirc cnjoycd lcgal pro
tcction, whilc othcr Scrbinhabitcd arcas that providcd auxiliary troops
lor thc Òttoman army (.oynuk, martolos) or sccurcd bridgcs, lorcsts and
mountain passcs, cnjoycd partial or complctc tax cxcmption as wcll as a
ccrtain dcgrcc ol local scllgovcrnmcnt. Many ducs paid in moncy, labour
and kind sct asidc, thc hardcst lor thc Christian Scrbs was thc lorm ol taxa
tion known as de.şirme — hcalthy tccnagc malc childrcn wcrc takcn away
lrom thcir parcnts, convcrtcd to !slam and traincd to scrvc in thc janissary
corps ol thc Òttoman army or assigncd to various kinds ol scrviccs in thc
administration.
¡o

A rcncwal ol patriarchal lorms ol lilc within thc ncw political and
social lramcwork was charactcristic ol thc Christian Òrthodox Scrbs in thc
rural arcas ol KosovoMctohija. Many Scrbs acccptcd thc socallcd !lach
(cattlcbrccding) status to avoid that ol tcnant larmcrs, whilc thc Christian
Albanians, bcing cattlcbrccding nomads during prcvious ccnturics, con
tinucd to livc almost autonomously in thc mountain arcas bordcring on
Albania. Scttlcmcnts with population bcaring Albanian namcs wcrc rcg
istcrcd mostly bcyond thc boundarics ol what today is Mctohija, i.c. wcst
ol Ðjakovica. An analysis ol thc namcs in thc Sanjak ol Scutari in thc six
tccnth ccntury shows that thosc ol Slav origin prcdominatcd among thc
Christians. !n Pcć, sixtycight pcrccnt ol thc population had Slav namcs, in
¸¸
Zirojcvić, “Lcs prcmicrs sièclcs”, ¡¸–¡¸.
¸8
Miloš Macura, Naselja i stano.ništ.o. Oblasti Branko.ića :,¸¸ (8clgradc: SANU,
:oo+).
¸µ
Istorija srpskog naroda, vol. !! (8clgradc: SKZ, +µ8:), :6o–:6¡, 8ogdanović, Knjiga o
Koso.u, ¸:.
¡o
Hasan Kalcshi, “Kosovo pod turskom vlašću” in M. Malctić, cd., Koso.o nekad i sad
(Koso.a dikur e sot) (8clgradc: Knjižcvnc novinc, +µ¸¸), +¡¡–+¸6.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija :¡
thc Suho Grlo arca — filtytwo pcrccnt, in thc Ðonja Klina arca — filty
pcrccnt, and around thc monastcry ol Ðcčani — sixtylour pcrccnt, whilc
othcr namcs wcrc common Christian oncs lrcqucnt among Scrbs as wcll.
¡+

From thc midsixtccnth ccntury thc proccss ol !slamization ol thc
Albanians bccamc vcry intcnsc in thc rcgions adjaccnt to KosovoMctohija,
among thc powcrlul tribcs ol northcrn and ccntral Albania. Having con
vcrtcd to !slam, a proccss which probably acquircd largcr proportions only
in thc latc sixtccnth and carly scvcntccnth ccnturics (cspccially in thc north
ol today’s Albania), thc Albanians gradually bccamc part ol thc influcntial
ruling class in thc Òttoman ¡mpirc cnjoying distinct social and political
privilcgcs. Tc incrcasing numbcr ol !slamizcd Albanians holding highcst
or highranking positions at thc Sublimc Portc gcncratcd a similar proccss
on thc local lcvcl in KosovoMctohija: Albanians incrcasingly rcplaccd !s
lamizcd Slavs, cthnic Turks or cthnic Arabs in thc provincial administra
tion. Christian Scrbs and Muslim Albanians, now dividcd by rcligion and
rcligionbascd privilcgcs, gradually grcw into two opposcd social and politi
cal groups.
¡:
Tc Òttoman sourccs show that bctwccn +¡:o and +¡¸¡ only ¸oo
ol +µ,6+¡ houscholds in thc \učitrn district wcrc Muslim (about ¸.¡ pcr
ccnt), with ¸¡µ (:.o pcrccnt) in thc Prizrcn district. !n arcas bcyond thc
gcographic bordcrs ol Kosovo and Mctohija, in thc Scutari and Ðukagjin
districts, Muslims accountcd lor ¡.6 pcrccnt ol thc population. According
to an analysis ol namcs rcgistcrcd by thc ccnsus ol thc Ðukagjin district, Al
banian scttlcmcnts did not bccomc prcdominant until south ol Ðjakovica,
whilst thc cthnic composition ol Prizrcn and its arca rcmaincd basically
unchangcd during thc sixtccnth ccntury.
¡¸
Tc Christian Òrthodox Scrbs, as
rccordcd both by latcr Òttoman ccnsuscs and Vcstcrn travcllcrs, rcmaincd
thc prcdominant cthnic group until thc latc scvcntccnth ccntury. Tc Ro
¡+
Zirojcvić, “Lcs prcmicrs sièclcs”, ¸o–¸+, 8ataković, Koso.o Chronicles, ¡+–¡:.
¡:
Cf. Gcorg Stadtmullcr, “Ðic !slamisicrung bci dcr Albancrn”, Jahrbuch fur die Ge-
schichte Osteuropas (Munich: Òstcuropa!nstitut Munchcn, +µ¡¡), ¡o¡–¡:µ, Hasan
Kalcshi, “Ðas Turkischc \ordringcn aul dcm 8alkan und dic !slamisicrung: Faktorcn
lur dic ¡rhaltung dc ctnischcn und nationalcn ¡xistcnz dcs albanischcn \olkcs” in Pc
tcr 8artl & Hans Glassl, cds., Sudosteuropa unter dem Halbmon (Munich: Òldcnburg,
+µ¸¡), +:¸–+¸8.
¡¸
Zirojcvić, “Lcs prcmicrs sièclcs”, 66–¸¸, Òlga Zirojcvić, “Prizrcn u dcltcru iz +¡¸+.
godinc”, Istorijski časopis XXX\!!! (8clgradc +µµ+), :¡¸–:¡¡. Cf. also Sclami Pulaha,
Populsia Shqiptare e Koso.es gjate shek. X!-X!I (Tirana +µ8¡). Òn cconomic aspccts, scc
Hasan Kalcshi, “Jcdna prizrcnska i dvc vučitrnskc kanunnamc”, Glasnik Mu.eja Koso.a
i Metohije !! (Priština +µ¡¸), :µ:–:µ¸.
Kosovo and Mctohija :6
man Catholic archbishop ol 8ar, Marino 8izzi, rcportcd in +6+o that Koso
vo is lull ol “schismatic”, i.c. Scrb Christian Òrthodox, villagcs.
¡¡

!t was only altcr thc wars and rcscttlcmcnts in thc latc scvcntccnth
ccntury that mcmbcrs ol diffcrcnt northcrn Albanian clans (Krasniqi, 8cri
sha, Gashi, Shala, Sopi, Kricziu, Tsaç, 8itiqi) bcgan to scttlc on thc aban
doncd cstatcs ol Mctohija in morc significant numbcrs, advancing towards
Kosovo, whilc small numbcrs ol scttlcrs camc lrom othcr Albanian clans
(Kastrati, Mcrtura, Klimcnti, Mzi, Ðrushtina, Hoti, Mcrtura, Shkrclia). Ac
cording to an cstimatc, ¸o¡ clans and cxtcndcd lamilics, with about ¡,¡¡6
houscholds, scttlcd in Kosovo propcr.
¡¡

Te Great Serb Migration of :&,c: Generator of demographic change
A ScrbAlbanian conflict brokc out during thc Holy Lcaguc’s war against
thc Òttoman ¡mpirc (+68¸–+6µo). Tc Christian Òrthodox Scrbs joincd
thc Habsburg troops in thcir military campaign in Scrbia as a scparatc
Christian militia (Militia Fasciana, Fa.ische Feld-Mili., Irregulere Trupen).
Vith thc cxccption ol thc bravc Kclmcndi tribc ol Christian, Roman Cath
olic laith, thc majority ol Albanians — as ncwlyconvcrtcd Muslims — took
thc sidc ol thc Sultan’s army against thc military coalition ol Òrthodox and
Roman Catholic Christians. 8oth Habsburg troops and Scrbian militia, lcd
by local gucrrilla lcadcrs, wcrc dclcatcd by thc lrcshly rccruitcd Òttoman
troops in thc dccisivc battlc that took placc at Kačanik in +6µo, closing thc
stratcgic pass bctwccn Kosovo and Maccdonia.
¡6

Altcr thc Christian dclcat, tcns ol thousands ol Scrb lamilics, hcad
cd by thc Patriarch ol Pcć Arscnijc !!! Crnojcvić, withdrcw lrom Kosovo
and Mctohija and ncighbouring arcas in lcar ol rcprisals. A local church
chroniclcr rccordcd that “in thc spring ol +6µo thc patriarch — Arscnijc
Crnojcvić ol Pcć — summoncd a vast numbcr ol Scrbs, ¸¸,ooo lamilics
|+o to ¸o mcmbcrs on avcragc|, and thcy all sct off to join thc !mpcrial
¡¡
Franjo Rački, “!zvjcštaj barskog nadbiskupa Marina 8izzija o svojcm putovanju god.
+6+o. po Arbanaškoj i Staroj Srbiji”, Starine JÆZU XX (Zagrcb: Jugoslavcnska akadcm
ija znanosti i umjctnosti, +88o), ¡o–+¡6, quotation on p. +:+. Cf. also Marko Jačov, Le
missioni cattoliche nei Balcani durantela guerra di Candia (:&,¸–:&&,), vols. !–!! (Citta
dcl \aticano: 8ibliotcca Apostolica \aticana, +µµ+).
¡¡
Atanasijc Urošcvić, Etnički procesi na Koso.u tokom turske .lada.ine, Poscbna izdanja,
vol. ÐLXX\!!, Òdcljcnjc društvcnih nauka, vol. µ¡ (8clgradc: SANU, +µ8¸), +µ.
¡6
Cf. dctailcd accounts in Rajko L. \csclinović, Ærsenije III Crnoje.ić u istoriji i
knjiže.nosti, Poscbna izdanja, vol. CL! (8clgradc: SAN, +µ¡µ), Ðušan J. Popović, !elika
seoba Srba (8clgradc: SKZ, +µ¡¡), Gligor Stanojcvić, Srbija u .reme Bečkog rata (8cl
gradc: Nolit, +µ¸6).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija :¸
|Habsburg| army. !n thc samc war thcrc was largcscalc looting and dislo
cation ol Christians and plundcring ol all thc Scrbian lands. Monastcrics,
towns, and villagcs wcrc abandoncd, and somc wcrc burncd down.”
¡¸

Fcaring largcscalc vcngcancc and rcprisals similar to thosc organizcd
against thc Kosovo Scrbs, many othcr Christian Scrbs — lrom ccntral and
castcrn Scrbia — flcd northward to cross thc Ðanubc and thc Sava rivcrs
into thc ncighbouring Habsburg ¡mpirc. !n Mctohija and Kosovo, many
prcviously Scrbinhabitcd villagcs around thc towns ol Pcć, Ðjakovica,
\učitrn, Trcpča and Priština wcrc dcstroycd in systcmatic rcprisals carricd
out by thc Òttoman lorcc composcd ol Tatars and Muslim Albanians. At
lcast ¸oo villagcs, as rccordcd by Austrian sourccs, ccascd to cxist. Howcvcr,
a ccrtain pcrccntagc ol Kosovo Scrbs, having flcd into thc mountains, sur
vivcd thc rcprisals and, altcr thc Sultan proclaimcd amncsty, rcscttlcd thc
surviving houscholds, mostly in Kosovo propcr.
Tc Grcat Migration ol Christian Òrthodox Scrbs in +6µo was a
turning point in thcir history. !n Kosovo and Mctohija alonc, scvcral towns
¡¸
Ljubomir Stojanović, Stari srpski .apisi i natpisi (8clgradc: SKA, +µo¡), vol. !!!, Nos.
¡:8¸ and ¡¸o:.
Migration ol Albanian tribcs to Kosovo, +¸th–+8th ccntury
Kosovo and Mctohija :8
and a numbcr ol prcviously Scrbian villagcs wcrc complctcly abandoncd.
Tc Christian Scrb population was additionally dccimatcd by plaguc, and
whatcvcr had rcmaincd altcr that by thc rcprisals carricd out by Òttoman ir
rcgular troops. Tc Scrbs that cmigratcd north ol thc Ðanubc wcrc rcscttlcd
in thc Habsburg rcgion bordcring Scrbia — in southcrn Hungary (today’s
\ojvodina). Tc ncw churchcs thcy built along thc Ðanubc in Habsburg
¡mpirc wcrc namcd altcr thosc lclt bchind in thc old Kosovo homcland.
Tc prcscncc ol Kosovo Scrbs was rccordcd in thc 8uda arca subscqucnt to
+¸oo.
¡8

Tc two wars that lollowcd wcrc just as dctrimcntal to Christians in
Kosovo and Mctohija. Tc HabsburgÒttoman war (+¸¸¸–+¸¸µ) causcd
anothcr wavc ol lorccd migration. Namcly, a largcscalc uprising brokc out
again in Kosovo and Mctohija, cngaging somc +o,ooo Scrbs. Tcy wcrc
joincd by Montcncgrin tribcs, and Habsburg cnvoys cvcn stirrcd up thc Cli
mcnti (Kclmcndi), a Roman Catholic tribc lrom northcrn Albania, to join
lorccs against thc Òttomans. !n thc wakc ol thc Habsburg dclcat in +¸¸µ,
thousands ol Scrbs, lcd by thc ncw patriarch ol Pcć Arscnijc !\ Jovanović
Šakabcnta, flcd to southcrn Hungary lollowcd by thcir Christian Albanian
allics.
¡µ
Somc ol thc landcd propcrty abandoncd by Christian Òrthodox
Scrbs was gradually scttlcd by Muslim Albanian nomadic tribcs, whosc ob
ligations towards thc Òttoman Portc wcrc rathcr diffcrcnt lrom thosc ol
Christian Scrbs.
Islami.ation, ne. settlement, Ælbani.ation
Scttlcmcnt ol Muslim Albanians first in Mctohija and thcn in Kosovo pro
cccdcd at a slow pacc. Tc numbcr ol Christian Òrthodox Scrbs in thc
rcgion was still considcrablc whilc thc rclugccs bcgan to rcturn to thcir
homcs altcr thc largcscalc Òttoman rcprisals had lost momcntum. Tis
ncw Albanian scttlcmcnt in Kosovo and Mctohija usually took placc in
wavcs ol varicd scalc and intcnsity: oncc thc abandoncd land or rich cstatc
¡8
Radmila Tričković, “La Grandc migration dcs Scrbcs” in Koso.o-Metohija dans l ’his-
toire serbe, µ¸–+o¸.
¡µ
Oh, in the year of Our Lord :¸¸¸ there .as great unrest .hen the Germans took Niš |...|
Æfter came the pasha called by the name Koporilu Oglu |…| and took Niš again |...| Æt that
time Serbian Patriarch Ærsenije the Fourth fled. O, is there any .ay in .hich the Christian
faithful did not suffer then and any torture by .hich they .ere not tortured? It is not possible
at this time to .rite of this for fear of the Turks. Ten Koso.o .as plundered, as .ell. !hat
else can I say: it .as not in the days of Diocletian (.hen the Christians .ere horribly perse-
cuted) as it is no., for God has unleashed it because of our sins. Fecorded by Petar Ændrejić
(Lj. Stojanović, Stari srpski .apisi i natpisi (8clgradc & Novi Sad: SANU, Narodna bib
liotcka Srbijc & Matica srpska, +µ8¸), vol. \, Nos. ¸¸¸¡ and ¸¸¸¸.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija :µ
was scizcd lrom its prcvious Slav owncr, lcllow Albanian tribcsmcn wcrc
brought in to protcct thc vast cxpanscs nccdcd lor thcir largc hcrds and
lor potcntial scttlcmcnt ol thcir largc cxtcndcd lamilics. !n this population
shilt thc social aspcct playcd an important rolc: as cvcrywhcrc clsc in thc
Òttoman ¡mpirc, cattlcbrccdcrs wcrc constantly in conflict with pcasant
tcnant lramcrs.
Tc cmcrging conflict was additionally lucllcd by a social and rcli
gious dimcnsion: duc only to thc lact that hc was Muslim by rcligion, an
Albanian cattlcbrccdcr was allowcd to carry a gun and could, without lcar
ol punishmcnt, pcrsccutc and rob an Òrthodox Christian, in most cascs a
Scrbian pcasant, dcprivcd ol any mcans ol scllprotcction. Tc scrics ol Òt
toman wars against thc Habsburgs during thc cightccnth ccntury wcakcncd
thc ccntral authority in Constantinoplc, incvitably giving risc to anarchy on
both thc ccntral and pcriphcral lcvcls ol Òttoman powcr and administra
tion. Prior to thc ninctccnth ccntury tribalcontrollcd and Musliminspircd
anarchy acquircd largc proportions, sprcading all ovcr Turkcyin¡uropc,
including KosovoMctohija.
¡o

Convcrsion ol Christian Scrbs to !slam took placc in thc scvcntccnth
and first hall ol thc cightccnth ccnturics, whcn Muslim Albanians bcgan
to cxcrt a strongcr influcncc on political cvcnts in thc rcgion. Many Chris
tian Scrbs acccptcd !slam in ordcr to survivc, waiting in vain lor thc right
momcnt to rccmbracc thc laith ol thcir anccstors. Tc !slamizcd Scrbs
prcscrvcd thcir languagc and obscrvcd thcir old customs (cspccially sla.a
— thc lamily patronsaint day — and ¡astcr) through scvcral gcncra
tions. Howcvcr, scvcral gcncrations latcr, thc strong Albanian cnvironmcnt
prcsscd thcm into adopting Albanian drcss and into using thc Albanian
languagc outsidc thcir narrow lamily circlc lor salcty rcasons. Tus a kind
ol social mimicry dcvclopcd which cnablcd thc convcrts to survivc, i.c. to
avoid lurthcr discrimination lor not bcing in conlormity with thc prcvailing
social lramcwork.
Tc cnduring proccss ol rcligious convcrsion also lcd to Albaniza
tion, which, howcvcr, did not bcgin until altcr thc !slamizcd Scrbs, gradu
ally divcstcd ol thcir prcvious cthnic idcntity, bcgan to marry girls lrom
Albanian clans and cvcntually bccamc absorbcd by thc Albanianspcaking
Muslim community. Christian Òrthodox Scrbs uscd to call thcir lrcshly
Albanizcd compatriots Ærnautaši until thc mcmory ol thcir Scrbian origin
wancd complctcly, though old customs and lcgcnds about thcir anccstors
continucd to bc passcd down lrom gcncration to gcncration.
¡+

¡o
Koso.o-Metohija dans l ’histoire serbe, ++¸–+¸µ.
¡+
Jovan Cvijić, La peninsule balkanique. Geographie humaine (Paris: A. Colin, +µ+8),
¸¡¸–¸¡¡.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸o
For a long timc thc Albanizcd Muslim Scrbs (Ærnautaši) lclt thcm
sclvcs as bcing ncithcr Turk nor Albanian, bccausc thcir customs and tra
ditions sct thcm apart, and yct, thcy did not lccl thcmsclvcs as bcing Scrb
cithcr, thc Scrbs considcring thc Christian Òrthodox laith as thcir lorcmost
national attributc. ¡vcn so, many Ærnautaši rctaincd thcir old surnamcs
until thc turn ol thc cightccnth and ninctccnth ccnturics. Tc district ol
Ðrcnica and thc arca ol Prckorupljc (strctching lrom Klina to Lapušnik
and Mališcvo) as wcll as thc Mcdjuvodjc arca in Mctohija, convcrtcd to
!slam in thc coursc ol thc cightccnth ccntury, but continucd to bc bilingual
into thc carly twcnticth ccntury. !n thc Ðrcnica arca, sct bctwccn thc plains
ol Mctohija and Kosovo, thc Ærnautaši borc surnamcs pointing to thcir
Scrbian origin, such as Ðokić, \clić, Marušić, Zonić, Račić, Gccić. Tc situ
ation was similar in Pcć and its surroundings, whcrc many !slamizcd and
Albanizcd Scrbs carricd charactcristically Scrbian surnamcs: Stcpanović,
8ojković, Ðckić, Lckić, Stojković, ctc.
¡:

Tc cmincnt gcographcr and anthropologist Jovan Cvijić, who trav
clcd across KosovoMctohija during thc last dccadcs ol Òttoman rulc, was
witncss to social mimicry among thc Scrbs: “Vhcn a strangcr comcs to a
Scrbian homc in Mctohija, thc host will spcak Albanian so as not to rcvcal
his origin. 8ut a pcrson lamiliar with this practicc will havc no troublc scc
ing whcthcr thc housc hc camc to is Scrbian or not, at lcast lrom somc old
and wcllkcpt national costumc ol a Scrb woman. Somc Scrbs ol Mctohija
wcrc wclcomcd and staycd ovcrnight in an Albanian housc, and thcir Alba
nian host had no idca that hc was having Scrbs in his homc. Trough this
mimicry ol appcarancc thc pcoplc avoidcd pcrsccution and violcncc. 8ut
this lcd dircctly to convcrsion to !slam and Albanization. Tcrc arc lamilics
that arc only hall!slamizcd (in thc vicinity ol Pcć, as wcll as in Gora rc
gion ncar Prizrcn), whcrc only mcn acccptcd !slam whilc womcn kcpt thc
|Christian Òrthodox rcligion|”.
¡¸

Tc castcrn parts ol Kosovo and Mctohija, with thcir compact Scr
bian scttlcmcnts, wcrc thc last to undcrgo !slamization. ¡arlicr !slamiza
tion in thc Uppcr Morava \allcy and thc !zmornik arca is idcntificd in thc
carly cightccnth ccntury, whilc thc last wavc took placc in thc +8¸os. Slav
toponyms ol many prcscntly Albanian villagcs in Kosovo indicatcd that
thc Scrbs had livcd thcrc in thc prcvious ccnturics, whilc in somc placcs
Christian Òrthodox Scrbian ccmctcrics wcrc shicldcd against dcsccrators
¡:
Todor P. Stanković, Putne beleške po Staroj Srbiji :·¸:–:·,· (8clgradc: Štamparija Ðj.
Munca i M. Karića, +µ+o), +++–+¡o.
¡¸
Jovan Cvijić, Osno.e .a geografiju geologiju Makedonije i Stare Srbije, vol. !!! (8clgradc:
SKA, +µ++), ++6:–++6¡.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸+
by local Muslim Albanians awarc that thosc wcrc thc gravcs ol thcir own
anccstors.
¡¡

!n gcographical tcrms, KosovoandMctohija was considcrcd an intc
gral part ol Scrbia as rccordcd by both domcstic and lorcign sourccs during
thc first thrcc ccnturics ol Òttoman domination. !n +8¸o thc Principality ol
Scrbia was cstablishcd as an autonomous statc undcr Òttoman suzcrainty.
Tc Principality covcrcd thc northcrn part ol thc mcdicval Kingdom ol
Scrbia, whilc its southcrn part rcmaincd undcr lull Òttoman control. Tc
namc Òld Scrbia lor this southcrn portion ol mcdicval Scrbia first appcarcd
shortly bclorc +8¸o. Òld Scrbia cncompasscd not only KosovoMctohija,
but also thc arca ol mcdicval Raška (Rascia) including thc lormcr Sanjak ol
Novi 8azar, thc Skopjc (Uskub) arca and today’s northwcstcrn Slavinhab
itcd Maccdonia. Tc namc Òld Scrbia was also uscd by both Scrbian and
¡uropcan scholars and travcl writcrs to dcscribc thc hcartland ol mcdicval
Scrbia. !t was only altcr +8¸¸, whcn thc !ilayet ol Kosovo was lormcd, that
thc tcrm Òld Scrbia bcgan to bc associatcd with this Òttoman administra
tivc unit ol similar cxtcnt.
Gro.ing tribal pri.ileges .s. decaying Ottoman system
Prior to thc Scrbian Rcvolution (+8o¡–+8+¸) which lcd to thc cstablish
mcnt ol autonomous Scrbia (+8¸o), thc KosovoMctohija arca was gov
crncd by local Òttoman govcrnors, mostly outlawcd Albanian pashas. Gcn
cral conditions undcr which thc ¡mpirc’s Christian subjccts livcd dctcrio
ratcd apacc with thc dctcrioration ol Òttoman ccntral authority. Alrcady
assigncd by thc Òttoman thcocratic systcm to a lowcr social class (reaya)
than Muslims, thcy wcrc now cxposcd to a rclcudalization as a rcsult ol
thc Òttoman administrativc and cconomic dcclinc. Tc timar (sipahi) sys
tcm was turning into a çiftlik systcm, cspccially harmlul to thc Christian
Òrthodox population, prcdominantly having thc status ol tcnant larmcrs.
Local Muslim Albanian govcrnors in thc districts and provinccs covcring
KosovoMctohija bccamc hcrcditary lcudal lords as carly as thc cightccnth
ccntury. Albanians ol Muslim laith wcrc tolcratcd by thc Sublimc Portc as
lcudal lords or as scofflaw rcgcnts bccausc thcy wcrc sccn as promoting thc
Òttoman ordcr bascd on Shari’ah and tribal privilcgcs. Tcir proÒttoman
culturc madc thcm usclul cvcn though thcy corruptcd thc Òttoman admin
istration. !n thc carly ninctccnth ccntury thcy rulcd as scmiindcpcndcnt
¡¡
Atanasijc Urošcvić, Koso.o (8clgradc: SANU, +µ6¡), Slijcpčcvić, Srpsko-arbanaški od-
nosi, µ¡–+:¸.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸:
provincial govcrnors, virtually uncontrollcd by thc ccntral govcrnmcnt in
Constantinoplc.
¡¡

Scvcral notablc Albanian lamilics succccdcd in imposing thcmsclvcs
as hcrcditary pashas (Ðjinolli or Ðjinić in thc Priština arca, 8cgolli or
Mahmutbcgović in thc Pcć arca, Rotulli or Rotulović in Prizrcn ctc.). Rulcd
by rcncgadc Albanian pashas who, similarly to thc conscrvativc Muslim
bcys in 8osnia, wantcd to prcscrvc thc status quo which would guaran
tcc thcir privilcgcs in Turkcyin¡uropc, thc KosovoMctohija Scrbs wcrc
stuck bctwccn local outlaws rclcntlcssly pcrsccuting thcm and lrcqucnt Al
banian rcvolts against thc ccntral authoritics’ attcmpts at modcrnization.
!n that situation, plundcring and violcncc bccamc thc prcvailing social and
political conditions in thc arca.
¡6

Scrb cultural activity was limitcd to churchcultural communitics
which, supportcd by thc Scrbian Principality, madc additional cfforts to or
ganizc a school systcm lor thc Scrbian childrcn. At scvcral monastcrics and
churchcs (Gračanica, \isoki Ðcčani, Ðcvič, Ðuboki Potok, \račcvo, Ðra
ganac), additional buildings wcrc constructcd to accommodatc thc growing
numbcr ol studcnts ol monastic and, subscqucntly, sccular schools. Rcli
gious schools wcrc cstablishcd in all major towns (Priština, Pcć, Mitrovica,
\učitrn, Gnjilanc and Ðjakovica), whilc thc bcst privatc schools, lundcd by
church communitics and guilds, wcrc locatcd at Prizrcn, \učitrn, Mitrovica,
and thc villagcs ol Ðonja Jascnovo and Kovači.
¡¸

Altcr thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć was abolishcd in +¸¸6, all thc Scrb bish
oprics camc undcr thc jurisdiction ol thc Grcckcontrollcd Patriarchatc ol
Constantinoplc. Ncvcrthclcss, scvcral Scrb bishops rcmaincd in officc. !n
thc carly dccadcs ol thc ninctccnth ccntury, thc cstablishmcnt ol ncw Scrb
schools was urgcd by thc dynamic Scrb mctropolitans Janićijc and Hadži
Zaharijc ol thc RaškaPrizrcn Ðioccsc. Vhcn in +8¸o thc Prizrcn bishop
ric chair was takcn ovcr by Grcck bishops, cfforts wcrc madc, in particular
undcr Grcck Mctropolitan !gnatius (+8¡o–+8¡µ), to opcn Tzintzar (Hcl
lcnizcd \lach) schools in diffcrcnt urban ccntrcs, whcrc lcssons in Grcck
would also bc attcndcd by Scrbian childrcn.
¡8
According to thc availablc
¡¡
Robcrt Mantran, cd., Histoire de l ’Empire Ottoman (Paris: Fayard, +µ8µ), :¡o–:6¡,
Ðonald Quatacrt, Ottoman Empire :¸cc–:,:: (Cambridgc: Cambridgc Univcrsity
Prcss, :oo+), ¡6–¡¸.
¡6
For morc, scc \ladimir Stojančcvić, Južnoslo.enski narodi u Osmanskom Carst.u od
Jedrenskog mira :·:,. do Pariskog kongresa :·¸&. godine (8clgradc: PTT, +µ¸+).
¡¸
Jagoš K. Ðjilas, Srpske škole na Koso.u od :·¸&. do :,::. godine (Priština: J. Ðjilas,
+µ6µ).
¡8
Cf. thc most important studics: Pctar Kostić, Crk.eni ži.ot pra.osla.nih Srba u
Pri.renu i njego.oj okolini u XIX .eku (8clgradc: Grafički institut “Narodna misao” A.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¸
data, in thc +86os scvcral dozcn primary schools in Mctohija and Kosovo
wcrc attcndcd by at lcast +,¸oo Scrbian studcnts. A numbcr ol talcntcd stu
dcnts lrom Kosovo and Mctohija wcrc traincd as tcachcrs in Scrbia lrom thc
carly +86os, owing to gcncrous scholarships grantcd by thc wcalthy Prizrcn
Scrb mcrchant Sima Andrcjcvić !gumanov (+8o¡–+88:), thc loundcr ol thc
Tcological School (Bogoslo.ija) in Prizrcn in +8¸+.
¡µ
According to rcliablc Scrbian sourccs, thc first hall ol thc ninctccnth
ccntury in KosovoMctohija was markcd by spiralling violcncc mostly di
rcctcd against thc Christian Òrthodox Scrb population, rcsulting in thcir
occasional convcrsion to !slam and incrcasing cmigration to thc Principal
ity ol Scrbia.
6o
Appalling Scrb tcstimonics ol both rcligious and social dis
crimination against thcm, pcrpctratcd mostly by Muslim Albanian outlaws,
wcrc additionally confirmcd by both Vcstcrn and Russian travclcrs.
6+

Tc Scrbian rulcr Princc Mihailo Òbrcnović’s (+86o–+868) and his
Primc Ministcr !lija Garašanin’s ambitious plans lor an allChristian upris
ing in Turkcyin¡uropc in thc latc +86os pavcd thc way lor luturc coop
cration with powcrlul Muslim and Roman Catholic clans lrom northcrn
Albania. Ncvcrthclcss, thc 8clgradc govcrnmcnt’s lricndly rclations with
thc clans ol northcrn Albania had no tangiblc cffcct on cithcr thc Kosovo
rcncgadc pashas and thcir lawlcss clans or on thc improvcmcnt ol thc dil
ficult position ol thc pcrsccutcd Christian Scrb population.
6:

Tc dccrcasc ol Scrb population causcd by tribal anarchy and lorccd
migration was partially compcnsatcd by a high birth ratc in thc rural arcas.
!n rural arcas, thc Christian Scrbs, as wcll as thc Muslim Albanians, livcd
in cxtcndcd lamilics (.adruga) comprising scvcral gcncrations and with up
to as many as cighty mcmbcrs, but twcnty to lorty on avcragc. Tc dcmo
graphic structurc was diffcrcnt in thc urban population. According to thc
rcnowncd Russian scholar A. F. Hillcrding who conductcd cxtcnsivc, highly
rcliablc rcscarch on his voyagc to thc rcgion in +8¡8, thc composition ol
thc main towns was as lollows: Pcć — ¡,ooo Muslim and 8oo Christian
Ð., +µ:8), !dcm, Pros.etno-kulturni ži.ot pra.osla.nih Srba u Pri.renu i njego.oj okolini
u XIX .eku i početkom XX .eka (sa uspomenama pisca) (Skopljc: Grafičkoindustrijsko
prcduzcćc Krajničanac a. d., +µ¸¸).
¡µ
\ladimir 8ovan, Sima Æ. Igumano.. Ži.ot i delo (Priština & Prizrcn: Narodna i Uni
vcrzitctska bibliotcka “!vo Andrić” & Srpska Pravoslavna 8ogoslovija Svctog Kirila i
Mctodija, :oo¡).
6o
For morc, scc Ðušan T. 8ataković, cd., Sa.remenici o Koso.u i Metohiji :·¸:–:,::
(8clgradc: SKZ, +µ88).
6+
Ibid.
6:
Sadulla 8rcstovci, Marredheniet shqiptare-serbo-mala.e.e :·¸c–:·¸· (Prishtina: !n
stituti Albanologjik i Prishtincs, +µ8¸).
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¡
Òrthodox lamilics, Priština — +,:oo Muslim and ¸oo Christian Òrthodox
lamilics, Prizrcn — ¸,ooo Muslim, µoo Christian Òrthodox and +oo Ro
man Catholic lamilics.

!n thc +86os thc 8ritish travcllcrs M. McKcnzic and A. P. !rby rc
cordcd that Scrb villagcs wcrc not thc only targct ol Albanian outlawcd
raidcrs. Ðuring thcir visit to \učitrn, a Scrb pricst cxplaincd, in thc prcscncc
ol an Òttoman official (mudir), thc position ol urban Christians: “Tcrc,
said hc, thc mudir sits — onc man with hall a dozcn .aptis |policcmcn| —
what can hc cffcct: Tcrc arc hcrc but :oo Christian houscs, and lrom ¡oo
to ¡oo Mussulman |Muslim|, so thc Arnaouts |Albanians| havc it all thcir
own way. Tcy rob thc Christians whcncvcr and ol whatcvcr thcy plcasc,
somctimcs walking into a shop, calling lor what thcy want, and carrying it
off on promisc ol paymcnt, somctimcs scizing it without lurthcr ado. Vorsc
than this, thcir thoroughly savagc, ignorant, and lawlcss way ol living kccps
thc wholc community in a statc ol barbarism, and as thc Christians rcccivc
no support against thcm, no cnlightcnmcnt nor hopc lrom Constantinoplc,
thcy naturally look lor cvcrything to Scrbia, — to thc Scrbia ol thc past
lor inspiring mcmorics, to thc Principality |ol Scrbia| lor cncouragcmcnt,
counscl, and instructions.”

Tc dcmographic structurc ol Òld Scrbia (Kosovo, Mctohija, thc lor
mcr Sanjak ol Novi 8azar and prcscntday northwcstcrn Maccdonia) prior
to thc ¡astcrn Crisis (+8¸¡–+8¸8), according to AustroHungarian military
intclligcncc sourccs in +8¸+, was as lollows: ¸+8,ooo Scrbs, +6+,ooo Alba
nians, :,ooo Òsmanlis (cthnic Turks), +o,ooo \lachs, µ,ooo Circassians and
Gypsics. Òl thcm, :¡o,ooo wcrc Christian Òrthodox, :¸µ,ooo Muslims
and ++,ooo Roman Catholics.


Two wars that Scrbia and Montcncgro, supportcd by thc Russian
¡mpirc, wagcd against thc Òttomans (+8¸6, +8¸¸–+8¸8) rcsultcd in thc
dclcat ol thc proÒttoman Muslim Albanian troops and thc migration,
both voluntary and lorccd, ol at lcast ¸o,ooo Muslim Albanians lrom thc
libcratcd tcrritorics ol prcscntday southcast Scrbia, thc lormcr Sanjak ol
Niš. Convcrscly, dozcns ol thousands ol Scrbs flcd lrom various parts ol
Òld Scrbia, mostly Kosovo (Lab and othcr arcas ol castcrn and northcrn

Alcksandar F. Giljlcrding, Puto.anje po Hercego.ini, Bosni i Staroj Srbiji (Sarajcvo:
\csclin Maslcša, +µ¸:), +¡¡–+6¡ (Scrbian translation lrom thc Russian original ol
+8¡µ).

G. Muir Mackcnzic and A.P. !rby, Tra.els in the Sla.onic Pro.inces of Turkey-in-Eu-
rope, vol. ! (:nd rcv. cd., London: Ðadly, !sbitcr & Co, +8¸¸), :¡6.

Pctcr Kukulj, Major im Gcncralstabc, Das Furstentum Serbien und Turkish-Serbien
(Stara Srbia, Ælt-Serbien). Eine Militarisch-geographische Ski..e (Im Manuskript gedrakt).
Vicn. Aus dcr kaiscrlichköniglich Hol und Staatdrukcrci +8¸+, +¡¸–+¡µ.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¡
Kosovo), into thc ncwlylibcratcd tcrritory. Tcir cxact numbcr, howcvcr,
has ncvcr bccn dctcrmincd. Prior to thc Sccond ScrboÒttoman Var
(+8¸¸–¸8), Albanians wcrc thc majority population in somc arcas ol Sanjak
ol Niš (Toplica rcgion), whilc lrom thc Scrb majority district ol \ranjc Al
banianinhabitcd villagcs wcrc cmpticd altcr thc +8¸¸–¸8 war.
66
Rcluctant
to acccpt thc loss ol lcudal privilcgcs in a Christianrulcd ¡uropcantypc
statc, most Muslim Albanians cmigratcd to Mctohija and Kosovo, taking
out thcir lrustration on thc local Scrbs.


Feligious affiliation, tribal society and rise of nationalism
Tc \ilayct ol Kosovo (+8¸¸–+µ+:), an administrativc unit ol :¡,ooo sq
km cxtcnding lrom Novi Pazar and Taslidjc (Pljcvlja) to Priština, Skopljc
and Tctovo, was synonymous with Òld Scrbia during thc last dccadcs ol
Òttoman rulc, it was a largc political unit subdividcd into sanjaks, ka.as and
nahis. !n addition to Christian Òrthodox Scrbs and Muslim Albanians as
thc two major cthnic groups, its population includcd significant numbcrs ol
Muslim Slavs, 8ulgarians, cthnic Turks, Hcllcnizcd \lachs and Grccks. Ac
cording to divcrsc data, in thc \ilayct ol Kosovo, with Priština (until +888)
and Skopljc (+888–+µ+:) as its succcssivc scats, Albanians accountcd lor
lcss than onc hall ol thc population until thc latc +8¸os.
68

Tc numbcr ol Scrbs dcclincd during thc lollowing dccadcs. Prior
to thc First 8alkan Var (+µ+:) Albanians wcrc alrcady a majority in most
ol Mctohija (Prizrcn, Ðjakovica and Pcć), whilc Scrbs rcmaincd a rclativc
majority in thc rural arcas ol Kosovo (Mitrovica, Priština, Gnjilanc, Zvcčan,
!barski Kolašin, Novo 8rdo arca), and in thc rcgion ol Rascia (lormcr Sanjak
66
For cxamplc, prior to +8¸8 thc Prokupljc arca in thc rcgion ol Toplica had :,o¸+
Scrbian, ¸,o¡¡ Albanian and ¸¡ Turkish houscholds. Altcr +8¸8, only a lcw Albanian
villagcs rcmaincd, whilc 6¡ wcrc complctcly dcscrtcd (lor morc, scc Ðjordjc Mikić,
“Social and ¡conomic Conditions in Kosovo and Mctohija lrom +8¸8 until +µ+:” in \.
Stojančcvić, cd., Serbia and the Ælbanians in the :,th and early :cth Centuries, Acadcmic
Conlcrcnccs, vol. L!!!, Ðcpartmcnt ol Historical Scicnccs, No +¡ (8clgradc: Scrbian
Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts, +µµo), :¡+–:¡:).

Radoslav Pavlović, “Scobc Srba i Arbanasa u ratovima +8¸6. i +8¸¸–+8¸8. godinc”,
Glasnik Etnografskog instituta ¡–6 (8clgradc +µ¡¡–¡¸), ¡¸–+o¡.
68
Prior to thc First 8alkan Var (+µ+:) thc \ilayct ol Kosovo covcrcd an arca ol :¡,ooo
sq km and consistcd ol six sanjaks: Skopljc (Uskub), Priština, Pcć, Sjcnica, Taslidja
(Pljcvlja), with thc Sanjak ol Prizrcn, prcviously part ol thc \ilayct ol Monastir (8itolj,
8itola), includcd into it ol +8µ¸. As in prcvious administrativc rcorganizations, prcscnt
day Kosovo and Mctohija cncompasscd mostly thc arcas ol thc sanjaks ol Pcć, Priština
and Prizrcn.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸6
ol Novi 8azar). !n total, thcrc wcrc ¸µo,ooo cthnic Albanians and :o¸,ooo
Christian Òrthodox Scrbs in thc wholc ol Òld Scrbia.


Until thc ¡astcrn Crisis (+8¸¡–+8¸8), thc Muslim Albanians wcrc
wavcring bctwccn bcing gcncrally loyal to thc Òttoman ¡mpirc and dc
lcnding thcir own local intcrcsts which rcquircd opposition to thc mcasurcs
implcmcntcd by thc ccntral authoritics. Ðclcnding thcir old privilcgcs, thc
Muslim Albanians bccamc, just as thc Muslim Slavs in 8osnia, a scrious
obstaclc to thc modcrnization ol thc Òttoman ¡mpirc during its dcclin
ing pcriod.
¸o
Tcir national movcmcnt took an organizcd lorm at thc vcry
cnd ol thc ¡astcrn Crisis. Tc Albanian Lcaguc (+8¸8–+88+) was lormcd
on thc cvc ol thc Congrcss ol 8crlin and bascd in Prizrcn. Tc Albanian
Lcaguc callcd lor a solution to thc Albanian national qucstion within thc
bordcrs ol thc Òttoman ¡mpirc: it was conscrvativc Muslim groups that
prcvailcd in thc Lcaguc’s lcadcrship and commandcd +6,ooo mcnstrong
paramilitary lorccs opcrating in scvcral Òttoman vilaycts.
Tc main causc ol thcir discontcnt was thc tcrritorial cnlargcmcnt
ol Scrbia and Montcncgro, two ncw indcpcndcnt statcs rccognizcd by thc
Congrcss ol 8crlin in July +8¸8, whilc thc main victims ol thcir combincd
rcligious and national lrustration wcrc thc Christian Scrbs that rcmaincd
undcr Òttoman rulc, sccn as thc dccisivc pillar ol support lor thc aspirations
ol thc ncighbouring 8alkan statcs. Ðissatisficd with thc Portc’s conccssions
to major ¡uropcan Powcrs, thc Albanian Lcaguc tricd to scvcr all tics with
Constantinoplc. !n ordcr to prcvcnt lurthcr intcrnational complications, thc
ncw Sultan, Abdulhamid !! (+8¸6–+µoµ), ordcrcd military action and bru
tally dcstroycd thc Albanian movcmcnt.
¸+

Tc rcal naturc ol thc Albanian Lcaguc and its attitudc towards othcr
cthnic communitics was dcscribcd in dctail in a confidcntial rcport scnt to
thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt in 8clgradc by !lija Stavrić, Ðcan ol thc Scrbian
Tcological School (Bogoslo.ija) in Prizrcn. A firsthand account ol thc Al
banian Lcaguc mcctings, it rcportcd that Albanians wcrc dctcrmincd to
“cxpcl thc Scrbs and Montcncgrins back to thc lormcr bordcrs … and il
thcy rcturn, to put thcsc infidcls |KosovoMctohija Scrbs| to thc sword”.
¸:

Vcllinlormcd and Albanianspcaking, Stavrić addcd that thc Scrbian
community in Prizrcn was lorccd by a mcmbcr ol Albanian Lcaguc “on thc

8ataković, Koso.o Chronicles, +¸¡–+¸¸.
¸o
Ibid., 8¸–88.
¸+
Stavro Skcndi, Te Ælbanian National Æ.akening :·¸·–:,:: (Princcton NJ: Princ
cton Univcrsity Prcss, +µ6¸), ¸+–¡¸.
¸:
Arhiv Srbijc, Ministarstvo inostranih dcla, Političko odcljcnjc |Archivcs ol Scrbia,
8clgradc, Ministry ol Forcign Affairs, Political Ðcpartmcnt), +8¸8, lasc. !\, No ¡¸8, a
confidcntial lcttcr ol !lija Stavrić ol :6 Junc (8 July) +8¸8 lrom Prizrcn.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¸
+¸th ol this month |…| to cablc a statcmcnt ol our loyalty as subjccts and
our satislaction with thc prcscnt situation to thc Portc, morcovcr, |wc wcrc
lorccd| to dcclarc that wc do not wish to bc govcrncd by 8ulgarians or Scr
bia or Montcncgro. Vc had to do as thcy wishcd. Alas, il ¡uropc docs not
know what it is likc to bc a Christian in thc Òttoman ¡mpirc:”
¸¸
Ncvcrthclcss, a rcvivcd loyalty to thc Sublimc Portc cmcrgcd among
thc Albanian Muslims only a lcw ycars latcr as an ccstatic rcsponsc to thc
Sultan’s proclaimcd pan!slamic policy. Lacking thc componcnt ol !slamic
lanaticism, thc ncw policy ol thc Sultan, who assumcd thc titlc ol rcligious
lcadcr (caliph), mcant to Muslim Albanians in particular thc rcncwal ol
thcir tribal privilcgcs and autonomy as wcll as both political and social prc
dominancc ovcr thcir immcdiatc ncighbours, thc Christian Slavs. Tus thc
Muslim Albanians in thc wcstcrn 8alkans wcrc cncouragcd by thc Sultan
and Caliph Abdulhamid !! to rclcntlcssly supprcss all Christianlcd unrcst
as a potcntial thrcat to thc intcrnal sccurity ol thc ¡mpirc’s ¡uropcan prov
inccs.
¸¡

Furthcrmorc, modcrn Albanian nationalism, stcmming lrom its trib
al roots, gavc priority to tribal rathcr than any othcr loyaltics. Although dc
fincd in cthnic tcrms, thc Albanian national movcmcnt was still dominatcd
by a Muslim majority and burdcncd by conscrvativc !slamic traditions ad
ditionally rcinlorccd both by thc Pan!slamic policy and by lcars ol ¡uro
pcanstylc rclorms. Ðuring thc GrcckÒttoman Var in +8µ¸, according
to confidcntial AustroHungarian rcports, thc KosovoMctohija Muslim
Albanian voluntccrs dcmonstratcd absolutc solidarity with thc Òttomans,
whilc thcir patriotism, dircctcd against Christians, was casily translormcd
into rcligious lanaticism.
¸¡

Tc slow progrcss ol Albanian national intcgration gavc thc Ðual
Monarchy thc opportunity lor broad political action: in this carly proccss ol
nationbuilding thc Albanian clitcs wcrc dividcd into thrcc rcligious com
munitics, and so was thc wholc nation. !ts mcmbcrs wcrc ol diffcrcnt social
statuscs, ol mutually opposcd political traditions, spokc diffcrcnt dialccts
and uscd diffcrcnt alphabcts. !n ordcr to minimizc thc diffcrcnccs, \icnna
launchcd important cultural initiativcs: books about Albanian history wcrc
printcd and distributcd, thc national coatolarms invcntcd, and various
grammars writtcn in ordcr to promotc a unilorm Albanian languagc.
¸¸
Ibid.
¸¡
Cf. Pctcr 8artl, Die albanischen Muslime .ur Zeit der nationalen Unabhangigkeitsbe.e-
gung (:·¸·–:,::) (Vicsbadcn: Ò. Harassowitz, +µ68).
¸¡
Haus, Hoff und Staatsarchiv, Vicn, Politischcs Archiv, vol. X!!, Turkci, carton +¸o,
+µo+, Studie des konsul Simon Joano.ic uber der Sandschak .on No.i Pa.ar.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸8
Tc Latin script, supplcmcntcd with ncw lcttcrs lor nonrcsounding
sounds, was intcndcd to bccomc a common script lor Albanians ol all thrcc
conlcssions: until thc carly twcnticth ccntury, a varicty ol scripts was in
usc lor tcxts in Albanian, including Grcck, Cyrillic, and Arabic charactcrs.
Spccial historics wcrc writtcn—such as Populare Geschichte der Ælbanesen by
Ludwig von Talloczy—and distributcd among thc widcr public in ordcr
to awakcn national consciousncss and crcatc a unificd national idcntity ol
thc Albanians ol all thrcc conlcssions. Tc most important clcmcnt in Aus
triaHungary’s political and cultural initiativc was thc thcory ol thc !llyr
ian origin ol Albanians. Tis was a dclibcratc choicc intcndcd to “cstablish
continuity with a suitablc historical past”, a casc ol “invcntcd tradition”, but
with an important diffcrcncc lrom thc similar pattcrn applicd clscwhcrc in
¡uropc: thc “invcntors” and propagators ol thc “invcntcd tradition” wcrc not
mcmbcrs ol thc national clitc but thcir lorcign protcctors.
¸6

Similarly to othcr bclatcd nations (.erspatete Nation), whcn conlront
cd with rival nationalisms Albanians sought lorcign support and advocatcd
radical solutions. Tc growing social stagnation and political disordcr pro
duccd anarchy that rcigncd almost unintcrruptcd during thc last ccntury ol
Òttoman rulc: thcrc thc Christians, mostly Scrbs, wcrc thc principal victims
ol political discrimination and thc Muslims, in KosovoMctohija mostly
Albanians, wcrc thcir pcrsccutors.
¸¸

Falsc rumours that thc Scrbs wcrc going to risc to arms in Kosovo
on thc vcry day Scrbia was proclaimcd a kingdom in March +88: rcsultcd
in thc cstablishmcnt ol a courtmartial in Priština. For thc fivc ycars ol
its unintcrruptcd activity, bascd on suspicion rathcr than hard cvidcncc,
roughly ¸,ooo Kosovo Scrbs wcrc scntcnccd lor “scdition”, whilc anothcr
¸oo wcrc scntcnccd to bctwccn six and hundrcdandonc ycars’ hard labour.
Tc promincnt Scrb urban cldcrs wcrc imprisoncd, along with tcachcrs and
mcrchants, pricsts and somc prospcrous larmcrs. Tc scntcnccd wcrc scnt
to prisons in Salonika or cxilcd to Anatolia. Ònly in +888, duc to thc joint
mcdiation ol Russian and 8ritish diplomacics, wcrc somc ol thc surviving
Kosovo Scrb convicts cvcntually pardoncd.
¸8
¸6
Hobsbawm, “!ntroduction: !nvcnting Traditions”. Cf. also Milorad ¡kmcčić, St.ar-
anje Jugosla.ije :¸,c-:,:·, vol. !! (8clgradc: Prosvcta, +µ8µ), ¡¡+–¡¡¡
¸¸
Koso.o-Metohija dans l ’histoire, +µ:–:+¡.
¸8
Istorija srpskog naroda, vol. \!+ (8clgradc: SKZ, +µ8¸), ¸:¸–¸:6. Cf. also Janićijc
Popović, Ži.ot Srba na Koso.u i Metohiji (8clgradc: Narodna knjiga, +µ8¸), :¡¸–:¡8.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸µ
Koso.o Serbs: Discrimination and persecution :··:–:,::
!n was in +88: that Sima Andrcjcvić !gumanov publishcd a tcrrilying tcs
timony: Te Current Fegrettable Situation in Old Serbia (Sadašnjc ncsrctno
stanjc u Staroj Srbiji), a book ol crcdiblc and vcrifiablc data on harassmcnt,
discrimination and atrocitics committcd by thc Turks and Muslim Alba
nians in thc carly phasc ol thc courtmartial’s activity. Fcarlul that Scrbia
would lail to pay cnough attcntion to thc suffcrings ol hcr conationals in
Tc \ilayct ol Kosovo, +8¸¸–+µ+:
Turkcyin¡uropc, Sima A. !gumanov attcmptcd to draw thc public cyc to
thc ncw wavc ol cthnically and rcligiously motivatcd violcncc:
“Òur homcland |Òld Scrbia| has bccn turncd into hcll by dark crazcd
bloodsuckcrs and masscs ol mclting Asian tyrants. 8anditry, violcncc, dclc
tion, spying, dcnunciation, daily arrcsts, accusations, trials, scntcnccs, cxilcs,
scizurc ol propcrty and lilc in many ways, wailing and mourning lor thc
dcad and burial ol thc cxccutcd, all thcsc havc bccomc ordinary cvcnts cv
crywhcrc in Òld Scrbia and |Slavic| Maccdonia.”
¸µ

A mixturc ol rcligious, sociallybascd antagonisms and growing na
tional rivalry addcd to thc intcnsity ol thc ScrbAlbanian conflict: “!t is truc
¸µ
8ataković, cd., Sa.remenici, +o+.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡o
that thc Albanians in Kosovo, who wcrc prcpondcrantly Muslim, idcnti
ficd thcmsclvcs rcligiously with thc Turks, and on that basis wcrc idcntificd
with thc |Òttoman| ¡mpirc. Tcy naturally rcgardcd |Òrthodox| Chris
tians, bcing cncmics ol Turkcy, as thcir own cncmy. Howcvcr, as lar as thc
Slavs wcrc conccrncd, thc hatrcd ol thc Kosovars |Kosovo Albanians| was
not loundcd on rcligion — although rcligion intcnsificd it — but on cthnic
diffcrcncc: thcy lought thc lorcigncr (thc Shkja) bccausc hc covctcd thcir
land.”
8o
Ncvcrthclcss, thc rcligious dimcnsion, although not prcdominant
among Muslim Albanians, rcmaincd thc basis ol social rcality: many Mus
lim Albanians in KosovoMctohija bclicvcd !slam to bc thc rcligion ol lrcc
pcoplc, whcrcas Christianity, cspccially Òrthodox Christianity, was sccn as
thc rcligion ol slavcs. ¡uropcan consuls obscrvcd an ccho ol such bclicls
among thc Albanians as latc as thc carly twcnticth ccntury.
8+

Scrbia strugglcd to implcmcnt strongcr diplomatic monitoring, to
rcvivc thc issuc ol rcinstalling Scrbian Mctropolitans in both Prizrcn and
Skopljc, as thc first stcp to rccstablish Patriarchatc ol Pcć and to obtain
widcr intcrnational support lor thc official rccognition ol Scrbs as a scparatc
nation and thcir lcgal protcction in Òld Scrbia. To thc nctwork ol Scrbia’s
diplomatic missions in Turkcyin¡uropc, a gcncral consulatc bascd in
Skopljc (Uskub) covcring thc wholc ol thc \ilayct ol Kosovo was addcd
in +88¸, whilc in +88µ, altcr a long dclay, a Scrb consulatc was cvcntually
cstablishcd in Priština.
8:
Tc immcdiatc rcsponsc was Albanianlcd anarchy
8o
“Shkja – plural Shkje – is thc word thc Albanians usc lor thc Slavs. Tc dcrivation is
lrom Latin scla.us in thc mcaning ol Slav.” (Quotcd lrom Skcndi, Ælbanian National
Æ.akening, :o:).
8+
“Les musulmans d’origine albanaise |...| sont cependant fanatiques et leur fanatisme se base
sur la con.iction que l ’Islam est la religion des gens libres et des patrons tandis que le christian-
isme est la religion des escla.es.” (Quotcd lrom Ð. T. 8ataković, “Mémoirc du viccconsul
dc Francc a Skopljc (Uskub) sur lcs Albanais dc Mctohia dc +µo8” in Miscellanea :o
(8clgradc +µµo), ++:).
8:
Spomenica Stojana No.ako.ića (8clgradc: SKZ, +µ:+), +¸+–+¸¸. Until thc cnd ol thc
First 8alkan Var in +µ+: daily rcports on thc living conditions ol Scrbs and thc po
litical situation in thc \ilayct ol Kosovo wcrc scnt rcgularly lrom thc Scrbian consu
latcs in Skopljc and Priština (whilc copics wcrc circulatcd to thc Lcgation ol Scrbia in
Constantinoplc). Scvcral thousand comprchcnsivc documcnts storcd in thc Archivc ol
thc Scrbian Ministry ol Forcign Affairs (Ærhi. Srbije, Beograd, Ministarst.o inostranih
dela, Pros.etno-političko odeljenje i Političko odeljenje :·¸·–:,::) havc bccn only partially
publishcd. Cf. thc publishcd diplomatic corrcspondcncc in \ladimir Ćorović, cd., Dip-
lomatska prepiska Kralje.ine Srbije, vol. !: +µo:–+µo¸ (8clgradc: Ðržavna štamparija,
+µ¸¸), and additional thrcc volumcs cditcd by thc archivist 8ranko Pcruničić, Pisma
srpskih kon.ula i. Prištine :·,c–:,cc (8clgradc: Narodna knjiga. +µ8¡), S.edočanst.o
o Koso.u :,c:–:,:: (8clgradc: Naučna knjiga, +µ88), Zulumi aga i bego.a u koso.skom
.ilajetu (8clgradc: Nova, +µ88). Cf. also diplomatic corrcspondcncc publishcd in
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡+
that dcvclopcd into a largcscalc attcmpt to drivc out thc Christian Scrbs
lrom Mctohija. !n April and May +88µ alonc, around ¸oo pcrsons flcd
Kosovo and Mctohija to Scrbia. Tc Russian consul to Prizrcn, T. Liscvich,
in his cvaluation ol thc anarchy in Kosovo and Mctohija, concludcd that thc
Muslim Albanians’ goal was to clcansc all arcas bctwccn Scrbia and Mon
tcncgro and thus dcprivc Òld Scrbia ol its Scrbian charactcr. AntiScrbian
lcclings culminatcd in thc murdcr ol Scrbian Consul Luka Marinković in
Priština in Junc +8µo. 8ascd on inlormation rcccivcd lrom thc Scrbs ol
Priština, thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt maintaincd that an Albanian conspiracy
was rcsponsiblc lor thc assassination, whilc thc Sublimc Portc sought to
prcscnt thc murdcr as an act ol gcncral Muslim antagonism towards Chris
tian lorcigncrs. His succcssors, including thc grcatcst Scrbian playwright
8ranislav Ðj. Nušić, succccdcd in gctting thc first Scrbian bookshop startcd
and sponsorcd thc rcnovation ol thc primary and sccondary Scrbian school
in Priština.


Altcr thc dcath ol Mclctios, thc last Grcck Mctropolitan in Prizrcn,
thc conccrtcd diplomatic cffort ol 8clgradc and Cctinjc, bolstcrcd by thc
Russian ¡mbassy in Constantinoplc, rcsultcd in a Scrb prclatc, Ðionisijc
Pctrović (+8µ6–+µoo), bcing appointcd as RaškaPrizrcn Mctropolitan. !n
accord with thc 8clgradc govcrnmcnt, thc ncw mctropolitan, as wcll as his
succcssor Nićilor Pcrić (+µo+–+µ++), carricd out a broad rcorganization
ol both ccclcsiastical and cducational institutions lor thc Christian Scrbs,
opcncd ncw schools, rcncwcd tcaching staff, cstablishcd ncw churchschool
communitics, and coordinatcd all activitics rclating to important national
affairs.


Scrbia, on hcr part, planncd to opcn a consulatc in Prizrcn (+8µ8–
+µoo) so as to lacilitatc daily communication with thc RaškaPrizrcn Mct
ropolitan and to providc moral support to thc discriminatcd local Scrb
population. Howcvcr, as thc local Muslim Albanians thrcatcncd to burn
Zadužbine Koso.a. Spomenici i .namenja srpskog naroda, cds. R. Samardžić, M. \ojvodić
and Ð. T. 8ataković, 6o¸–¸¸8, Milan Rakić, Kon.ulska pisma :,c¸–:,::, cd. Andrcj
Mitrović (8clgradc: Prosvcta, +µ8¡).

Ð. T. 8ataković, “¡ntréc dans la sphèrc d’intérct dc l’¡uropc“ in Koso.o-Metohija dans
l ’histoire serbe, +¸µ–+8¡.

Novak Ražnatović, “Rad vladc Crnc Gorc i Srbijc na postavljanju srpskih mitropolita
u Prizrcnu i Skoplju +8µo–+µo:. godinc”, Istorijski .apisi XX!!/: (+µ6¡), :+8–:¸¡, Is-
torija srpskog naroda, vol. \!+ (8clgradc: SKZ, +µ8¸), ¸o¸–¸o¡, Archimandritc Fir
milijan Ðražić was first appointcd administrator ol thc Mctropolitanatc ol Skopljc in
+8µ¸, and cvcntually confirmcd as thc Scrbian mctropolitan ol this dioccsc in +µo:. Tc
wholc ol \ilayct ol Kosovo (Òld Scrbia) was thus covcrcd by thc Scrbian mctropolitans
ol RaškaPrizrcn and Skopljc.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡:
all Scrb houscs and shops in thc town and scnt ficrcc protcsts to thc Portc,
Scrbia cvcntually gavc up thc idca altogcthcr.


Systcmatic pcrsccution against thc Scrbs in Kosovo, Mctohija and
Slavicinhabitcd Maccdonia, flaring lrom +88:, was an intcgral part ol Sul
tan Abdulhamid !!’s pan!slamic policy. Sccking to put an cnd to this situ
ation, Scrbian ¡nvoy to Constantinoplc Stojan Novaković madc a solitary
cffort ol diplomatic prcssurc on thc Sublimc Portc in +8µ8/µµ. !n his diplo
matic notc submittcd to thc Òttoman Forcign Ministcr, Novaković strcsscd
that “crimcs and robbcrics arc daily occurrcnccs, and thc pcrpctrators not
only rcmain unpunishcd, thcy arc not cvcn pursucd by thc |Òttoman| au
thoritics. Tc numbcr ol rclugccs flccing across thc bordcr lor thcir livcs is
cnormous, and incrcascs daily. According to thc data thc Royal govcrnmcnt
|ol Scrbia| posscss, morc than lour hundrcd crimcs havc bccn pcrpctratcd
in thc sanjaks ol Priština, Novi Pazar, Pcć and Prizrcn within a lcw months,
last summcr and wintcr. Tcy includc murdcr, arson, banditry, dcsccration
ol churchcs, rapc, abduction, robbcry, raiding ol wholc hcrds. Tis figurc ac
counts lor only part, oncfilth at most, ol what rcally happcncd, sincc most
crimcs havc rcmaincd unrcportcd bccausc thc victims or thcir lamilics darc
not complain.”
86
Formal invcstigations by Òttoman authoritics had no significant rc
sults, nor did thcy in any way improvc thc sccurity ol thc Scrb population
in Òld Scrbia. Ðcprivcd ol Russian support in Constantinoplc, thc gov
crnmcnt in 8clgradc accomplishcd nothing. A plan to submit a bilingual
“8luc 8ook” ol diplomatic corrcspondcncc on richlydocumcntcd Albanian
violcncc against Scrbs in Òld Scrbia to thc +8µµ !ntcrnational Pcacc Con
lcrcncc at Haguc was prcvcntcd by AustriaHungary, altcr thc protcst scnt
to King Alcxandcr ! Òbrcnović ol Scrbia, politically bound to \icnna by
sccrct trcatics. !n thc abscncc ol official support, Scrb rclugccs lrom Òld
Scrbia and Slavic Maccdonia scnt a mcmorandum to thc Conlcrcncc, but
thcir complaints about bcing systcmatically discriminatcd by Muslim Alba
nian outlaws wcrc not put on thc official agcnda.

Tc policy ol impunity ol
which thc Muslim Albanians, undcr thc auspiccs ol Sultan Abdulhamid !!
himscll, took lull advantagc in thc +88os and in particular thc +8µos, gradu

Ð. T. 8ataković, “Pokušaji otvaranja srpskog konzulata u Prištini +8µ8–+µoo”, Istori-
jski časopis XXX! (+µ8¡), :¡µ–:¡o.
86
Documents diplomatiques. Correspondance concernant les actes de .iolence et de brigandage Correspondance concernant les actes de .iolence et de brigandage
des Ælbanais dans la !ieille Serbie (!ilayet de Koso.o) :·,·–:·,, (8clgradc: Ministèrc
dcs Affaircs ¡trangèrcs MÐCCCXC!X).

Ð. T. 8ataković, “Mcmorandum Srba iz Starc Srbijc i Makcdonijc Mcdjunarodnoj
konlcrcnciji mira u Hagu +8µµ. godinc”, Prilo.i .a knjiže.nost, je.ik, istoriju i folklor
L!!!–L!\ (+µ8¸–88), +¸¸–+8¸.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¸
ally turncd into uncontrollcd anarchy which was causing scrious troublcs
lor both thc govcrnor (.ali) ol Kosovo and thc ccntral govcrnmcnt in Con
stantinoplc.
88
Vcstcrn travcl accounts lrom thc vcry cnd ol thc ninctccnth ccn
tury vividly portray thc prccarious situation ol thc Christian Òrthodox Scrb
population in Kosovo and Mctohija and thc ncighbouring arcas ol Òld
Scrbia (\ilayct ol Kosovo):
“Òl thc rcst ol thc Christian Scrvian |Scrbian| population ol Òld
Scrvia, lor cvcry ninc who rcmain, onc has flcd in dcspair to Scrvia |Scrbia|,
within rcccnt ycars. Tc rcmaindcr, unarmcd and unprotcctcd, survivcs only
by cntcring into a spccics ol lcudal rclationship with somc Albanian bravc.
Tc Albanian is cuphcmistically dcscribcd as thcir ‘protcctor’. Hc livcs on
tolcrably lricndly tcrms with his Scrbian vassal. Hc is usually rcady to shicld
him lrom othcr Albanians, and in rcturn hc dcmands cndlcss blackmail in
an infinitc varicty ol lorms. |...| Tcy can bc compcllcd to do lorccd labour
lor an indcfinitc numbcr ol days. 8ut cvcn so thc systcm is incfficicnt, and
thc protcctor lails at nccd. Tcrc arc lcw Scrvian villagcs which arc not
robbcd pcriodically ol all thcir shccp and cattlc — ! can givc namcs ol typi
cal cascs il that would scrvc any purposc. For two or thrcc ycars thc villagc
rcmains in a slough ol abjcct povcrty, and thcn by hard work purchascs oncc
morc thc bcginning ol thc hcrd, only duc to loosc it again. ! tricd to find
out what thc systcm ol land tcnurc in this country, whcrc thc Koran and
thc rifflc arc thc only law, is what Albanian chicls ol thc district chooscs to
makc it. Tc Scrvian pcasant, childrcn ol thc soil, is tcnant at will, cxposcd
to cvcry capricc ol thcir domcstic conqucrors. Ycar by ycar thc Albanian
hillmcn cncroach upon thc plain, and ycar by ycar thc Scrvian pcasants
disappcar bclorc thcm.”


A similar firsthand account was rccordcd by a notablc Amcrican
travcllcr:
“!t would bc difficult lor thc Turks to carry out thcrc thc custom
ol disarming |Òrthodox| Christians. 8ut thc Òttoman Govcrnmcnt had
sccurcd thc loyalty ol Christians |Roman Catholic Albanians|—as wcll as
Mohammcdan Ghcgs |Muslim Albanians| by allowing thcm to pillagc and
kill thcir nonAlbanian ncighbours to thcir hcarts’ contcnt. Tcy arc cvcr
prcssing lorward, burning, looting, and murdcring thc Scrvians |Scrbs| ol
thc \ilayct ol Kossovo |Kosovo|. Tc lronticr linc ol Albania has bccn cx
tcndcd in this way lar up into Òld Scrvia. ¡vcn thc lronticr ol Scrbia prop
cr is not rcgardcd by thcsc lawlcss mountain mcn. Tcy oltcn makc raids
88
Pisma srpskih kon.ula i. Prištine :·,c–:,cc, +8¡–+8¸.

Hcnry N. 8railslord, Macedonia. Its Faces and their Future (London: Mcthucn & Co,
+µo¡), :¸¡–:¸6.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¡
into 8ulgaria whcn quartcrcd as soldicrs on thc bordcr. Tc Albanians havc
ovcrrun all Maccdonia. Tcy havc lound thcir way in largc numbcrs as lar as
Constantinoplc. 8ut bcyond thcir own bordcrs and thc scction ol Kossovo
lrom which thc Scrvians havc flcd, thcy arc hcld within ccrtain bounds. !n
many Albanian districts thc Albanians arc cxcmpt lrom military scrvicc, but
largc numbcrs ol thcm join thc Turkish army as voluntccrs. Tcy cnlist lor
thc guns and cartridgc.”
µo

A dctailcd list ol Christian Scrb houscholds in thc Ðioccsc ol Raška
Prizrcn, compilcd in +8µµ by Mctropolitan Ðionisijc, amounts to 8,¸:¸
Scrbian houscs in thc villagcs and ¸,o¸¡ in thc towns ol Kosovo and Mcto
hija, which givcs ++¸,¡8o pcrsons (with tcn pcrsons pcr lamily on avcragc).
8y comparison with thc official data ol thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt rcgistcr
ing somc 6o,ooo Scrbs lorccd to cmigratc lrom Kosovo, Mctohija and thc
ncighbouring rcgions to thc Kingdom ol Scrbia bctwccn +8µo and +µoo,
statistics show that thc numbcr ol Scrbs in villagcs had dcclincd by at lcast
onc third lrom thc timc ol thc ¡astcrn Crisis. Most ol thc rcmaining Scr
bian houscs wcrc in largcr towns, whcrc thcy wcrc rclativcly protcctcd lrom
violcncc: in Prizrcn (µ8:), Priština (¡¸+), Pcć (¡6+), Gnjilanc (¡o¸) and
Òrahovac (+¸6), and thcy wcrc much lcwcr in small towns such as Ðja
kovica (¸o) and Fcrizović (:o).
µ+
Mctohija, howcvcr, rcmaincd thc main targct ol continuous cthnic
clcansing ol Christian Òrthodox Scrbs. Mctropolitan Nićilor Pcrić ncgo
tiatcd in +µo¸ to cntrust thc administration ol Ðcčani Monastcry to thc
brothcrhood ol thc Russian skctc ol St. John Chrysostom lrom Mount
Athos. Tc Russian monks wcrc brought with thc hopc that thcy would
protcct thc Scrbs in Mctohija, dcprivcd ol both Russian and Scrbian dip
lomatic protcction, lrom thc unrcstrictcd opprcssion ol Muslim Albanian
outlaws, rcstorc monastic lilc in thc impovcrishcd monastcry and bar thc
growing influcncc ol both AustroHungarian and Roman Catholic propa
ganda. As lar as thc protcction ol Christian Òrthodox Scrbs was conccrncd,
Russian diplomacy was also cxpcctcd to providc assistancc. Ðisscnsions that
arosc bctwccn 8clgradc and St. Pctcrsburg, and divisions among thc Scrbs
ol Mctohija lor and against thc actions ol thc Russian monks now in chargc
ol Ðcčani monastcry had additional ncgativc cffccts on Scrb national and
cultural action in Mctohija.
µ:

µo
Frcdcrick Moorc, Te Balkan Trail (London: Smith, ¡ldcr & Co, +µo6), ::¸–::¡.
µ+
St. Novaković, Balkanska pitanja i manje istorijsko-politčke beleške o Balkanskom polu-
ostr.u :··&–:,c¸ (8clgradc: SKA, +µo6), ¡+¡–¡:¸, Prepiska o arbanaskim nasiljima u
Staroj Srbiji (8clgradc: SKA, +8µµ), +¸6 (bilingual Frcnch and Scrbian cdition).
µ:
For morc dctail, scc Ð. T. 8ataković, Dečansko pitanje (8clgradc: Prosvcta & !storijski
institutc, +µ8µ, :nd cd. :oo¸) (with thc carlicr litcraturc).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¡
According to AustroHungarian statistics ol +µo¸, thc population ol
Kosovo and Mctohija consistcd ol +8¸,:oo Scrbs (+++,¸¡o Christian Òr
thodox, 6µ,:¡o Muslim and 6,6oo Roman Catholic) and :¸o,¸oo Albanians
(Muslim :+¡,o¡o, Roman Catholic +¡,¸¡o and Christian Òrthodox µoo).
Tcsc statistics, howcvcr, should not bc complctcly trustcd, givcn difficultics
in collccting prccisc data and having in mind thc Ðual Monarchy’s strong
political intcrcst in supporting Albanians at thc timc ol data collcction — at
thc vcry bcginning ol thc Grcat Powcrs’ rclorm action in Òld Scrbia and
Maccdonia, thc thrcc socallcd “Maccdonian \ilaycts” (+µo¸–+µo8). Vith
in this intcrnational cffort comprising gcndarmcric lrom most ¡uropcan
Powcrs, only thc Scrbinhabitcd arcas ol thc \ilayct ol Kosovo wcrc cx
cludcd lrom thc rclorm projcct as a rcsult ol \icnna’s adamant dcmand.
µ¸

Liberation from the Ottomans
Vith thc First 8alkan Var (+µ+:) thc tidc turncd. A scrics ol Albanian
rcbcllions (+µ+o–+:) had prccipitatcd thc lormation ol a 8alkan Alliancc
(Grcccc, Scrbia, 8ulgaria, Montcncgro), which, motivatcd by thc dctcriorat
ing status ol thc cntirc Christian population in ¡uropcan \ilaycts, dcclarcd
war on thc Òttomans. Prior to thc war, Scrbian Primc Ministcr Nikola
Pašić offcrcd thc Albanian lcadcrs an “accord on thc union ol Scrbs and Al
banians in thc \ilayct ol Kosovo”, whcrcby cthnic Albanians wcrc offcrcd,
within thc Kingdom ol Scrbia, rcligious lrccdom, thc usc ol thc Albanian
languagc in Albanian municipal schools and administration, prcscrvation
ol thc Albanian common law and, finally, an Albanian lcgislativc body in
chargc ol rcligious, judicial and cducational affairs. At thc hugc gathcring
hcld in Skopljc on +o Òctobcr (and subscqucntly in Priština and Ðcbar),
thc Albanians optcd lor armcd dclcncc ol thcir Òttoman lathcrland, and
lor using thc arms obtaincd lrom Scrbia against Scrbia.
µ¡

Kosovo Albanians wcrc supplicd with 6¸,ooo riflcs lrom thc Òtto
mans alonc to organizc lullscalc rcsistancc against thc Scrbian troops. And
yct, no morc +6,ooo Muslim Albanians ol Kosovo camc to thc lrontlinc
to lacc thc Scrbian army. Tc Scrbian artillcry scattcrcd Albanian irrcgu
lar (bashibo.uk) units without cncountcring any scrious rcsistancc. Having
µ¸
For morc, scc Milan G. Miloicvitch, La Turquie d’Europe et le problème de la Macedoine
et de la !ieille Serbie (Paris: Arthur Rousscau, +µo¡).
µ¡
Ðjordjc Mikic, “Tc Albanians and Scrbia during thc 8alkan Vars” in 8cla Kiraly &
Ð. Ðjordjcvic, cds., East Central European Society and the Balkan !ars, Var and Socicty
in ¡ast Ccntral ¡uropc, vol. X\!!! (Social Scicncc Monographs, 8ouldcr Columbia
Univcrsity Prcss Ncw York, +µ8¸), +6¡–+µ6. ¡laboratcd in Ðj. Ðj. Stanković, “‘Nikola
Pašić i stvaranjc albanskc državc”, Marksistička misao ¸ (+µ8¡), +¡¸–+6µ.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡6
bccn soundly dclcatcd thc Albanian lcadcrs 8airam Curri, Riza 8cy and !sa
8ollctini flcd to Malissia in northcrn Albania. Òskar Prochaska, Consul ol
AustriaHungary in Prizrcn, tricd in vain to incitc Albanians to rcsist thc
Scrbian troops.
µ¡
Vhilst Albanians rcmaincd hostilc, Scrbs in all ol Kosovo
and Mctohija grcctcd thc Scrbian and Montcncgrin armics with cxhilara
tion.
Tc first Scrb soldicr to cntcr libcratcd Priština was thc lamous poct
and lormcr Scrbian consul Milan M. Rakić, who had joincd thc army as a
voluntccr. Altcr thc libcration ol Priština (:: Òctobcr), and thc dccisivc Scr
bian victory ovcr thc considcrably strongcr Òttoman troops at Kumanovo
(:¸–:¡ Òctobcr), thc war was ovcr in both Òld Scrbia and Slavicinhabitcd
Maccdonia. Kosovo was rcintcgratcd into Scrbia whilc most ol Mctohija
bccamc part ol Montcncgro.
Tc Tird Scrbian Army, lcd by Gcncral 8ožidar Janković, latcr
known as “thc avcngcr ol Kosovo” lor libcrating thc most ol Kosovo propcr,
attcndcd thc solcmn liturgy at thc Monastcry ol Gračanica cclcbrating thc
ccnturicsawaitcd libcration ol Kosovo.
µ6
Tc military authoritics issucd
proclamations in Priština and othcr towns calling Albanians to put down
and surrcndcr thcir arms. ¡vcn in thc traditional hotbcd ol outlaws, Ðrcnica,
and in thc Pcć arca Muslim Albanians cvcntually acccptcd partial il not lull
disarmamcnt. Howcvcr, as a rcsult ol antiScrbian agitation by tribal lcad
crs many Albanians flcd and took shcltcr in thc mountains. Scrbian officcrs
kcpt rcassuring thc Albanian population that Scrbia is at war against thc
Òttomans, not against thcm. Scrbia quickly cstablishcd civil administration
in thc ncwlylibcratcd arcas. Kosovo bccamc part ol thc Lab, Priština and
Prizrcn districts. Montcncgro rcorganizcd libcratcd Mctohija into thc Pcć
and Ðjakovica districts.
µ¸

Tc London Trcaty ol ¸o May +µ+¸ fixcd thc bordcrs ol Scrbia,
Montcncgro and ncwlycstablishcd Albania, with thc cxccption ol somc
disputcd portions lclt to an !ntcrnational Commission to dccidc on subsc
qucntly. 8oth Kosovo and Slavicinhabitcd Maccdonia wcrc officially in
corporatcd into Scrbia on ¸ Scptcmbcr +µ+¸ by a solcmn proclamation ol
thc National Asscmbly ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbia, whilc most ol Mctohija
was intcgratcd into thc Kingdom ol Montcncgro by a similar dccision.
µ¡
John Ð. Trcadway, Te Falcon and the Eagle. Montenegro and Æustria-Hungary, :,c·–
:,:, (Vcst Lalaycttc: Purduc Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¸), +:+.
µ6
¡lczi Han, onc ol thc smallcr towns, was rcnamcd altcr him to Ðjcncral Janković. !t
now is on thc bordcr with thc FYRÒM.
µ¸
Pr.i balkanski rat, ¡+6–¡+¸, ¡6¡–¡6µ, lor morc, scc Mikić, “Albanians and Scrbia”,
+6¸–+66.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¸
!n latc July +µ+¡, two days bclorc \icnna dcclarcd war on Scrbia,
AustroHungarian consular officials in Albania wcrc instructcd to pro
vidc lull financial and military support to an Albanian insurrcction in Scr
bian tcrritory. Tc Kosovo Albanian lcadcrs in cxilc 8airam Curri, Hasan
Prishtina and !sa 8ollctini obtaincd significant financial support as wcll as
arms and ammunition supplics lrom AustroHungarian consuls in ordcr to
prcparc armcd incursions which would instigatc a lullscalc Albanian rcbcl
lion in thc Scrbhcld tcrritorics ol Mctohija, Kosovo and northwcstcrn
Maccdonia, inhabitcd by a mixcd Muslim Albanian and Christian Slavic
population.
µ8

!n Constantinoplc, an agrccmcnt was concludcd bctwccn thc Haps
burgs and thc Òttomans: AustriaHungary was to incitc and financc thc
Albanian rcbcllion, whilc thc Young Turks wcrc to bc rcsponsiblc lor propa
ganda, military organization and opcrations. !ncursions into thc Scrbian tcr
ritory and thc Muslim Albanian rcbcllion in Kosovo, Mctohija and north
wcstcrn Maccdonia wcrc to pavc thc way lor opcning anothcr lront against
Scrbia. Altcr thc AustroHungarian attack in July +µ+¡, Scrbia dcploycd
most ol hcr troops along thc bordcr with thc Ðual Monarchy. Tc initial
smallscalc attacks lrom Albania wcrc rccordcd as carly as thc bcginning ol
August +µ+¡. Tc Òttoman and AustroHungarian alliancc was bccoming
tightcr, which scalcd thc latc ol thc sixmonth rcign ol thc lrcshlyclcctcd
Princc ol Albania Vilhclm von Vicd. Altcr scvcral unsucccsslul attcmpts
to crush thc insurrcction, thc Gcrman princc was abandoncd by his volun
tccrs and lclt Albania lor good in carly Scptcmbcr +µ+¡.
µµ

Vhcn thc rctrcating Scrbian army, lollowcd by countlcss rclugccs,
rcachcd Kosovo, sabotagc and surprisc attacks bcgan. !n many Kosovo vil
lagcs local Albanians rcluscd to providc lood without diffcrcntiating bc
twccn soldicrs and civilian rclugccs. !n !stok, a small town in Mctohija, on
:µ Novcmbcr +µ+¡, a unit ol cxhaustcd Scrbian soldicrs lagging bchind
thc main military column was massacrcd by Albanian brigands. Ncar thc
Monastcry ol St. Mark ol Koriša in thc vicinity ol Prizrcn, Albanians ol
thc Kabash clan trcachcrously disarmcd, robbcd and cxccutcd somc sixty
Scrbian soldicrs.
+oo

Altcr thc Scrbian army’s rctrcat lrom Pcć, Albanian outlaws pillagcd
many Scrbian homcs and shops. AustroHungarian guards prcvcntcd thcm
lrom cntcring thc hospital in Pcć and massacring thc woundcd Scrbian
µ8
Morc dctail in Andrcj Mitrović, Serbia’s Great !ar (London: Hurst & Co, :oo¸).
µµ
8ogumil Hrabak, Ærbanaški upadi i pobune na Koso.u i u Makedoniji od kraja :,::.
do kraja :,:¸. godine: nacionalno nera..ijeni nejedinst.eni Ærbanasi kao orudje u rukama
.aintereso.anih drža.a (\ranjc: Narodni muzcj, +µ88), +:¡–+¡¡.
+oo
Zadužbine Koso.a.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡8
soldicrs. Local Albanians sct ambushcs ncar |Kosovska| Mitrovica as wcll,
killing cxhaustcd soldicrs and robbing unarmcd rclugccs. Scrious crimcs
wcrc committcd against thc Scrbian civilian population in Suva Rcka and
clscwhcrc in Kosovo as wcll.
+o+

Following thc agonizing withdrawal ol thc dclcatcd Scrbian troops
to ccntral and northcrn Albania — hcld by thc Scrblricndly rcgimc ol
powcrlul Gcncral ¡ssadPasha Toptani in his Adriatic capital Ðurazzo
— AustriaHungary and 8ulgaria cstablishcd thcir rulc in occupicd Scrbia
(+µ+6–+µ+8).
+o:
Kosovo and Mctohija wcrc scparatcd and madc parts ol
two diffcrcnt AustroHungarian occupation zoncs: Mctohija was includcd
in thc Gcncral Gou.ernment ‘Montcncgro’, a smallcr portion ol Kosovo
with Kosovska Mitrovica and \učitrn bccamc part ol thc Gcncral Gou-
.ernment ‘Serbia’, thc largcst portion ol Kosovo propcr with thc Prizrcn
arca (Priština, Gnjilanc, Fcrizović, Prizrcn, Òrahovac) was includcd into thc
8ulgarian Military!nspcctional Rcgion ‘Maccdonia’.
+o¸

As protcctors ol Albanians, AustroHungarians wcrc quick to cs
tablish schools and local administration in thc Albanian languagc. Kosovo
Albanians rcmaincd privilcgcd, whilst Scrbs wcrc uttcrly distrustcd. Tings
wcrc cvcn worsc in thc 8ulgarian occupation zonc: massivc opprcssion,
intcrnmcnt ol civilians, lorccd 8ulgarization, pcrsccution and murdcr ol
Scrbian pricsts lollowcd thc cstablishmcnt ol 8ulgarian rulc. Nićilor Pcrić,
lormcr Mctropolitan ol thc RaškaPrizrcn Ðioccsc, was intcrncd and mur
dcrcd in 8ulgaria. Scrbian pricsts suffcrcd most, pcrsccutcd and murdcrcd
in both occupation zoncs and by both Albanians and 8ulgarians. Tc Mct
ropolitan ol RaškaPrizrcn, \ićcntijc, and his dcacon, Cvctko Ncšić, wcrc
takcn lrom Prizrcn to Urošcvac on :¸ Novcmbcr +µ+¡ and burncd alivc
two days latcr.
!n Kosovo rural communitics 8ulgarians oltcn appointcd cthnic
Albanians and Turks as chicls, officials or gcndarmcs, who thcn assistcd
thcir compatriots in plundcring local Scrb propcrty, in winning court cascs
against Scrbs, and in hushing up occasional murdcrs. !n somc Kosovo vil
+o+
Kostić, Crk.eni ži.ot pra.osla.nih Srba, +¡+–+¡¸, 8ogumil Hrabak, “Stanjc na srp
skoalbanskoj granici i pobuna Arbanasa na Kosovu i u Makcdoniji” in Srbija :,:¸,
Zbornik radova !storijskog instituta ¡ (8clgradc: !storijski institut, +µ86), 8o–8¡, Hra
bak, Ærbanaški upadi i pobune, +86–+µ¡.
+o:
Ð. T. 8ataković, “Scrbian Govcrnmcnt and ¡ssadPasha Toptani” in Andrcj Mitrović,
cd., Serbia and the Ælbanians in the :cth Century, Conlcrcnccs ol thc Scrbian Acadcmy
ol Scicnccs and Arts, vol. LX!, Ðcpartmcnt ol Historical Scicnccs, no. :o (8clgradc,
+µµ+), ¡¸–¸8.
+o¸
A scrious crisis brokc out in +µ+6 ovcr thc issuc on dividing occupational zoncs
bctwccn 8ulgaria and AustriaHungary. Cf. Istorija srpskog naroda, vol. \!: (8clgradc:
SKZ, +µ8¸), +¡6–+¡8, lor morc, scc Mitrović, Serbia’s Great !ar.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡µ
lagcs, Turks and Albanians jointly opprcsscd Scrbs without lcar ol punish
mcnt, just as it was during thc last ycars ol Òttoman rulc.
+o¡

Tc rcstoration ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbia, carricd out by thc lorccs
joincd into thc Ærmee d’Orient undcr thc suprcmc command ol Gcncral
Franchct d’¡spcrcy in thc autumn ol +µ+8, startcd altcr thc Scrbian armics
madc a major brcakthrough on thc Salonica Front, an cvcnt that changcd
thc coursc ol thc Grcat Var. Commandcd by Frcnch Gcncral Tranié,
Frcnch and Scrbian troops rcachcd Kosovo in carly Òctobcr, subscqucntly
libcrating Priština, Prizrcn, Gnjilanc and Mitrovica. Scrbian komitadji units,
lcd by Kosta Milovanović Pcćanac, mct Frcnch troops at Mitrovica and
immcdiatcly sct off to Pcć. Scrbs surroundcd thc city and compcllcd thc
considcrably strongcr AustroHungarian garrison to surrcndcr, it was only
altcr that that thc Frcnch cavalry trottcd into town.
Muslim Albanians, howcvcr, took arms lclt bchind by thc dclcatcd
8ulgarian and Austrian troops and attackcd rcprcscntativcs ol thc Scrbian
civil and military authoritics, whilc thc ordcr to surrcndcr arms mct with
strong armcd rcsistancc, in particular in Ðrcnica and thc rural surround
ings ol Pcć. !t was not until midÐcccmbcr +µ+8 that Scrbian lorccs finally
managcd to crush Albanian rcsistancc and partially disarm thc rcbcls. Tc
Sccond Scrbian Army bricfly introduccd martial law and rccstablishcd civil
administration only altcr thc cvcntual rcstoration ol law and ordcr.
+o¡

!ithin the Serbian and the Yugosla. realm:
Feconstruction, agrarian reform, resettlement
Altcr Montcncgro’s unconditional dccision to unitc with Scrbia on :6 No
vcmbcr +µ+8, and thc lormation ol a common Yugoslav statc (thc Kingdom
ol Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs) on + Ðcccmbcr +µ+8, KosovoMctohija rc
maincd an intcgral part ol Scrbia and hcr diffcrcnt political units (oblast and
bano.ina). Tc purposc ol thc ccntralizcd systcm that was cstablishcd was
to givc a common, ¡uropcanlikc Yugoslav idcntity to diffcrcnt rcligious,
cthnic and national groups dividcd not only by thcir diffcrcnt pasts, customs
and traditions, but also by many rclatcd prcjudiccs, stcrcotypcs and scll
rclcrring gricvanccs. For thc ruling Karadjordjcvić lamily, rcstorcrs ol Scr
+o¡
Janićijc Popović, Koso.o u ropst.u pod Bugarima (Lcskovac, +µ:+), on thc pcrsccution
ol thc clcrgy, scc additional inlormation in Zadužbine Koso.a, ¸¡¡–¸¡o.
+o¡
8ogumil Hrabak, “Učcšćc stanovništva Srbijc u protcrivanju okupatora +µ+8”, Istori-
jski glasnik ¸–¡ (+µ¡8), :¡–¡o, !dcm, “‘Rcokupacija oblasti srpskc i crnogorskc državc
arbanaškom vcćinom stanovništva u jcscn +µ+8. godinc i držanja Arbanasa prcma
uspostavljcnoj vlasti”’, Gjurmime albanologjike + (+µ6µ), :¡¡–:6o, Andrcj Mitrović,
Ustaničke borbe u Srbiji :,:&–:,:· (8clgradc: SKZ, +µ88), ¡:o–¡::.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡o
bia, libcrators ol Kosovo and loundcrs ol Yugoslavia, it was a trcmcndously
difficult task to find a ¡uropcantypc pattcrn that would bc ablc to unitc
disparatc clcmcnts within thc Kingdom ol Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs, and
to rcconcilc thcir oltcn opposing political traditions.
Altcr thc First Vorld Var, thc rolc ol thc main protcctor ol Alba
nia and thc ccrtificd intcrprctcr ol Albanian intcrcsts was takcn ovcr by a
ncw rcgional powcr — !taly. Romc continucd its old practicc ol stirring
ScrbAlbanian conflict, now with thc ncwlycstablishcd Kingdom ol Scrbs,
Croats and Slovcncs (rcnamcd thc Kingdom ol Yugoslavia in +µ:µ), ovcr
suprcmacy in thc ¡astcrn Adriatic. For scvcral ycars (+µ+8–+µ:¡) Kosovo
andMctohija rcmaincd a rcstlcss bordcr arca constantly thrcatcncd by Al
banian outlaws (kaçaks), supportcd by thc “Kosovo Committcc”, an organi
zation ol Kosovo cmigrants struggling lor a “Grcatcr Albania”.
Tc Kosovo Committcc was financcd by various !talian govcrnmcnts.
!n Yugoslavia, as in prcwar Scrbia, thc cthnic Albanians wcrc a minority
hostilc towards thc ncw statc rulcd by thcir lormcr scrls. Tc Kosovo bcys
rcachcd an agrccmcnt with 8clgradc about thcir own privilcgcs, satisficd
that thcir kinsmcn wcrc guarantccd rcligious rights but not adcquatc mi
nority rights, dcprivcd ol sccular schools and widcr cultural activitics in
thcir nativc languagc.
+o6
Ncvcrthclcss, Kosovo Muslim Albanians, as a prc
dominantly conscrvativc patriarchal community, oltcn prclcrrcd rcligious to
communal schooling, and !slamic to sccular institutions.
Tc lcading Albanian bcys lrom Kosovo, Mctohija and northwcst
crn Maccdonia loundcd thc Çemijet political party in +µ+µ. Tcy madc di
rcct arrangcmcnts with 8clgradc, offcring political support in cxchangc lor
partial cxcmption lrom thc agrarian rclorm. Supportcd by thc local Muslim
population, mostly Albanian, Turkish and Slav Muslims, thc Çemijet won
+: scats in thc Yugoslav Parliamcnt in thc +µ:+ clcctions, and was cvcn
morc succcsslul two ycars latcr (+¡ scats). Tc Çemijet, scrving mostly rcli
gious and social intcrcsts rathcr than political oncs, gradually cvolvcd into
an organization that combincd rcligious affiliation with distinct national
goals. As carly as +µ:¡, howcvcr, thc party was banncd by thc Royal Yugo
slav authoritics lor its clandcstinc tics with thc rcmaining kaçak groups and
thc anti8clgradc govcrnmcnt in Tirana. !t continucd, lor a ccrtain pcriod
ol timc, to opcratc clandcstincly, rccruiting lollowcrs, mostly young mcn, lor
thc Albanian national causc.
+o6
Undcr thc Trcaty ol SaintGcrmain (+µ+µ), minoritics in Scrbia within thc bordcrs
ol +µ+¸ (including KosovoMctohija) wcrc cxcludcd lrom intcrnational protcction. Cf.
Radošin Rajović, Æutonomija Koso.a. Pra.no-politička studija (8clgradc: ¡konomika,
+µ8¸), +oo–+o¡.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡+
To thc challcngc ol both Kosovo Albanians and thcir kinsmcn
lrom Albania, 8clgradc rcspondcd by taking twolold mcasurcs. First, rc
population ol Scrbs in Kosovo was undcrtakcn with thc aim ol rcstoring thc
dcmographic balancc disturbcd during thc last dccadcs ol Òttoman rulc.
Sccond, as thc initial stcp in pulling thcsc rcgions out ol thcir ccnturics
long backwardncss, thc lcudal systcm was abolishcd in +µ+µ. Scrldom was
put to an cnd and lormcr scrls wcrc dcclarcd thc owncrs ol thc land thcy
tillcd. For thc first timc, thc nativc Kosovo Scrbs as wcll as many landlcss
Kosovo Albanian lamilics obtaincd thcir own land. Following thc Decree on
Settlement in Southern Fegions (:¡ Scptcmbcr +µ:o), colonization bcgan in
latc +µ:o, albcit without adcquatc prcparations. !t has bccn suggcstcd that
implcmcntation ol thc colonization projcct “was cntrustcd to lccblc and
unskillcd officials”, which lcd to dangcrous mismanagcmcnt.
+o¸

Tus thc first Scrb scttlcrs wcrc lclt to thcmsclvcs, whilc thc royal
authoritics chargcd with carrying out thc rcscttlcmcnt projcct oltcn took
advantagc ol flaws ol thc rclorm to cngagc in various lorms ol abusc. Many
Kosovo Albanians wcrc dcprivcd ol thcir lormcr propcrty, at lcast partially.
Altcr thc first dccadc ol implcmcntation, both thc agrarian rclorm and col
onization, although aimcd to upgradc thc cconomy and sccurc intcrcthnic
balancc, provcd to suffcr lrom major shortcomings, which had thc worst
conscqucnccs lor thc Scrb scttlcrs thcmsclvcs but also provokcd growing
discontcnt among thc Albanians.
+o8

Howcvcr, ol thc total amount ol land allottcd to Scrbian scttlcrs in
Mctohija and in Kosovo only fivc pcrccnt was arablc. !n two hugc wavcs ol
colonization (+µ::–:µ and +µ¸¸–¸8), +o,8¸¸ lamilics (somc 6o,ooo colo
nists) wcrc allottcd +:o,6¸: hcctarcs (about +¡.¸ pcrccnt ol thc land ol
prcscntday KosovoandMctohija). Anothcr µµ,¸:¸ hcctarcs planncd lor
scttlcmcnts wcrc not allottcd. For thc incoming scttlcrs, ¸¸o scttlcmcnts
and villagcs wcrc built, with +:,68µ houscs, lortysix schools and thirtytwo
churchcs.
+oµ
Two intcrwar official statc ccnsuscs (+µ:+, +µ¸+) uscd qucstionnaircs
containing qucstions rcgarding rcligious affiliation and nativc languagc,
but not cthnic origin or national idcntity. Ncvcrthclcss, in dcmographic
tcrms, thc prcscntday KosovoMctohija had a rclativc Albanian majority,
cxcluding thcrclorc all propaganda spcculation, both intcrwar and post
war, on allcgcd mass migrations or mass cxpulsions ol Kosovo Albanians
+o¸
Krstić, Koso.o, 8¸.
+o8
Milovan Òbradović, Ægrarna reforma i koloni.acija na Koso.u (:,:·–:,,:) (Prish
tina: !nstitut za istoriju Kosova, +µ8+).
+oµ
Nikola Gaćcša, “Scttlcmcnt ol Kosovo and Mctohija altcr Vorld Var ! and thc
Agrarian Rclorm” in Koso.o. Past and Present, +oo–++o.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡:
(+µ+µ–+µ¡+). According to thc +µ:+ ccnsus, Kosovo had ¡¸6,µ:µ inhabit
ants, Albanians (i.c. inhabitants using Albanian as thcir nativc languagc)
constitutcd 6¡.+ pcrccnt (:8o,¡¡o). Rcligious affiliation gavc thc lollowing
rcsults: ¸¸ pcrccnt Muslim, :6 pcrccnt Christian Òrthodox and ncarly two
pcrccnt Roman Catholic. According to thc +µ¸+ ccnsus, using thc samc
qucstions, prcscntday KosovoandMctohija had ¡¡:,o6¡ inhabitants, ol
which ¸¡¸,:+¸ wcrc Albanianspcaking (6:.8 pcrccnt). Rcligious affilia
tion providcd thc lollowing data: ¸: pcrccnt Muslim, :6 pcrccnt Christian
Òrthodox and two pcrccnt Roman Catholic.
++o

Vithin thc Frcnchinspircd bano.ina systcm, cstablishcd by King
Alcksandar, thc distribution ol cthnic Albanians was as lollows: +¡o,o6: or
sixtccnth pcrccnt in Zetska bano.ina (most ol Mctohija and today’s Mon
tcncgro with Ðubrovnik), ¡8,¸oo or ¸.¸6 pcrccnt in Mora.ska bano.ina
(ccntral Scrbia with northcrn Kosovo) and ¸o:,µo+ or +µ.:¡ pcrccnt in
!ardarska bano.ina (castcrn and southcrn Kosovo, Prizrcn and Gora arca,
and Slavicinhabitcd Maccdonia). As lor thc cthnic Turks, thcy numbcrcd
+:¡,¡µµ or ¸.µ+ pcrccnt ol thc population in !ardarska bano.ina, mostly in
thc Prizrcn arca.
Rcccnt cstimatcs lor thc +µ:+ and +µ¸+ ccnsuscs, plus thc +µ¸µ in
tcrnal military data, show an incrcasing trcnd both in pcrccntagc and in
absolutc tcrms as lar as thc Scrbs in prcscntday KosovoandMctohija
arc conccrncd: in thc +µ:+ ccnsus thcy numbcrcd µ:,¡µo (:+.+ pcrccnt),
in +µ¸+ thcy numbcrcd +¡8,8oµ (:6.µ pcrccnt), and in +µ¸µ thcrc wcrc
:+¸,¸¡6 ol thcm (¸¸.+ pcrccnt). 8y contrast, thc Albanian population in
crcascd in absolutc tcrms but dccrcascd in pcrccntagc: in +µ:+ it numbcrcd
:88,µoo (6¡.8 pcrccnt), in +µ¸+, ¸¸+,¡¡µ (6o.+ pcrccnt), and in +µ¸µ it
incrcascd to ¸¡o,¡6o (¡¡.¡ pcrccnt). Tc cthnic Turks as thc third largcst
cthnic group dccrcascd in both tcrms (:¸,µ:o — 6.¸ pcrccnt, :¸,6µ8 — ¡.¸
pcrccnt, :¡,µ¡6 — ¸.8 pcrccnt).
+++
Tc incrcasc in thc numbcr ol Scrbs was
causcd not only by thc influx ol scttlcrs, but by somc ¡,ooo statc officials and
tcchnicians ol various prolcssions as wcll.
++:
++o
!ntcrwar ccnsuscs quotcd by Hivzi !sljami, “Ðcmogralska stvarnost Kosova” in Sukob
ili Dijalog. Srpsko-albanski odnosi i integracija Balkana (Subotica: Òtvorcni univcrzitct,
+µµ¡), ¡o.
+++
Milan \učković & Goran Nikolić, Stano.ništ.o Koso.a u ra.doblju :,:·–:,,:. go-
dine (Munich: Slavica \crlag, +µµ6), 8o–8:, Julic A. Mcrtus, Koso.o, Ho. Myths and
Truths Started a !ar (8crkclcy: Univcrsity ol Calilornia, +µµµ), ¸+¡–¸+6.
++:
Ðjordjc 8orozan, “Kosovo i Mctohija u granicama protcktorata \clika Albanija” in
Koso.o i Metohija u .elikoalbanskim plano.ima (8clgradc: !nstitut za savrcmcnu istoriju,
:oo+), +:¡–+:6.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¸
!n tcrms ol sccurity, thc wholc arca was lrcqucntly raidcd lrom Alba
nia. Tc Scrb colonists as wcll as thc Yugoslav statc officials wcrc thc most
lrcqucnt victims ol numcrous Albanian outlaws, cspccially in thc Ðrcnica
arca. !n +µ::, Albanian outlaws (kaçaks), considcrcd by thc local Albanian
population as national hcrocs, committcd filtycight murdcrs, cightccn at
tcmptcd murdcrs, thirtccn assaults and scvcntyonc robbcrics. !n Mctohija
alonc thcrc wcrc at lcast ¸¸o activc kaçaks, lcd by Azcm 8cjta in thc Ðrcnica
arca. Tc Scrbian Òrthodox Church rcmaincd thc lavouritc targct ol kaçak
attacks to thc cxtcnt that in thc +µ:os both thc Monastcry ol Ðcčani and
thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć — in thc Òttoman pcriod rackctccrcd by local Alba
nian chicltains lor armcd protcction against thcir lcllow tribcsmcn — had
to bc placcd undcr military protcction. Tc royal Yugoslav authoritics, con
tinuously trying to cstablish longtcrm sccurity, rcspondcd with scvcrc and
oltcn brutal military and policc mcasurcs against local outlaws and raidcrs
lrom Albania, occasionally harshly rctaliating against Albanian civilians as
wcll.
Tc kaçak activitics dccrcascd altcr thcir lcadcr Azcm 8cjta dicd lol
lowing a ficrcc fight with thc Yugoslav military lorccs.
++¸
!t has bccn diffi
cult to cstimatc thc cxact numbcr ol Albanians who immigratcd to Albania
lrom Kosovo and othcr Yugoslav arcas: lrom +µ:¡ to +µ:6 somc 8¡µ pcr
sons immigratcd to Albania, whilc an additional 8,¡¸+ lclt bctwccn +µ:¸
and +µ¸¡. Tc practicc ol tcmporary migration makcs it difficult to cstab
lish how many scttlcd pcrmancntly in Albania or clscwhcrc. Ncvcrthclcss,
rcccnt claims by ccrtain Vcstcrn scholars that thc Kingdom ol Yugoslavia
drovc out as many as hall a million or cvcn morc Albanians in thc intcrwar
pcriod in ordcr to rcscttlc Scrbs on thc confiscatcd land arc bascd on pro
pagandistic figurcs supplicd by Albanian cmigrants ol thc +µ:os and +µ¸os.
Tcsc figurcs, cmbraccd by Albanian and somc Vcstcrn scholars sympa
thctic to thc Albanian causc, find corroboration ncithcr in thc Scrbian/Yu
goslav archivcs nor in thc availablc statistics (both public and confidcntial)
ol intcrwar Yugoslavia.
++¡
++¸
Tc cxtcnsivc documcntation lrom thc Scrbian and Yugoslav archivcs lor thc +µ:os
is availablc in Ljubodrag Ðimić & Ðjordjc 8orozan, Jugoslo.enska drža.a i Ælbanci,
vol. !–!! (8clgradc: Službcni list SRJ, +µµ8), Ðragi Maliković, Kačački pokret na Ko-
so.u i Metohiji :,:·–:,:, (Lcposavić & Kosovska Mitrovica: !nstitut za srpsku kul
turu, :oo¡). For thc Albanian, mostly romantic pcrspcctivc on thc kaçak movcmcnt, scc
L. Rushiti, Le.i.ja kacake ne Koso.e (:,:·–:,:·) (Prishtina: !nstituti Albanologjik i
Prishtincs, +µ8+).
++¡
Muhamct Pirraku, “Kulturno prosvctni pokrct Albanaca u Jugoslaviji +µ+µ–+µ¡+”,
Jugoslo.enski istorijski časopis +–¡ (+µ¸8), ¸¡6–¸¸o, !vo 8anac, Te National Question in
Yugosla.ia: Origins, History, Politics (!thaca: Corncl Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¡).
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¡
!n ordcr to strcngthcn its influcncc in !taliandominatcd Albania and
to pacily Albanian outlaws in Kosovo and Mctohija, thc Kingdom ol Scrbs,
Croats and Slovcncs bccamc activcly involvcd in thc intcrnal powcr strugglc
in Albania. From thc timc ol 8alkan Vars plans wcrc dcvclopcd lor thc
Scrbian political, cconomic and cvcn military pcnctration into thc north
crn arcas ol Albania. !n thc carly +µ:os 8clgradc strongly supportcd thc
cstablishmcnt ol a scparatc statc ol thc Mirditcs, a Roman Catholic tribc
ol northcrn Albania hcadcd by Mark Gjoni. !n thc mid+µ:os 8clgradc
financcd thc rcturn to Albania ol thc cxilcd political lcadcr Ahmcd Zogu,
who promiscd to stiflc thc activitics ol thc antiScrbian and antiYugoslav
Kosovo Committcc. Zogu organizcd thc assassination ol his bittcr rivals
8airam Curri (+µ:¡) and Hasan Prishtina (+µ¸¸), thc most promincnt
lcadcrs ol thc Kosovo Committcc. Ncvcrthclcss, with Mussolini’s growing
influcncc in thc rcgion, 8clgradc was unablc to imposc its dccisivc influcncc
on thc Tirana govcrnmcnt. Undcr Ahmcd Zogu, a lormcr protégé ol 8cl
gradc and thc luturc King Zogu !, Albania cvcntually camc back undcr thc
political and cconomic influcncc ol Fascist !taly.
++¡
Tc conflict with !taly and thc Romccontrollcd Albanian national
movcmcnt was givcn lrcsh impctus as thc Sccond Vorld Var approachcd.
Undcr Mussolini’s patronagc, Albanian cmigrants lrom KosovoMctohi
ja, thc pro8ulgarian !MRÒ movcmcnt in Yugoslav Maccdonia, and thc
Croatian lascist lorccs (Ustasha), coordinatcd thcir gucrrilla actions against
thc politically vulncrablc Yugoslav kingdom.
++6
8clgradc’s ambitious plan
to avcrt thc growing dangcr lor thc stability ol its southwcst bordcrs by thc
mcans ol an organizcd mass migration ol thc cthnic Albanian and Turkish
populations lrom both Kosovo and Slavic Maccdonia to Turkcy (+µ¸8) was
ncvcr implcmcntcd duc to thc dcath ol Kcmal Attaturk, thc lall ol Milan
Stojadinović’s govcrnmcnt (+µ¸µ), unscttlcd financial tcrms with Ankara
and thc outbrcak ol thc Sccond Vorld Var.
++¸
Howcvcr, thc growing dis
++¡
Živko Avramovski, “Albanija izmcdju Jugoslavijc i !talijc”, !ojnoistorijski glasnik ¸
(+µ8¡), +¡¸–+8o, Robcrto Morrozzo dclla Rocca, Na.ione e religione in Ælbania (:,:c–
:,,,) (8ologna: !l Mulino, +µµo), +¡+–+66, Marco Ðogo, Koso.o. Ælbanesi e Serbi: le Ælbanesi e Serbi: le
radici dei conflitto (Lungro, C. Marco, +µµ:), +¡¸–:+µ.
++6
Cf. Giuscppc Zamboni, Mussolinis Expansionspolitik auf dem Balkan (Hamburg:
8urkc, +µ¸o), ¸o+–¸¸8, Cf. also Stclan Trocbst, Mussolini, Makedonien und die Machte
:,::–:,¸c. Die ‘Innere Makedonische Fe.olutionare Organisation’ in der Sudosteuropapo- Die ‘Innere Makedonische Fe.olutionare Organisation’ in der Sudosteuropapo-
litik des faschistischen Italien (Colognc: 8öhlau, +µ8¸).
++¸
!ndividual proposals conccrning mass cmigration or cvcn cxpulsion ol thc cthnic
Albanians within thc Kingdom ol Yugoslavia, such as thc inlamous proposal by thc
historian \asa Čurbrilović in +µ¸¸, wcrc ncithcr discusscd nor acccptcd by thc Yugo
slav govcrnmcnt which rcmaincd locuscd cxclusivcly on thc bilatcral agrccmcnt with
Ankara. Contrary to what is oltcn strongly suggcstcd by most Albanian and somc lcss
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¡
contcnt ol Kosovo Albanians, who hopcd to rcccivc dccisivc support lrom
thc Fascist camp altcr !taly occupicd Albania in +µ¸µ, rcmaincd a latcnt
thrcat to Yugoslav sccurity.
++8
Te Second !orld !ar: Fage, resettlement and repression
Tc Kingdom ol Yugoslavia was dismcmbcrcd by Gcrman Nazis, !talian
Fascists and thcir 8ulgarian and Hungarian allics altcr a blitzkricg in April
+µ¡+. Most ol KosovoMctohija, wcstcrn Slavic Maccdonia and Montc
ncgrin bordcr arcas wcnt to Fascist Albania, occupicd by !taly two ycars
bclorc. 8ulgaria took a small castcrn portion ol Kosovo, but its northcrn
parts with thc rich Trcpča mincs wcrc assigncd to Gcrmanoccupicd Scr
bia. A dccrcc ol King \ictor ¡manucl !!!, datcd +: August +µ¡+, solcmnly
proclaimcd a “Grcatcr Albania”. !n this ncw satcllitc Fascisttypc statc, thc
!talian Govcrnmcnt sct up an Albanian voluntary militia numbcring ¡,ooo
mcn — !ulnetari — to hclp thc !talian lorccs maintain ordcr as wcll as to
indcpcndcntly conduct surprisc attacks on thc Scrb population. !n addition,
a campaign to scttlc Albanians lrom northcrn and ccntral Albania into thc
abandoncd cstatcs ol both nativc Kosovo Scrbs and Scrb scttlcrs startcd as
carly as +µ¡+: “Tc !talian occupation lorcc cncouragcd an cxtcnsivc scttlc
mcnt program involving up to ¸:.ooo Albanians.”
++µ
Tc main conscqucncc ol cstablishing a Fascistsponsorcd and Nazi
supportcd “Grcatcr Albania” was thc mcrcilcss pcrsccution and cxpulsion ol
somc 6o,ooo to +oo,ooo Scrbs, mostly colonists. Roughly +o,ooo ol thcm,
nativc Kosovo Scrbs includcd, lcll victim to punitivc actions ol various Al
banian militias. 8oth Fascist !talian and Yugoslav Communist propaganda
portraycd thc Kosovo Albanians as victims ol “Grcatcr Scrbian hcgcmony”.
Tc ncw Fascist rulcrs gavc thc Kosovo Albanians thc right to fly thcir
own flag and to opcn schools with instruction in Albanian. Tc tribal and
mostly pcasant Kosovo Albanian population rcccivcd thc ncwly acquircd
national symbols cnthusiastically, but was not rcady to rcstrain its actions to
thc cultural and political planc. !n rcality, thc Albanians planncd to organizc
a lullscalc rcvcngc against thc Scrbs, pcrccivcd as opprcssors undcr thc
Kingdom ol Yugoslavia.
rcliablc Vcstcrn scholars, ncithcr in thc Scrbian nor in Yugoslav military or civilian
archivcs is thcrc any cvidcncc lor any link bctwccn this documcnt ol Čubrilović and
official Yugoslav policy.
++8
8ranislav Gligorijcvić, “Fatalna jcdnostranost. Povodom knjigc 8. Horvata ‘Kosovsko
pitanjc”, Istorija XX .eka: časopis Instituta .a sa.remenu istoriju 6, +–: (8clgradc, +µ88),
+8¡–+µ:.
++µ
\ickcrs, Bet.een Serb and Ælbanian, +:¸.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡6
Ðuring thc first lcw months ol Fascist occupation, !talian and Alba
nian lorccs burncd down ncarly +o,ooo homcs ol Scrb scttlcrs in lrcqucnt
night raids. Tc owncrs and thcir lamilics wcrc cxpcllcd to Montcncgro and
ccntral Scrbia, and somc wcrc scnt to intcrmcnt camps in Albania. At lcast
µoo Scrbs wcrc scnt to thc Portc Romano conccntration camp in Ðurazzo
(Ðurrcs). Most ol thcm wcrc lrom Gnjilanc, whilc othcrs wcrc lrom Priz
rcn, Priština, Pcć, Urošcvac and Lipljan. Roughly 6oo Scrb prisoncrs lrom
thc Gnjilanc arca drowncd on a cargo ship on thcir way to conccntration
camps in !taly. !n thc !talian8alist questura ol Prizrcn, thc largc building ol
thc Roman Catholic Scminary was uscd as a prison lor Scrb dctainccs, who
wcrc oltcn torturcd to dcath. Many Scrbs “cndcd up in conccntration camps
in Priština and Mitrovica. Tcsc Scrbs wcrc apparcntly uscd as a labour
lorcc lor lortification works in !talian Albania, and in thc Trcpča mincs
working lor thc Gcrmans.”
+:o
Tc Albanians, both locals and lrcsh scttlcrs
lrom Albania, uscd to plough thc colonist ficlds alrcsh to crasc cvcry tracc
ol Scrb scttlcmcnt and lorcstall Scrb rcturn. !l Scrbs did try to rcturn altcr
thc war, thcy would find it hard to rccognizc thcir scizcd propcrty.
+:+

Tc main targcts wcrc, as carlicr during pcriods ol anarchy or wars,
thc pricsts and monks ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church and thcir flock: An
drija Popović, a pricst lrom !stok, and Nikodim Radosavljcvić, a hicromonk
ol Gorioč monastcry, wcrc murdcrcd by Albanians in +µ¡+ togcthcr with
+o: Scrbs lrom thc parish ol !stok, Ðamaskin 8ošković, a rcnowncd hicro
monk ol Ðcvič monastcry, was torturcd and murdcrcd by local Albanians
in midÒctobcr +µ¡+, whilc thc mcdicval monastcry ol Ðcvič was burncd
down and dcstroycd, parish pricsts ol Urošcvac (Ðragoljub Kujundžić) and
Ðjakovica (Slobodan Popović) wcrc murdcrcd in +µ¡:, thc parish pricst ol
Kosovska Mitrovica (Momčilo Ncšić) was murdcrcd in +µ¡¸, parish pricsts
ol Pcć (Mihailo Milošcvić) and Ranilug (Krsta Popović) wcrc murdcrcd
in +歭, ctc. At lcast twcntysix Scrb churchcs and monastcrics wcrc dcs
ccratcd, pillagcd or burncd, somc, likc Gorioč monastcry, wcrc uscd as pris
ons lor thc Kosovo Scrbs, dozcns ol smallcr Scrb churchcs wcrc razcd to
thc ground and thc mcdicval monastcrics ol Gračanica, Sokolica, St. Mark
ol Koriša and St. Pctcr ol Koriša wcrc lootcd on a rcgular basis by local
Albanians. Ðuring thcsc lrcqucnt raids scvcral monks and nuns wcrc cithcr
+:o
8crnd J. Fishcr, Ælbania at !ar :,¸,–:,,¸ (Vcst Lalaycttc: Purduc Univcrsity Prcss,
+µµµ), 8¸.
+:+
Cf. cxtcnsivc documcntation in Ncnad Antonijcvić, Ælbanski .ločini nad Srbima na
Koso.u i Metohiji .a .reme Drugog s.etskog rata. Dokumenti (Kragujcvac: Muzcj žrtava
gcnocida, :oo¡).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡¸
woundcd or killcd.
+::
Many Christian Òrthodox gravcyards wcrc dcvastatcd
or dcsccratcd by local Albanians to crasc cvcry tracc ol Scrb scttlcmcnt.
Largcscalc dcstruction ol Scrb colonist villagcs was a major compo
ncnt ol a stratcgic plan: to dcmonstratc to potcntial postwar intcrnational
commissions drawing ncw bordcrs that Scrbs had ncvcr livcd in Kosovo. A
promincnt Kosovo Albanian lcadcr, Fcratbcg Ðraga, solcmnly proclaimcd
in +µ¡¸ that thc “timc has comc to cxtcrminatc thc Scrbs |...| thcrc will bc
no Scrbs undcr thc Kosovo sun.”
+:¸

Ncw pcrsccutions ol thc Kosovo Scrbs cnsucd altcr thc capitulation
ol !taly (Scptcmbcr +µ¡¸), whcn Kosovo and Mctohija camc undcr thc
dircct control ol thc Tird Rcich. Tc Albanians’ nationalism was spurrcd
on by thc crcation ol thc “Sccond Albanian Lcaguc”, whilc thc inlamous
Albanianstaffcd SS “Scandcrbcg” division launchcd a ncw wavc ol vio
lcncc against thc rcmaining Scrbian civilians.
+:¡
According to thc first, al
though incomplctc, postwar Yugoslav cstimations, thcrc wcrc in Kosovo
and Mctohija ¡,¡µ¸ killcd or missing pcrsons and :8,¡+: imprisoncd or
disablcd pcrsons, mostly Scrbs,
+:¡
whilc about ¸¡,ooo Albanians lrom Al
bania had scttlcd on thc abandoncd Scrbian larms during thc Fascist and
Nazi occupation.
+:6

!n thc mcmbcrship ol thc ncwlycstablishcd Communist Party ol
Albania (lormcd undcr thc supcrvision ol Yugoslav instructors Miladin
+::
Zadužbine Koso.a, ¸8¸–¸µ¸.
+:¸
Hakil 8ajrami, “!zvcštaj Konstantina Plavšića Tasi Ðiniću, ministru unutrašnjih
poslova u Ncdićcvoj vladi oktobra +µ¡¸, o kosovskomitrovačkom srczu”, Godišnjak
arhi.a Koso.a X!\–X\, Prishtinë : Arkive të Kosovës, (+µ¸8–¸µ), ¸+¸. Cf. also Jovan
Pcjin, Stradanje Srba u Metohiji :,,:–:,,, (8clgradc: Arhivski prcglcd, +µµ¡).
+:¡
8ataković, Koso.o Chronicles, +¸–+¸, lor a dctailcd account, scc Laurcnt Latruwc &
Gordana Kostic, La Di.ision Skanderbeg. Histoire des !affen SS albanais des origines ideo- Histoire des !affen SS albanais des origines ideo-
logiques aux debuts de la Guerre Froide (Paris: Godclroy dc 8ouillon, :oo¡).
+:¡
Arhiv Jugoslavijc |Archivcs ol Yugoslavia|, 8clgradc, ¡¡:o¡¸. Tc only official statc
rcport, ol +µ6¡, rccordcd thc lollowing numbcr ol war victims: ¡o:µ Scrbs, +¡6o Mon
tcncgrins, :+¸¸ Albanians, ¸¡ Jcws, ¡¸ Croats, ¸: cthnic Turks, :8 Slav Muslims, ++
Slav Maccdonians, +o Slovaks, µ Slovcncs, onc Hungarian and µ8 unspccificd othcrs
(Antonijcvić, Ælbanski .ločini, ¸µ).
+:6
According to thc ccnsus ol +µ¡8, dcspitc hcavy war losscs claimcd by Albanians
thcmsclvcs, thc numbcr ol Albanians augmcntcd by ¸¡,¡+¸ within ninc ycars. Cf. Prc
drag Živančcvić, Emigranti. Naselja.anje Koso.a i Metohije i. Ælbanije (8clgradc: ¡k
sportprcs, +µ8µ), ¸8. Tc latcst rcscarch, bascd on official, although incomplctc docu
mcntation, scalcs down thc numbcr ol immigrants lrom Albania in thc +µ¡os, who
wcrc using Yugoslavia only lor transit towards Vcstcrn countrics, Cf. 8ogumil Hrabak,
“Albanski cmigranti u Jugoslaviji”, Toko.i istorije, časopis Instituta .a no.iju istoriju Srbije
vol. +–: (8clgradc +µµ¡), ¸¸–+o¡.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¡8
Popović and Ðušan Mugoša), thcrc wcrc numcrous advocatcs ol thc Grcat
cr Albanian idca. !ts lcadcr ¡nvcr Hoxha had takcn thc first stcp towards an
agrccmcnt conccrning thc crcation ol a postwar Grcatcr Albania. Albanian
communists joincd lorccs with thc 8alli Kombctar, an activc Kosovo Alba
nian nationalist organization. Ncvcrthclcss, thc agrccmcnt rcachcd in thc
villagc ol Mukaj on : August +µ¡¸ turncd out to bc a shortlivcd onc.
+:¸
!n
addition, thc 8ujan Ðcclaration ol Kosovo Albanian communist rcprcscn
tativcs (including numcrous rcprcscntativcs ol Albania), issucd on : January
+歭, callcd lor thc unification ol Kosovo and Mctohija with Albania altcr
thc victory ol thc communist gucrrilla. Tis dccision was quickly dismisscd
by thc Yugoslav communist lcadcrship undcr thc Moscowappointcd mili
tary lcadcr Josip 8roz Tito as prcmaturc and damaging to thc common
communist goals in thc final phasc ol thc Sccond Vorld Var.
Te communist experiment: Æ failed reconciliation
Sovicttypc communism was bclicvcd to bc thc modcl lor longtcrm his
torical rcconciliation bctwccn Scrbs and Albanians. Tc ambitious rccon
ciliation plan within this ncw Stalinlcd social projcct soon provcd to bc
inlcasiblc: dcspitc trcmcndous idcological changcs, thc 8alkan gcopolitical
rcalitics rcmaincd unchangcd, thc old tcrritorial rivalry simply acquircd a
ncw idcological lramcwork. !t was realpolitik that compcllcd thc Moscow
appointcd communist lcadcr Josip 8roz Tito to prcscrvc Yugoslavia’s intcg
rity so that thc ncw communist Yugoslav lcdcration could bccomc thc lcgal
succcssor ol thc Yugoslav Kingdom in thc postwar pcriod. At thc samc
timc, J. 8. Tito had to takc into account thc scntimcnts ol thc Scrb commu
nists and partisans that constitutcd thc ovcrwhclming majority ol his lorccs
fighting in diffcrcnt rcgions ol Yugoslavia against Nazi Gcrmans, Fascist
!talians, Fascist Croats (Ustasha), thc SS Handjar Ðivision in 8osnia, thc
SS Scandcrbcg Ðivision in Kosovo, and so lorth.
+:8

+:¸
Tc shortlivcd agrccmcnt with thc CPA and thc 8alli Kombctar ol +µ¡: turncd
into lull coopcration ol 8alli Kombctar with thc Nazis altcr thc capitulation ol !taly in
Scptcmbcr +µ¡¸.
+:8
Tc first Yugoslav antilascist gucrilla (hcadcd by Coloncl Ðragoljub Mihailović,
lrom carly +µ¡: Gcncral and Ministcr ol Var ol thc Royal govcrnmcntincxilc),
known as thc Ravna Gora Movcmcnt (Fa.nogorski pokret) or traditionally dražino.ci
or simply Chctniks, wcrc also fighting thc occupation lorccs, including thosc in Kosovo
and Mctohija. Ncvcrthclcss, having bccn bctraycd by thc Partisans in Novcmbcr +µ¡+,
thcy cntcrcd into armcd conflict with thc communist gucrilla, adding anothcr quag
mirc to thc civil war. For morc, scc Valtcr R. Robcrts, Tito, Mihailo.ic and the Ællies
:,,:–:,,¸ (Ðurham: Ðukc Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¸.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¡µ
A largcscalc Albanian rcbcllion against communist Yugoslavia
in latc +歭 undcrscorcd thc ncccssity ol maintaining KosovoMctohija
within Scrbia cvcn undcr thc ncw Sovicttypc lcdcral systcm. !n Novcmbcr
+µ¡¡, KosovoMctohija was libcratcd lrom Nazi occupation by Tito’s com
munist lorccs — thc partisans. Tc Balli Kombetar supportcrs and othcr Al
banian units, rcarmcd and lrcshly rccruitcd into partisan lormations (No
vcmbcr — Ðcccmbcr +µ¡¡), organizcd thc largcscalc uprising, attacking
Tito’s partisan lorccs. Tc Albanian rcvolt was brutally crushcd only whcn
additional Yugoslav troops wcrc brought in, and military rulc was sct up in
Kosovo and Mctohija bctwccn Fcbruary and May +歭.
Tc dccision that Kosovo and Mctohija should rcmain part ol Scrbia
as a distinct rcgion (oblast) was madc altcr thc abolition ol military rulc on
+o July +歭. As a conccssion to Kosovo Albanians, thc Yugoslav commu
nist lcadcrship issucd a dccrcc, a tcmporary mcasurc on papcr, lorbidding
thc rcturn to KosovoMctohija and Slavic Maccdonia ol all intcrwar Scrb
scttlcrs (at lcast 6o,ooo), including thosc lorcibly displaccd by thc wartimc
authoritics ol ‘Grcatcr Albania’. Tc notorious “Tcmporary 8an on thc
Rcturn ol Colonists to thcir Prcvious Placcs ol Rcsidcncc” was issucd on
6 March +µ¡¡ and cntcrcd into lorcc +6 March +µ¡¡. Somc +,¸¡¸ Scrb
lamilics wcrc scttlcd outsidc KosovoandMctohija until 8 Òctobcr +µ¡¡,
whilc anothcr :,µ+8 lamilics ol Scrb intcrwar colonists rcmaincd in Kosovo
awaiting rcscttlcmcnt to othcr rcgions ol Scrbia.
+:µ

Tc ban was lollowcd by thc “Law on thc Rcvision ol Land Allot
mcnt to Colonists and Prospcctivc Farmcrs in Maccdonia and thc Rcgion
ol Kosovo and Mctohija”, passcd on ¸ August +µ¡¡. !t was lurthcr ccmcnt
cd by thc “Law on thc Rcvision ol Land Allotmcnt to Colonists and Pro
spcctivc Farmcrs in thc Pcoplc’s Rcpublic ol Maccdonia and thc Autono
mous Rcgion ol Kosovo and Mctohija”, passcd on : Novcmbcr +µ¡6. Ònly
a lcw thousand Scrb intcrwar colonists succccdcd in rcturning to Kosovo
in latcr pcriods, mostly thosc lrom communist lamilics.
+¸o
A spccial law on
thc managcmcnt ol thc abandoncd land ol Scrb colonists in thc Autono
mous Rcgion ol KosovoMctohija was cndorscd by thc Prcsidium ol thc
Scrbian National Asscmbly on :: Fcbruary +µ¡¸, whilc anothcr dccrcc (¸o
Scptcmbcr +µ¡¸) madc it possiblc lor just a lcw hundrcd lamilics — thosc
that mct thc difficult idcological rcquircmcnts lor kccping owncrship ol
+:µ
“Privrcmcna zabrana vraćanja kolonista u njihova ranija mcsta življcnja”, Službeni list
DFJ +¸, +6 March, 8cograd: Službcni list ÐFJ, +µ¡¡.
+¸o
“Zakon o rcviziji dodijcljivanja zcmljc kolonistima i agrarnim intcrcscntima u
Makcdoniji i Kosovskomctohijskoj oblasti”, Službeni list DFJ, ¡ August +µ¡¡. Cf. also
Službeni list DFJ 8µ, +µ¡6.
Kosovo and Mctohija 6o
land — to rcturn to Kosovo.
+¸+
Tc rcvision ol thc rights ol prcwar scttlcrs
and thcir lamilics sharply rcduccd this population to onc third ol thcir prc
+µ¡+ numbcr. Tc rcst wcrc mainly rcscttlcd in Scrbia’s northcrn provincc
ol \ojvodina.
+¸:
Tc main rcason lor lorming a distinct tcrritorial unit ol Kosovo
Mctohija in +歭 was to prcparc its unification with Albania, should Tirana
acccpt to bccomc thc scvcnth Yugoslav rcpublic, or to cntcr, unitcd with
KosovoMctohija, into a largcr 8alkan lcdcration. Tc Titolcd 8alkan
Fcdcration was supposcd to includc Yugoslavia, 8ulgaria, Albania and, pos
sibly, in casc ol thc communist victory in thc civil war, Grcccc. Tc wholc
projcct was abandoncd in thc wakc ol thc Yugoslav split with Stalin in +µ¡8.
Kosovo and Mctohija thus bccamc an intcrnal Yugoslav issuc.
+¸¸

Altcr +歭, Yugoslavia bccamc a sixmcmbcr lcdcral communist
statc bascd on a mixturc ol Sovicttypc lcdcralism and a Habsburginspircd
AustroMarxist lorm ol cultural autonomics. !n his +µ¸+ intcrvicw with
thc Parisian ncwspapcr “Lc Mondc”, thc Yugoslav dissidcnt Milovan Ðjilas
(onc ol thc lounding lathcrs ol thc Montcncgrin nation) did admit, how
cvcr, that thc division ol Scrbs amongst fivc ol thc six rcpublics had bccn
aimcd at subduing thc “ccntralism and hcgcmonics ol thc Scrbs”, sccn as a
major “obstaclc” to thc cstablishmcnt ol communism.
+¸¡
Vithin such a systcm, thc Kosovo Albanian minority was to play an
important political rolc. !n ordcr to crodc thc intcrwar political domina
tion ol Scrbs as thc majority nation, Tito chosc to lollow thc Sovict modcl
and cstablishcd six ncw lcdcral units, or rcpublics. !n ordcr to rcbalancc thc
intcrcthnic rclations, at first, in +歭, KosovoandMctohija was crcatcd as
an autonomous rcgion (oblast) within thc lcdcral unit ol Scrbia. !n +µ¡µ, thc
Scrbinhabitcd municipality ol Lcšak was attachcd to KosovoandMcto
hija Rcgion in ordcr to strcngthcn thc Scrb community in thc arca. 8y
thc +µ6¸ Constitution, thc KosovoandMctohija Rcgion was upgradcd to
an Autonomous Provincc within Scrbia. Tc +µ¸¡ Constitution bcstowcd
upon thc Provincc widcr powcrs additionally limiting Scrbia’s authority. Tc
+¸+
Morc dctails with data in Milovan Òbradović, “Rcvizija agrarnc rclormc na Kosovu”,
Koso.o, vol. ¸ (Priština: Zavod za istoriju Kosova, +µ¸¡), ¸6¸–¡+:.
+¸:
8orozan, ibid., +o¸, ln.+.
+¸¸
8ranko Pctranović, “Kosovo in YugoslavAlbanian Rclations and thc Projcct ol a
8alkan Fcdcration, +µ¡¡–+µ¡8” in Mitrović, cd., Serbs and Ælbanians, +µµ+, 88–µ8. Cf.
also 8ranko Pctranović & Momčilo Zcčcvić, Balkanska federacija :,,¸–:,,· (8clgradc:
Zaslon, +µµ+), ¸¸–+o¡.
+¸¡
Le Monde, ¸o Ðcccmbcr +µ¸+. Cf. morc in Alcksa Ðjilas, Te Contested Country:
Yugosla. Unity and Communist Fe.olution, :,:,–:,¸¸ (Cambridgc MA: Harvard Uni
vcrsity Prcss, +µµ+).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija 6+
powcrs wcrc only slightly diffcrcnt lrom thosc ol thc rcpublics: thc main
provision Autonomous Provincc lackcd was thc right to sclldctcrmination,
rcscrvcd only lor thc rcpublics within thc Yugoslav lcdcration.
Tc political and cultural cmancipation ol thc Kosovo Albanians
within Scrbia bcgan to bc lully promotcd immcdiatcly altcr thc war. !n
+µ¡µ, thc official sccond to Tito proudly statcd that thc “Albanians in thc
Autonomous Rcgion ol KosovoMctohija, who had bccn opprcsscd in thc
old |Royal| Yugoslavia, havc now bccn complctcly guarantccd a lrcc politi
cal and cultural lilc and dcvclopmcnt and an cqual participation in all thc
bodics ol thc popular authoritics. Altcr thc libcration |+歭|, thcy acquircd
thcir first primary schools — ¡¡¸ primary schools, :µ high schools and
¸ advanccd schools. Studying lrom tcxtbooks in thcir nativc |Albanian|
tonguc, somc 6¡,ooo Albanian childrcn havc so lar rcccivcd an cducation
and about +o6,ooo cthnic Albanian adults in Kosovo and Mctohija havc
lcarncd to rcad and writc.”
+¸¡

Ncvcrthclcss, thc rcstlcss Albanian population, still lavouring unifi
cation with Albania, was put undcr thc strict control ol thc Scrbdominatcd
statc and policc apparatus. Until +µ66, Scrbs in thc statc sccurity lorccs in
Kosovo and Mctohija accountcd lor ¡8.¸ pcrccnt ol thc sccurity scrvicc
cadrcs, 6o.8 pcrccnt in thc policc and :¸.¡ pcrccnt in thc total population,
Montcncgrins madc up :8.¸ pcrccnt ol thc cadrcs in thc sccurity scrvicc,
¸.µ pcrccnt in thc policc and ¸.µ pcrccnt ol thc total population, Albanians
accountcd lor +¸.¸ pcrccnt in thc sccurity scrvicc, ¸+.¸ pcrccnt in thc policc
and 6¡.µ pcrccnt in thc total population.
+¸6

Tc conccrn that considcrablc quantitics ol arms wcrc still hiddcn
in privatc posscssion was confirmcd by thc occasional shootout with Al
banian outlaws, lrom +µ¡8 supportcd by military agcnts lrom Albania. An
cxtcnsivc opcration ol collccting hiddcn arms was carricd out in thc wintcr
ol +µ¡¡–¡6. Scrbs and Albanians suffcrcd almost cqually, dcspitc thc lact
that largcr quantitics wcrc lound in Albanian posscssion. Tc opcration was
not motivatcd by conccalcd cthnic discrimination but rathcr by immcdiatc
idcological and statc rcasons, which bccamc cvidcnt lrom numcrous com
plaints lodgcd not only by Albanians, but also by dignitarics ol thc Scrbian
Òrthodox Church rcporting numcrous abuscs ol thc Scrb and Montcnc
grindominatcd sccrct policc in thc rcgion.
+¸¸

+¸¡
Alcksandar Ranković, I.abrani go.ori i članci (8clgradc: Kultura, +µ¡+), +8¡–+8¡.
+¸6
Inter.ju, 8clgradc, ¡ Scptcmbcr +µ¸8. Cf. an analysis on intcrcthnic rclations, cthnic
stcrcotypcs and social conditions, Srdja Popović, Ðcjan Janča & Tanja Pctovar, Koso.ski
č.or. Drešiti ili seći? I..eštaj ne.a.isne komisije (8clgradc: Hronos, +µµo), +8–+µ.
+¸¸
For morc documcnts, scc Zadužbine Koso.a, 8o¡–8+¸.
Kosovo and Mctohija 6:
Noncthclcss, thc Kosovo communists, both Scrbs and Albanians,
who had cxccutcd thc most promincnt Kosovo Scrb novclist Grigorijc
8ožović as carly as +µ¡¡, continucd to arrcst and harass Scrbian monks
and pricsts, considcrcd as cncmics ol thc communist dictatorship. !t was
undcr thc auspiccs ol Tito’s statc officials that an imprcssivc prcwar Scrbian
Òrthodox church in Ðjakovica was dcmolishcd on St Sava’s Ðay in January
+µ¡o, in ordcr that a monumcnt to thc lallcn partisans ol Kosovo could bc
crcctcd in its placc.
+¸8
Yugoslav communists wcrc cqually brutal in supprcss
ing thc Stalinistoricntcd Albanian nationalists advocating unification with
Albania, rcprcscntcd sincc thc +µ6os by lanatic and ablc activists such as
Adcm Ðcmaqi.
+¸µ
Ðuring thc pcriod ol Sovicttypc ccntralism in Yugoslavia (+µ¡¡–
+µ66), Albania, as part ol thc Sovict bloc (+µ¡8–+µ6+), was hostilc towards
Yugoslavia. Tcrclorc, Tito rclicd on thc Kosovo Scrbs as thc main guardians
ol thc tcrritorial intcgrity ol Yugoslavia. Tc Statc Sccurity Scrvicc (UDBÆ),
hcadcd by Tito’s first dcputy, Alcksandar Ranković, pcrsccutcd both Scrbs
and cthnic Albanians as idcological cncmics throughout thc +µ¡os. Altcr
thc idcological rcconciliation with Moscow (+歭) and within thc policy
ol gradual rapprochement with Albania (+µ66–+µ¸+), Tito lavourcd an ad
vanccd lcvcl ol political cmancipation ol thc Kosovo Albanians. Tc Yugo
slav dictator had hopcd, in vain, to rcinstall Yugoslav influcncc in Albania.
!nstcad, thc powcr bcstowcd upon Albanians in Kosovo by thc Constitu
tional amcndmcnts ol +µ68 and +µ¸+ was divcrtcd to scrvc primarily thc
Albanian national causc.
+¡o

Tc ncw modcl ol lcdcralism launchcd in Yugoslavia altcr +µ66 was
roundcd off by thc +µ¸¡ Constitution. A modcl ol national-communism
was introduccd whcrc thc powcr ol lcdcral jurisdiction camc to rcsidc in
thc ruling communist oligarchics ol thc six constitucnt rcpublics. Tus, thc
communist nomenklatura, bccoming sovcrcign in thcir own rcpublics, camc
to rcprcscnt thc majority nationality. As thc only rcpublic with provinccs,
Scrbia was thc cxccption, sincc, undcr thc +µ¸¡ Constitution, both ol hcr
+¸8
Ibid., 8o¸–8o¡, 8ataković, Koso.o. La spirale La spirale de la haine, ¡¸–¡o.
+¸µ
Òn Kosovo Albanian subvcrsivc organisation, scc Sinan Hasani, Koso.o. Istine i .ab-
lude (Zagrcb: Ccntar za inlormacijc i publicitct, +µ8+), on Ðcmaqi, pp. +6:–+6¸.
+¡o
For intcrnal politics ol Yugoslavia, Cf. morc in Stcvan K. Pavlowitch, Te Improbable
Sur.i.or, Yugosla.ia and its Problems :,:·–:,·· (London: C. Hurst & Co), ¸¡–¡¸,
8. Pctranović & Momčilo Zcčcvić, Ægonija d.e Jugosla.ije (8clgradc: Zaslon, +µµ+),
¸o¸–¸+µ, Ð. T. 8ataković, Yougosla.ie. Nations, religions, ideologies (Lausannc: L’Agc
d’Hommc, +µµ¡).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija 6¸
autonomous provinccs, \ojvodina and Kosovo could usc, in many cascs, thc
powcr ol vcto against thc ccntral authoritics ol Scrbia.
+¡+

Trough thc modcl ol national-communism thc +µ¸¡ Constitution
introduccd majority rulc ol thc majority nation in cach ol thc six rcpublics
and two provinccs ol thc lcdcration. Tc rcsult was continucd discrimina
tion — to a grcatcr or lcsscr cxtcnt — against smallcrinnumbcr nations or
national minoritics within cach rcpublic or provincc.
Tc ncw political coursc in Kosovo and Mctohija cmboldcncd thc
nationalists and advocatcs ol unification with Albania. Tc Albanians saw
thc ncw party policy, draltcd by thc +µ68 and +µ¸+ Constitutional amcnd
mcnts, not as a lrcsh opportunity lor intcnsificd national and cultural cman
cipation but rathcr as a longawaitcd chancc lor historical rcvcngc against
thc Scrbs, pcrccivcd cxclusivcly as thcir longtimc opprcssors, and thcy uscd
thc ncwlygaincd political, judicial and lcgislativc powcrs as a tool against
thcm. Tc tcrm Mctohija was immcdiatcly rcmovcd lrom thc official namc
ol thc provincc.
!n latc Novcmbcr +µ68, on thc occasion ol thc National Ðay ol Al
bania, thc Albanian studcnts in Priština and scvcral othcr towns voiccd
not only dcmands lor a scparatc Kosovo rcpublic within Yugoslavia, but
shoutcd GrcatcrAlbanian, pro¡nvcr Hoxha slogans as wcll. Tcsc dcm
onstrations, scvcrcly supprcsscd by thc army and policc lorccs, wcrc hiddcn
lrom thc widcr public, although thcy hcraldcd longtcrm goals ol Albanian
nationalism in thc Provincc. Kosovo Albanians considcrcd Yugoslavia as
an imposcd, transitional phasc on thcir path to cvcntual unification with
Albania.
+¡:
Òbviously, thc idcological and national modcl lor Kosovo Albanians
was not thc official Titoist vision ol communistinspircd “brothcrhood and
unity” but thc Stalinisttypc ol cthnic nationalism orchcstratcd by thc com
munist dictator ¡nvcr Hoxha ol Albania. Scvcral gcncrations ol thc Kosovo
Albanian youth had, through cducational arrangcmcnts with Tirana, bccn
rccciving an cducation bascd on a collcctivist communisttypc approach to
thc national qucstion mixcd with romantic ninctccnthccntury, in practicc
rathcr aggrcssivc, nationalism. Tcrclorc, ¡nvcr Hoxha’s official thcory that
thc Albanians wcrc thc dircct dcsccndants ol ancicnt !llyrians was consid
crcd to bc thc ultimatc “vcrification” ol thc historical right ol Albanians to
thc wholc ol Kosovo. From that pcrspcctivc, Scrbs, who had scttlcd in thc
+¡+
Òn thc lall ol Ranković in +µ66 and thc subscqucnt pcriod, scc Stcvcn L. 8urg, Con-
flict and Cohesion in Socialist Yugosla.ia: Political Decision-Making since :,&& (Princcton
NJ: Princcton Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¸).
+¡:
Miloš Mišović, Ko je tražio republiku Koso.o :,,¸–:,·¸ (8clgradc: Narodna knjiga,
+µ8¸), ¸8–µ¸, +¡o, :¡o–:¡+, ¸¡6–¸¡¸.
Kosovo and Mctohija 6¡
8alkans in thc latc sixth and scvcnth ccnturics A.Ð. (i.c. ccnturics altcr thc
ancicnt !llyrians), wcrc stigmatizcd in thc popular Kosovo Albanian vicw as
intrudcrs into lawlully “Albanian lands”.
+¡¸
From party-sponsored discrimination to ethnic mobili.ation
!n Kosovo and Mctohija, this ncw nationalistic policy rcsultcd in a bc
hindthcsccncs combination ol political prcssurc and cthnic discrimina
tion against thc nonAlbanian population. !n thc provincial administration,
most ol thc Scrbs and Montcncgrins wcrc cithcr rcplaccd by Albanians or
politically marginalizcd. 8y a tacit agrccmcnt within thc Communist Party,
thc Scrb officials who had lost thcir positions in thc Kosovo administration
wcrc almost automatically acccptcd and cmploycd clscwhcrc in Scrbia, so as
to tonc down thcir discontcnt. Continuous administrativc, judicial, policc or
dircct physical prcssurcs orchcstratcd by thc Albaniandominatcd Kosovo
communist nomenklatura primarily targctcd Kosovo Scrbs and Montcnc
grins. Tcir quict but stcady migration, mostly to ccntral Scrbia, was a pro
ccss tacitly approvcd by thc lcdcral Yugoslav authoritics.
+¡¡
Tc lcw officials
who darcd to dcnouncc thc cthnic discrimination, not only Scrbs but also
cthnic Turks (such as Kadri Rcufi), wcrc punishcd and cxpcllcd lrom thc
Communist party. 8y contrast, thc Scrb officials who coopcratcd with thc
Kosovo Albanian lcadcrship wcrc rcwardcd with highcr posts in lcdcral
institutions or diplomatic bodics.
+¡¡
Tc most promincnt Kosovo Albanian
scholar Hasan Kalcshi was among thc first to dcnouncc, in thc +µ¸os, thc
cthnic hatrcd propagatcd by Tiranainspircd tcxtbooks and rclatcd histori
cal writings. Òltcn insultcd or boycottcd by othcr collcagucs lor his criti
cism ol Albanian nationalism, Kalcshi dicd in suspicious circumstanccs a
lcw ycars latcr.
+¡6

Ðuring this silcnt cthnic clcansing thc Scrb population in Kosovo
and Mctohija was rcduccd by almost hall, lrom :¸.6 pcrccnt in +µ¡8 to
+¸.: pcrccnt in +µ8+, notwithstanding thcir rclativcly high birth ratc dur
ing thc wholc pcriod ol Tito’s rulc. Tc Montcncgrin population in Kosovo
+¡¸
For thc Albanian vicw on !llyrian thcory and thc cthnogcncsis ol Kosovo, scc Te
Truth on Koso.a (Tirana: ¡ncyclopcdia Publishing Housc, Tc Acadcmy ol Scicnccs ol
thc Rcpublic ol Albania, +µµ¸). Cf. also Ð. T. 8ataković, “KosovoMctohija in thc :oth
Ccntury: Nationalism and Communism”, Eurobalkans ¸o–¸+ (Athcns: A. Papadopou
lou S.A., +µµ8), :+–:¸.
+¡¡
Pcdro Ramct, Nationalism and Federalism in Yugosla.ia :,&¸–:,·¸ (8loomington:
!ndiana Univcrsity Prcss, +µ8¡), +6o–+6¸.
+¡¡
8ataković, Koso.o Chronicles, ¸o.
+¡6
For morc, scc Mišović, Ko je tražio republiku.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija 6¡
droppcd lrom ¸.µ pcrccnt in +µ¡8 to +.¸ pcrccnt in +µ8+. 8ctwccn +µ6+
and +µ8+, ¡:.: pcrccnt ol all Kosovo Scrbs and 6¸.¸ pcrccnt ol all Kosovo
Montcncgrins lclt thc provincc to scttlc in othcr parts ol Scrbia or Mon
tcncgro. Ònly +¡ pcrccnt ol thcsc migrations wcrc, howcvcr, motivatcd by
cconomic rcasons: all othcrs wcrc triggcrcd by intcrcthnic tcnsions, prcs
surcs and harassmcnts by Albanians which rcmaincd unpunishcd by thc
local policc and judicial authoritics.
+¡¸

Tis cthnically motivatcd pcrsccution also targctcd thc Scrbian Òr
thodox Church, pcrccivcd as thc pillar ol Scrbian idcntity in thc Provincc:
bishops, pricsts, monks and nuns, ccmctcrics and landcd propcrty. Numcr
ous instanccs ol continuous pcrsccution both by Albanian nationalists and
by Albanian provincial burcaucrats wcrc rcportcd to thc Holy Synod by thc
RaškaPrizrcn Ðioccsc on +µ May +µ6µ. Patriarch Gcrman, thcn thc hcad
ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church, was compcllcd to ask Tito, thc commu
nist dictator ol Yugoslavia, lor protcction:
“Tc violcncc dccrcascs somcwhat only to rcappcar clscwhcrc in an
cvcn morc scrious lorm. Ðuring thc last ycar its lorms havc bccomc cx
trcmc. Tcrc not only has bccn dcstruction ol crops in thc ficlds, dcstruction
ol lorcsts (monastcrics ol Ðcvič, Ðcčani, Gorioč ncar Pcć), dcsccration ol
gravcs (Kosovska \itina and clscwhcrc), but cvcn physical assaults on nuns
(last ycar in thc monastcrics ol 8inač ncar Kosovska \itina and Mušutištc
ncar Prizrcn, and this spring, in Ðcvič — whcrc thc priorcss suffcrcd scrious
physical injurics, a novicc ol thc Ðcčani monastcry was injurcd by thc axc,
a hicromonk ol Gorioč monastcry was hit in thc hcad with a stonc, pricsts
around Kosovska Mitrovica wcrc stoncd, ctc.), which has rcsultcd in thc
cmigration ol our laithlul lrom thosc rcgions.”
+¡8

Tc Patriarch’s rcqucst, just anothcr onc in a scrics ol similar com
plaints to thc authoritics ol Scrbia and othcr lcdcral institutions, produccd
ncithcr shorttcrm nor longtcrm rcsults. Namcly, J. 8. Tito promiscd
protcction and law cnlorccmcnt but, in practicc, no tangiblc rcsults wcrc
achicvcd. Numcrous complaints, including copious vcrbatim rcports by Scrb
citizcns and bclicvcrs subscqucntly publishcd in various church magazincs,
rcmaincd cntircly ignorcd by thc communist authoritics both in 8clgradc
and Priština until thc carly +µ8os.
+¡µ

+¡¸
Ðctailcd analysis bascd on cxtcnsivc ficld rcscarch can bc lound in R. Pctrović & M.
8lagojcvić, Te Migration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Koso.o and Metohija. Fesults of
the Sur.ey Conducted in :,·¸–:,·& (8clgradc: Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts,
+µµ:).
+¡8
Tc wholc lcttcr is rcproduccd in Zadužbine Koso.a, 8¸¸.
+¡µ
For lurthcr documcntation lrom thc Archivc ol thc Holy Synod in 8clgradc con
ccrning continuous pcrsccution ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church in thc RaškaPrizrcn
Kosovo and Mctohija 66
Morcovcr, thc Kosovo Albanian nomenklatura oltcn allottcd thc
land ol thc cxpcllcd Scrbs to immigrants lrom Albania. From +歭 until
Tito’s dcath in +µ8o, thc numbcr ol Albanians in Kosovo and Mctohija
almost triplcd, which givcs a population incrcasc ol +6¡ pcrccnt lrom +µ¡8
to +µ8+. Tc numbcr ol immigrants lrom Albania has ncvcr bccn cxactly
dctcrmincd.
!n thc first postwar ycars, thcir scttlcmcnt in Kosovo and Mctohija
had bccn aimcd at lacilitating thc cxpcctcd anncxation ol Albania to thc
Yugoslav lcdcration as thc scvcnth rcpublic. Tc sccond wavc ol Albanian
scttlcmcnt was organizcd bctwccn thc latc +µ6os and thc carly +µ8os by
thc Kosovo Albanian nomenklatura in ordcr to bolstcr thc cthnic suprcmacy
ol Albanians in thc Kosovo districts with mixcd population and a strongcr
Scrbian prcscncc. Tc spcctacular dcmographic growth ol thc Kosovo Alba
nian population, lacilitatcd by thc socialist wcllarc systcm and hugc lcdcral
and Scrbian invcstmcnts into thc cconomy ol thc Provincc, gavc additional
social stimulus to thc hostilc nationalism ol ncw gcncrations ol Kosovo
Albanians, at libcrty to bc cducatcd on a dangcrous mixturc ol ninctccnth
ccntury romantic nationalism and ¡nvcr Hohxa’s Stalinisttypc cthnic
communism. As a rcsult, dcspitc abundant political and social advantagcs
thcy obtaincd altcr +歭, Kosovo Albanians still considcrcd Yugoslavia as a
transitional phasc: thcy aspircd to thc status ol a constitucnt rcpublic ol Yu
goslavia cndowcd with thc right to sclldctcrmination, i.c. scccssion, which
thcy lookcd upon as a stcppingstonc to cvcntual unification with Albania.
Tis barcly hiddcn political goal ol thc Kosovo Albanians was rccog
nizcd by cxpcricnccd Amcrican journalists travclling in thc arca in thc carly
+µ8os: “Tc |Albanian| nationalists havc a twopoint platlorm |...| first to
cstablish what thcy call an cthnically clcan Albanian rcpublic and thcn thc
mcrgcr with Albania to lorm a grcatcr Albania.”
+¡o
¡conomic lrustrations ol thc Kosovo Albanians as a prcdominantly
agrarian population lacking job opportunitics was, thcrclorc, largcly divcrt
cd into national dissatislaction through a massivc propaganda campaign lcd
by intcllcctuals prolilcrating national mythology. Tc political goal ol thc
coming rcbcllion was symbolically announccd by thc firc Albanian cxtrcm
ists sct to thc historic scat ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church, thc Patriarch
atc ol Pcć, in March +µ8+. Tc largcscalc Albanian rcbcllion in March and
Ðioccsc bctwccn +µ¡¡ and +µ8+, scc Zadužbine Koso.a, ¸µ¸–8¸8. Cf. also Ðimitrijc
8ogdanović, “Tc Scrbian Church during thc Kosovo Hardship” in Prcdrag Ð. Ki
juk, Ðušan T. 8ataković and Slobodan Milcusnić, cds., Te Battle of Koso.o, :¸·,–:,·,
(8clgradc: Homcland, +µ8µ), +¡:–+¡¡.
+¡o
Marvinc Howc, “¡xodus ol Scrbians Stirs Provincc in Yugoslavia”, Te Ne. York
Times, +: July +µ8:.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija 6¸
April +µ8+, dcscribcd initially as a studcnt rcvolt, cvolvcd within wccks into
a nationalistic movcmcnt dcmanding thc status ol a lcdcral rcpublic lor
Kosovo within Yugoslavia. Tc dcmand arosc only a ycar altcr thc dcath ol
J. 8. Tito, disrupting thc scnsitivc balancc ol powcr in thc lcdcral lcadcrship
ol communist Yugoslavia.
+¡+

Attcmpts to appcasc thc Albanian rcvolt in Kosovo and Mctohija
by mcans ol thc standard communist practicc ol rcpcatcd party purgcs and
by continuous rcprcssion (actions ol thc lcdcral military and policc lorccs
against Albanian protcstcrs, largcscalc lcgal prosccution and punishmcnt,
mostly ol youngcr pcoplc) did not yicld cxpcctcd rcsults. Tc Lcaguc ol
Communists’ parallcl cfforts to minimizc thc problcm ol discrimination
against thc Scrbs and ol thcir lorccd migration lrom Kosovo and Mctohija
only rcsultcd in thc growing lrustration ol Scrbs all ovcr Yugoslavia in thc
ycars that lollowcd.
Tc lorcign prcss lrcqucntly rcportcd on thc Yugoslav policc rctali
ation against young Albanian protcstcrs shouting slogans against lcdcral
Yugoslavia whilc praising ¡nvcr Hohxa, thc communist dictator ol Albania.
Tc Kosovo Scrb claims, supportcd by Yugoslav officials in 8clgradc about
Albanianorganizcd cthnically motivatcd pcrsccution, discrimination and
harassmcnt wcrc strongly and conccrtcdly dcnicd by Kosovo Albanians,
Hohxa’s officials lrom Tirana and thcir supportcrs on thc intcrnational
sccnc. Tc Kosovo Scrb claims, oltcn minimizcd by lorcign corrcspondcnts
and spccial cnvoys to thc rcgion wcrc confirmcd lrom indcpcndcnt sourccs,
by unbiascd Amcrican journalists lully acquaintcd with rcgional conflicts,
dcvclopmcnts and dilcmmas. !n thc wcllinlormcd Amcrican rcportcr’s
vicw, thc lollowing proccss was thc major dcvclopmcnt in Kosovo: “Scrbs
havc bccn harasscd by Albanians and havc packcd up and lclt thc rcgion.
Somc ¡¸,ooo Scrbs havc lclt Kosovo in thc last dccadc |...| thc cxodus ol
Scrbs is admittcdly onc ol thc main problcms |...| in Kosovo.”
+¡:

Similar balanccd rcporting on continuous hardship ol thc Kosovo
Scrb population both bclorc and altcr thc +µ8+ riots was drowncd out by
an orchcstratcd mcdia campaign. !n thc latc +µ8os, Vcstcrn rcporting, with
a lcw noblc cxccptions, was locuscd cxclusivcly on constant violation ol
thc human rights ol thc rcbcllcd Kosovo Albanians. Tc conflict in Kosovo
was oltcn prcscntcd as intcrnal cthnic strilc, omitting thc rcal idcological
+¡+
Nora 8cloff, Tito’s Fla.ed Legacy. Yugosla.ia and the !est since :,,, (8ouldcr, Colo
rado: Vcstvicw Prcss, +µ8¡), :oµ–:+¡.
+¡:
Te Ne. York Times, +: July +µ8:.
Kosovo and Mctohija 68
background ol Albanian nationalism, lostcrcd by thc Albanian rcgimc in
Tirana.
+¡¸

Ncvcrthclcss, in +µ8¸ thc Ne. York Times camc out with a dctailcd rc
port: “thc currcnt hostilitics pit scparatistmindcd cthnic Albanians against
thc various Slavic populations ol Yugoslavia and occur at all lcvcls ol socicty,
lrom thc highcst officials to thc humblcst pcasants. A young Army con
script ol cthnic Albanian origin |Aziz Kclmcndi| shot up his barracks |in
Paraćin, ccntral Scrbia|, killing lour slccping Slavic bunkmatcs and wound
ing six othcrs. Tc army says it has uncovcrcd hundrcds ol subvcrsivc cthnic
Albanian cclls in its ranks. Somc arscnals havc bccn raidcd.”
+¡¡

!t should bc notcd that, in rctrospcct, this kind ol both crcdiblc and
vcrifiablc rcporting providcs a clcar and indisputablc account ol thc hiddcn
political objcctivcs ol Kosovo Albanians and confirms thc claims ol Kosovo
Scrbs about bcing pcrsccutcd, discriminatcd and prcssurcd into lcaving thc
provincc. Managing to undcrminc thc wholc lcdcral systcm as cstablishcd
by thc +µ¸¡ Constitution, thc Albanian qucstion in Scrbia and Yugoslavia
produccd a domino cffcct, arousing Scrb conccrns ovcr thcir own position
both in Scrbia and in thc Yugoslav lcdcration. Much classificd inlormation
about intcrcthnic tcnsions in Kosovo and Mctohija was lcakcd to thc pub
lic and cvcntually lound its way to Vcstcrn prcss rcports. !t was rcportcd
that “cthnic Albanians in thc Govcrnmcnt havc manipulatcd public lunds
and rcgulations to takc ovcr land bclonging to Scrbs. And politicians havc
cxchangcd vicious insults. Slavic Òrthodox churchcs havc bccn attackcd,
and flags havc bccn torn down. Vclls havc bccn poisoncd and crops burncd.
Slavic boys havc bccn knilcd, and somc young cthnic Albanians havc bccn
told by thcir cldcrs to rapc Scrbian girls.”
+¡¡
Tc goal ol radical Albanian
nationalists was dcscribcd as thc lormation ol “cthnic Albania that includcs
wcstcrn Maccdonia, southcrn Montcncgro, part ol southcrn Scrbia, Kosovo
and Albania itscll. Tat includcs largc chunks ol thc rcpublics that makc up
thc southcrn hall ol Yugoslavia. Òthcr cthnic Albanian scparatists admit to
a vision ol a grcatcr Albania govcrncd lrom Priština in southcrn Yugosla
via rathcr than Tirana, thc capital ol ncighbouring Albania. |…| As Slavs
flcc thc protractcd violcncc, Kosovo is bccoming what cthnic Albanian na
tionalists havc bccn dcmanding lor ycars, and cspccially strongly sincc thc
+¡¸
Tc official position ol Albania in +µ8+ is availablc in thc collcction ol articlcs lrom
Tirana’s Zeri i popullit daily: Æ propos des e.enements de Koso.e (Tirana: 8 Ncntori,
+µ8+).
+¡¡
Ðavid 8indcr, “!n Yugoslavia, Rising ¡thnic Strilc 8rings Fcars ol Vorsc Civil Con
flict”, Te Ne. York Times, + Novcmbcr +µ8¸.
+¡¡
Ibid.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija 6µ
bloody rioting by cthnic Albanians in Priština in +µ8+ — an ‘cthnically
purc’ Albanian rcgion, a ‘Rcpublic ol Kosovo’ in all but namc.”
+¡6
!t was also obscrvcd, corrcctly, that thc “growing tcnsion bctwccn
Albanians and Scrbs hcrc this ycar has convcrtcd this poor southcrn rcgion
lrom a chronic local troublc spot into thc potcntial flash point ol a country
incrcasingly dividcd by national rivalrics. Sincc thc outbrcak ol riots hcrc in
+µ8+, authoritics ol thc autonomous provincc ol Kosovo havc laccd a stcady
challcngc lrom scparatist and nationalist groups among thc dominant Al
banian population. Morc than +,ooo pcoplc |Kosovo Albanians| havc bccn
jailcd lor sccking Kosovo’s indcpcndcncc lrom Scrbia, thc Yugoslav rcpublic
to which Kosovo nominally bclongs, or unification with thc ncighbouring
nation Albania. Tc significancc ol this conflict has bccn multiplicd this
ycar by thc cmcrgcncc ol conccrn among Yugoslavia’s Scrbs, thc country’s
largcst cthnic group, about thc ‘lorccd cmigration’ ol Scrbs lrom Kosovo
undcr prcssurc lrom thc Albanians. Small larmcrs, tradcsmcn and prolcs
sionals havc bccn stcadily lcaving thc provincc’s citics and thc small Scrbian
villagcs around thcm, raising thc prospcct that a historic scat ol thc Scrbian
nation will soon bc populatcd only by Albanians. Morc than :o,ooo havc
cmigratcd sincc +µ8+ out ol a total Scrbian population ol about ::o,ooo.
Mcanwhilc, thc Albanian population ol ovcr +.: million is cxpanding at
thc lastcst pacc in ¡uropc. Tc local Scrbs arguing that Albaniandomi
natcd provincial authoritics havc offcrcd thcm no protcction lrom violcnt
attacks, havc signcd pctitions and stagcd scvcral dcmonstrations outsidc
Pristina this ycar. To thc cmbarrassmcnt ol |Kosovo Albanian| authoritics,
thcy havc also scnt thrcc dclcgations to prcss thcir casc in 8clgradc, thc
capital ol Scrbia and ol Yugoslavia. Tc acts havc inflamcd nationalist lccl
ing among Scrbians outsidc Kosovo and promptcd dcmands by intcllcctuals
and cvcn Scrbian communist political lcadcrs lor constitutional changcs
and othcr drastic action to stop thc cmigration and rcstorc Scrbia’s control
ovcr Kosovo. Tc Scrbian outbursts, in turn, havc provokcd conccrn by lcad
crs ol Yugoslavia’s fivc othcr, smallcr rcpublics, who sympathizc with somc
complaints but arc wary ol Scrbian national aspirations. Tc last dclcgation
ol Scrbs to visit 8clgradc carly this month, mcanwhilc, warncd that thcy
would takc up arms against thcir pcrccivcd tormcntors among thc Alba
nians.”
+¡¸
+¡6
Ibid.
+¡¸
Albania itscll, thc world’s most rigid Stalinist govcrnmcnt has kcpt thc nation so
isolatcd and povcrtystrickcn that about ¡,ooo rclugccs havc flcd across thc hcavily
guardcd bordcr to Kosovo. A powcrlul tradition ol closcknit clans has bound thc com
munity togcthcr, raiscd thc birth ratc and discouragcd cmigration to othcr parts ol
Yugoslavia. Tc rcsult, said cconomists and govcrnmcnt officials, has bccn prcssurc lor
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸o
Tc intransigcncc ol thc nationalcommunist nomenklatura in thc
Yugoslav lcdcral lcadcrship, tacitly patronizing Albanian cxtrcmism, crc
atcd dangcrous tcnsions which wcrc difficult to control: lrom +µ8+, scllor
ganizcd Kosovo Scrbs gradually gaincd widc popular support altcr lrcqucnt
mass protcsts bclorc lcdcral Yugoslav institutions in 8clgradc.
+¡8
Sincc thc
vcry bcginning ol thcir opcn protcst against discrimination, thc Scrbs ol
Kosovo and Mctohija cnjoycd both moral and political support ol pricsts,
monks and bishops ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church — gcncrally pcr
ccivcd as thc archcncmy ol thc communist rcgimc. Vith its opcn lcttcrs
to thc public dcnouncing “cultural and spiritual gcnocidc” dircctcd against
thc Scrbian Christian hcritagc (dcsccration ol churchcs, monastcrics and
gravcyards, harassmcnts and attacks on monks and nuns, ctc.) widcly dis
tributcd through thc rcligious prcss, thc Patriarchatc, no longcr sccn as a
parochial and conscrvativc organization, but as a natural protcctor ol na
tional intcrcst in dangcrous situations, gradually rcgaincd thc confidcncc ol
land in Kosovo cvcn lrom thosc Albanians who arc ncithcr scparatist nor antiScrbian.
“Lct mc cxplain thc psychology ol an Albanian larmcr about thc land,” said Abrashi,
himscll Albanian. “For ccnturics thcsc pcoplc havc bccn dcfining thcir cxistcncc and
thcir worth only through land. Tcy arc rcady to makc grcat sacrificcs, to work ¸o ycars,
to go and work abroad, to livc in tcrriblc conditions so as to collcct, pcnny by pcnny, thc
moncy to buy a piccc ol land. And thc land must bc ncar that ol thc rcst ol thc lamily.
For that thcy will pay almost any pricc.” Land priccs in Kosovo, dcspitc its povcrty, arc
fivc timcs thosc in Scrbia and typically rangc around +¸¡,ooo lor an acrc ol good larm
land, Abrashi said. Ncwspapcrs havc rcportcd salcs ol larms lor ovcr ++ million. As a
rcsult, Scrbs, who unlikc thc Albanians havc attractivc altcrnativcs outsidc thc provincc,
havc had a powcrlul cconomic inccntivc to scll thcir land to Albanians. For thc Scrbs
who havc rcmaincd, lrustratcd Albanian youth havc kcpt up a stcady harassmcnt rang
ing lrom thc painting ol hostilc slogans on Scrbian homcs and vandalism ol Scrbian
gravcyards to bcatings and rapcs. “Ònc cannot spcak ol thcsc dcvclopmcnts as bcing
only thc dccds ol individual |Albanian| groups anymorc,” said Scrbia’s intcrior ministcr
Svctomir Lalović in a rcccnt spccch. “At issuc arc scriously disturbcd intcrcthnic rcla
tions.” Fcw killings havc bccn rccordcd sincc thc +µ8+ riots. 8ut in thc thrcc months ol
July, August and Scptcmbcr, authoritics rccordcd ¸¡ assaults by Albanians on Scrbians.
Two instanccs ol rapc provokcd outragcd dcmonstrations ncar Priština and motivatcd
thc last, angry dclcgation that marchcd on thc lcdcral parliamcnt in 8clgradc. Yugoslav
officials prcdict that it will takc many ycars to rcsolvc thc tcnsions in Kosovo, and dissi
dcnts arc cvcn lcss sanguinc. ( Jackson Ðichl, “¡thnic Rivalrics causc unrcst in Yugoslav
Rcgion”, !ashington Post Forcign Scrvicc Saturday, :µ Novcmbcr +µ86).
+¡8
Cf. “Kosovo poljc—dncvnik dogadjaja”, Inter.ju +:¸, ++ April +µ86, Atanasijc Jcltić,
Od Koso.a do Jado.na (8clgradc: Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva, +µ86), Kjcll Magnusson,
“Tc Scrbian Rcaction Kosovo and ¡thnic Mobilization Among thc Scrbs”, Nordic
Journal of So.iet . East European Studies ¡¸ (+µ8¸), ¸–¸o.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸+
thc widcr public and cstablishcd a ncw moral influcncc on a largcly sccular
Scrb population.
+¡µ

Ðcspitc thc growing support in all Scrbinhabitcd arcas ol Yugosla
via — lrom Slovcnian cnclavcs, most ol castcrn and wcstcrn 8osnia, Ðal
matia and thc wholc ol Krajina (arcas ol thc lormcr Habsburg Military
Fronticr) in Croatia to Hcrzcgovina, northcrn Maccdonia, Montcncgro
and \ojvodina — lor thc protcction ol thc Scrbs ol Kosovo and Mctohija,
thc main lcdcral institutions, still lully controllcd by thc oldagc dogmas ol
thc Lcaguc ol Communists, rcmaincd hostilc to any significant changc ol
political or lcgal provisions or to any kind ol ncw constitutional arrangc
mcnts that could imposc rcstrictions on thc discrimination against Kosovo
Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanian cthnic groups and harmonizc thc lcgal sys
tcm in thc wholc ol Scrbia.
Òn :¡ Òctobcr +µ8¸, thc cightmcmbcr Fcdcral Prcsidcncy dccidcd
to dcploy lcdcral policc lorccs to Kosovo and Mctohija in ordcr to maintain
ordcr. Tc Kosovo Albanian nomenklatura rcad this act as clcar cvidcncc ol
losing support among othcr nationalistic lcadcrships insidc thc Fcdcration.
¡vcntually supportcd by official 8clgradc, local Kosovo Scrb communists
cmcrgcd victorious in this conflict, which cndcd up with rcpcatcd purgcs
ol Albanian communist lcadcrs in Priština as wcll as clscwhcrc in Kosovo
and Mctohija.
As a rcsult, altcr thc lcdcral authoritics lailcd to cnsurc thc protcction
ol thc Scrbs in Kosovo and Mctohija, thc problcm was bound to bccomc
a mcans ol highly orchcstratcd political manipulation, in particular whcn
a ncw communist hardlincr, Slobodan Milošcvić, using a populist stratcgy,
imposcd himscll in thc middlc ol +µ8¸ as thc solc protcctor ol Scrb national
intcrcsts. Milošcvić’s intcntion was to rccstablish thc influcncc ol thc dis
crcditcd Lcaguc ol Communists on thc basis ol a ncwlydiscovcrcd Scrb
nationalism, a modcl alrcady applicd a dccadc bclorc in othcr constitucnt
rcpublics ol lcdcral Yugoslavia. Most Scrbs pcrccivcd him as a gcnuinc Scrb
patriot who prctcndcd to bc a hardlinc communist. Milošcvić, howcvcr,
turncd out to bc a communist only prctcnding to bc a Scrb patriot.
+6o

His ncocommunist populism gaincd momcntum as thc collapsc ol
communism cncouragcd by nationalism was alrcady undcrway in Sovict
dominatcd ¡astcrn ¡uropc and thc Sovict Union itscll. Milošcvić’s hard
+¡µ
“Ðcclaration ol thc 8ishops ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church against thc Gcnocidc
by thc Albanians on thc indigcnous Scrbian Population, togcthcr with thc Sacrilcgc ol
thcir Cultural Monumcnts in thcir own Country”, South Sla. Journal ++/:–¸ (¡o–¡+)
(London: South Slav Journal, +µ88), 6+–6¡, 8¸–8µ.
+6o
For morc, scc Slavoljub Ðjukić, Kako se dogodio .odja (8clgradc: Filip \išnjić, +µµ+);
Kosta Čavoški, Slobodan proti. slobode (8clgradc: Ðosijc, +µµ:).
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸:
linc communist approach to thc national qucstion soon provcd to bc thc
most discrcditing clcmcnt lor gcncral Scrb intcrcsts in Yugoslavia.
+6+

¡vcn bclorc Milošcvić rosc to powcr in +µ8¸, thc scccssionist movc
mcnt ol thc Kosovo Albanians had bccn ablc to mobilizc a largc spcctrum ol
Albanian Ðiaspora in thc Vcst, using a mixturc ol traditionally rightwing
accusations against thc Scrbs and an ultralclt “MarxistLcninist” rhctoric
lurnishcd ovcr thc ycars by ¡nvcr Hoxha’s Albania. Altcr thc +µ8¸ party
coup in 8clgradc, Albanians skillully portraycd thcmsclvcs as thc main vic
tims ol thc ncocommunist rcgimc ol Slobodan Milošcvić, whilc Scrbia
was oltcn portraycd as thc “last bastion ol communism in ¡uropc”.
+6:
Us
ing politically corrcct libcral rhctoric, and staging wcllorganizcd pacifist
dcmonstrations, Kosovo Albanians managcd to attract thc attcntion ol thc
Vcstcrn mcdia and thcir political clitc.
+6¸

Ncvcrthclcss, in rcality, whilc maintaining lull control ovcr thc kcy
institutions and cxccutivc powcr in thc Provincc, Kosovo Albanians, and
cxtrcmist nationalists in particular, continucd to harass and discriminatc thc
nonAlbanian population. A rarc firsthand Amcrican corrcspondcnt notcd
that “cthnic Albanians alrcady control almost cvcry phasc ol lilc in thc au
tonomous provincc ol Kosovo, including thc policc, judiciary, civil scrvicc,
schools and lactorics. NonAlbanian visitors almost immcdiatcly lccl thc
indcpcndcncc — and suspicion — ol thc cthnic Albanian authoritics.”
+6¡
Tc Kosovo Albanians, lollowing thc pattcrn ol strict tribal obcdi
cncc, wcrc organizcd as a homogcncous political movcmcnt bound by com
mon nationalist idcals. Political lrccdom and human rights, as vicwcd by
thc Kosovo Albanians, wcrc cxclusivcly linkcd to thcir collcctivc rights and
wcrc confincd to thcir claims lor unrcstrictcd majority rulc in a tcrritory
dcfincd as “thc Rcpublic ol Kosovo” within thc Yugoslav lcdcration.
Protcsts ol Kosovo Albanians provokcd anothcr wavc ol cthnic mo
bilization. !t was thc Trcpča Albanian mincrs’ protcst ol Novcmbcr +µ88
+6+
J. F 8rown, Nationalism, Democracy, and Security in the Balkans (8rookficld: Ðart
mouth Pub, +µµ:), Lcnard J. Cohcn, Broken Bonds: Yugosla.ia’s Disintegration and Bal-
kan Politics in Transition (8ouldcr: Vcstvicw Prcss, +µµ¡).
+6:
8atakovic, Koso.o. La spirale de la haine, ¸+–¸¸.
+6¸
For an Albanian point ol vicw, scc !brahim Rugova, Independence and Democracy
(Prishtina: Fjala, +µµ+, Alush Gashi, cd., Te Denial of Human and National Fights of
Ælbanians in Yugosla.ia (Ncw York: !lliria, +µµ:), Open .ounds: human rights abuses in
Koso.o (Ncw York: Human Rights Vatch, +µµ¸).
+6¡
Tc obvious rcsult ol such a policy was thc lollowing: “whilc :oo,ooo Scrbs and
Montcncgrins still livc in thc provincc, thcy arc scattcrcd and lack cohcsion. !n thc last
scvcn ycars, :o,ooo ol thcm havc flcd thc provincc, oltcn lcaving bchind larmstcads and
houscs, lor thc salcty ol thc Slavic north.” (Ðavid 8indcr, “!n Yugoslavia, Rising ¡thnic
Strilc 8rings Fcars ol Vorsc Civil Conflict”, Te Ne. York Times, + Novcmbcr +µ8¸).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¸
lollowcd by a similar Albanian mincrs’ hungcr strikc in January +µ8µ that
gcncratcd a scrics ol Albanianorganizcd solidarity strikcs in 8clgradc
bascd, statcowncd companics throughout Kosovo and Mctohija. !n addi
tion, bctwccn Novcmbcr +µ88 and Scptcmbcr +µ8µ mass strikcs or othcr
work boycotts took placc in at lcast :¸o companics throughout thc prov
incc, producing a trcmcndous loss ol two million working hours. Albanian
sponsorcd strikcs soon bccamc thc chicl wcapon ol thc !ndcpcndcnt Tradc
Unions ol Kosovo (8SPK), organizcd in +µµo to substitutc thc provincial
Fcdcration ol Tradc Unions (FTU). Òn ¸ Scptcmbcr thc 8SPK callcd lor
a oncday gcncral strikc to protcst against thc dismissals ol +¡,ooo Alba
nian workcrs. Tc gcncral strikc ol Kosovo Albanians, lully boycottcd by
thc Provincc’s thirtyfivc pcrccnt Scrb and nonAlbanian population, man
agcd to halt most ol thc big companics all ovcr Kosovo and Mctohija and
dcmonstratcd thc powcr ol cthnic mobilization and solidarity. Howcvcr,
thc strikc lailcd to achicvc its aims, rathcr, Scrbia rcspondcd by firing an
additional ¡,ooo workcrs who had rcluscd to comply with thc strict rulcs ol
workcrsscllmanagcmcnt that wcrc still a lcgal obligation lor all workcrs
in Yugoslavia.
Conflicts, parallel .orlds, confrontation
Tc final rcsult ol thc limitation ol Kosovo autonomy imposcd by Scrbia
was anothcr hugc wavc ol unrcst and, in turn, scvcrc policc rcprcssion. As
Albanian protcsts continucd, thc Yugoslav lcadcrship, at thc rcqucst ol thc
authoritics ol Scrbia, dcploycd thc lcdcral army lorccs to Kosovo and Mcto
hija in Fcbruary +µ8µ. Ðuring thc cnsuing March protcst somc protcstcrs,
somc ol whom wcrc armcd, wcrc killcd whilc hundrcds wcrc arrcstcd in
conflicts with thc lcdcral army. Tat samc month, thc Albanian communist
lcadcr Azcm \llasi and anothcr lourtccn Albanian communists wcrc scn
tcnccd lor “countcrrcvolutionary activitics undcrmining thc social ordcr”,
lor organizing thc riots ol mincrs at Stari Trg and Albanian cthnically mo
tivatcd dcmonstrations throughout Kosovo.
+6¡

8y thc :6 March +µ8µ amcndmcnts to thc Constitution ol Scrbia,
thc autonomy ol both Scrbian provinccs, Kosovo (with thc tcrm Mctohija
rcintroduccd) and \ojvodina, was rcduccd to thc lcvcl cnjoycd undcr thc
+µ6¸ Constitution.
+66
Tc limitation ol autonomy mcant in lact thc rcmoval
ol all constitutional provisions pcrccivcd or trcatcd as clcmcnts ol potcntial
+6¡
!t was latcr that thcir scntcnccs wcrc abolishcd undcr thc prcssurc ol thc intcrnation
al and Yugoslav public. Cf. Hugh Poulton, Te Balkans. Minorities and States in Conflict
(London: Minority Rights Group, +µµ+), 6¸–68.
+66
“Ustav Rcpublikc Srbijc”, Službeni glasnik Fepublike Srbije + (8clgradc +µµo).
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¡
Kosovo statchood. !t also cndcd thc unrcstraincd, cthnically motivatcd po
litical domination ol Albanians in thc Autonomous Provincc ol Kosovo.
+6¸

Tc Albanian mcmbcrs ol thc dismisscd communist Asscmbly ol
Kosovo rcspondcd on : July +µµo by proclaiming thc Rcpublic ol Kosovo
within Yugoslavia, i.c. a lcdcral unit scparatc lrom Scrbia. Furthcrmorc, thc
Kosovo Albanian rcprcscntativcs, lully ignoring thc political rights ol Koso
vo Scrbs and othcr national communitics and cthnic groups, adoptcd thcir
own Albanian “Constitution” at an asscmbly hcld sccrctly in Kačanik on ¸
Scptcmbcr +µµo. Tcsc acts, lollowcd by a widcsprcad Albanian boycott
ol all official Scrbdominatcd institutions, lrom schools to hospitals, wcrc
rcgardcd by Scrbian authoritics as illcgal attcmpts at scccssion.
+68
8clgradc’s immcdiatc rcsponsc was to firc all Kosovo Albanians
who challcngcd thc rcstorcd statchood ol Scrbia. Tc ncxt mcasurc was
harsh policc rctaliation against oltcn violcnt Kosovo Albanian protcstcrs.
Unyiclding in thcir aim to obtain indcpcndcncc lrom Scrbia, Kosovo Al
banians at first chosc a stratcgy ol passivc rcsistancc, pcrsonificd by !bra
him Rugova, a promincnt communist intcllcctual that bccamc lcadcr ol thc
Ðcmocratic Lcaguc ol Kosovo (LÐK), a political party lunctioning as a
mass Albanian national movcmcnt. Rugova’s policy was to rclusc all contact
with official 8clgradc and thc Scrbdominatcd authoritics in Kosovo, labcl
ling thcm illcgal institutions that violatcd +µ¸¡ Kosovo autonomy. Furthcr
morc, throughout thc carly +µµos, Kosovo Albanians adamantly rcjcctcd
lrcqucnt calls, supportcd by thc intcrnational community, lor a dcmocratic
compromisc through political compromisc with thc antiMilošcvić dcmo
cratic lorccs in Scrbia. Kosovo Albanians, thcrclorc, invcstcd nothing into
thc promotion ol dcmocracy or human rights in Scrbia. Tc majority ol
Kosovo Albanians boycottcd all post+µµo multiparty parliamcntary clcc
tions in Scrbia whilc in parallcl dcnouncing Milošcvić’s communist rcgimc
as pursuing “colonial” and “aparthcid” policy.
Tc only bcncficiary ol thc situation was Milošcvić, who rosc to pow
cr through bcing pcrccivcd as thc main protcctor ol discriminatcd Kosovo
Scrbs. !n practicc, Milošcvić manipulatcd thc Kosovo issuc lor his own
shorttcrm nccds, primarily as a salc rcscrvoir lor at lcast twcntysix par
liamcntary scats nccdcd lor maintaining his undisputcd powcr in Scrbia.
!n rcturn, Milošcvić tolcratcd thc parallcl political systcm cstablishcd by
Albanians lor thcir own community in Kosovo and Mctohija. Tc long
tcrm stratcgy ol Kosovo Albanians rcmaincd unchangcd during thc wars
+6¸
Cf. “Amandmani na Ustav Srbijc +µ8µ”, Službeni glasnik SF Srbije ++ (8clgradc
+µ8µ).
+68
Cf. Shklzcn Maliqi, “A Ðcmand lor a Ncw Status: Tc Albanian Movcmcnt in Ko
sova” in \crcmis & Kolos, cds., Koso.o. Æ.oiding Ænother Balkan !ar, :+o–:+8.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¡
ol Yugoslav succcssion wagcd in Slovcnia, Croatia and 8osnia: thcy sought
to obtain intcrnational support, first political and cvcntually military, lor
thc causc ol Kosovo’s scccssion lrom Scrbia which, in April +µµ:, lormcd a
common statc with Montcncgro: thc Fcdcral Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia.
+6µ

Kosovo Albanians, thcrclorc, kcpt rcjccting all calls lor dcmocratic
strugglc within Scrbia and lor coopcration with thc nasccnt dcmocratic
bloc in 8clgradc. Milošcvić was, lor his own cnds, using Kosovo to rcmain
in powcr, stiflc thc dcmocratic opposition and supprcss any discussion about
his communistinspircd policy, Kosovo includcd. Alrcady in +µµ:, Milošcvić
lost mass support and rcsortcd to clcctoral lraud to maintain powcr, whilc
using thc intcrnational cmbargo imposcd on Scrbia and Montcncgro in Junc
+µµ: to incrcasc his control ovcr thc cconomy, politics and mcdia through
both sccurity and army scrviccs. Tc Scrbian dcmocratic opposition (С
PÒS) was cvcntually supportcd by thc highcstranking rcprcscntativcs ol
thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church in thcir oltcn joint cfforts, during +µµ:, to
stop thc bloodshcd ol thc civil wars in Croatia and 8osniaHcrzcgovina,
and to pavc thc way to compromisc and pcacc through political dialoguc
and intcrnational mcdiation:
“Tc Scrbian Òrthodox Church and thc Scrbian pcoplc havc ncvcr
adhcrcd to godlcss Communism or to any othcr totalitarian idcology. |…|
Tc Scrbian Church opcnly dissociatcs and distanccs itscll lrom this and
this kind ol |Milošcvićappointcd| govcrnmcnt and its supportcrs. Vc wish
to rcmind all |pcrsons| in powcr, cspccially in Scrbia, that no onc’s chair
|political position| is morc important than thc dcstiny and lrccdom ol thc
wholc nation and that no onc has a monopoly on thc pcoplc and thc luturc
ol our childrcn. |...| Also, wc appcal to all authoritics in Scrbia and all lac
tors in ¡uropc and thc world to rcspcct thc rights and rcsponsibilitics ol all
who livc in Kosovo and Mctohija, and not to imposc solutions undcr prcs
surc lrom any sidc, instcad, |wc appcal lor| truc support to a compassion
atc and just dcmocratic ordcr that will cnsurc protcction lor all pcoplc and
nations in this rcgion, which, bccausc ol its spiritual, national and cultural
significancc, is to Scrbs what Jcrusalcm is to Jcws.”
+¸o
Altcr thc Ðayton Pcacc Accords ol +µµ¡ Scrbia’s Prcsidcnt Slobodan
Milošcvić, as onc ol thc signatorics ol thc hardwon pcacc, wcnt lrom bcing
thc dcmonizcd “butchcr ol thc 8alkans” to bcing thc guarantor ol thc post
war scttlcmcnt in 8osniaHcrzcgovina. Ðcspitc growing opposition to his
opprcssivc ncocommunist rcgimc throughout Scrbia and thc thrccmonth
+6µ
Cf. Albanian point ol vicw in ¡lcz 8ibcraj, Koso.a: the Balkan Po.der Keg (London:
Rcscarch !nstitutc lor thc Study ol Conflict and Tcrrorism, +µµ¸).
+¸o
Tc cntirc tcxt ol thc Memorandum ol thc Holy Asscmbly ol 8ishops (hcld +¡–:¸
May +µµ:) was publishcd in Glasnik Srpske patrijaršije 6 ( Junc +µµ:), µ¡–µ¸.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸6
protcsts against clcctoral lraud in thc wintcr ol +µµ6, Milošcvić still cnjoycd
almost unconditional Vcstcrn support and cvcn bccamc thc chicl Scrbian
ncgotiator lor thc pcnding Kosovo crisis. Howcvcr, thc incrcasing cfforts
ol diffcrcnt intcrnational mcdiators dcmanding a pcacclul solution to thc
ScrbAlbanian conflict in Kosovo lailcd duc to procrastination within thc
8clgradc rcgimc, but also duc to thc opposition ol Albanians who dcmand
cd, as a first conccssion, thc rcstoration ol thc autonomous status grantcd by
thc +µ¸¡ Yugoslav Constitution.
+¸+
Tc attcmpts to normalizc thc cducation proccss lor cthnic Alba
nians by allowing thcm to usc public schooling lacilitics and thus to rcducc
intcrcthnic tcnsions in Kosovo did not producc thc cxpcctcd rcsults: Scr
bian officials prcscntcd thc problcm ol thc cducation systcm as primarily a
humanitarian issuc, whcrcas thc Albanians saw thc problcm as inscparablc
lrom thc luturc political status ol Kosovo.
+¸:

Vhilc Albanians saw thc rcstoration ol thc autonomous status ol
+µ¸¡ mcrcly as a transition to thcir lull indcpcndcncc lrom 8clgradc, dil
lcrcnt scmiofficial Scrbian proposals callcd lor a pcrmancnt solution to thc
problcm through thc partitioning ol Kosovo along cthnic lincs. !n parallcl,
thc dcmocratic opposition in 8clgradc proposcd various transitional solu
tions, ranging lrom rcgionalization (Miodrag Jovičić) to cantonization (Ð.
T. 8ataković) ol Kosovo and Mctohija, hoping to prcvcnt lurthcr aggrava
tion ol intcrcthnic rclations which would obviously lcad to uncontrollcd
armcd conflicts in thc ncarcst luturc.
+¸¸
Tc opposing attitudcs ol Scrbs and Albanians, with thcir lcadcrs
Slobodan Milošcvić and !brahim Rugova cntrcnchcd in thcir uncompro
mising positions, blockcd thc various mcdiation cfforts ol ¡U or US rcprc
scntativcs. Tc gcncral imprcssion ol lorcign analysts was that Kosovo was
turning into two “parallcl worlds”, with cach sidc dcmonizing or simply
ignoring thc othcr.
+¸¡
Albaniansponsorcd tcrrorist attacks and morc than
+¸+
Ð. T. 8ataković, “KosovoMctohija Qucstion: Òrigins ol a Conflict and Possiblc
Solutions”, Dialogue ¸/:¡ (Paris +µµ8), ¡+–¡6.
+¸:
Tc Milošcvić–Rugova agrccmcnt, signcd undcr thc auspiccs ol Sant’¡gidio, ncvcr
camc into cffcct duc to diffcrcnt intcrprctations: Naša Borba, 8clgradc, ¸ and ¡ Scp
tcmbcr +µµ6. An ovcrvicw ol diffcrcnt initiativcs with corrcsponding documcntation in
Stclan Trocbst, cd., Conflict in Koso.o: Æn Ænalytical Documentation, :,,:–:,,·, ¡CM!
Vorking Papcr No. + (Flcnsburg: ¡uropcan Ccntrc lor Minority !ssucs, +µµ8). Cf. also
a dctailcd account ol thc ncgotiation proccss by Prcdrag Simić, Put u Fambuje, koso.ska
kri.a :,,¸–:ccc (8clgradc: Nova, :ooo).
+¸¸
Ð. T. 8ataković, “Progctti scrbi di spartazionc”, Kosovo: !l triangolo dci 8alcani,
Limes ¸ (Roma +µµ8), +¡¸–+6µ.
+¸¡
Scc thc analysis: Parallel !orlds, !nstitutc lor Var & Pcacc, Mcdia Focus ¸, London,
¡ Ðcccmbcr +µµ8.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸¸
sixty assassinations lrom +µµ¡ to +µµ8, notably ol Kosovo Scrb policcmcn
and civilians, but also ol Kosovo Albanian officials loyal to Scrbia, wcrc
aimcd at dcstroying thc last bridgcs ol communication bctwccn thc two
communitics, and punishing all thc mcmbcrs ol thc Albanian community
unsympathctic to thc scccssionist causc.
Tc Albanian clandcstinc paramilitary organization KLA (thc Koso
vo Libcration Army) announccd armcd rcsistancc in Fcbruary +µµ8. Tis
was a major turningpoint altcr which thc dccadclong passivc rcsistancc
ol thc Albanians gradually turncd into armcd rcbcllion and altcrwards into
lullscalc civil war in thc Provincc. Milošcvić’s rcgimc rcspondcd with sc
vcrc, oltcn cxccssivc, policc mcasurcs targcting both tcrrorist KLA groups
and, occasionally, civilians involvcd in providing logistics. Altcr a scrics ol
pcrsistcnt clashcs bctwccn thc KLA and Scrbian policc lorccs, thc armcd
conflict cscalatcd in thc summcr ol +µµ8.
+¸¡
Altcr thc lailcd Rambouillct ncgotiations on thc luturc status ol
Kosovo, NATÒ dccidcd to rcsolvc thc crisis by military action.
+¸6
Òfficially,
thc NATÒ campaign against Yugoslavia, lacking lcgal authorization lrom
thc UN, had fivc initial objcctivcs: +) salc rcturn ol Albanian rclugccs, :)
withdrawal ol all Scrbian lorccs lrom Kosovo, ¸) NATÒ military control on
thc ground, ¡) cxtcndcd autonomy lor Kosovo, and ¡) thc gradual introduc
tion ol multicthnic dcmocracy. Anothcr two objcctivcs wcrc addcd subsc
qucntly: ovcrthrowing Milošcvić and no commitmcnt ol ground troops.
+¸¸

Tc bombing ol Yugoslavia that startcd on :¡ March +µµµ straincd
ScrbianAlbanian rclations in Kosovo to thc limit. Tc Kosovo Albanians
supporting thc paramilitary KLA units opcnly rcjoiccd at thc bombs lall
ing on 8clgradc and othcr towns in Scrbia. !n addition, thc KLA lorccs
rcsumcd opcrations against Scrbian policc units and local Scrbian civilians,
but also against thosc Albanians or mcmbcrs ol othcr cthnic groups (such as
+¸¡
Cf. “Scrbia: Ðcmocratic Altcrnativc”, Special Feport by US Institute of Peace, Vashing
ton ÐC, Junc +µµ8, p. ¸. For morc, scc Ð. T. 8ataković. “Tc Scrbs in Kosovo and Mc
tohija. Var, !ntcrnational Protcctoratc and National Catastrophc”, Eurobalkans ¸6–¸¸
(Autumn/Vintcr +µµµ), :¸–¡o.
+¸6
Ðavid Gompcrt, “How to Ðclcat Scrbia”, Foreign Æffairs, vol. ¸¸, no. ¡ (Ncw York:
Council on Forcign Rclations !nc., +µµ¡).
+¸¸
“A 8unglcd Var”, Te Economist, London, 8 May +µµµ, ++. Scc a rathcr critical
analysis ol thc Kosovo crisis dcvclopmcnt and NATÒ opcrations in !gnatio Ramonct
& Alain Grcsh, cds., “La nouvcllc gucrrc dcs 8alkans”, Le monde diplomatique, Manière
de .oir no. ¡¡ (May–Junc +µµµ). Cf. anothcr, lcss critical, Vcstcrn pcrspcctivc by Ronald
Ðannrcuthcr, “Var in Kosovo: History, Ðcvclopmcnt and Altcrmath” in Mary 8ucklcy
and Sally Cummings, cds., Koso.o. Perception of !ar and its Æftermath (London & Ncw
York: Continuum, :oo+), +:–:µ.
Kosovo and Mctohija ¸8
Roma, Muslim Slavs, Gorani and othcrs) that had rcmaincd loyal to Scrbia
throughout thc conflict. !n rcsponsc, thc Scrbian policc and military lorccs
launchcd lullscalc opcrations against Albanians, and thc KLA lorccs, apart
lrom small pockcts in ccntral and northcastcrn Kosovo (thc Ðrcnica and
Lab arcas), wcrc crushcd and pushcd into thc mountains towards thc Alba
nian bordcr (thc Junik arca). Vith many crimcs against civilians, committcd
by both sidcs, plus thc high pcrccntagc ol civilians, mostly Albanian, dis
placcd to ncighbouring countrics, intcrcthnic rclations sank to thcir lowcst
lcvcl sincc thc Sccond Vorld Var.
+¸8
Noncthclcss, it was thc brothcrhood
ol thc Scrbian monastcry ol Ðcčani that shcltcrcd somc :oo local Albanian
womcn and childrcn trying to cscapc lrom pcrsccution and rcvcngc.
According to UNHCR data on :¡ May +µµµ, thcrc wcrc µ¡¸,µ+¸
cthnic Albanian rclugccs who lclt Kosovo sincc thc first armcd attacks ol thc
KLA on thc Scrbian policc in March +µµ8. Tc largcscalc cxodus ol Alba
nians lrom Kosovo was, lrom thc Albanian standpoint, variously cxplaincd:
first, as cthnic clcansing organizcd by Scrb paramilitary lorccs, sccond, as
flight lrom Kosovo to avoid thc NATÒ bombing, third, Kosovo Albanians
lound thcmsclvcs cocrccd by thc KLA. !ndccd, thc KLA madc an cffort to
lcgitimizc thc NATÒ air strikcs and “sccurc” thc arrival ol NATÒ troops in
Kosovo. Ðuring April +µµµ, it was also a way lor a part ol thc dclcatcd KLA
units to bc translcrrcd to Albania or Maccdonia along with thc rclugccs
in ordcr to avoid dcstruction by thc Yugoslav army (!ojska Jugosla.ije) and
policc lorccs ol thc Milošcvić rcgimc.
Tc Haguc Tribunal (!CTY) indictmcnt against Milošcvić lor war
crimcs unscalcd in thc middlc ol thc NATÒ bombing campaign contrib
utcd significantly to his dccision to acccpt thc total withdrawal ol Scrbian
military and policc lorccs lrom Kosovo, with thc proviso that thc ncw intcr
national protcctoratc should not cxtcnd to othcr parts ol Scrbia which wcrc
to rcmain undcr his control. According to thc militarytcchnical agrccmcnt
signcd in Kumanovo on µ Junc +µµµ, Kosovo, altcr thc withdrawal ol all
Scrbian lorccs, was placcd undcr thc NATÒlcd Kosovo Forcc (KFÒR)
military protcctoratc. Tc authority ol thc Unitcd Nations civil adminis
tration was introduccd by UN SC Rcsolution No +:¡¡ ol +o Junc +µµµ.
Although an intcrnational protcctoratc, Kosovo and Mctohija, by thc pro
+¸8
Prcdominantly proAlbanian intcrprctation ol thc cvcnts in thc rcport ol thc !n
tcrnational Crisis Group, Te Koso.o Spring. Tc !ntcrnational Crisis Group Guidc to
Kosovo (8russcls +µµ8), lor Scrbian attitudcs, scc pp. ¸¸–8:. Cf. also Ð. T. 8ataković,
“Kosovska kriza: izazovi i ishodi”, Knjiže.ne no.ine µ¸+, 8clgradc, + April +µµ8.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija ¸µ
visions ol UN SC Rcsolution +:¡¡ lcgally rcmaincd within thc Fcdcral
Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia.
+¸µ
Tc ccnturicslong intcrcthnic conflict bctwccn Scrbs and Albanians
in Scrbia’s troublcsomc provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija, still hcavily bur
dcncd by rcligious, national and idcological antagonisms, rcmaincd unsct
tlcd, and was only dccpcncd altcr thc unprcccdcntcd scvcntycight day
long NATÒ bombing campaign in thc spring ol +µµµ — thc alliancc’s first
and last attack on a sovcrcign nation in postSccond Vorld Var ¡uropc.
+¸µ
For a lcgal aspcct, scc Robcrt M. Haydcn, Blueprint for a House Di.ided. Te Consti-
tutional Logic of the Yugosla. Conflict (Ann Arbor: Univcrsity ol Michigan Prcss, :ooo),
+6¸–+8o.
Kosovo and Mctohija 8o
Kosovo and Mctohija Scrbinhabitcd arcas in +µµµ
Ð. T. 8ataković, Kosovo and Mctohija 8+
Appendix
Emigration of Kosovo-Metohija Serb colonists
rqr8–rq¡r
N´ Ðis:vic: Svvni~x v~:i
iivs +µ+8–+µ¡+
Svvni~x v~:i
iivs +µµ+
Pvvcvx:~cv
+ \itina ¡8o ¸¡ +¡.8¸
: \učitrn ¸oo 8¸ ++8¡
¸ Glogovac ¡o¸ o o.oo
¡ Gnjilanc ¸o¡ ¸o µ.86
¡ Ðcčani µ¸8 ¡µ 6.:8
6 Ðjakovica :o¸µ µ¡ ¡,¡:
¸ !stok +ooo ++µ ++.µo
8 Kačanik 86 ¡ ¡.¡o
µ Klina 6¡: 86 +¸.+µ
+o Kosovo Poljc ¸8¡ ¸6 µ.¸o
++ Kos. Kamcnica :+: ¸µ +8.¸µ
+: Lipljan ¡¡¡ +:+ :+.8o
+¸ Mališcvo ¸8o + o.:6
+¡ Òbilić ¸+µ ¸o :+.µ¡
+¡ Òrahovac ¸+o +: ¸.8o
+6 Podujcvo +¡66 +6¸ +o.¡o
+¸ Pcć +¡¡+ +¡µ ++.o¸
+8 Priština ¸¸6 8: :¡.¡o
+µ Srbica ¡¸+ o o.oo
:o Suva Rcka +¸¸ o o.oo
:+ Kos. Mitrovica +¸+ :6 +¡.:o
:: Urošcvac 6¸¸ +o¡ +6.¡:
:¸ Štimljc 6µ ¸ ¡.¸¡
:¡ Prizrcn :66 +¡ ¡.6¡
Total r¡,o¡¡ r,¡yr q,y¡
Kosovo and Mctohija 8:
Ethnic structure of Kosovo and Metohija towns in rq8r
Sourcc: Ethnic Structure of Population of SFF Yugosla.ia as of :,·:, !olume I, Data
by settlements and communes, Fcdcral Statistical 8urcau, 8clgradc +µµ+.
Mui:iv:nxic
ci:ivs
To:~i
vovui~:iox
Svvns ~xu
Mox:vxvcvixs
¡:nxic
Ain~xi~xs
Musii:
Si~vs
Ro:~
Gnjilanc ¸¡,::µ ¡6¡¡ ÷ +¡¸ :¡,6+µ +o¸ :8:+
!stok ¡¡¸8 +¸+: ÷ +µo :¡+¸ +¡¸ ¸¸¸
Klina ¡¡+: µ:8 ÷ :6: ¸+¡6 ¸¸ +o¸
Kos. Kamcnica ¡¸86 +6¸µ ÷ ¡6 ¸¸¸¸ ¡: ::µ
Kos. Mitrovica ¡:,866 8µ¸¸ ÷ +¡o¸ ¸:,¸µo ¡o8: ¡:µµ
Òrahovac +¸,+¸¡ :o¸¸ ÷ +¡+ +o,¡+¡ 8¸ :+µ
Pcć ¡¡,¡µ¸ ¸8¡¸ ÷ ¸o¸µ ¸6,66o ¡+¡¸ ::¸:
Priština +o8,o8¸ +6,8µ8 ÷ ¡+6µ ¸¡,8o¸ :¡o¡ ¡+o+
Prizrcn 6+,8o+ ¸¸oµ ÷ ¡¸o ¸µ,¡+: ¡+¡¡ :¡µ:
Urošcvac
/Fcrizaj
¸¸,6¡µ ¡:o: ÷ :6: :8,¸6¡ +¡:¡ +8+¸
\učitrn :o,:o¡ +o¡6 ÷ +¡: +¸,µo¸ :8 µ¡¸
Albanian, Serbian and other non-Albanian population
of the main urban centres (rq8r)
Towx ¡:nxic Ain~xi~xs Svvns ~xu o:nvvs
Gnjilanc :¡,6+µ 8¸+¡
!stok :¡+¸ :o¸:
Klina ¸+¡6 +¡¸¡
Kos. Kamcnica ¸¸¸¸ +µµ6
Kos. Mitrovica ¸:,¸µo +8,8+¸
Òrahovac +o,¡+¡ :¡µo
Pcć ¸6,66o +¸,¸++
Priština ¸¡,8o¸ :8,6¸:
Prizrcn ¸µ,¡+: +¡,µ+¡
Urošcvac :8,¸6¡ 8¸o:
\učitrn +¸,µo¸ :¸6¸
Miloš Luković
Kosovska Mitrovica
PFESENT ÆND PÆST
Introductory note
Today Kosovska Mitrovica is a dividcd town. Tc !bar rivcr has bccomc
a sharp boundary bctwccn its cstrangcd parts, south and north, and thc
bridgc on thc !bar scrvcs morc to dividc thc two banks than to link thcm.
Sincc +µµµ, whcn thc tcrritory ol Kosovo and Mctohija was placcd undcr
thc control ol intcrnational lorccs, thc northcrn part ol Kosovska Mitrovica
has lunctioncd as a scparatc urban cntity, a kind ol cnclavc. Just at this point
thc !bar cxccutcs an clbow bcnd, abruptly changing its coursc lrom wcst
cast to southnorth. Tc town stands whcrc thc Sitnica and Ljušta rivcrs
flow into thc !bar, in a narrow vallcy surroundcd by outlying spurs ol thc
Kopaonik, Rogozna and Čičavica mountains, dominatcd to thc north sidc
by thc hills ol Zvcčan (¸µµ m) and Mali Zvcčan (¸¡o m).
+
Tc prcscnt population ol Kosovska Mitrovica is vcry diffcrcnt lrom
what it was prior to thc tumultuous cvcnts ol +µµµ, which causcd thc tidc
ol its population to cbb and flood simultancously. From thc northcrn part
+
Tis is a rcviscd vcrsion ol thc papcr “!storijskc, urbanodcmogralskc i sociolingvističkc
osobcnosti Kosovskc Mitrovicc” publishcd in thc volumc Ži.ot u enkla.i, Liceum µ
(Kragujcvac :oo¡), ++–8¸. Tis papcr cmcrgcd lrom thc author’s work on two rcscarch
projccts: +) a projcct carricd out in :oo+–:oo¡ by thc Scrbian Acadcmy’s (SASA) !n
stitutc lor 8alkan Studics – Ethnolinguistic and Sociolinguistic Fesearch into Fefugees and
Multi-Ethnic Communities in the Balkans, :) a projcct carricd out in :oo:–:oo¸ by thc
Scrbian Languagc !nstitutc ol thc SASA – Æ Study of Sla.ic Speech in Koso.o and Meto-
hija. Tcsc wcrc mainly linguistic in charactcr, but rcquircd study ol thc diffcrcnt laycrs
ol thc matcrial and nonmatcrial culturc ol thc arca. Tc author ol this work conductcd
rcscarch in thc northcrn part ol Kosovska Mitrovica intcrmittcntly throughout :oo¸,
:oo¡ and :oo¡.
Kosovo and Mctohija 8¡
ol town thc Albanians
:
withdrcw to thc southcrn part, and lrom thc south
crn part Scrbs and many Roma ol both Christian Òrthodox and !slamic
pcrsuasion crosscd to thc north. Significant numbcrs ol thc displaccd did
not scttlc pcrmancntly thcrc or in thc vicinity but continucd thc trck north
wards towards Lcposavić and ccntral Scrbia, sharing thc latc ol othcrs who
lclt thc tcrritory ol Kosovo and Mctohija. According to joint inlormation
lrom thc officc ol thc Scrbian Commissioncr lor Rclugccs and thc Unitcd
Nations High Commissioncr lor Rclugccs (bascd on a rcgistration carricd
out during +µµµ and :ooo), ol +8¸,+:µ intcrnally displaccd pcrsons lrom
thc tcrritory ol Kosovo and Mctohija, ¸,8:µ pcrsons camc lrom thc Mu
nicipality ol Kosovska Mitrovica, and thc lollowing numbcrs lrom adjoin
ing municipalitics: Zvcčan µ:o, \učitrn ¡¸oo, Srbica ¸¸o, Lcposavić 8¡6
and Zubin Potok ¡¸¸ pcrsons, a total ol +6,:o: pcrsons lrom thc cntirc
Kosovska Mitrovica district.
¸
Howcvcr, thc numbcr ol thosc who in +µµµ lclt thc northcrn part ol Kosovska Mitro
vica (hcrclatcr: North Kosovska Mitrovica) and scttlcd in thc southcrn part ol thc town
or clscwhcrc in thc intcrior ol thc Provincc is not known to us. Anothcr unknown is
thc cxact numbcr ol pcoplc who arrivcd that ycar in thc northcrn part ol this dividcd
town lrom various arcas ol thc Provincc and thus bccamc its pcoplc. Tcy arc scattcrcd
all ovcr thc town: most arc in privatc accommodation (somc havc takcn ovcr thc apart
mcnts and houscs ol Albanians and othcrs who crosscd to thc south or movcd on), and
a largc group ol thcm wcrc collcctivcly accommodatcd in thc building ol a sccondary
tcchnical school. Somc ol thc displaccd Roma (a total ol ¸¡¡ pcrsons) wcrc placcd in
thc Česmin Lug and Kablar camps in North Kosovska Mitrovica, in thc Žitko.ac camp
in Zvcčan and a camp in Lcposavić. Vithin this population somc Roma dcclarc thcm
sclvcs as ¡gyptians, and somc as Ashkalia (Askali).
¡
North Kosovska Mitrovica is supportcd by an cxtcnsivc hintcrland
on thc lclt bank ol thc !bar, comprising thc municipalitics ol Zvcčan, Zu
bin Potok and Lcposavić. According to unofficial cstimatcs, about 6o,ooo
pcoplc livc in this arca, mostly Scrbs and somc Roma and 8osniaks,
¡
with
thc cxccption ol thc villagcs ol Čabar in thc Municipality ol Zubin Potok,
:
8csidcs thc tcrm Ælbanian ´ Ælbanians currcntly uscd in political and lcgal tcrminology
in Scrbian, othcrs arc also uscd hcrc to dcnotc thc samc cthnic group: Šiptar´Šiptari
(Shiptar/Shiptars, lor thc pcriod altcr VV!!), Ærbanas´Ærbanasi and Ærnaut´Ærnauti
(lor thc pcriod prior to VV!!). Notcs will bc providcd as thcsc tcrms occur. Nonc ol
thosc listcd havc any pcjorativc connotation and arc, scmantically, synonyms.
¸
Rcgistration ol displaccd pcrsons :ooo: ¡¡.
¡
Tc namc Ashkalia (Æskali) is common lor Roma ol !slamic laith whosc matcrnal lan
guagc is Albanian. As displaccd pcrsons Ashkalia can bc lound today in 8clgradc and
othcr placcs in ccntral Scrbia, cvcn in thc vicinity ol Novi Sad (\cliki Rit).
¡
Tc tcrm Bosniaks is currcntly in usc in Scrbianlanguagc political and lcgal tcrminol
ogy, but in Kosovska Mitrovica it has a longcr tradition. 8ctwccn +8¸8 and +µ+:, it
was uscd lor Scrbianspcaking Muslims who lound rclugc in Mitrovica as colonists
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt 8¡
Gušavac, Žaža and 8ajgor in thc Municipality ol Zvcčan, and Ccranjc in
thc Lcposavić Municipality, whcrc thc population is Albanian. ¡nclavcs ol
Scrbs cxist in thc two municipalitics closcst to Kosovska Mitrovica on thc
south sidc – \učitrn (Gojbulja and Prilužjc villagcs and a couplc ol Scrb
houscs in thc villagcs ol Svinjarc and Miračc) and Srbica (thc villagcs ol
8anja, Suvo Grlo and Crkolcz).
Tcrc is no rcliablc inlormation on thc total numbcr or cthnic struc
turc ol thc pcoplc currcntly living in North Kosovska Mitrovica. A rou
tinc ccnsus by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia in :oo: did not includc thc tcrritory
ol Kosovo and Mctohija, not cvcn thc arcas ol thc Provincc whcrc thcrc
arc significant numbcrs ol Scrbs. Nor do thc local authoritics ol thc intcr
national civil administration lor Kosovo and Mctohija (UNM!K) or thc
Municipalitics providc rcliablc figurcs lor North Kosovska Mitrovica. !t is
said that thcrc arc currcntly :o,ooo pcoplc living in that part ol thc dividcd
town, it is cstimatcd that thc southcrn part has sixty to cighty thousand
pcoplc, among thcm a numbcr ol rcccnt ncwcomcrs lrom Albania.
A carclul cxamination ol thc situation in thc northcrn part ol thc di
vidcd town as it is now lcads us to thc conclusion that it rcprcscnts a spccific
cnclavc ol thc Scrbian population in Kosovo and Mctohija. Òn thc south
sidc it is sharply dividcd lrom thc ncighbouring Albanian scttlcmcnts. ¡vcn
in thc !bar vallcy, to thc wcst ol Kosovska Mitrovica, lormcrly thc main road
to Rožajc, villagcs inhabitcd by Albanians run lor anothcr scvcn kilomctrcs.
!n ordcr to rcach thc first Scrb villagc in thc !bar vallcy (Zupčc), UNM!K
has built a roundabout road via Zvcčan and thc saddlc ol thc mountain that
scparatcs it lrom thc !bar vallcy.
Tus thc cthnic division ol this part ol thc !bar vallcy is today com
plctc. !n thc town itscll this is confirmcd by a particular urban curiosity:
along thc lclt bank ol thc !bar, in North Kosovska Mitrovica, thrcc apart
mcnt buildings in which Albanians havc rcmaincd living arc surroundcd by
barbcd wirc and conncctcd by a spccially constructcd woodcn bridgc to thc
southcrn part ol town – almost an cnclavc within an cnclavc.
Today thc population ol North Kosovska Mitrovica is cthnically and
linguistically almost complctcly homogcncous, but thc pcoplc diffcr in ori
gin and lcngth ol timc thcy havc livcd in thc town. Tcrc arc thrcc diffcr
cnt classcs ol population: thc Mitro.čani (oldcr inhabitants) who considcr
thcmsclvcs nativcs (lamilics that havc bccn living thcrc sincc bclorc Vorld
Var !!), “ncwcomcrs” lrom thc postwar pcriod (a couplc ol gcncrations)
and rclugccs, originally lrom diffcrcnt parts ol Kosovo and Mctohija, who
lound thcmsclvcs thcrc altcr thc arrival ol NATÒ lorccs in thc Provincc.
(rclugccs) lrom 8osnia and Hcrzcgovina and loundcd thc Bošnjačka Mahala (8osniak
Quartcr). At that timc Mitrovica bclongcd to thc Òttoman ¡mpirc.
Kosovo and Mctohija 86
To thc north ol Kosovska Mitrovica thcrc arc villagcs with Scrb
populations, ol which Lcposavić is incrcasing in importancc as thc ccntral
villagc ol thc municipality, closcr to thc “administrativc bordcr” ol thc Prov
incc and thc scat ol ncw intcrnational and local institutions, among thcm
thc !nstitutc lor thc Culturc ol thc Scrbian Pcoplc in Kosovo and Mctohija.
A main artcry also passcs thcrc, thc Ibarska Magistrala road lcading to towns
in ccntral Scrbia, thc busy traffic crcating thc illusion ol a closc conncction
with thc homc rcpublic in spitc ol thc bordcr chcckpoints ol intcrnational
lorccs at thc “administrativc bordcr”.
North Kosovska Mitrovica has two profilcs: +) thc cxtcrnal – cvcry
day, bustling, rccognisablc, :) thc intcrnal – its spirit stratificd, complcx,
morc difficult to undcrstand. Tc first is immcdiatcly obvious to thc ncw
comcr on first cncountcring thc town. Tc sccond nccds to bc approachcd
gradually and rcvcalcd with carc, not an casy task lor thosc coming lrom
outsidc, whatcvcr thc strcngth ol thcir dcsirc, sinccrity and ability. Altcr all,
Kosovska Mitrovica is a town whcrc pcoplc havc constantly comc and gonc,
not only in rcccnt ycars but always, and cspccially ovcr thc last +¸o ycars.
Tc most rcccnt rcstructuring ol thc population into thosc who livc in thc
north and thosc who livc in thc south also rcquircs scparatc sociolinguistic
rcscarch.
6
Te current appearance of North Koso.ska Mitro.ica
Tc curious bcnd madc by thc !bar givcs North Kosovska Mitrovica thc
shapc ol a lunncl. Tc cntirc town sccms to tumblc downhill towards thc
bridgc on thc !bar, but thcrc is almost no traffic on that bridgc. Surrounding
it arc buildings ol thrcc or lour storcys with somc tallcr oncs, a rcmindcr
that this part ol town is ol morc rcccnt origin. Among thcm, along thc main
strcct (which lcads lrom thc dircction ol Zvcčan to thc !bar bridgc) arc rows
ol shops, company officcs, pubs, coffcc shops and rcstaurants, bakcrics, ki
osks sclling grillcd mcat, pumpkin sccds to nibblc at and othcr minor ncccs
sitics. Tcrc is an improviscd bus station. ¡vcn though thc customary squarc
is lacking, thcrc is a lccling that this is now thc ccntrc ol North Kosovska
Mitrovica. Closcr to thc !bar is thc Bošnjačka mahala, whcrc somc houscs ol
an oldcr typc rcmain, with wallcd courtyards. !n many placcs construction is
going on or rcpairs to houscs and shops arc in progrcss, with littlc hccd lor
city planning rcgulations. Tc UNM!K policc station and somc buildings
6
No studics havc appcarcd so lar on thc sociolinguistic charactcristics ol thc pcoplc ol
Kosovska Mitrovica, but work has bccn donc on thc rural Scrbian vcrnacular ol somc
arcas in thc town’s broadcr surroundings (!barski Kolašin, Srcdnji !bar, \učitrn).
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt 8¸
arc lcnccd off with barbcd wirc, an unavoidablc rcmindcr that this is a town
controllcd by lorcign lorccs, and that incidcnts may happcn.
Tc town’s Christian Òrthodox ccmctcry is locatcd in thc southcrn
part ol Kosovska Mitrovica, around thc Christian Òrthodox church. Tc
Òrthodox community is no longcr buricd thcrc but in thc adjaccnt villagc
ol \cliko Rudarc, whcrc thcrc has bccn a villagc ccmctcry. 8csidcs a Muslim
ccmctcry in thc south Kosovska Mitrovica, thcrc is anothcr in thc northcrn
part, on Šukovac Hill, whcrc Muslims lrom this part ol thc dividcd town
arc buricd.
Tc strccts and shops cvincc a grcat livclincss and thc townspcoplc
arc vcry curious about all goingson. Tcrc is no sign ol dcspondcncy. Vcll
armcd thrccman patrols and UNM!K vchiclcs slowly cruisc thc town,
drawing littlc attcntion lrom passcrsby. Policc and othcrs in lorcign uni
lorms arc a rcgular sight in coffccshops and rcstaurants, thcy talk in loud
voiccs, laughing and watching cvcrything around thcm in an casy manncr,
turning uninhibitcdly to look at thc womcn. Tc atmosphcrc in thcsc placcs
is rclaxcd, yct cvcryonc is awarc that it could changc in a sccond, abovc all
by a suddcn incidcnt on thc bridgc. Trcpča Hotcl in Zvcčan is vcry popular,
and wcddings arc hcld thcrc on wcckcnds – cvcnts which took placc cvcn
during thc +µµµ bombing. !n thc yards and gardcns ol North Kosovska
Mitrovica and in Zvcčan, babics’ nappics can oltcn bc sccn drying, and thc
locals say that thc birthratc has not diminishcd.
Tc Univcrsity – thc Scrbianspcaking part ol thc lormcr Univcrsity
ol Priština – dispcrscd to 8lacc, Prokupljc, Krušcvac and \ranjc in inncr
Scrbia bctwccn thc bombing ol +µµµ and :oo: – was rchouscd in North
Kosovska Mitrovica. Tc ncw prclabricatcd buildings ol thc Univcrsity and
thc Faculty ol Philosophy, thc wing whcrc thc tcachcrs slccp, sccm to tcs
tily to thc prospccts ol this institution. Tcaching staff comc mainly lrom
othcr univcrsity ccntrcs, among thcm thosc who in +µµµ lclt thcir homcs
in Priština and othcr placcs in Kosovo and Mctohija and scttlcd in ccntral
Scrbia. Somc lccturcrs havc pcrmancnt homcs in Goraždcvac ncar Pcć, or
around Lcposavić, Novi Pazar and 8cranc. Most ol thc studcnts comc to
this univcrsity lrom placcs outsidc Kosovo and Mctohija, cvcn lrom 8cl
gradc and thc Rcpublika Srpska (cighty pcrccnt ol studcnts at thc Faculty ol
Philosophy, lor instancc). Tc lamilics ol somc laculty staff also livc outsidc
North Kosovska Mitrovica, travclling on wcckcnds to Lcposavić, Kraljcvo,
Kragujcvac, and cvcn to 8clgradc.
Tc shops offcr an array ol goods lrom ccntral Scrbia and at thc samc
priccs. Tc currcncics in usc arc thc dinar and thc curo. Supplicrs go to thc
wholcsalc vcgctablc markct in Novi Pazar, which also sclls all othcr kinds ol
goods lrom Kosovo and Mctohija and thc cntirc Rcpublic, lrom Maccdo
nia and othcr countrics. Novi Pazar 8osniaks truck goods up lrom Priština,
Kosovo and Mctohija 88
playing an important intcrmcdiary rolc cvcn in such rcstrictcd provincial
tradc.
Òn thc strccts ol North Kosovska Mitrovica thc traffic is livcly, al
though thcrc is no public transport. Taxi cabs drivc without liccnsc platcs,
usually as lar as Zvcčan, which is only thrcc kilomctrcs away lrom thc bridgc
on thc !bar. Tcrc arc rcgular bus lincs to Kraljcvo, Kragujcvac, Smcdcrcvo,
8clgradc and Niš along thc !bar vallcy, and to gct to Rožajc and 8cranc
thcrc is a roundabout road through Raška and Novi Pazar or thc ncw road
through Zvcčan, Zupčc and Zubin Potok. Sincc thc +µµµ bombing, whcn
thc bridgcs across thc !bar wcrc dcstroycd, thcrc has bccn no railway con
ncction bctwccn Kosovska Mitrovica and Raška, lrom whcrc thcrc is a train
to Kraljcvo and 8clgradc.
Transport to Scrb villagcs on thc road to \učitrn (Gojbulja, Slatina) is
by spccial UN buscs. UNM!K lunds havc hclpcd rcstorc thc railway station
in Zvcčan lrom whcrc thcrc is a “multicthnic train” twicc a day to Kosovo
Poljc. (Until thcn, passcngcrs on this routc wcrc transportcd by tarpaulin
covcrcd UNM!K trucks.) Òn thc train routc to Priština arc thc Scrbian
villagc cnclavcs ol Svinjarc, Prilužjc and Plcmctina, and thc town ol Òbilić.
Òl coursc, thcrc arc majority Scrbs in thc vicinity ol Priština – in Kosovo
Poljc, Gračanica, Čaglavica and somc othcr villagcs. A spccial minibus scr
vicc runs lrom North Mitrovica to Gračanica (which is also whcrc a dcpart
mcnt ol thc Univcrsity lrom North Kosovska Mitrovica is situatcd), and thc
bus linc lrom Mitrovica to Štrpcc also passcs hcrc. 8uscs and convoys to
thc Scrbian Òrthodox Patriarchatc in Pcć, Ðcčani Monastcry and thc Scrb
cnclavc ol Òrahovac travcl (Friday–Tucsday) undcr military cscort, whilc
cscorts havc bccn discontinucd to thc somcwhat closcr cnclavcs in north
Mctohija (Goraždcvac, Òsojanc, Crkolcz and Suvo Grlo).
A couplc ol ycars altcr thc cvcnts that lcd to thc division ol thc town
(+µµµ) North Kosovska Mitrovica is living its lilc according to thc rcgimc
ol an urban scttlcmcnt with dual links: to UNM!K and thc tcmporary au
thoritics and institutions ol Kosovo and Mctohija, whcrc Albanians domi
natc, and to thc authoritics and institutions ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia. !n
thc mcantimc, thc purgcd ranks ol thc political lorccs ol North Kosovska
Mitrovica makc an authoritativc appcarancc on thc political sccnc, dcsirous
to influcncc thc prospccts ol thcir town and thc cntirc Provincc. All inhabit
ants ol North Kosovska Mitrovica, howcvcr, arc prcoccupicd with thc daily
conccrns ol surviving, lccding thcir lamilics and cducating thcir childrcn
whilc maintaining moralc and prcscrving thcir spiritual idcntity.
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt 8µ
Scholarly research on Koso.ska Mitro.ica and its surroundings
At thc bcginning ol thc twcnticth ccntury, rcnowncd studcnts ol thc Koso
voMctohija arcas and towns: 8ranislav Nušić, Jovan Cvijić and Jclto Ðcdi
jcr wcrc writing in thc Scrbian languagc about Kosovska Mitrovica and
its cnvirons. Morc dctailcd anthropogcographic insights into thc past and
population ol Kosovska Mitrovica, its urban and cconomic dcvclopmcnt,
cmcrgcd only altcr Vorld Var !!. First it was Milisav Lutovac, with a scrics
ol intcrcsting dctails on Zvcčan, Trcpča and Kosovska Mitrovica, lollowcd
by Atanasijc Urošcvić, who publishcd a bricl study on Kosovska Mitrovica.
At thc cnd ol thc +µ¸os, an indcpth monograph appcarcd by twclvc au
thors dcaling with various aspccts ol thc past and dcvclopmcnt ol Kosovska
Mitrovica and its surrounding arca up to Vorld Var !!, and including an
ovcrvicw ol thc pcriod ol thc war, +µ¡+–+µ¡¡. A synthctic study ol thc
cconomy ol Kosovska Mitrovica and its surrounding arca can also bc lound
in an articlc writtcn in thc latc +µ8os by Ðjordjc Mikić on social and cco
nomic circumstanccs in Kosovo and Mctohija in thc ninctccnth and carly
twcnticth ccnturics. ¡nvironmcntal pollution in thc Kosovska Mitrovica
arca has rcccntly attractcd rcncwcd attcntion and ficld rcscarch was rcccntly
undcrtakcn by Miljana StojanovićMilosavljcvić. !n what lollows, thc most
important inlormation and obscrvations containcd in all thcsc works will bc
paraphrascd or quotcd dircctly.
As a first rclcrcncc to this litcraturc, wc may turn to a particularly
graphic dcscription ol Mitrovica lrom thc pcn ol thc Carigradski glasnik
(Constantinoplc Hcrald) corrcspondcnt at thc cnd ol thc ninctccnth ccn
tury (+8µ8):
¸
Te to.n of Mitro.ica is vcry bcautilully situatcd. !t lics in thc loothills ol
thrcc mountains, whcrc thc last outlying spurs ol Kopaonik, Fogo.na and
Čiča.ica mcct. Tc spurs ol Kopaonik strctch abovc thc town to thc north,
¸
Tc first pcriodic publication in thc Scrbian languagc in Òttoman Turkcy was thc Golub
(Pigcon), an almanach publishcd in Constantinoplc lrom +8µo to +µ++. Tc Carigradski
Glasnik (Constantinoplc Hcrald) was thc first Scrbian ncwspapcr in Turkcy, printcd in
Cyrillic (thc namc ol thc papcr was writtcn in both thc Arabic and Latin scripts). !t was
publishcd wcckly in Constantinoplc lrom +8µ¡ to +µoµ (with a lcngthy intcrruption
in +8µ¸), and pcrmission lor thc wcckly’s publication was grantcd by thc Sultan Gazi
Abdul Hamid himscll. Tc cditor was Nikodim Savić, originally lrom Pcć. !t covcrcd
currcnt ncws and various contributions lrom thc Òttoman ¡mpirc, Scrbia and othcr
countrics. Tc vilayct ncwspapcr Pri.ren was also publishcd in Turkish and Scrbian
lrom +8¸+ in Prizrcn, and whcn thc administrativc scat ol thc vilayct was movcd to
Priština, thc papcr changcd its namc to Koso.o (Mikić +µ8¸: :µ¸, Mala ¡nciklopcdija
Prosvcta +µ86, 8ovan +µµ8: +o+, +o:). Tc Constantinople Herald also publishcd litcrary
contributions by ovcr +6o Scrbian authors, among thc lattcr, +¸ wcrc lrom Kosovo and
Mctohija (8ovan +µµ8).
Kosovo and Mctohija µo
northcast and cast and arc callcd: Sokoličko Brdo, Majdan, Stari Trg (undcr
ncath which is old Trcpča) and Crnuša. Tc spurs ol Rogozna arc on thc
northwcst and wcstcrn sidc, and ol thosc thc most striking is thc tapcr
ing pcak ol Zvcčansko 8rdo, whcrc stands thc old ruincd town ol Zvcčan.
From Čičavica a low ridgc runs duc north and as lar as thc Sitnica, touch
ing Mitrovica on thc south sidc and scparating it lrom KosovoPoljc. At
Mitrovica, this low ridgc lrom Čičavica is callcd Karagač (kara-agač: black
wood). |…| Tc !bar and Sitnica, lcaving thc town bchind, divcrgc a littlc
lrom cach othcr only to mcct again filtccn minutcs lurthcr on, almost north
ol Mitrovica, whcrc thc Sitnica flows into thc !bar. Tc small piccc ol land
bctwccn Mitrovica, thc Sitnica and thc !bar is callcd Sandič-Polje. Karagač
rolls vcry gcntly downward towards thc !bar, and vcry stccply towards thc
Sitnica and Kosovo. Òn thc gcntlc slopc ol thc ridgc as lar as thc !bar, lics
Kosovska Mitrovica with its +¡oo houscs and 8,oooµ,ooo inhabitants. Tc
town is ncw and thcrclorc thc strccts arc quitc widc and thc houscs plcas
ing. Tcrc arc many finc buildings built according to thc ncw plan, ol which
thc most striking arc: thc barracks (kšla) lor thc army, which is situatcd on
Karagač, and thc largc housc ol JusulAga Nikšićanin on thc !bar. Tcrc arc
thrcc mosqucs, a couplc ol Turkish primary schools and onc ruždija (hall
sccondary school). Tc Scrbs havc onc finc primary school, with two malc
tcachcrs and onc lcmalc.
8
Tcy havc practically no churchcs, and what is
now callcd thc church is a vcry low building in which scrviccs arc hcld. Now
thc Scrbs ol Mitrovica havc sct to work building a ncw church which is to
bc dcdicatcd to thc first Scrbian tcachcr and cducator, St. Sava, God and
St. Sava willing, this grcat and difficult cntcrprisc will soon bc carricd to
complction! Trough thc middlc ol Mitrovica flows thc rivcr Ljušta, which
riscs on thc northcrn slopcs ol Čičavica by thc villagc ol Ljuštc. Tis small
rivcr flows into thc !bar immcdiatcly on cxiting thc town. 8ccausc thc lorcst
around its sourcc diminishcs with cvcry passing day, it too shrinks smallcr
and smallcr. !n thc autumn and spring, altcr hcavy rain, it swclls to an angry
8
Sincc thc Òttoman ¡mpirc did not rccognisc Scrbian nationality, until thc middlc
ol thc ninctccnth ccntury Scrbian schools in thc ¡parchy ol RaškaPrizrcn wcrc run
by thc churchschool municipalitics, and so a primary school was opcncd in Kosovska
Mitrovica bclorc +886. Tc Consulatc ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbia in Priština (opcncd
in +88µ) cncouragcd thc lounding ol ncw schools in Kosovo and Mctohija, and so a
girls’ school was also opcncd in Mitrovica. !n +8µ:, an impcrial irada (dccrcc) pcrmit
tcd thc lounding ol Scrbian schools, indircctly rccognising thc Scrbian nationality in
thc Kosovo \ilayct. 8y +8µ¡ all thc cxisting Scrbian schools in thc vilayct had bccn
rccogniscd and acquircd thc right to put up platcs on thcir buildings bcaring thc Scr
bian namc alongsidc thc Turkish: Serbian Orthodox Primary School. For morc dctail, scc
Mikić +88¸: :µ¡–:µµ. !n +µo+ \clibor Ðragišić lrom Priština madc an cducational map
ol thc ¡parchy ol RaškaPrizrcn. A list ol all schools in this cparchy lor +µo¡/¡ shows
that in thc Mitrovica district thcrc wcrc Scrbian Òrthodox schools in Mitrovica (with
classrooms lor boys and girls), in thc villagcs ol Ðuboki Potok and 8rnjaci, and in thc
Monastcry ol Crna Rcka. For morc, scc Nikolić +µµ6: ¡¡¸, Pcjin +µµ8.
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt µ+
flood and thcn docs thc town much damagc.
µ
Across thc !bar, bcncath thc
brightly colourcd hills, which scparatc thcmsclvcs lrom Zvcčan and whcrc
thc vincyards ol Mitrovica arc, is thc 8ošnjačka Mala |Mahala, or quartcr|,
whcrc thc population is cntircly madc up ol 8osniaks, who havc flcd lrom
8osnia. !n that mala thcrc is a mosquc and a Turkish primary school. !t is
conncctcd to thc rcst ol thc town by a bridgc across thc !bar. |…| Arriv
ing lrom thc Kosovo dircction, you cannot scc all ol Mitrovica until you
rcach Karagač just abovc it, whcrcupon thc location on which this lovcly
town rcsts prcscnts itscll in all its bcauty. From hcrc you can scc Mitrovica
with its buildings and orchards as in a kind ol hollow, across lrom it is thc
tapcring pcak ol Zvcčan, and undcrncath thc vivid rolling hills dottcd with
vincyards, bcncath thcm again thc !bar mcandcrs up to Sokoličko 8rdo to
thc north, whcrc it rcccivcs thc Sitnica. Up to its conflucncc with thc !bar
cxtcnds SandičPoljc with its mcadows and ficlds. Òn thc wcst sidc again
thcrc is a broadish ficld along thc !bar rivcr, cnding in woodcd hills. A truly
bcautilul sight!
Òl coursc, thc Constantinople Herald rcportcr lrom Mitrovica did not lail
to point out thc importancc ol thc railway linc lrom Skopljc to Mitrovica,
which was opcncd in +8¸¸
+o
and lcd to thc cconomic rcvival ol thc cntirc
arca around Mitrovica:
Tc railway linc lrom Skopljc passing through Kosovo cnds at Mitrovica.
Tc railway station is filtccn minutcs south ol thc town closc by thc Sit
nica. From thc station thc road first lcads along thc Sitnica, and thcn ovcr
Karagač. Tc lact that thc railway linc cnds thcrc lcnds this town a grcat air
ol livclincss and bustlc, not to bc lound in any ol thc othcr towns in this
arca. Mondays, Vcdncsdays and Fridays arc particularly livcly bccausc on
thosc days thc train arrivcs lrom Skopjc, carrying passcngcrs lor Pcć, Novi
Pazar, Sjcnica, Nova \aroš, Prijcpoljc, 8ijclo Poljc and Pljcvlja, and on thc
samc days passcngcrs arrivc lrom thc said towns, travclling to Skopjc and
Tcssalonica. Mitrovica is thcrclorc thc busicst junction (apart lrom Skopjc)
in thc cntirc Kosovo \ilayct.
From rcports by thc Constantinople Herald corrcspondcnt in Mitro
vica wc can lollow closcly thc construction ol thc ncw church in Mitrovica
µ
Tc Constantinople Herald brings ncws ol grcat floods in Mitrovica at thc cnd ol +8µ6
and thc bcginning ol +8µ¸, duc to thc flooding ol thc !bar (issuc no. ¡¡ ol :+ Novcmbcr
+8µ6) and thc Ljušta (issuc no. ¡ ol :¸ January and no. 6 ol 6 Fcbruary +8µ¸). Òn this
thc Mitrovica corrcspondcnt writcs: “Tis ycar can bc callcd a flood ycar lor us, sincc
this is thc third or lourth flood this autumn”.
+o
Tis linc conncctcd thc Kosovo towns ol Mitrovica (thc last stop to thc north), \učitrn,
Priština, Lipljan, Urošcvac and Kačanik, with Skopjc, Gcvgclija and Tcssalonica. Vith
thc opcning ol thc 8clgradc–Niš–\ranjc railway in thc Kingdom ol Scrbia in +88¡,
connccting to that ol thc \ardar vallcy, thc Kosovo linc lost somc ol its importancc, but
continucd to bc ol grcat influcncc on tradc and commcrcc in Kosovo and thc surround
ing arcas (Nušić +µo:: ¡¡, ¡6, Urošcvić +µ6¡: +¸¸, Lutovac +µ¸:: ¸, ¡).
Kosovo and Mctohija µ:
which commcnccd in thc summcr ol +8µ6, graccd by thc prcscncc ol thc
RaškaPrizrcn Mctropolitan, Ðionisijc.
++
Òn ¸o July +8µ6 wc rcad that:
“Altcr thc scrvicc thcrc was a proccssion to thc ncw cnclosurc whcrc thc
ncw church will bc raiscd”,
+:
and that on ¡ August thc loundation stonc
was laid lor thc tcmplc ol St. Sava, on which occasion thc archbishop “pcr
lormcd a vcry lormal ccrcmony, such as has ncvcr bccn sccn in Mitrovica
bclorc.”

Scvcral issucs printcd a dctailcd list ol donors lor thc ncw church,
not only pcoplc lrom Mitrovica, but also lrom \učitrn, Svinjarc, Lovac,
Koriljc, Žitkovac, Jagnjcnica, Rudarc, Žcrovnica and Zupčc.

Tc gilts wcrc
madc in kind, cattlc, whcat and labour.

As consul ol thc Scrbian Kingdom, 8ranislav Nušić
+6
spcnt thrcc
ycars (+8µ¸–µ6) in Priština, having prcviously spcnt two months thcrc in
+8µo. Ðuring thcsc ycars Nušić visitcd many placcs in Kosovo, travclling as
lar aficld as Scutari (Shkodcr) and latcr publishing scvcral travcl books and
a synthctic work: Koso.o. Æn Æccount of the Country and People (Novi Sad,
+µo:). Spcaking ol Kosovo towns, Nušić says that cvcn though Priština (“as
thc most populatcd and surroundcd by thc richcst villagcs”) has thc “most
livcly markct”, Fcrizović (Urošcvac) and Mitrovica arc alrcady “thrcatcn
ing to surpass Priština”, bccausc ol thcir lavourablc position on thc railway.
8csidcs thcsc two “Kosovo railway towns” (as thcy wcrc tcrmcd by J. Cvijić)
thc towns ol Lipljan and Òbilić dcvclopcd at thc samc timc. At that timc
trading in grain was thc most lucrativc busincss in Kosovo, and according to
Nušić’s cstimatc “to thc Tcssalonica markct alonc Kosovo annually scnds
ovcr +o million okas |+:8o wagons| ol grain, and in addition a part ol it also
++
Tc ¡parchy ol RaškaPrizrcn bclongcd to thc Constantinopolitan (¡cumcnical) Pa
triarchatc until thc outbrcak ol thc 8alkan Vars, so thc Mctropolitans appointcd to this
old Scrb dioccsc wcrc Grccks. At thc rcqucst ol numcrous Scrb dcputations, in Fcbruary
+8µ6 thc Constantinopolitan Patriarch was lorccd to appoint a Scrb, Ðionisijc, as thc
RaškaPrizrcn Mctropolitan. Availing ol his patriarchal privilcgc, thc archbishop bcgan
to opcn Scrbian schools, and also cncouragcd thc building ol ncw churchcs, a casc in
point bcing thc construction ol St. Sava’s church in Mitrovica (Mikić +µ8¸: ¸oo–¸o6).
+:
Constantinople Herald no. ¸+, +µ August +8µ6.

Constantinople Herald no. ¸:, :µ August +8µ6.

Constantinople Herald no. ¸¸, ¡ Scptcmbcr, no. ¸¡, +: Scptcmbcr, no. ¡¸, +¡ Novcm
bcr +8µ6, no. 6, 6 Fcbruary +8µ¸.

8y thc timc thc loundation stonc was laid, +: labourcrs’ wagcs wcrc alrcady sc
curcd (Constantinople Herald no. ¸¸, ¡ Scptcmbcr). Latcr, Rista \csclinović and Srcćko
Radisavljcvić lrom Zupčc “gavc fivc workcrs cach” (Constantinople Herald no. ¸¡, +:
Scptcmbcr +8µ6).
+6
8ranislav Nušić (+86¡–+µ¸8), a rcnowncd litcrary figurc and mcmbcr ol thc Royal
Scrbian Acadcmy, lamous lor his short storics and plays and onc ol Scrbia’s grcatcst
comcdy writcrs.
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt µ¸
gocs to markcts closcr by”. Nušić also wrotc: “Mitrovica is thc last stop on
thc Skopjc–Mitrovica linc. Tis is whcrc trains arriving lrom Skopjc spcnd
thc night. !t also has a rcpair shcd, an cnginc shcd, loading platlorms, a
storc lor thc coal, and thrcc sidings. 8csidcs this, Mitrovica as a ‘lcrry’ is a
vcry livcly town and judging by its progrcss, may bc considcrcd to bc a town
ol thc luturc. From it an important road runs to Novi Pazar, and thcrc is
a conncction with Pcć thanks to thc railroad. Trough this station two or
thrcc administrativc districts obtain thcir goods and ship thcir producc out.
For this rcason Mitrovica station is almost thc most important stop lor tral
fic on thc cntirc linc.” Nušić notcd that on thc slopcs ol Kopaonik around
Mitrovica wcrc traccs ol numcrous mincs ol which Trcpča was thc most
lamous, and that on Mt. Ðraga abovc thc town, thcrc was a sawmill whcrc
firwood was cut into planks and bcams which wcrc thcn transportcd on
ralts down to Mitrovica, and that good millstoncs wcrc cxportcd to Scrbia
lrom a quarry abovc thc town. At thc cnd ol thc ninctccnth ccntury, Nušić
pointcd out, Mitrovica was thc scat ol a ka.a (district) within thc Priština
(Prištcvački) Sanjak, which along with anothcr fivc sanjaks (ol Skopjc, Priz
rcn, Pcć, Pazar and Pljcvalja) bclongcd to thc Kosovo \ilayct (lormcd altcr
+8¸8). According to thc Òttoman statistics, at thc timc thc Ka.a ol Mitro
vica, to which !barski Kolašin and Rogozna mountain also bclongcd, had
8¸¡¡ pcoplc, ol which ¡¡¸¡ Mohammcdans and ¸µ+o Òrthodox. Among
thc Mohammcdan population ol Mitrovica, Fcrizović (latcr Urošcvac) and
thc villagc ol Mazgit, Nušić idcntificd numcrous muhajirs or displaccd
Muslim Albanians lrom 8osniaHcrzcgovina. Nušić obscrvcd that Mitro
vica occupicd “a vcry bcautilul position, at thc conflucncc ol thc !bar and
thc Sitnica, surroundcd by intcrcsting pcaks,” and that “thc strccts arc widc,
quitc straight and clcancr than in othcr towns” (Nušić +µo:: 6µ, ¡:, ¡¸, ¡µ,
66, ¸¸–¸8, ¸¡).
Soon altcr Nušić thcsc rcgions wcrc cxplorcd by Jovan Cvijić. !n a
major work, Basic Geography and Geology of Macedonia and Old Serbia (pub
lishcd in thrcc volumcs +µo6–++) hc too notcd that Mitrovica “is bccoming
thc main busincss ccntrc in Kosovo, such as only Fcrizović can compctc
with in thc luturc”, and that as rcccntly as +8¸+ it had bccn nothing morc
than a villagc with +¡o thatchcd houscs. According to Cvijić, at thc bcgin
ning ol thc twcnticth ccntury Mitrovica alrcady had ++oo houscs, ol which
+8o bclongcd to Christian Òrthodox Scrbs (although in lact many wcrc
.adrugas or cxtcndcd houscholds), whilc thc rcst wcrc Muslim. Among thc
Òrthodox at thc timc thcrc wcrc somc \lachs and Grccks, whilc among
thc Muslims thcrc was a significant numbcr ol muhajirs lrom 8osniaHcr
zcgovina (who “spokc thc Scrbian languagc and lormcd thc largcst mahala
|quartcr| in thc northcrn part ol Mitrovica”) and lrom Scrbia (“Arnauts”
|Albanians|). At thc timc Mitrovica was ncar thc bordcr with thc Kingdom
Kosovo and Mctohija µ¡
ol Scrbia, and thus had a +o,ooostrong garrison (Cvijić +µµ6: :¡¡, ¡:¡).
Jclto Ðcdijcr, in his study Ne. Serbia (8clgradc, +µ+¸) publishcd soon altcr
thc 8alkan Vars and libcration ol Kosovo and Mctohija, Stara Raška and
Maccdonia lrom thc Òttomans, rcpcatcd vcrbatim Cvijić’s inlormation on
Mitrovica. Tc author obviously had no timc lor any additional rcscarch ol
Mitrovica and its cnvirons, and thc Scrbian rcadcrship ol thc timc cxpcctcd
popular prcscntations ol all thc rcgions that had rcccntly bccomc part ol
Scrbia.
Milisav Lutovac (+µ¡o: 8¸), in his study “Zvcčan, Trcpča and
Kosovska Mitrovica” suggcstcd that thc Zvcčan lortrcss on a conical clcva
tion abovc Mitrovica was thc oldcst historical scttlcmcnt, first mcntioncd
in +oµ+ as a bordcr lort ol Raška, and that thc sccond scttlcmcnt to havc
appcarcd in this arca was Trcpča, first mcntioncd as a mining and trading
scttlcmcnt in +¸o¸. Spcaking ol thc origins and dcvclopmcnt ol Mitrovica,
Lutovac (+µ¡o: µ+–µ¸) pointcd out that thc town had dcvclopcd within
thc microrcgion ol Ðimitrijcvo Poljc, on thc cstatc ol thc Church ol St.
Ðcmctrios donatcd to 8anjska Monastcry by King Milutin, and that this
scttlcmcnt, first mcntioncd in thc latc filtccnth ccntury, probably owcd its
origin to thc lact that thcrc was a caravanscrai bcsidc thc said church. !n his
opinion thc stratcgic importancc ol Zvcčan suddcnly dccrcascd altcr thc
lall ol thc Scrbian Ðcspotatc in +¡¡µ and thc 8osnian statc in +¡6¸, whcn
thc Òttoman ¡mpirc cxtcndcd its bordcrs lar to thc wcst. Tis lavourcd
a swiltcr dcvclopmcnt ol thc local markcts, first Trcpča, and thcn Mitro
vica. !dcntilying scvcral phascs in thc historical and tcrritorial dcvclopmcnt
ol Mitrovica up to modcrn timcs, Lutovac dcscribcd thc town’s dramatic
changc altcr thc building ol thc railway linc. Tc town thcn sprcad out “a
littlc in all dircctions, but cspccially in two: towards thc railway station and
along thc Pcć road”, and thc “third, ncw part ol thc town appcars just across
thc bridgc, on thc lclt bank ol thc !bar” (this is in lact thc Bošnjačka Mahala,
loundcd by muhajirs lrom 8osniaHcrzcgovina, who arrivcd thcrc in +8¸µ
and +µo8). Rcpcating Cvijić’s inlormation on thc population ol Mitrovica
up to thc 8alkan Vars, Lutovac suggcstcd that thc cthnic profilc ol Mi
trovica had gradually changcd altcr thc lormation ol thc Yugoslav statc in
+µ+8: a significant numbcr ol Turks and muhajirs lrom 8osniaHcrzcgov
ina movcd to Turkcy only to bc rcplaccd by ncw scttlcrs lrom thc country
and by whitccollar workcrs. Following thc opcning ol thc Trcpča minc,
ncw pcoplc pourcd in lrom various placcs, chicfly lrom KosovoMctohija
and Òld Raška (8ijclo Poljc, Plav and Gusinjc).
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt µ¡
Atanasijc Urošcvić

bcgins his study Koso.ska Mitro.ica – Æn Æn-
thropogeographical Fesearch (+µ¡¡) by saying that this town “lics on thc old
8osnia–Maccdonia road, which oncc lcd lrom 8osniaHcrzcgovina via
Rogozna to Kosovo and Maccdonia”, and that “two important communi
cations convcrgc at Mitrovica lrom thc wcst: onc along thc !bar vallcy to
Mitrovica, connccting Kosovo with placcs along thc rivcr, Stari Kolašin and
Rožaj, and thc othcr, Pcć–Mitrovica, connccting Kosovo with thc northcrn
parts ol Ðrcnica and Mctohija, and via Pcć with thc castcrn arcas ol Mon
tcncgro.” Tcsc communications, Urošcvić bclicvcs, prcdctcrmincd Mitro
vica’s luturc, although its dcvclopmcnt was lor a long timc hampcrcd by thc
ncarby towns ol 8anjska (on thc caravan routc to Novi Pazar and 8osnia)
and \učitrn (thc scat ol thc \učitrn Sanjak). Urošcvić also suggcsts that thc
town docs not bclong to Kosovo propcr, which “cnds thrcc kilomctrcs south
ol Mitrovica, whcrc thc spurs ol Čičavica and Kopaonik draw vcry closc
togcthcr” (Urošcvić +µ¡¸: +8¸).
Urošcvić points out that undcr Òttoman rulc, along with othcr towns
ol thc subscqucntly cstablishcd Sanjak ol Novi Pazar (Novi Pazar, Nova
\aroš, Sjcnica and 8ijclo Poljc), Mitrovica administrativcly bclongcd to
8osnia, and not to Rumclia, “which cndcd bclorc Mitrovica”, and that only
in +8µo did it bcgin to bc callcd Koso.ska instcd ol Pa.arska, as it was thcn
that it was includcd in thc Sanjak ol Priština instcad ol thc Novi Pazar
Sanjak (Urošcvić +µ¡¸: +µo). !n a dctailcd cxamination ol thc cconomic
growth ol Kosovska Mitrovica and thc changcs in structurc and numbcr ol
its population, Urošcvić pays particular attcntion to thc impact ol thc rail
way built in +8¸¸ and its latcr cxpansion into thc surrounding arcas, as wcll
as to thc political situation in thc sccond hall ol thc ninctccnth and thc first
hall ol thc twcnticth ccntury. His conclusions arc vcry prccisc, and worth
quoting vcrbatim:
Tc arrival ol thcsc muhajirs in +8¸µ signallcd livclicr growth lor thc town
and thc rapid dcvclopmcnt ol thc cconomy. Somc ol thcm continucd to
practisc thcir cralts, and somc commcnccd trading, which possibly is what
thcy did in thc towns whcrc thcy livcd bclorc. Tcy camc lrom various ar
cas ol 8osniaHcrzcgovina (Sarajcvo, 8anja Luka, Travnik, Foča, \išcgrad
ctc.), lrom thc libcratcd parts ol Montcncgro–Nikšić and Podgorica, and
thc libcratcd parts ol Scrbia–Niš, Lcskovac and Kuršumlija. Hard on thcir
hccls camc a good numbcr ol Ðjakovica Muslims, tradcsmcn and mcrchants
among thcm. As thc ncwlyscttlcd muhajirs swcllcd thc population ol Mi
trovica, undcr thcir influcncc thc cconomy grcw and divcrsificd, attracting
busincssmcn not only lrom thc ncarby towns ol \učitrn, Pcć, Ðjakovica

Atanasijc Urošcvić (+8µ8–+µµ:) was a Scrbian gcographcr whosc main ficld ol study
was Kosovo. Hc was a lollowcr ol Jovan Cvijić’s school ol anthropogcography and pro
lcssor at thc univcrsitics ol 8clgradc and Skopjc.
Kosovo and Mctohija µ6
and almost all thc towns in thc Sanjak ol Novi Pazar, but also lrom distant
placcs. Soon altcr thc muhajirs, during thc +8µos, scvcral Tzintzar lamilics
lrom 8itolj and Krušcvo in Maccdonia and a lcw Maccdonian lamilics lrom
\clcs arrivcd. At thc cnd ol thc last |+µth| ccntury as Mitrovica grcw to
a solid cconomic markct, it bcgan to attract Jcws, who lrom that timc on
startcd moving hcrc lrom Priština and continucd to do so up to thc cnd ol
Òttoman rulc. (Urošcvić +µ¡¸: +µ¡)
Urošcvić also notcs that with thc libcration ol Mitrovica lrom thc Òttomans
in thc 8alkan Var ol +µ+:, 8osnian and othcr Muslims bcgan moving to
Turkcy, but concludcs that this did not causc any slowdown in Mitrovica’s
cconomy, “sincc thcir placcs wcrc almost immcdiatcly takcn by busincssmcn
lrom ncighbouring towns”, cspccially sincc industry had bcgun to dcvclop.
According to Ðjordjc Mikić thc first lorms ol industry madc thcir
appcarancc during thc building ol thc railway. At that timc Ali 8cy Ðraga,
in collaboration with Tzintzars (Hcllcnizcd \lachs) lrom ¡pirus, contract
cd with thc Railway Construction Socicty to dclivcr slccpcrs. Tc timbcr
was supplicd by thc lorcsts in thc uppcr !bar (Mojstir), whcrc a sawmill
was also built. Anothcr sawmill was built in Mitrovica in +8µ¸, and thc
wood transportcd down thc !bar to thc town. Ali 8cy Ðraga, brcaking off
his partncrship with thc Tzintzars, continucd producing slccpcrs and othcr
building matcrials such as planks and bcams, and cxpandcd his busincss by
supplying thc army and mcrchants in Tcssalonica. Mikić also points to a
longstanding tradition ol millstonc production in thc Kosovska Mitrovica
arca (Mikić +µ88: :¡:, :8:). !n thc ninctccnth ccntury this work was donc
by Scrbs lrom Rudarc, Grabovac, Srbovac and Sočanica, and Ærbanasi lrom
\lahinja, Grabovo and 8oljctin. !n +µo: a lcading Ærbanas busincssman, !sa
8oljctinac, succccdcd in obtaining lrom thc manulacturcrs a quartcr ol all
thc output lrom thc quarrics, thus gaining control ovcr thc production ol
millstoncs, which wcrc cxportcd to Tcssalonica and to Scrbia. At that timc,
thcrc was also an activc chromium minc thrcc hours lrom Mitrovica. Mikić
spcaks too ol thc growth ol cralts in Kosovska Mitrovica altcr thc railway
was built (Mikić +µ88: :¡¸, :¡8). 8clorc that, Mitrovica had had a lcw scorc
shops (“whcrc thc warcs ol cach individual shop would not havc amountcd
to +ooo groschcn”). Vhcn thc railway was inauguratcd, howcvcr, thc first
craltsmcn to arrivc wcrc smcltcrs and brassworkcrs lrom Ðjakovica, and
quiltmakcrs lrom Pcć. Latcr, altcr +8¸µ, thc most succcsslul craltsmcn wcrc
thc muhajirs lrom 8osnia, cspccially thc cutlcrs. Tc railway also rcvolution
izcd many othcr arcas ol cconomic lilc: horsc and camcl caravans bccamc a
thing ol thc past, and small Adriatic ports wcrc rcplaccd by thc grcat port
ol Tcssalonica. Latcr, transvcrsal roads wcrc built on both sidcs ol thc rail
way linc, lcading towards thc stations and including thc Mitrovica–Priština
and Mitrovica–Pcć roads. A road alrcady cxistcd lrom Mitrovica, via Novi
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt µ¸
Pazar, Sjcnica and Pljcvlja, to Sarajcvo, and much ol thc traffic ol goods
was bound lor Mitrovica as thc last station on thc Kosovo linc. As tradc
flourishcd, so did thc building ol thc town ol Mitrovica, prcviously “morc ol
a villagc than a small country town” (Mikić +µ88: ¸o¡, ¸o6). !n only fivc or
six ycars its čaršija or ccntrc could boast ¡o–6o shops, cralt and tradcsman’s
workshops and rcstaurants, and ¡oo–6oo packhorscs camc and lclt cvcry
day lor Mctohija, thc Novi Pazar Sanjak and 8osnia. A largc numbcr ol
kiridžija (pcoplc who owncd and drovc woodcn carts lor hirc) influcnccd
thc dcvclopmcnt ol local tradc, handicralts and commcrcc. At thc bcgin
ning ol thc ccntury thcrc wcrc morc than a hundrcd bakcrs in thc town, and
hall thc town sold tobacco, both lcgal and smugglcd, thc lattcr bcing known
as kotroban. Turning to agrarian conditions, Mikić notcs that thc vicinity
ol Mitrovica did not producc a surplus ol grain, cxccpt lor oats. Ploughing
was primitivc up to +µ+:, and thc only man to own an iron plough was a
8osniak lrom Mitrovica. Howcvcr, at thc cnd ol thc ninctccnth ccntury
Mitrovica was annually importing‚ ¡oo–¡oo wagons ol whcat, somc ¸oo
wagons ol bcans, and in bumpcr ycars about :oo wagons ol maizc, mainly
lrom around Pcć, and +¡o–:oo wagons ol oats lrom Novi Pazar and thc
surroundings ol Mitrovica. Tc surroundings providcd considcrablc quan
titics ol hidcs lrom domcstic animals and martcns. Fruitgrowing at thc
timc was still undcvclopcd in Mitrovica. Plum orchards wcrc scarcc, graltcd
pcars and applcs could bc lound in thc ficlds and mcadows, but thcy wcrc
mostly old trccs. Tc applcs, pcars, grapcs, nuts and plums lound at thc
markct in Mitrovica wcrc mainly lrom Pcć. ¡spccially attractivc wcrc applcs
known as dušanke, which thc Turks callcd sheresliye. Local lcgcnd has it that
thc cmpcror Ðušan had obtaincd thcm lrom distant Francc. !n thc gardcns
and yards ol Mitrovica thcrc was an occasional apricot and plum trcc, and
in somc placcs cvcn a grapcvinc. \incyards, howcvcr, wcrc much morc nu
mcrous. Vith :8¸ donums (onc donum is about µoo sq m) undcr vincs, thc
town ol Mitrovica annually produccd :o,ooo kg ol grapcs. Tcrc wcrc still
agas in Mitrovica, or Òttoman lcudal landowncrs who owncd cstatcs in
!barski Kolašin, along with othcrs in \učitrn, Novi Pazar and Rožaj. At thc
bcginning ol thc twcnticth ccntury, thc agas wcrc Salija 8arjaktarcvić, Zcncl
Mcmišcvić, Rail AdžiAlijagić, Asan Ćorović, Šućurija Rušitović and a Nc
zir, but thcir wcalth diffcrcd considcrably. Mikić also providcs inlormation
on thc carly days ol banking in Kosovo and Mctohija, including Kosovska
Mitrovica. Financial trading, as thc youngcst branch ol thc cconomy, had its
bcginnings in thcsc parts in thc crcdit unions ol thc tradc and cralts guilds.
Likc thcir cldcrs, thc young tradcrs and craltsmcn bcgan to sct up thcir
own lunds lor minors, thc socallcd bećar unions. According to thc Salname
(ycarbook in Òttoman Turkcy) ol thc Kosovo \ilayct lor thc ycar +8µ8,
Kosovo and Mctohija µ8
thcrc wcrc two banking officcs in town: thc Kasa Maloletnika or Minors’
8ank and thc Kasa Špedicije or Haulicrs’ 8ank. An important rolc was also
playcd by thc St. Sa.a’s Church Fund (loundcd about +µo¸), which cnablcd
Scrb mcrchants to obtain morc crcdit lrom biggcr trading houscs. !n +µ++,
a banking officc, Mitro.ačka Zadruga .a Kredit i Štednju (Mitrovica Crcdit
and Savings Coopcrativc), was opcncd in Mitrovica with thc aim ol pro
tccting thc intcrcsts ol Scrbian busincssmcn.
A voluminous monograph on Kosovska Mitrovica (+µ¸µ), with con
tributions by ninctccn authors, docs not covcr thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc town
in thc postwar pcriod, but it givcs us a clcar insight into how thc cconomic
and dcmographic basc ol modcrn Kosovska Mitrovica was lormcd, cnabling
it to dcvclop into thc sccond largcst town in thc Provincc. Vhat lollows on
thc cconomic growth ol Mitrovica comcs lrom this monograph.
According to inlormation lrom +µ+: thcrc wcrc in thc town +:o
shops plying various tradcs, which accountcd lor scvcn pcrccnt ol thc to
tal numbcr ol craltsmcn’s workshops in Kosovo and Mctohija. Ðcspitc thc
dcparturc ol a part ol thc town’s population in +µ+¡, thc numbcr ol shops
incrcascd to +µ¡, which is cxplaincd by a lall both in tradc and thc import
ol industrial goods duc to thc prcccding statc ol war. Altcr thc war, in +µ:o,
thcrc wcrc as many as :8o rcgistcrcd shops (+¸.¡ pcrccnt ol all thc shops in
Kosovo and Mctohija), placing Kosovska Mitrovica just bchind thc old ur
ban and tradc ccntrcs ol Prizrcn, Pcć and Ðjakovica. According to thc +µ¸+
ccnsus, thcrc wcrc ¡8¸ cralt and mcrchant shops in thc town. Howcvcr, this
was a timc ol a swilt industrial risc which changcd thc cconomic structurc:
manulacturing tradcs dcclincd whilc thc scrvicc tradcs prospcrcd.
Tc wood industry continucd to flourish in Mitrovica altcr Vorld
Var !. A lorcst railroad lor thc transport ol logs was built, and whcn thc
lcvcl ol thc !bar was high cnough thc logs wcrc transportcd downstrcam.
Howcvcr, thc old Mitrovica sawmill wcnt into bankruptcy in +µ:8 and a
ncw onc was sct up in +µ¸o, thc Ibar sawmill, owncd by thc immigrant cn
trcprcncurs Lazar and Ðjordjc Žarković, Gligo Ðabović and Mita Marina.
Fivc ycars latcr, Оalcr Ðcva lrom Kosovska Mitrovica opcncd a stcam
sawmill. Tc two Žarković brothcrs also built a stcam mill, and in carly +µ¸6
Lazar Žarković and Mita Marina opcncd a tilc lactory.
!n +µ:¸ thc town got its first clcctrical powcr plant, locatcd on thc
!bar and latcr translcrrcd to thc Čcčavska rivcr in !barski Kolašin. An cs
pccially strong boost to thc cconomic dcvclopmcnt ol thc town was thc
opcning ol thc Trepča minc in +µ¸o. Altcr scvcral ycars ol prospccting and
with a significant invcstmcnt ol 8ritish capital, in +µ:¸ thc 8ritish com
pany Selection Trust opcncd a scparatc company – Trepča Mines Limited,
lollowcd in Junc +µ¸o by anothcr: Kopaonik Mines Limited, taking ovcr thc
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt µµ
conccssions lrom thc prcvious owncrs, thc lamily ol thc by thcn dcccascd
Primc Ministcr Nikola Pašić,
+8
lor thc cxploitation ol rich dcposits ol lcad
and zinc, containing vcins ol silvcr and gold, in thc subKopaonik 8asin.
And so in +µ¸o production bcgan at thc Stari Trg minc, +o km northcast ol
thc town. Tc orc was translcrrcd by clcctric cablccar to thc flotation built
in Zvcčan. As thc railway at Mitrovica alrcady had a branch linc to Raška
and Kraljcvo, a railway station was also opcncd in Zvcčan, so that thc con
ccntratcd orc could bc transportcd onward to 8clgradc. !n +µ¸µ, a smclting
works and lcad rcfincry wcrc built in Zvcčan, and lor thcsc Trepča Mines
Limited loundcd a stock company: Lead Smelting Z.ečan, thus continuing
thc history ol mining and mctallurgy in this orcrich basin, cxploitcd lrom
thc bcginning ol thc lourtccnth to thc cnd ol thc scvcntccnth ccntury.
Swilt industrial dcvclopmcnt in Kosovska Mitrovica in thc +µ¸os lcd
to significant changc in thc prolcssional structurc ol its population, which
continucd to grow apacc, although somc ol thc workcrs (cspccially mincrs)
wcrc rccruitcd lrom thc surrounding countrysidc. Tc 8ritish companics
also brought thcir own tcchnical pcrsonncl, lor whom spccial housing was
built. Tus Kosovska Mitrovica – only filty ycars bclorc an insignificant
markct town – bccamc a mining and industrial ccntrc ol importancc lor
thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc cntirc country. Òn thc cvc ol Vorld Var !!, Nazi
Gcrmany showcd grcat intcrcst in Trcpča. 8oth thc minc and thc proccss
ing plant in Zvcčan workcd unintcrruptcdly throughout thc war. 8ccausc
ol Trcpča’s importancc lor thc Gcrman war cconomy, Kosovska Mitrovica
camc undcr spccial Gcrman administration within occupicd Scrbia.
Trcpča’s dcvclopmcnt altcr Vorld Var !! was bascd on maximum
cxploitation ol thc orc and an incrcascd production ol lcad and zinc, in
cluding small quantitics ol silvcr and gold. Tis was achicvcd by cxpanding
thc production capacitics. Howcvcr, in rcccnt dccadcs, industrial plants in
Kosovska Mitrovica and thc surrounding arca havc scriously cndangcrcd
thc cnvironmcnt in this part ol thc !bar vallcy. Trcpča’s lcad smcltcry, rcfin
cry, zinc clcctrolysis, artificial lcrtilizcr lactory, clcctric battcry lactory and
othcr installations havc constantly bccn polluting thc !bar and its surround
ings. Tis has had an cffcct on thc hcalth ol thc pcoplc living in Kosovska
Mitrovica and in thc arca. 8ccausc ol air pollution, cvcn thc birds havc mi
gratcd clscwhcrc. !n thc +µ8os, cxpcrts lrom Columbia Univcrsity in Ncw
York cstablishcd, as part ol a study on thc impact ol lcad on ncwborn babics
and prcgnant womcn in Kosovska Mitrovica, that Mitrovica was thc scc
ond most pollutcd town in thc world, immcdiatcly altcr thc Monongchcla
+8
Nikola Pašić (+8¡¡–+µ:6), promincnt Scrbian politician and statcsman, scvcral timcs
Primc Ministcr ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbia, and altcr +µ+8 Primc Ministcr ol thc King
dom ol Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs.
Kosovo and Mctohija +oo
\allcy in Pcnnsylvania, USA (Stojanović & Milosavljcvić :oo¡: ¡). Tc pol
lution ol thc cnvironmcnt in Kosovska Mitrovica and its cffccts arc also dis
cusscd in a rcccnt cxtcnsivc study (:oo¡) bascd on ficld rcscarch by Miljana
StojanovićMilosavljcvić, as part ol thc projcct Te En.ironmental Situation
in the Koso.o-Mitro.ica Encla.e and Proposed Measures for its Preser.ation,
Impro.ement and Æd.ancement.
Demographic de.elopment and changes in the to.n’s ethnic structure
8csidcs rcgular statistical publications on thc population ccnsus in thc
country in thc intcrwar pcriod and altcr Vorld Var !!, thcrc is a lairly com
prchcnsivc litcraturc in Scrbian and Albanian on population and dcmo
graphic movcmcnts in Kosovo and Mctohija (scc Lutovac +µ¡o, Urošcvić
+µ¡¸, Krasniqi +µ6¸, Hadri +µ6¸, Lutovac +µ¸:, Hivzi +µ¸¸, 8ogdanović
+µ8¡, Zbornik radova +µµ+, ¡tnički sastav +µµ¸, Krstić +µµ¡). Tcsc publi
cations providc an insight into thc dcmographic dcvclopmcnt ol Kosovska
Mitrovica, noting thc changc in thc cthnic composition ol its population.
Hcrc statistics lor thc cntirc Municipality ol Kosovska Mitrovica must bc
scparatcd lrom figurcs lor thc town. !t should also bc rcmcmbcrcd that lor
a timc, lrom thc mid+µ6os until thc cnd ol thc +µ8os, thc Municipality ol
Kosovska Mitrovica also includcd thosc ol Zvcčan and Zubin Potok, which
had prcviously bccn, as thcy arc today, scparatc municipalitics. Vc arc intcr
cstcd in Kosovska Mitrovica as an urban scttlcmcnt, so thc data givcn hcrc
conccrns only thc town, and not thc municipality as a wholc.
Atanasijc Urošcvić (+µ¡¸: +µ¸–:o¡) providcd a lairly prccisc rccon
struction ol thc dcmographic growth ol Kosovska Mitrovica and thc chang
cs in its cthnic structurc, summariscd hcrc. According to Urošcvić’s findings,
until thc building ol thc Kosovo Railway, Mitrovica (at thc timc still callcd
Pa.arska) had no morc than :ooo inhabitants. Although sourccs ol thc fil
tccnth to scvcntccnth ccnturics givc no inlormation on thc cthnic composi
tion ol its population, lrom thc datc ol thc building ol thc first mosqucs in
thc town it can bc dcduccd that thcrc wcrc Muslims living thcrc as carly as
thc midfiltccnth ccntury, whcn thc Òttomans (+¡¡¡) scizcd thc domains
ol thc 8rankovićs, to which Mitrovica bclongcd, and thc cntirc southcrn
part ol thc Ðcspotatc ol Scrbia (mcdicval Scrbian statc altcr thc 8attlc
ol Kosovo). !n thc first ccnturics ol Òttoman rulc thc Muslim population
was cntircly Turkish, but altcr thc invasion and subscqucnt withdrawal ol
thc Austrian army bctwccn +68¸ and +6µo it bcgan to bc populatcd by
!slamizcd Albanians, who soon adoptcd thc Turkish languagc, and cvcn
bcgan to considcr thcmsclvcs Turks. Tc first mcntion ol thc town’s Scrbian
inhabitants comcs lrom thc carly dccadcs ol thc cightccnth ccntury. Tcsc
arc thc Scrb lamilics ol Prckazi, Tcrzići and Ćamilovići, who adoptcd !slam
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt +o+
soon altcr scttling, but thc languagc thcy spokc at homc rcmaincd lor a long
timc Scrbian. ¡vcn in thc last dccadcs ol thc twcnticth ccntury thcy wcrc
bclicvcd in Mitrovica to bc thc oldcst lamilics ol Scrbian cthnic origin. !n
thc ninctccnth ccntury, bclorc thc arrival ol thc muhajirs lrom 8osniaHcr
zcgovina and othcr rcgions, scvcral Scrb lamilics arrivcd lrom thc town’s
cnvirons (thc villagcs ol Žitkovac and Koriljc) as wcll as lrom Rožajc and
8itolj. !n Mitrovica thcrc arc lamilics lrom Ðrcnica ol whom somc arc bc
licvcd to bc ol Roma origin, cvcn though thcy havc always spokcn Scrbian
and considcr thcmsclvcs Scrbs. Tcy all cclcbratc St. 8asil (\asilijc) as thcir
sla.a or patron saint’s day. Prior to thc 8alkan Vars thcrc wcrc about :oo
houscs ol Scrbianspcaking muhajirs who originally camc lrom 8anja Luka,
Travnik, Sarajcvo, Gračanica (ncar Ðoboj), Nikšić, Kolašin and Podgorica.
Tcy wcrc soon joincd by Muslims lrom thc Mojstir arca. Tcrc wcrc sig
nificantly lcwcr Turkish and Albanian muhajirs lrom thc libcratcd parts ol
Scrbia. At thc cnd ol thc ninctccnth ccntury, Catholic Albanians bcgan to
arrivc lrom Ðjakovica, originally lrom Skadarska Malcsija. About that timc
Òrthodox Scrbs also bcgan scttling in rathcr largcr numbcrs lrom ncarby
villagcs and thc KosovoMctohija towns ol Priština, \učitrn, Pcć and Priz
rcn. Jcwish lamilics too arrivcd lrom Priština. Somc Maccdonian lamilics
camc lrom Tctovo and \clcs and scvcral Tzintzar lamilics lrom Krušcvo
and 8itolj. !n thc town thcrc wcrc also scvcral houscs ol both Christian
Òrthodox and Muslim Roma (Gypsics). Tc Òrthodox Roma spokc only
Scrbian as thcir nativc languagc, whilc thc Muslim Roma spokc both Ro
mani and Albanian.
According to Òttoman rcgistcrs, in +µ+o Kosovska Mitrovica had
µ¸¡¡ pcoplc (Urošcvić +µ¡¸: :o¸), and according to lorcign and domcs
tic scholars ol thc timc (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡:¡), on thc cvc ol thc 8alkan Vars
Mitrovica had about +o,ooo pcoplc, and thc samc numbcr ol soldicrs man
ning thc town’s military garrison. !n +µ+¡, thc numbcr ol pcoplc droppcd
to 8ooo, mostly duc to thc Muslim population – Turks, Albanians and 8os
niaks – moving to Turkcy.
Tc +µ:+ ccnsus shows (Krstić +µµ¡: 8µ) that cvcn with thc cmi
gration ol thc Muslims, thc numbcr ol inhabitants ol Kosovska Mitrovica
did not diminish duc to thc suddcn influx ol Scrbs and Ærbanasi lrom thc
surrounding arcas and othcr parts ol KosovoMctohija: thcrc wcrc +o,o¡¡
pcoplc living in thc town. Tis ccnsus did not rcgistcr thc population ac
cording to nationality (cthnicity) but according to rcligious affiliation and
nativc languagc. Tcsc critcria stand somcwhat in thc way ol comparison
with ccnsuscs takcn altcr Vorld Var !!, although statisticians havc tricd to
translatc thc prcwar data to fit postwar critcria. Tus it was dctcrmincd
that in thc ccnsus ol +µ:+ thcrc wcrc ¸:8¸ pcrsons living in Mitrovica who
spokc Turkish, lollowcd by +86o Albanians, ¸88¸ Scrbs, +o¡ Slovcnians, ¡6
Kosovo and Mctohija +o:
Tzintzars, ¡ Russians, ¸ !talians, + ¡nglishman and 8¸+ othcrs (which prob
ably includcd Jcws and Roma). Urošcvić obscrvcs, howcvcr, that in this ccn
sus many Ærbanasi who had “undcr thc influcncc ol Turkish culturc and an
urban way ol lilc” adoptcd thc Turkish languagc, also dcclarcd thcmsclvcs as
Turks (Urošcvić +µ¡¸: :o¸).
!n thc tcn ycars bctwccn two ccnsuscs, thc population ol Kosovs
ka Mitrovica incrcascd by +:¡o: in +µ¸+ thcrc wcrc ++,:µ¡ inhabitants
(Urošcvić +µ¡¸: :o¸). At that timc thc ScrbMontcncgrin population
numbcrcd ¡o6¸, thc Turkish :6µ6, thc Ærbanas +¸¡8, and thcrc wcrc :¸8¡
othcrs. !t is probablc that in this ccnsus a numbcr ol cthnic Ærbanasi also
dcclarcd thcmsclvcs Turks. At this timc thc town had scvcral lamilics ol
Montcncgrin colonists, Russian cmigrants and thosc who had arrivcd lrom
various placcs as tcchnical pcrsonncl and cntrcprcncurs. Tcrc wcrc cvcn
scvcral houscs bclonging to Circassians who had movcd hcrc lrom \učitrn.
Òl coursc, thc ccnsus did not rcgistcr thc (8ritish) lorcigncrs tcmporarily
working in Trcpča and Kosovska Mitrovica, who wcrc quitc numcrous at
that timc.
Altcr Vorld Var !! thc Albanians in Yugoslavia dcclarcd thcmsclvcs
as Šiptari (Shiptar, Shqiptar), which was acccptcd by thc official statistics.
According to thc ccnsus ol +µ¡¸, thc town had +¸,µo+ inhabitants. Òl that
numbcr, ¸¡oo dcclarcd thcmsclvcs as Shiptars, thcrc wcrc ¡68µ Scrbs, 8¡+
Montcncgrins, :¸+ cthnically undccidcd Muslims, ¡¡ Turks, µ¡ Russians,
8o Maccdonians, 66 Slovcnians, +¸¡ Croatians and a total ol +8¸ othcr
pcoplc (Lutovac +µ¡o: µ¡, Urošcvić +µ¡¸: :o¡). 8oth Urošcvić and Lutovac
point out that :++6 ol thosc who dcclarcd thcmsclvcs as Shiptars statcd
that thcir nativc languagc was “Gypsy”. Tis mcans that thc lormally rcg
istcrcd numbcr ol µ¡ mcmbcrs ol this cthnic group was significantly largcr,
and that a rcalistic figurc lor thc Shiptars would havc bccn about ¡¡oo. 8c
sidcs, thcrc was a small but visiblc numbcr ol cthnically undccidcd Muslims.
As Scrbianspcaking Muslims wcrc by that timc an important componcnt
in thc town’s cthnic structurc, it can bc assumcd that somc ol thcm dcclarcd
thcmsclvcs as Scrbs (“ScrbMuslims”), and somc as Turks.
Tc ccnsus ol +µ6+ showcd that thc population ol Kosovska Mitro
vica had doublcd in thc mcantimc: by thcn it alrcady had :6,¸:+ inhabit
ants. Among thcm wcrc +o,o:o Scrbs and Montcncgrins, +¸,¡¸¡ Shiptars,
and ¸,+:¸ pcoplc ol othcr nationalitics (no onc dcclarcd thcmsclvcs to bc ol
Turkish nationality, which did not corrcspond to thc actual situation sincc
a Turkish population appcarcd subscqucntly). At thc cnd ol thc +µ6os a
ncw tcrm was adoptcd into political vocabulary and lcgal rcgulations to
dcnotc Shiptars in Yugoslavia – Ælbanians, and this was uscd in thc ccnsuscs
that lollowcd. From +µ6+ to +µ8+ thc town population ol Kosovska Mitro
vica also doublcd, so that in +µ8+ it numbcrcd ¡:,866 inhabitants. Òl that
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt +o¸
numbcr thcrc wcrc +o,¡¸6 Scrbs and Montcncgrins, ¸:,¸µo Albanians, ¸8µ
Turks and µ,:µ¡ othcrs. Tcsc lacts show that in thc said pcriod thc numbcr
ol thc ScrbMontcncgrin population in Kosovska Mitrovica had rcmaincd
approximatcly thc samc (a littlc ovcr tcn thousand), but in thc mcantimc it
had oscillatcd. Tc numbcr ol Scrbs and Montcncgrins in thc town grcw
in thc pcriod lrom +µ6+ to +µ¸+, and droppcd lrom +µ¸+ to +µ8+, as a
conscqucncc ol thcir moving to othcr parts ol thc Rcpublic (Pctrović +µ8µ:
+o+–+o¸, Krstić +µµ¡: 8¸). At thc samc timc thc total population in thc
town incrcascd swiltly as did thc pcrccntagc ol Albanians.
Tc ccnsus ol +µµ+, on thc cvc ol thc brcakup ol Tito’s Yugoslavia,
is not cntircly rcliablc as lar as municipalitics in Kosovo and Mctohija and
thc municipalitics ol 8ujanovac and Prcšcvo in inncr Scrbia arc conccrncd,
sincc thc Albanian population boycottcd it. A prolcssional cstimatc was
thcrclorc madc ol thc sizc ol thc Albanian population in cach individual
municipality, but not in thc villagcs bclonging to thcm. !n this way a figurc
ol +o¡,88¡ pcoplc living in thc municipality ol Kosovska Mitrovica was ar
rivcd at, ol which (according to thc cstimatc) 8:,8¸¸ wcrc Albanians. How
cvcr, no cstimatc was madc lor thc numbcr ol Albanians living in thc town
arca ol Kosovska Mitrovica (only a symbolic numbcr took part in thc ccn
sus). According to thcsc incomplctc figurcs, in +µµ+ thc town had +8,¡µ¡
inhabitants, ol which 8++: wcrc Scrbs, ++:¸ Montcncgrins, ¸+µ Yugoslavs,
¡6+ Albanians (thosc that agrccd to takc part in thc ccnsus), :¸µo Muslims,
¡¸6o Roma, 8µ Croats and 86¸ pcoplc ol othcr nationalitics. To thcsc fig
urcs wc should, in thc intcrcsts ol rcalism, add about ¡o,ooo Albanians, as in
thc prcvious ccnsus (+µ8+) thcrc wcrc ¸:,¸µo. Tis mcans that in +µµ+, thc
town ol Kosovska Mitrovica had at lcast 6o,ooo inhabitants.
Tcsc dcmographic and cthnic changcs togcthcr with a stcady cco
nomic dcvclopmcnt influcnccd thc topographic and urban charactcristics ol
thc town. Atanasijc Urošcvić providcs a concisc dcscription ol urban dcvcl
opmcnt in Kosovska Mitrovica in thc first hall ol thc twcnticth ccntury.
As lor thc town ol Mitrovica, it diffcrs in that it is not clustcrcd round thc
ccntrc as in thc old 8alkan towns, such as it uscd to bc bclorc thc railway,
but rathcr cxtcnds along thc main strccts and bcyond thc ccntrc. !ts prin
ciplc part is cvcn now in thc ccntral arca bctwccn thc bridgc on thc !bar and
thc bridgc on thc Ljušta and bctwccn thc lattcr and thc Markct. 8cyond
this main part it strctchcs along thc Pcć road as lar as thc bridgc whcrc thc
Ljušta cuts across thc road, and on towards thc railway as lar as thc loading
platlorm. Tc town also strctchcs along thc lclt bank ol thc !bar, through thc
middlc ol thc Bosniak Mahala, along thc road to Raška, as lar as thc Uppcr
mosquc. |…| Tc Bosniak Mahala is no longcr 8osniak sincc almost all thc
8osniaks havc movcd to Turkcy. And in all thc othcr Muslim mahalas Scrbs
and Montcncgrins havc rcplaccd thc Muslims who movcd away. Tc town
mahala has always bccn, as it is now, purcly Scrb, and thc Gypsy mahala is
Kosovo and Mctohija +o¡
purcly Gypsy. Hcrc Gypsics spcaking thc Gypsy languagc livc in thc uppcr
part, Shiptarspcaking Gypsics in thc lowcr. (Urošcvić +µ¡¸: :o8)
Tis urban physiognomy ol thc town undcrwcnt significant intcrnal chang
cs with thc suddcn rcgrouping ol thc population in +µµµ. Vhat uscd to
bc onc town has now practically bccomc two, cach ol thcm cncircling its
ccntrc and sprcading out towards thc outskirts according to whatcvcr spacc
is availablc. !n this way North Mitrovica too is changing its appcarancc and
taking on thc appcarancc ol its ncw population, with its financial abilitics,
living habits and cultural inhcritancc.
References
8ogdanović +µ8¡ — Ð. 8ogdanović: Knjiga o Koso.u, 8cograd.
8ovan +µµ8 — \. 8ovan: Srpski pisci sa Kosova i Mctohijc saradnici „Carigradskog \. 8ovan: Srpski pisci sa Kosova i Mctohijc saradnici „Carigradskog
glasnika“, Koso.sko-metohijski .bornik :, 8cograd, +o+–++¡.
Cvijić +µµ6 — J. Cvijić, Osno.e .a geografiju i geologiju Makedonije i Stare Srbije,
[reprint], Beograd.
¡tnički sastav +µµ¸ — Etnički sasta. stano.ništ.a Srbije i Crne Gore i Srbi u SFFJ
Jugosla.iji |collcction od papcrs, publishcr „Stručna knjiga“|, 8cograd.
Hadri +µ6¸ — A. Hadri: Kosovo i Mctohija u Kraljcvini Jugoslaviji, A. Hadri: Kosovo i Mctohija u Kraljcvini Jugoslaviji, Istorijski glasnik
+–:, 8cograd.
Hivzi +µ¸¸ — !slami Hivzi: Òsvrt na razvitak stanovništva Kosova, !slami Hivzi: Òsvrt na razvitak stanovništva Kosova, Sociologija ++,
8cograd.
Kosovska Mitrovica +µ¸µ — Kosovska Mitrovica i okolina |collcction od papcrs, cds. Kosovska Mitrovica i okolina |collcction od papcrs, cds. |collcction od papcrs, cds.
A. Hadri and Ž. Avramovski|, Kosovska Mitrovica. Kosovska Mitrovica.
Krasniqi +µ6¸ — M. Krasnići: Društ.eno-geografske promene na Koso.u i Metohiji,
Priština.
Krstić +µµ¡ — 8. Krstić: Koso.o i.među istorijskog i etničkog pra.a, 8cograd.
Lutovac +µ¡o — M. Lutovac: Zvcčan, Trcpča, i Kosovska Mitrovica, Glasnik Geograf-
skog društ.a XXX/:, 8cograd, 8¸–µµ.
Lutovac +µ¸: — M. Lutovac: Gcogralski i političkogcogralski položaj Pokrajinc
Kosova u Srbiji, |u:| Glas SÆNU. Òdcljcnjc prirodnomatcmatičkih nauka, knj. ¸¡,
8cograd, +–¸µ.
Mala ¡nciklopcdija Prosvcta +µ86 — Mala enciklopedija pros.eta, 8cograd.
Mikić +µ8¸ — Ðj. Mikić: Politička, kulturna i privrcdna strcmljcnja, |in:| Istorija srp-
skog naroda. Šesta knjiga. Pr.i tom. Od Berlinskog kongresa do ujedinjenja :·¸·–:,:·,
8cograd, :µ+–¸+¡.
Mikić +µ88 — Ðj. Mikić: Društ.ene i ekonomske prilike koso.skih Srba XIX i početkom
XX .eka, 8cograd.
Nikolić +µµ6 — Ò. Nikolić: Srpske škole u !učitrnu :·:·–:,::. godine, Priština.
Nušić +µo: — 8. Nušić: Koso.o – opis .emlje i naroda, Novi Sad.
M. Luković, Kosovska Mitrovica: Past and Prcscnt +o¡
Pctrović +µ8µ — R. Pctrović, M. 8lagojcvić: Seobe Srba i Crnogoraca sa Koso.a i i. Me-
tohije. Fe.ultati ankete spro.edene :,·¸–:,·&. godine Fe.ultati ankete spro.edene :,·¸–:,·&. godine, 8cograd.
Pcjin +µµ8 — J. Pcjin, Prosvctna karta Raškoprizrcnskc cparhijc iz +µo+. godinc, |in:|
Koso.sko-metohijski .bornik :, 8cograd +o+–+o¡.
StojanovićMilosavljcvić :oo¡ — M. StojanovićMilosavljcvić: Stanjc životnc srcdinc
u Kosovskomitrovačkoj cnklavi i prcdlog mcra za njcno očuvanjc, poboljšanjc i
unaprcđcnjc |naučnoistraživački projckat SANU i Ccntra za naučni rad u Kragu
jcvcu|, Kragujcvac.
Urošcvić +µ¡¸ — A. Urošcvić: Kosovska Mitrovica – antropogcogralska istraživanja,
Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SÆN !!!!! (+µ¡¸–+µ¡¡), 8cograd, +8¸–:++.
Zbornik radova +µµ+ — Zbornik rado.a Geografskog instituta “Jo.an C.ijić” ¡¸, 8c
ograd.
Kosovo and Mctohija +o6
Hclcna Zdravković
Historical Victimage of Kosovo Serbs and Albanians
Tis papcr uscs idcological criticism to cxaminc how and why victimagc,
idcntity and nationalism arc produccd through cvcryday discursivc practiccs
ol Scrbs and Albanians in Kosovo.
+
Tc narrativcs in this study can bc rc
gardcd as compcting vcrnacular mcmorics rcprcscntativc ol Scrbs and Alba
nians in Kosovo. Tc participants invokc pcrsonal and collcctivc mcmorics
with official national historics to cxplain contcmporary victimization as a
continuation ol historical victimagc. Tis usc ol thc past can scrvc to lcgiti
mizc thcir national and political claims, as wcll as to justily violcncc against
thc othcr group, sincc historical victimagc providcs a rationalc lor hating
thc othcr group and pcrpctuating a vicious cyclc ol spiraling violcncc.
!t is impcrativc to look at how pcrsonal and collcctivc mcmorics in
tcract with official national historics and how thcy arc mutually rcinlorccd
and cntanglcd to producc cohcrcnt victimization narrativcs. Trough con
stant rcproduction ol historical victimagc in vcrnacular discoursc (Haus
cr +µµ8, +µµµ), participants rcaffirm thcir rcspcctivc idcntitics, rcalitics,
claims, and rightcousncss. Somc rcscarchcrs havc documcntcd thc positivc
aspccts ol victimagc narrativcs and idcntity (Sturkcn +µµ8, Zclizcr :oo:),
but unlortunatcly thc narrativcs that arc cxamincd hcrc lostcr hatrcd toward
thc Òthcr. Howcvcr, this cxtrcmc lccling docs not arisc out ol primordial
tcndcncics, but out ol lcar lrom thc Òthcr (\ujacic +µµ6) and a dcsirc to
climinatc thc pcrccivcd thrcat.
Traditionally, work on Kosovo (Kosovo and Mctohija) and thc lor
mcr Yugoslavia has tcndcd to lollow this kind ol rcasoning, dwclling on thc
notions ol lactual truth, objcctivc history and victimagc, and how thcsc gct
distortcd and uscd lor political purposcs. Tcrcin, collcctivc mcmorics ol
thc groups within Kosovo and thc lormcr Yugoslavia arc contrastcd with
objcctivc history, and “truc victims” arc clcarly distinguishcd lrom “provcn
villains” (Carvcr +µµ8). Many authors writc about thc “dcstructivc” powcr
+
Tis papcr is an abridgcd vcrsion ol Zdravković :oo6.
Kosovo and Mctohija +o8
ol collcctivc mcmorics in Kosovo and thc rcst ol thc lormcr Yugoslavia,
and how activating somc ol thcm has bccn thc causc lor thc civil war in thc
+µµo’s. For cxamplc, somc authors, disrcgarding historical data, havc cvcn
argucd lor a monolithic Scrbian culturc that is somchow pathological (An
zulovic +µµµ, Kaplan +µµ¸, McAllcstcr :oo:).
Howcvcr, most ol thc studics on Kosovo and thc lormcr Yugoslavia havc
lookcd only at official discourscs, such as clitc political spccchcs, mcdia
covcragc and history books, and havc uscd thcsc as rcprcscntativc ol all
groups and voiccs. To my knowlcdgc thcrc havc bccn lcw studics ol Kosovo
(Mcrtus +µµµ), and thc lormcr Yugoslavia, which locus on thc analysis ol
daily discursivc practiccs through which idcologics ol historical victimagc
arc rcproduccd. ¡vcn lcss attcntion has bccn dcvotcd to how pcrsonal and
collcctivc mcmorics intcract and amalgamatc with official historical narra
tivcs in vcrnacular rhctoric to crcatc thc historical victim idcntity.
From an idcological pcrspcctivc thc issucs outlincd abovc arc highly
problcmatic, bccausc thcy not only silcncc and dclcgitimizc ccrtain voiccs,
whilc ratilying othcrs, but also providc lor simplistic undcrstandings ol how
vcrnacular mcmorics intcract with official historics to producc conflictsus
taining narrativcs. Tis lcads to incffcctivc conflict rcsolution, ol thc kind wc
arc witncssing in Kosovo and 8osnia (8ird +µµµ, Chomsky :ooo, Cohcn
:ooo), and hclps pcrpctuatc thc cyclc ol violcncc.
Tcrclorc, this critical study analyzcs vcrnacular discursivc practiccs
ol historical victimagc instcad ol locusing on privilcgcd and dominant dis
courscs. Rathcr than judgc thc truth valuc ol thc participants’ narrativcs,
it aims to illustratc how thcir claims arc constructcd in discoursc and thc
pragmatic aspcct ol thc historical victim idcntity, in tcrms ol affording sym
bolic, cmotional and political rcsourccs on a pcrsonal, collcctivc and na
tional lcvcl.
Tis idcological cssay is dividcd into scvcral scctions. Tc first scg
mcnt cngagcs thc dcbatc ovcr thc rclationship ol history and mcmory, as it
rclatcs to victimagc. Tc ncxt part analyzcs thc Scrb and Albanian vcrnacu
lar rhctoric in tcrms ol discursivc stratcgics uscd in crcating thc historical
victim idcntity. Tc third scction cxplorcs thc lunctions ol thcsc historical
victimagc narrativcs, and an attcmpt to dcmonstratc why cxamining thcm
is important in undcrstanding not only thc intractablc conflict in Kosovo,
but also othcr conflicts around thc world. 8y thc cnd ol this papcr ! hopc
to dcmonstratc thc importancc ol problcmatizing cxplanations that posit
singular, prclcrcntial, and “objcctivc” victimagc in rclation to conflict intcr
vcntion and rcsolution.
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians +oµ
Te relationship of history and collecti.e memory to .ictimage
Ncvcrthclcss, it can bc argucd that rcasoning ol thc typc outlincd abovc has
lcd not only to blackandwhitc cxplanations ol thc conflict in Kosovo and
thc lormcr Yugoslavia, but has had significant implications in intcrnational
diplomacy, NATÒ intcrvcntion (Chomsky :ooo) and conflict rcsolution
cfforts in thc rcgion (Mcrtus +µµµ). !t has hclpcd solidily and lcgitimizc
ccrtain narrativcs ol victimization, whilc silcncing and dclcgitimizing oth
crs. As MontalbanoPhclps (:oo¸) cxplains, narrativcs ol victimization arc
judgcd according to socictal standards ol who can bc thc victim and what
victimization is likc, narrativcs and victims that don’t conlorm to thc norm
arc discardcd as bcing labricatcd and lakc. A clcar cxamplc, il wc look at both
mcdia covcragc and acadcmic intcrcst conccrning Kosovo, is thc prolific and
widcsprcad writing about thc victimization ol Albanians at thc hands ol thc
Scrbs, in stark contrast to thc scant and unpopular, cvcn contcstcd, writing
about thc victimization ol Scrbs at thc hands ol thc Albanians (¡rlangcr
+µµµ, Fisk +µµµ, Gray +µµµ, !sracl :oo¡).
Traditional writings on Kosovo and thc lormcr Yugoslavia (8anac
:oo:, Gcrolymatos :oo:, Glcnny +µµµ, Judah +µµ¸, :ooo, Kascr & Halp
crn +µµ8, Magaš +µµ¸, Malcolm +µµ8, Ramct :oo:, Silbcr & Littlc +µµ¡,
Voodward +µµ¡) tcnd to pay significant attcntion to thc powcr ol collcc
tivc mcmorics, and activating thcm lor political purposcs. Yct, in a gcncral
attcmpt to disprovc ccrtain vcrsions and lcgitimizc othcrs, thcy point out
thc validity/invalidity ol claims and narrativcs in rclation to an “objcctivc”
and “unbiascd” history. Formcr Yugoslav historians havc bccn accuscd ol
playing a significant rolc in thc wars, bccausc thcir writings cngagcd thcm,
and thcir rcspcctivc nationalist political clitcs, in powcr strugglcs ovcr rcn
ditions ol history. As history is vital to thc cxistcncc ol a nation, disproving
thc Òthcr’s history is tantamount to dcnying thc Òthcr’s national idcntity
(Kclman +µµµ). Yct, most ol thc writing by “outsidcrs” (primarily Vcstcrn
authors) on lormcr Yugoslavia has bccn plagucd by thc samc contcstations
ovcr who is and who is not tclling thc truth.
Tc conncction bctwccn collcctivc mcmory and official national his
torics has bccn cxamincd in a topdown manncr cxclusivcly, looking at offi
cial political discourscs, mcdia covcragc and history books as rcprcscntativc.
Tc asscrtion is that political clitcs wcrc thc oncs who tailorcd thc national
ist historical discoursc, which pcoplc bought into. Tis prcscnts collcctivc
mcmory as static, and dcnics agcncy to thc pcoplc who crcatc, rcproducc,
ncgotiatc and contcst official discourscs through narrativcs ol vcrnacular
mcmorics. Fcw studics havc analyzcd vcrnacular discourscs in Kosovo and
lormcr Yugoslavia, whcrcin pcrsonal and collcctivc mcmory luscs with ol
ficial historical discoursc.
Kosovo and Mctohija ++o
Tc importancc ol such an analysis is crucial, bccausc, as Judah points
out, in Kosovo “history is war by othcr mcans” ( Judah :ooo: µ). History is
not a subjcct that is confincd to books, thc classroom, and acadcmic dcbatcs
– it is a livc and wild crcaturc, that is shapcd according to prcscnt rcalitics
and influcnccs thcir intcrprctations. Vhilc thc boundary bctwccn collcctivc
mcmory and history is blurrcd, both Scrbs and Albanians makc a distinc
tion, which rcflccts thcir acccptancc ol history as objcctivc and mcmory
as labricatcd, and thcir prcoccupation with dcnying validity to thc Òthcr’s
history, nation and idcntity. Vhcn rclcrring to thcir own vcrsion ol cvcnts,
participants call it history, whilc whcn cxplaining thc Òthcr’s sidc, thcy
tcrm it mcmory, cmphasizing its constructcd, and thcrclorc lalsc, aspcct.
Tis cxcmplifics thc point that thc vcry notion ol what constitutcs history
and what compriscs collcctivc mcmory is dctcrmincd politically (Hasian &
Frank +µµµ), that it is indicativc ol powcr strugglcs in socicty (Gallaghcr
+µµ¡) and that it has significant political connotations. Ònc ol thc kcy lac
tors in such powcr strugglcs in Kosovo has bccn thc dcstruction ol Scrb
Christian Òrthodox hcritagc, as a mcans ol disputing thc Scrbian claim to
thc land.
8ccausc ol thc problcms arising out ol thc lalsc dichotomy bctwccn
history and collcctivc mcmory and its rclation to conflict and victimagc, !
rathcr agrcc with Sturkcn who proposcs that mcmory and history should
bc rcgardcd as entangled (Sturkcn +µµ¸: ¡, cmphasis in original). History
and mcmory arc highly sclcctivc, impartial and constructcd. Tcy arc social,
rhctorical constructs, changcablc in rclation to timc and placc, which makc
thc past cohcrcnt and usablc in thc prcscnt.
Mo.ing a.ay from epistemology
!nstcad ol cxamining official narrativcs and asccrtaining thc truth valuc ol
collcctivc mcmorics and national historics, this idcological study looks at
vcrnacular discoursc as a sitc whcrc historical victimagc is crcatcd and rc
produccd. !t rcjccts thc notion that objcctivity is thc propcrty ol history,
whcrcas collcctivc mcmory is ladcn with mythical, labricatcd and distortcd
clcmcnts. !t aims to dcmonstratc how truth and mcaning arc accomplishcd
in vcrnacular rhctoric, and what kind ol truth thc participants want to bc
associatcd with. As Sturkcn acknowlcdgcs, “thc dcbatc ovcr truth and lalsity
is irrcsolvablc”, instcad ol ascribing lalschood, narrativcs should bc cxam
incd lor thc lcars and dcsircs thcy cxprcss (Sturkcn +µµ8: +o¡, +::).
Tc lollowing cxccrpts ol Scrb and Albanian vcrnacular narrativcs
arc takcn lrom a largcr corpus ol +oo cthnographic intcrvicws that ! col
lcctcd in Kosovo, lrom Junc to August :oo:. Tcy arc a purposivc samplc,
choscn lor thc brcvity and cohcrcncc ol thc narrativcs, and bccausc thcy arc
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians +++
rcprcscntativc ol thc vcrnacular rhctoric ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians in
thc largcr corpus. Vhilc this idcological criticism uscs sclcctcd passagcs,
thcsc may bc considcrcd charactcristic lragmcnts ol largcr historical vic
timagc narrativcs in Kosovo. ! rcalizc that this claim invitcs criticisms ol
ignoring multiplc voiccs, pcrspcctivcs, idcntifications, and thc cxistcncc ol
various vcrnacular mcmorics, but in thc intcrcst ol spacc and brcvity ! could
not includc thcm. ! vicw thcsc sclcctions as rcprcscntativc bccausc thc par
ticipants idcntificd and spokc as mcmbcrs ol thcir rcspcctivc cthnic and
national groups, cxprcssing official national history and Kosovo’s collcctivc
mcmory.
! suggcst that thc narrativcs in thc lollowing scction arisc out ol a
daily rcpctition or rchcarsal ol “our vcrsion ol cvcnts.” Tis is a crucial dis
cursivc practicc, and quitc litcrally so in an arca likc Kosovo. Tc cvcryday
discoursc about suffcring can thus bc rcgardcd as a commcmoration ritual,
or as 8urkc (+µ6¸) has tcrmcd it a “victimagc ritual,” which scrvcs not only
to cxprcss and rclcasc trauma, but to crystallizc, rcconfirm and solidily it.
Tis vcrnacular discoursc is impcrativc bccausc it bccomcs thc placc, or as
Kcnny (+µµµ) suggcsts thc milicu, whcrc victimization is rcpositcd – thc
placc whcrc tclling about victimization not only makcs it vivid, prcscnt and
mcaninglul, but also whcrc it bccomcs largcr than lilc, indccd it bccomcs
historical. 8urkc’s (+µ6¸) conccpt ol victimagc rhctoric posits that such nar
rativcs arc ncccssarily mclodramatic.
Tcy scrvc to instill hatrcd and lcar ol thc Òthcr, to justily violcnt
actions, bccausc thc dcsirc that ariscs out ol thc narrativcs ultimatcly aims,
as 8lain says, “to dcstroy thc dcstroycr,” (8lain +µµ+: ¸¡6) cithcr physically
or symbolically. Tc mclodramatic aspcct ol thc victimagc rhctoric in thcsc
narrativcs is cxcmplificd in thc claim to absolutc historical victim status and
thc usc ol grcat national tragcdics to support this. Tc national tragcdics arc
incrcdibly complcx idcological configurations, and arc vcry oltcn associatcd
with thc notion ol moral victory.
Tc narrativcs ol suffcring cxcmplily thc amalgamation ol pcrsonal
and collcctivc mcmorics with official national historics. As Kcnny says, pcr
sonal mcmory bccomcs collcctivizcd and collcctivc mcmory is instantiatcd
through autobiographical rccollcction (Kcnny +µµµ: ¡:o), which is lurthcr
rcinlorccd through official discourscs. Hasian (:oo+a) argucs that thc pol
yscmic naturc ol mcmorializing works additivcly, bringing togcthcr both
particular and univcrsal mcmorics. Tus, thc participants mirror to a ccrtain
cxtcnt thc official history, but do not rcproducc it cxactly, rathcr thcy ap
propriatc and cmbcllish it, making it contcmporary and pcrsonal. Accord
ingly, thc victimagc rhctoric ol thcsc narrativcs is not monolithic, but can
bc vicwcd as combining thrcc diffcrcnt lcvcls: thc pcrsonal or lamilial, thc
rcgional or Kosovan, and thc national, i.c. Scrb and Albanian.
Kosovo and Mctohija ++:
!t is important to cxplain hcrc thc significancc ol rcgional collcctivc
mcmorics, bccausc thc vcrnacular narrativcs in this study makc usc ol col
lcctivc mcmorics spccific to Kosovo, which Scrbs and Albanians lrom othcr
rcgions do not ncccssarily know or sharc in. Tc variation is not only duc
to divcrgcnt historical cxpcricnccs, but also bccausc collcctivc mcmorics,
as notablc narrativcs ol who wc arc and who wc wcrc, arc not just about
oursclvcs, but ncccssarily includc thc “Òthcr” (8rownc +µµ¡, 8runcr :oo:).
Tcsc mcmorics arc thus rcgionally diffcrcnt, bccausc thc Òthcr is not ncc
cssarily thc samc lor thc cntirc national group. Tc flow ol history lorms
and rclorms groups and brings thcm into contact with a shilting rangc ol
significant Òthcrs. Tus rcgional, as wcll as othcr, variations arc significant.
!n Kosovo, as \altchinova (:oo:) and Kostovicova (:oo:) suggcst,
thc Albanian national idcntity was, and is, clcarly dclincatcd in opposi
tion to thc Scrbs as thc cthnic Òthcr. Òn thc othcr hand, lor Albanians
living in thc southcrn part ol Albania, thc Òthcrs arc both thc Grccks and
thc northcrn Albanian Ghcgs (Rappcr :oo:). Likcwisc, lor Scrbs living
in 8osnia, thc Òthcrs arc Croats and 8osnian Muslims – 8osniaks, whilc
thc Scrbs living in Kosovo havc constitutcd thcir idcntity in opposition
to thc Albanians. As thcrc is no unitary, national idcntity that is idcntical
and variationlcss across groups (Appadurai +µµµ, 8habha +µµ¡, Ðuijzings
:ooo, Hall +µµ6), so thcrc is no singlc Òthcr. And as idcntifications and
thcir anchoring Òthcrs (Hall +µµ6) arc divcrsc, so arc collcctivc mcmorics.
Tcrclorc, thc narrativcs in this study arc not rcprcscntativc ol Scrb and Al
banian argumcnts in gcncral, but ol thc Kosovo Scrb and Albanian claims.
Fears and desires in competing narrati.es of historical .ictimage
!n thc lollowing cxccrpts participants cxprcss thcir lcar ol thc Òthcr and a
dcsirc lor symbolic or physical annihilation through constructing compct
ing and opposing narrativcs ol historical victimagc. All thc injusticcs and
troublcs, somctimcs rcal and somctimcs imagincd, arc blamcd on thc Òthcr.
Ðuijzings (:ooo) rcmarks that thc Scrbs and Albanians in Kosovo, as othcr
groups in thc lormcr Yugoslavia and clscwhcrc in thc world, cach havc thcir
own cataloguc ol victims, atrocitics, dcstruction and cndurcd injusticcs, al
though not capacity to admit and gricvc lor thc hurts ol othcrs. And Silbcr
and Littlc (+µµ¡: ¸µo–¸µ+) cxplain:
To work in lormcr Yugoslavia is to cntcr a world ol parallcl truths.
Vhcrcvcr you go, you cncountcr thc samc rcsolutc conviction that cvcry
thing that had bclallcn thc rcgion is always somconc clsc’s lault, cxccpt onc’s
own sidc. |…| ¡ach nation has cmbraccd a scparatc orthodoxy in which it
is uniqucly thc victim and ncvcr thc pcrpctrator.
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians ++¸
Tc narrativcs in this study cmbody this rigidity, as thcy arc accounts
ol total and absolutc historical opprcssion. 8ccausc this idcological study
looks at vcrnacular mcmory, it is not conccrncd with dctcrmining thc vcrac
ity ol claims, or rcproducing prcvious work on thc lormcr Yugoslavia. ! will
not try to givc an “objcctivc” historical account lor thc rcadcr, but will allow
lor thc multivocality ol Kosovo Scrb and Albanian voiccs in thc lollowing
analysis.
!n thc first subscction ol this sccond scgmcnt ! prcscnt thc narrativc
ol an Albanian intcrvicwcc and in thc sccond subscction a dialoguc bctwccn
two Scrb spcakcrs. ! havc not includcd thcir namcs, not only lor confidcn
tiality purposcs, but also bccausc thc participants arc spcaking hcrc not only
as individuals, but as mcmbcrs ol thcir rcspcctivc cthnic groups. Tcy arc
thcrclorc idcntificd as such.
!ictimi.ation of the Ælbanians as a historical injustice
!n thc lollowing cxccrpt thc spcakcr summarizcs, using vcry strong lan
guagc, thc main points ol thc gcncral and official Albanian argumcnt ol
ccnturicslong opprcssion (8crisha +µµ¸, 8lumi :oo:, Costa +µµ¡, Frashcri
+µ6¡, Kalcshi +µ¸¸, Krasniqi +µµ6, Logorcci +µ8¡, Maliqi +µµ8, Rcpishti
+µ8¡, Skcndi +µ¡6, +µ6¸). Hc cmphasizcs that thcrc arc two sourccs lrom
which hc draws his claims, and thosc arc pcrsonal cxpcricncc and what hc
calls history. Albanian history lor him is thc officially ratificd vcrsion ol
cvcnts, which connotcs and implics lcgitimacy and authcnticity.
Ælbanian speaker:
Tc Albanians havc always bccn humiliatcd, opprcsscd, victimizcd and dis
criminatcd against. ! mcan cvcryonc has dircct cxpcricncc with that. And
thcn thcrc’s history. Òur history tcachcs us that, too. Tc Scrbs havc always
bccn our cncmics. Tcy arc aggrcssivc, and you can’t trust thcm. Tcy always,
throughout thc ccnturics, thcy always hatcd us. Tcy colonizcd Kosovo, and
thcy opprcsscd us. Tcy havc bccn opprcssing us lor ccnturics. ! know that
lor a lact. ! know it both lrom my cxpcricncc and lrom our history.
!n support ol his claim, thc spcakcr thcn continucs to givc spccific cxamplcs.
Hc rclcrs to thc victimization ol Albanians as common knowlcdgc, whcn hc
says “wc all know, cvcryonc knows.”
Vc know what thc četniks
:
did to us during Vorld Var !!, and bclorc that.
Tcy killcd and burncd and lootcd. Nothing was lclt. And thcn altcr thc war,
:
Tcsc wcrc monarchists who wcrc loyal to thc cxilcd King Pctcr, and who lought
against thc Nazi occupicrs. 8ccausc thc Albanians joincd thc Nazis in Vorld Var !!,
thcsc troops lought against thcm. !t is dcrivcd lrom četa, a tcrm uscd lor thc gucrilla
Kosovo and Mctohija ++¡
wc all know, cvcryonc knows what |Alcksandar| Ranković did. His policy
was to kill as many Albanians as hc could, and morc than that.
Tc sclcctivc mcmorics that hc is invoking arc not vcry dctailcd, and arc
considcrcd to bc tacit knowlcdgc, in no nccd ol lurthcr cxplication. Yct,
thcy arc thc most politically volatilc. Tc namc četniks, cvcn though it is not
ol rcccnt origin, was uscd during thc +µµos Yugoslav wars, both by radi
cal Scrbs to charactcrizc thcmsclvcs in a hcroic light, as thc kccpcrs ol thc
Scrbian nationalist tradition, and by othcr groups to labcl thcir brutal and
primitivc bchavior ( Judah +µµ¸, :ooo). Tcrclorc, whilc lor thc Scrbs, thc
word četnik is positivc, bccausc its rcminds ol Scrbian hcroic opposition to
Nazism, lor othcr cthnic groups in thc lormcr Yugoslavia it is vcry ncgativc,
and has strong connotations ol irrational, aggrcssivc and allcgcdly gcnocidal
bchavior. Similarly, thc Albanian spcakcr mcntions Alcksandar Ranković,
thc hatcd hcad ol UÐ8A (thc sccrct policc), intcrior ministcr (until +µ6¸)
and Tito’s viccprcsidcnt, until +µ66 ( Judah :ooo), accusing him ol con
ducting a campaign ol “cxtcrmination”.
¸
Hc is cast as a Hitlcrlikc figurc,
and hc comcs to cmbody thc Scrb pcoplc and thcir intcntions throughout
thc ccnturics.
Tc spcakcr thcn continucs to maintain that thc Albanians wcrc not
victimizcd only during thc Milošcvić pcriod, and asscrts that Scrbs and Al
banians had ncvcr livcd togcthcr pcacclully and had ncvcr likcd cach othcr.
Hc givcs a bricl disclaimcr though, saying that thcrc wcrc somc individual
cxcmptions, although hc points out that thcy wcrc not vcry common. Such
narrativcs tap into what both Scrb and Albanian official historics say, but
thcy also acknowlcdgc thc polyscmic vcrnacular mcmorics. Most ol thc
participants in thc largcr study, Scrb and Albanian, avow that whilc group
rclations wcrc ncvcr amicablc or pcacclul, thcrc wcrc individual intcractions
that wcrc (Suflay +µµo). Howcvcr, thcy arc carclul to strcss that thcsc arc
cxccptions.
! mcan, so it’s not just thc Milošcvić pcriod. No, no. 8clorc that, long bclorc
that. For a long timc, a vcry long timc. ! mcan, ! think ! can say that thc
units who lought against thc Òttoman ¡mpirc in thc ninctccnth and bcginning ol thc
twcnticth ccntury.
¸
Howcvcr, Ranković imprisoncd pcoplc and conductcd sccrct invcstigations to prc
vcnt ‘countcrrcvolutionarics’ and ‘Albanian irrcdcntists’ lrom opcrating in Yugoslavia,
as Albania at that timc was stricly alligncd with thc Sovict bloc. Ranković’s mcasurcs
wcrc as much dircctcd against and lclt by Scrbs and othcr groups in Yugoslavia, as thc
Albanians. Tc ycars altcr thc war in Yugoslavia wcrc markcd by lrcqucnt and brutal
purgcs within thc Communist Party and its lcadcrship, so that all groups wcrc cqually
thc victims ol a paranoid and dictatorial rcgimc, which aimcd to pacily all its subjccts.
Tc spcakcr’s claim is rcprcscntativc ol thc collcctivc mcmory ol Albanians, who claim
that altcr Tito fircd Ranković thcy startcd gctting thcir lrccdom ( Judah :ooo).
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians ++¡
only goldcn ycars lor thc Albanians in Kosovo wcrc maybc bctwccn ¸¡ and
8o. Maybc. Tat’s whcn thc local Scrbs supposcdly lclt that thc Albanians
got morc rights and morc privilcgcs, but cvcrything clsc, ! mcan pcoplc lccl
and rcmcmbcr only bad things, only bad mcmorics. Tcrc arc somc pcoplc
who talk about lricndships and mixcd marriagcs, but it wasn’t likc in 8osnia,
or othcr rcpublics. Hcrc, no, ! mcan thc distancc was always vcry big, vcry
big, bccausc thcrc was always so much injusticc. Always. For ccnturics thc
Scrbs opprcsscd us as thc colonizcrs, as thc occupicrs ol Kosovo. Tcy cvcn
changcd our namcs and tricd to convcrt us. ! mcan, that’s how it was. Tc
Scrbs wcrcn’t thc opprcsscd raya
,
in thc Turkish cmpirc. Ðon’t bclicvc that.
Ðon’t bclicvc anything thcy say, bccausc Scrbian history is a big lic. Òur
lolk poctry says that thc Scrbs occupicd Kosovo, that thcy wcrc always thc
aggrcssors, thc cvil pcoplc. Kosovo is Albanian land. ! mcan, Albania was
rccognizcd only in +µ+: as an indcpcndcnt statc, but Kosovo always had
a majority Albanian population. Always. And thc Scrbs always opprcsscd
thcm, subjugatcd and cxploitcd thcm. Vc rcmcmbcr cvcrything thc Scrbs
did to us, through thc ccnturics, in this ccntury, in this rcccnt pcriod. ¡v
crything.
Tc spcakcr contcnds, as hc did bclorc, that thc Scrbs always hatcd thc
Albanians. Òn thc othcr hand, hc docs not say that thc Albanians hatcd thc
Scrbs, but simply that thcrc was a vcry big distancc, lor which thc causc was
thc “injusticc” donc to thc Albanians. Hc thcn progrcsscs lurthcr along thc
timclinc, going back ccnturics and rcpcating his main argumcnt about Scr
bian colonizcrs and occupicrs ol Kosovo, which hc dcrivcs lrom Albanian
romantic historic intcrprctation (8crisha +µµ¸, 8lumi :oo:, Costa +µµ¡,
Frashcri +µ6¡, Kalcshi +µ¸¸, Krasniqi +µµ6, Logorcci +µ8¡, Maliqi +µµ8,
Rcpishti +µ8¡, Skcndi +µ¡6, +µ6¸).
Tc spcakcr countcrs thc standard Scrb claim ol victimization by thc
Òttomans and thc Albanians, and accuscs Scrbian history ol bcing “a big
lic.” Tus, hc tclls a polarizing and totalizing victimagc narrativc, without
thc possibility ol cvcn partial truth or validity ol Scrbian claims ol victim
ization. Hc is implicitly disputing not only Scrbian historiography, but gcn
cral historiography about thc Òttomans and thc conditions ol Christians
within hc Òttoman ¡mpirc. Hc allows only lor singular suffcring, whcrcin
hc rclics, as hc says, on national history, lolk poctry, and both collcctivc and
pcrsonal mcmorics.
!nvoking thc Òthcr’s history in ordcr to rclutc it is a stratcgy that
almost all participants in thc largcr study usc. !t is mcant to point out in
consistcncics and lalsitics in thc Òthcr’s history and argumcnt. Participants
thus cngagc thc Òthcr in an imagincd dialoguc, and dircctly disputc thc
¡
Turkish word signilying ordinary pcoplc. Tc reaya wcrc a spccific class in thc Òtto
man ¡mpirc, which was Christian and had to work lor thc wcalthy Muslim landowncrs,
spahis.
Kosovo and Mctohija ++6
opposing vcrsion ol cvcnts. 8akhtin (+µ8+) calls this thc dialogizing ol an
othcr’s discoursc, whcrcin thc spcakcr dialogucs bctwccn his own position
and thc position ol othcrs.
Tc Albanian spcakcr in this cxccrpt invokcs collcctivc mcmory in
thc lorm ol lolk poctry to corroboratc his accusation against Scrbian vic
timagc, and rclcrs to thc mcmory ol thc pcoplc scvcral timcs. Hc portrays
it as thc mcmory ol constant, pcrpctual and ccnturicslong opprcssion, as
wcll as ol thc dcnial, by thc Scrbs, ol thcir tyranny. !t is cxcmplary in bcing
an invcntcd tradition (Hobsbawm & Rangcr +µ8¸), which is part ol thc
cnduring mcmory that ! mcntioncd carlicr.
To providc a solid historical basis lor his asscrtions, thc spcakcr gocs
lurthcr back in timc, to givc thc story ol origin, as it is postulatcd by official
Albanian historiography (8crisha +µµ¸, 8lumi :oo:, Costa +µµ¡, Frashcri
+µ6¡, Kalcshi +µ¸¸, Krasniqi +µµ6, Logorcci +µ8¡, Maliqi +µµ8, Rcpishti
+µ8¡, Skcndi +µ¡6, +µ6¸). Tc myth ol cthnic origin and primordial claims
to tcrritorial posscssion arc vital to all nations and thcir cndcavors, but in
Kosovo thcy arc cspccially rclcvant, contcstcd and cxplosivc, bccausc both
groups claim to bc thc first scttlcrs and thcrclorc thc rightlul owncrs ol
thc land (Mcrtus +µµµ, Ramct :oo:). Tc qucstions “who camc first” and
“who is thc gucst ol whom” figurc quitc promincntly in both official and
vcrnacular discoursc (Roux +µµ:). As Ramct points out, thc Kosovo dcbatc
is much likc thc !sracliPalcstinian issuc: “Two cthnic communitics with
distinct languagcs and rcligious traditions lay claims to thc samc tcrritory
with compcting historical argumcnts as cvidcncc” (Ramct :oo:: +¸¡).
8urkc’s (+µ6¸) notion ol thc mclodramatic is cspccially cxcmplificd
in thc Albanian spcakcr’s claim that thc history ol thc Albanian pcoplc has
bccn onc ol constant strugglc lor lrccdom and libcrty. !n thc ncxt cxccrpt,
hc says “you scc, lrom thc vcry carly history ol our pcoplc, wc havc always
bccn undcr attack.” Tis notion ol bcing attackcd and undcr thrcat cxcmpli
fics thc lcar that motivatcs historical victimagc narrativcs, and is intimatcly
ticd to thc innoccncc ol thc victim who suffcrs unjustly. !t invokcs romantic
martyrdom and noblc sacrificc lor thc nation.
Tc Albanians arc thc oldcst pcoplc in thc 8alkans. Tat’s thc truth. Òur
anccstors arc thc !llyrians, and wc arc oldcr cvcn than thc Grccks. ! mcan,
somc lamous pcoplc, likc Aristotlc, wcrcn’t Grcck at all. Tcy wcrc Albanian.
Tcn thc Romans camc and colonizcd us. Tcn thc Slavs attackcd us and
thcy colonizcd us. You scc, lrom thc vcry carly history ol our pcoplc, wc havc
always bccn undcr attack. All this was oncc ours, thc wholc rcgion. Albania,
Kosovo, parts ol Grcccc, Maccdonia, Montcncgro, and also somc parts ol
8ulgaria. ! mcan, thc wholc 8alkan rcgion was Albanian bclorc all thcsc
othcrs camc and conqucrcd us. Vc havc archcological sitcs to provc it, and
our languagc is living prool. Òur languagc is thc oldcst. !t’s ancicnt. So wc
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians ++¸
havc all thc rights to Kosovo, as !llyrians and as thc majority that has always
bccn opprcsscd.
Tc spcakcr argucs that Albanians havc rights to thc land bccausc
thcy arc thc first to inhabit it, and also bccausc thcy havc bccn thc victims
lor so many ccnturics. Tc Scrbs arc not only cast as ancicnt villains, but arc
also chargcd with ‘stcaling’ Albanian tcrritory. Tcrc is a lot ol rcpctition in
thc spcakcr’s narrativc, “always” is rcpcatcd thirtccn timcs in his narrativc.
!t cmphasizcs thc constancy ol thc victim/villain dichotomy and scrvcs to
firmly cstablish thc vcracity ol thc spcakcr’s claims (\an Ðijk :ooo).
Tc Albanian spcakcr’s narrativc prcscnts an intcrnally cohcrcnt and
pcrsuasivc argumcnt about thc unjust historical victimization ol thc Al
banian pcoplc. !t is constructcd through powcrlul and sclcctivc storics ol
opprcssion, dcrivcd lrom pcrsonal and collcctivc mcmory, and rcinlorccd
through appcaling to official national history. !t is important to notc how
cvcr that whilc official national history providcs lacts and lcgitimacy to thc
pcrsonal and thc collcctivc, thc rclationship is rcflcxivc. Tc spcakcr’s narra
tivc is a tcstimony to thc vcracity ol thc national history and thc dominant
narrativc, and how it figurcs in vcrnacular rhctoric.
“History is repeating itself for the Serbs”
!n this subscction, thc two Scrb dialoguc partncrs, rclatc thcir immcdiatc
(post +µµµ) suffcring to such instanccs in thc past, and claim that histori
cally it has always bccn this way lor Scrbs in Kosovo. Tcy cxpound on thcir
currcnt opprcssion in dctail, but ! havc dccidcd not to includc that part ol
thcir dialoguc hcrc lor thc purposcs ol brcvity, thc cxccrpt choscn spcaks
dircctly about historical victimagc, which is thc locus ol this idcological
study. !n thc largcr study, all Scrb participants invariably lollow thc samc
linc ol argumcntation, dcscribing in dctail thcir prcscnt situation and thcn
linking it to a largcr historical contcxt ol ScrbAlbanian rclations. Tcrcin
thcy comprcss scvcral ccnturics into thc claim that thc Scrbs havc continu
ally bccn opprcsscd, thus clcvating thcir status to ctcrnal victims as opposcd
to thc pcrpctual Albanian aggrcssors. Tc spcakcrs in this dialoguc maintain
that “history is rcpcating itscll ” in tcrms ol thc opprcssoropprcsscd rcla
tionship and thc Scrbs’ contcmporary prcdicamcnt. Tc past is uscd not only
to makc scnsc ol thc prcscnt, but also to rcinlorcc victimization claims.
Serb speaker ::
You know, it has always bccn this way. Undcr thc Turks, thcy |Albanians|
killcd our mcn and rapcd our womcn, thcn thc samc happcncd whcn thc
Gcrmans and !talians camc, in both world wars, and cvcn during Tito, thcrc
wcrc so many incidcnts ol kidnapping, killing, and raping, just likc today. 8ut
Kosovo and Mctohija ++8
cvcrything got covcrcd up, just likc now. You know, thcy always hatcd Scrbs.
Always wantcd just to kill us all.
Tc spcakcr summarizcs thc main points ol thc Scrb argumcnt, which
maintains that thc Albanians havc always bccn thc villains, whilc thc Scrbs
havc always bccn thc victims. Hc rcpcats thc samc claim that thc Albanian
makcs, namcly that ol thc Òthcr always hating thc ingroup. Hc thcn uscs
a pcrsonal, or rathcr lamilial mcmory to back up his claim.
Speaker ::
You know, lor instancc, thcy killcd my grcat grandlathcr whilc hc was work
ing in his ficld. Tc Shiptars
¡
|Albanians| slaughtcrcd him. And thcn, latcr,
you know a Shiptar camc to takc wcapons and lood and moncy lrom my
grandlathcr onc day, but my grandlathcr wouldn’t givc him anything and
hc thrcw him out. 8ut thcn his brothcrs, who kncw what this Shiptar was
capablc ol doing, thcy ran altcr him and gavc him what hc wantcd and
plcadcd with him to sparc my grandlathcr bccausc ol his wilc and childrcn.
Tcy plcadcd with him lor a long timc, and thcy barcly savcd him. 8ut wc
rcmcmbcr all that. Vc know who our grcat grandlathcrs and grandlathcrs
wcrc, what it was likc thcn, what thcy did and how thcy suffcrcd. Vc know
all that.
Tc spcakcr’s choicc ol words, such as “slaughtcrcd,” in contrast to “plcadcd”
paints a vivid imagc ol thc aggrcssor/innoccnt dichotomy. Spcaking about
his grcat grandlathcr and grandlathcr as victims ol Albanian tcrror is likc
wisc most powcrlul bccausc in Kosovo, as in thc rcst ol thc 8alkans and
many othcr arcas around thc world, grandlathcrs arc rcvcrcd cldcrs and pa
triarchs. Tcy arc considcrcd thc cmbodimcnts and containcrs ol national
wisdom, couragc and honor. Tcy arc thc guardians ol thc national spirit
and its mcmorics. Tcrclorc, mctaphorically, by killing cldcrs, such as thc
spcakcr’s grcat grandlathcr and grandlathcr, thc Albanians arc thought to
bc killing thc Scrbian idcntity and collcctivc mcmory. Howcvcr, thc spcak
cr dcmonstratcs how mcmorics arc kcpt alivc, dcspitc such attcmpts, hc
¡
Shiptars is a word that Scrbs usc to rclcr to Albanians. !t is now a pcjorativc tcrm,
dcrivcd lrom thc Albanian namc lor thcmsclvcs Shqiptars. Tis tcrm was widcly uscd
bclorc +µ¸¡, and did not havc ncgativc connotations. Altcr +µ¸¡ though, whcn thc
Scrbs in Kosovo startcd lccling thrcatcncd, thc tcrm acquircd dcrogatory and ncgativc
connotations. Tc Albanians associatc thc tcrm and its usagc with thc risc ol Scrbian
nationalism and subscqucnt violcncc, considcring it a mark ol disrcspcct and dcnigra
tion. Howcvcr, ! intcrvicwcd scvcral Albanians, mostly thosc living in Scrbia propcr,
who did not likc bcing callcd Albanian, but rcqucstcd to bc callcd Shiptars. Ònc in
tcrvicwcc said: “! am not Albanian. Pu, pu, pu |spitting|. No way. Albanians arc lrom
Albania. ! am lrom Kosovo – ! am Shiptar.” Likcwisc, thcrc arc somc Scrbs who do not
usc thc tcrm with ncgativc or dcrogatory intcntions, but usc it out ol habit. As onc Scrb
intcrvicwcc in Kosovo said: “thcy |Albanians| arc Shiptars lor us, and thcy will always
bc Shiptars lor us. Albanians arc in Albania. Shiptars arc ours.”
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians ++µ
says “but wc rcmcmbcr all that,” asscrting that collcctivc mcmory is alivc
and wcll and docs not lorgct such injusticc. Hc is not spccific in what it is
that pcoplc rcmcmbcr, bccausc it is implicd that cvcry Scrb in Kosovo has
similar lamily storics, and sharcs thc samc mcmorics. Tis suggcsts that
thc idcas Scrb spcakcr + cspouscs arc not idiosyncratic, but arc much morc
complcx idcological configurations. His partncr in dialoguc uscs this “cxcm
plary” incidcnt to paint a widcr historical picturc and cmphasizc thc pattcrn
ol victimization. Tc spcakcrs togcthcr construct, what is lor thcm, a strong,
cohcrcnt and logical argumcnt. Tcy amplily and confirm cach othcr’s argu
mcnts.
Serb speaker ::
!n cvcry war thcy wcnt about crcating a Grcatcr Albania. Vhcn thc Turk
camc, thcy acccptcd !slam, so thc Scrbs wcrc thc subjugatcd raya. Undcr
thc .ulum
&
ol thcir mcrccnarics and .ulumćari
¸
Scrbs wcrc lorccd cithcr to
suffcr or to lcavc. Tcn in +µ+: whcn wc took back Kosovo wc acccptcd all
thosc mcrccnarics and .ulumćari, and wc didn’t trcat thcm likc sccondclass
citizcns, but wantcd to hclp thcm, bccausc wc kncw what pain, miscry and
suffcring wcrc likc. 8ut bccausc thcy ncvcr lclt thosc things, thcy ncvcr kncw
torturc and suffcring, thcy didn’t know how to apprcciatc that, just likc to
day thcy don’t know how to apprcciatc cvcrything that Yugoslavia has givcn
thcm. Tcy constantly think that thcy havc to torturc somconc.
Hc argucs that thc Albanians havc always sidcd with thc conqucr
ors, and havc always takcn advantagc ol thcir privilcgcd position to dcstroy
Scrbs and thcir claims to thc land. Òn thc othcr hand, likc thc Albanian
spcakcr bclorc him, and many othcr participants in thc largcr study, hc
docs not mcntion somc ol thc rcciprocity in this proccss, but contcnds that
altcr Kosovo was won back in +µ+: thc Scrbs wcrc mcrcilul toward thc
Albanians, bccausc thcy undcrstood what bcing victimizcd mcans. Tc di
chotomy is bctwccn thc compassionatc Scrbs and thc ruthlcss Albanians,
who “constantly think that thcy havc to torturc somconc.” Tc spcakcr givcs
spccific historical instanccs whcn this was cspccially promincnt lurthcr on.
Speaker ::
Ðuring thc First Vorld Var whcn Scrbia was attackcd by AustroHungar
ians, Gcrmans and 8ulgarians, thcy uscd our wcak statc to kill morc ol us
and chasc us away lrom our homcs. Tc samc (happcncd) during thc Sccond
Vorld Var. Tcy crcatcd Grcatcr Albania, thcy had thcir SS Skandcrbcg
unit, and thcy killcd so many ol us, and cxpcllcd cvcryonc. And thcn thc
6
Tis is a Turkish word, which significs intcnsc, unbridlcd, unrcstraincd violcncc and
brutality, it has similar connotations as today ‘cthnic clcansing’ docs.
¸
Tcsc arc thc mcn that conductcd thc crimcs and pcrsccutions (.ulum).
Kosovo and Mctohija +:o
worst cncmy ol thc Scrbs, Tito, didn’t allow (Scrb) pcoplc to comc back (to
Kosovo).
Tc spcakcr sclcctivcly invokcs mcmorics, including and lcaving out mcmo
rics according to thcir usclulncss in constructing a cohcrcnt and positivc ar
gumcnt about his group. Tis docs not allow lor thc inclusion ol compcting
or divcrgcnt mcmorics, such as thosc that comc lrom thc historiography or
thc collcctivc mcmory ol thc Òthcr. Tc proccss ol glossing ovcr mcmorics
that spcak ncgativcly ol thc ingroup, and supplanting thcm with positivc
oncs, is cxcmplary ol thc proccss, inhcrcnt to crcating historics and collcc
tivc mcmorics, ol sclcctivc rcmcmbcring and lorgctting.
Milošcvić “tappcd into” and raiscd to thc official lcvcl, prcviously rc
prcsscd collcctivc mcmorics ol thc Kosovo Scrbs and thcir latcnt antago
nism and rcscntmcnt toward thc Albanians (Schicrup +µµ+). !n lormcr Yu
goslavia, cspccially undcr Tito’s rulc, vcrnacular mcmorics ol cthnic hatrcd
and strilc wcrc not allowcd to circulatc, bccausc undcr thc official banncr
ol communist Yugoslavia, “brothcrhood and unity” prcvailcd ovcr cthnic
discord (Magaš +µµ¸). Tis did not mcan that vcrnacular mcmorics wcrc
lorgottcn. Ratilying somc mcmorics as official, Milošcvić acquircd a solid
clcctoral support lor claiming powcr. Tis movc on his part is most oltcn
citcd as thc most powcrlul impctus to thc subscqucnt Yugoslav wars (Magaš
+µµ¸).
Ònc ol thc mcmorics that had prcviously bccn rcprcsscd, but has
sincc thc +µµos bccn rccirculatcd and rcncgotiatcd is that ol thc prohibi
tion Tito
8
put on Kosovo Scrbs, who wcrc cxilcd during Vorld Var !!, to
rcturn to thcir land. Tis is an cvcnt that is spccific to Kosovo. Tcrclorc,
whilc many othcr Scrbs might agrcc with thc spcakcr in his charactcriza
tion ol Tito as thc “thc worst cncmy ol thc Scrbs,” thcy might not sharc
thc samc vcrnacular mcmorics that arc thc basis lor this spcakcr claiming
so. Tc Scrbs in Kosovo always rcscntcd Tito lor giving thc Albanians too
much powcr and too many privilcgcs (8ogdanović +µ8¡), so that this rc
gional mcmory ariscs out ol a diffcrcnt cxpcricncc than thc onc othcr Scrbs
in lormcr Yugoslavia havc.
Howcvcr, thc Scrbian spcakcrs also cvokc thc official historical vcr
sion ol Vorld Var !!, onc that has bccn lcgitimizcd by thc rcst ol thc world,
by rcmcmbcring thc Albanian!talianGcrman alliancc, and thc atrocitics
thc Albanians committcd as Nazi fightcrs. Tc Albanians arc thus placcd on
par with thc Nazis, which is thc most vivid and powcrlul imagc ol a villain.
Tis is a common and rhctorically cffcctivc stratcgy lor crcating authorita
8
Tito, a lilctimc communist dictator ol Yugoslavia was thc sccrctary gcncral ol thc
Communist party and thc prcsidcnt ol Yugoslav lcdcration (in all its various lorms)
lrom +µ¡¡ until his dcath in +µ8o.
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians +:+
tivc victimagc narrativcs, not only in thc discoursc ol Scrbs and Albanians
in Kosovo, but many othcrs around thc world.
Tus, Holocaust imagcry figurcs promincntly in thc vcrnacular dis
coursc ol both Scrbs and Albanians. Vc havc sccn how thc Albanian com
parcs Tito’s sccond in command A. Ranković to Hitlcr, and portrays sccncs
ol cthnic clcansing and gcnocidc. Likcwisc, thc Scrbs usc thc samc tactic,
bccausc it is onc ol thc most cffcctivc ways ol immcdiatcly dclincating bc
twccn thc victims and thc villains. 8uilding on thc momcntum, thc first
spcakcr immcdiatcly rcinlorccs this imagc ol thc suffcring Scrb nation. Hc
cxcmplifics 8urkc’s (+µ6¸) mclodramatic aspcct ol victimagc, by using thc
word stradalnici, which translatcs litcrally as “univcrsal historical suffcrcrs.”
!t connotcs suffcring ol historic and hcroic proportions, and is only uscd in
an cpic contcxt. Tc word mcrgcs martyrdom with innoccncc and injusticc
in historically transccndcnt suffcring. Spcakcr +:
!n cach war, and wc’vc had too many ol thcm, wc wcrc thc grcatcst stradalni
ci and thc most ardcnt fightcrs lor lrccdom. !n cvcry war thc Scrbs suffcrcd
thc most. !n Vorld Var !!, cvcry third Scrb was killcd. Houscs, lamilics
dcstroycd, thc intclligcntsia murdcrcd, thc raya was lclt only to work. Scrbia
is small, but shc has givcn thc most livcs and victims lor thc lrccdom ol Yu
goslavia, and thc rcst ol thc world. ! don’t know ol anothcr nation that has
suffcrcd so much and lorgivcn so much. Altcr +¸8µ and thc Kosovo 8attlc,
thc Scrbs havc continually bccn suffcring, lorccd to abandon thcir cthnic
spacc, whcrc thc first royal throncs wcrc, at Prizrcn and Novo 8rdo, whcrc
thcir spiritual and cultural hcart startcd bcating. ! mcan, sincc that battlc, wc
havc just bccn going downhill.
Tc mclodramatic is lurthcr strcngthcncd through thc spcakcrs “poctic”
words about Kosovo and thc ancicnt royal throncs ol Scrbian kings, as thc
placcs whcrc thc Scrbian “spiritual and cultural hcart startcd bcating.” Tc
spcakcr rclcrs to thc pivotal clcmcnt ol Scrbian victimagc, mcmorializcd
through Scrbian historiography, cpic poctry, and national collcctivc mcm
ory – thc lamous 8attlc ol Kosovo (+¸8µ). Tis battlc is cngravcd into thc
“conscicncc collcctivc” ol thc Scrbian pcoplc, likc thc Jcwish Masada, and
is considcrcd a “turning point” (Zcrubavcl +µµ¡), bccausc fivc ccnturics ol
subjugation undcr Òttoman rulc lollow it (Òstrogorsky +µµ+). Tc battlc is
thc loundational national claim, and its political, symbolic and cmotional
significancc has bccn analyzcd or at thc vcry lcast mcntioncd in, to my
knowlcdgc, almost cvcry work that has bccn writtcn about thc Scrbs (8oosc
:oo:, ¡mmcrt +µ8+, +µµµ, Zirojcvić :ooo).
For rcasons ol spacc ! will not go into dctail about this battlc, but
it is important to notc that it cmbodics and symbolizcs thc Scrbian spirit
ol fighting lor Christianity against thc “Turkish infidcls”, dying lor lrcc
dom and spilling thcir blood lor thcir sacrcd land (¡mmcrt, +µ8+, +µµ+,
Kosovo and Mctohija +::
Zirojcvić, :ooo). Tcrclorc, thc appcal to this battlc not only uscs official
Scrbian historiography, but it calls on thc vast rcpository ol national collcc
tivc mcmory to crcatc thc contrast bctwccn thc hcroic Scrbs and thcir sad
history, with that ol thc Albanians, who “ncvcr stood up to anyonc.” Tc
disparity hcrc is not simply bctwccn thc victim and thc villain, but bctwccn
a pcoplc who fight lor thcir lrccdom and principlcs, and a pcoplc who don’t
havc morals and who prclcr thc casy way out, as Scrb spcakcr + claboratcs
lurthcr.
Speaker ::
!n cach war thcy ncvcr stood up to anyonc. Tcy always sidcd with thc stron
gcst and most ruthlcss – thc Turks, !talians, Nazis. History is thc samc, only
thc victor changcs. Vhcn thc Turks rulcd, thcy wcrc with thc Turks, thcn
thc AustroHungarians, thc !talians, thc Gcrmans, now thc Amcricans, and
whcn thcy lcavc, thcy’ll find somconc clsc.
Speaker ::
No changc whatsocvcr – cvcrything that was happcning thcn, is happcning
now. ¡vcrything that was bclorc is going on today. Tat is rcally a quagmirc.
! oltcn rcad a lcttcr that Fathcr Sava |Ðcčanac| scnt to thc 8crlin Congrcss
in +8¸8. Tc samc thing is happcning today. Tc things that wcrc going on
thcn … Fathcr Sava was thc official rcprcscntativc ol thc Scrbian pcoplc in
Kosovo, and hc wrotc a lcttcr to thc ambassadors ol thc Grcat Powcrs at thc
8crlin Congrcss. Tcn, and now, thcrc is no diffcrcncc lor us Scrbs – wc arc
bcing killcd, kidnappcd, molcstcd, our churchcs and monastcrics dcstroycd,
thcrc is no lilc hcrc, as thcrc was nonc thcn.
Tc spcakcrs hcrc rclcr to, and citc as prool ol opprcssion, thc lct
tcr to thc Congrcss ol 8crlin (+8¸8), which is anothcr vcrnacular mcmory
spccific to Kosovo. Tc +8¸8 Kosovo Scrb pctition has bccn rcprintcd and
! havc sccn it circulatcd through and rcad in thc rcmaining Scrb houscs in
Kosovo.
Speaker ::
Vhcn you rcad that lcttcr thcn you rcally undcrstand that cvcrything is thc
samc, thc powcrs at play, thc cvcnts, cvcrything is thc samc. Somc ol thc
actors havc changcd, but thc stagc is thc samc, and thc plot is thc samc. ¡v
crything is thc samc. ¡vcn though Kosovo is ours, wc havc to suffcr.
Tc dominant notion that history is rcpcating itscll is most clcarly cxprcsscd
by Scrb spcakcr +, who says “history is hc samc, only thc victor changcs,”
and thcn latcr, “somc ol thc actors havc changcd, but thc stagc is thc samc,
and thc plot is thc samc.”
Tc vcrnacular discourscs in this scction illustratc how thc rhctoric ol
victimagc as mclodramatic is accomplishcd by intcgrating pcrsonal and col
lcctivc mcmorics with officially ratificd history, whcrcin cach is invokcd and
uscd in support ol thc othcr. Tcrc is truc intcrdcpcndcncc ol thcsc parts,
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians +:¸
and thc boundarics bctwccn thcm arc not clcarcut, but ovcrlap and intcr
mix, in crcating lor thcsc participants cohcrcnt, wcllsupportcd and rational
argumcnts about thc historical victimagc ol thcir rcspcctivc group.
Vhilc thc prcccding analysis has bccn mostly dcscriptivc in illustrat
ing how victimagc narrativcs arc constructcd through vcrnacular discoursc,
thc ncxt scgmcnt dcals with thc significancc and thc lunctions ol claiming
historical victimagc lor thc Scrbs and Albanians in Kosovo.
First function of historical .ictimage: Making sense of the present
As Zclizcr says “thc past compcls us lor what it tclls us about thc prcscnt”
(Zclizcr :oo:: 6µ¸). Tc participants construct symbolically thcir victim
idcntity through using thc past to makc scnsc ol thcir contcmporary situ
ation. Tcy situatc thcir pcrsonal and collcctivc trauma within a broadcr
contcxt, and do not scc it as novcl, but as a rcpctition and continuancc ol
thc pattcrn ol thc nation’s victimization. Tcy also do not scc thc conflict
as ncw, but vicw it as thc pcrpctuation ol “agcold hatrcds,” and thcrclorc
intractablc. Tc Òthcr thcn bccomcs thc pcrpctual villain and pcrpctra
tor, mircd as thc “ancicnt cncmy.” Tc participants not only rclatc to thc
ccnturicslong national suffcring at thc hand ol various Òthcrs, but locatc
thcmsclvcs within it, as witncsscs and participants. Tcy scck mcaning and
confirmation to thcir prcscnt victimization in historical victimagc, and thcir
pcrsonal and vcrnacular tcstimony providcs anothcr building block in thc
construction ol thc historical victim idcntity. Tis rhctoric is powcrlul, bc
causc it hclps confirm scllpcrccptions and idcntity, but it also lcgitimizcs
national historiography. Sincc thc national historics ol thc Scrbs and Alba
nians arc incompatiblc and conflictcd, this lcads to thc sccond lunction ol
historical victimagc.
Second function of historical .ictimage: Denying the Other
As thc abovc narrativcs illustratc, historics and mcmorics ol thc Scrbs and
Albanians in Kosovo arc in complctc contrast and opposition to cach othcr.
Tus, claiming that onc’s vcrsion ol cvcnts is truthlul inhcrcntly implics that
thc Òthcr’s is not. Tc Albanian spcakcr dircctly asscrts this, whcn hc says
“don’t bclicvc anything thcy say, bccausc Scrbian history is a big lic,” but
cvcn without such opcn statcmcnts, this scntimcnt is implicd throughout
thc narrativcs. 8ccausc history is vital to thc cxistcncc ol a nation or a com
munity disputing thc Òthcr’s history mcans dcnying thc vcry idcntity ol
thc Òthcr. Tcrclorc, as participants strivc to validatc thcir historical victim
status, and simultancously and inhcrcntly thc Òthcr’s pcrpctual villain sta
Kosovo and Mctohija +:¡
tus, thcy arc also struggling ovcr thc lcgitimacy ol idcntity, mcmorics, and
cvcn thcir vcry nation.
Tc NATÒ bombing campaign and UN govcrnancc ol Kosovo,
which gavc dc facto indcpcndcncc to thc Kosovo Albanians (Chomsky
:ooo), scriously challcngcd thc Scrb nation and its pcrccption ol bcing thc
historical victim, whilc ratilying thc Albanian claims to this status. How
cvcr, in thc Scrbian casc, bccausc NATÒ was cast as thc villain ( Janscn
:ooo), and bccausc thc KFÒR troops did not protcct thc Scrbian popula
tion lrom Albanian violcncc altcr thc intcrvcntion ( Judah :ooo), it also si
multancously confirmcd and rcinlorccd thc victimagc mastcr narrativc (Gcc
+µµ6, Hackctt & Zhao +µµ¡). !n thc Albanian casc, NATÒ’s cndorscmcnt
ol thcir historical victimagc providcd a basis lor justilying violcncc against
thc Scrbs (Fcldman :oo¸), which is thc third lunction cxamincd in this
idcological study.
Tird function of historical .ictimage: Justifying .iolence
Unlortunatcly, thc rhctoric ol victimagc is uscd not only to satisly thc moral
dcmands ol a community, but is instrumcntal in justilying opprcssion, dis
crimination and violcncc against thc Òthcr. Sincc rcvcngc is thc privilcgc ol
thc victim, this bccomcs thc most prizcd, and yct most dangcrous idcntity
to lay claims to. Mcrtus cxplains that this is bccausc “oncc wc scc oursclvcs
as victims, wc can clcarly idcntily an cncmy. Stccpcd in our own victimhood,
wc no longcr lccl bound by moral considcrations in bccoming pcrpctrators”
(Mcrtus +µµµ: +). !n Kosovo, “both sidcs now lccl likc victims, both sidcs
now lccl cntitlcd to takc somc libcrty in “taking back” what is rightlully
thcirs” (Mcrtus +µµµ, p. ¸). Sibcr similarly argucs that “thc sclcctivc intcr
prctations ol history and cxpcricncc, always providcs abundant “rcasons”
lor rationalizing onc’s own bchavior, and prool ol guilt can always bc lound
in history, il onc looks hard cnough” (Sibcr +µµ¸: +o6). Tis dynamic lcads
not only to thc inability to cmpathizc with thc Òthcr, but to thc lurthcr
intractability ol thc conflict, through thc pcrpctuation ol a vicious cyclc ol
violcncc (Pick +µµ¸).
Tc rclativcly lrcqucnt powcr shilts in thc rcgion providc thc op
portunity lor thc victim to takc “rcvcngc” on thc villain. !n thc coursc ol
thc protractcd conflict in Kosovo, thc cthnic minority oltcn bccomcs thc
majority, and vicc vcrsa, duc to changcs in statc bordcrs, political systcms
and dcmographic lactors. !n such circumstanccs thc ncw majority always
sccks to “cvcn thc scorc” lor thc discrimination to which its group had bccn
prcviously subjcctcd (Goati +µµ¸). Tis idcological position is an anchor
lor both groups’ idcntitics and is usclul in pursuing particular political goals
H. Zdravković, Historical \ictimagc ol Kosovo Scrbs and Albanians +:¡
and claims. !t is cspccially lunctional in justilying acts ol violcncc by thc in
group as warrantcd rctribution.
!n my largcr samplc, whcn Scrb participants arc rcmindcd ol thc
policics ol Slobodan Milošcvić, thcy rcspond by rccalling thc ccnturics ol
Scrbian plight undcr Muslim Albanian tcrror and thcir dominancc during
thc communist rulc. Similarly, whcn conlrontcd with thc violcnt crimcs
pcrpctratcd by thc Kosovo Libcration Army (KLA) against Scrbs, and oth
cr minoritics, as wcll thcir cultural and rcligious hcritagc (!sracl :oo¡, Judah
:ooo), thc Albanians invokc thcir suffcring in thc +µµos, undcr Milošcvić’s
rulc, and thc longstanding opprcssion suffcrcd at thc hands ol thc Scrbs.
Unlortunatcly, thcsc tragic kinds ol cxclusionary victimagc narrativcs
arc not only uscd to justily, but also to motivatc and provokc violcnt action.
Tis is not spccific only to thc 8alkans, but is visiblc and problcmatic in
othcr conflicts around thc world. Tcy arc part ol thc rcason why thousands
ol pcoplc dic and thcir dcaths arc justificd as rcvcngc. Howcvcr, it is impor
tant to notc that participation and justification arc not idcntical, and that
justification docs not ncccssarily lcad to involvcmcnt. ¡vcn though thcrc
is a thin linc, as Fcldman (:oo¸) contcnds, bctwccn violcncc and inaction,
spcctatorship and partaking, sharing in thc vcrnacular rhctoric ol historical
victimagc, and rcproducing it through cvcryday discoursc, docs not guaran
tcc that pcoplc will bc propcllcd to action, as scvcral authors writing about
Kosovo and thc lormcr Yugoslavia havc suggcstcd (Anzulovic +µµµ, Kaplan
+µµ¸).
Concluding remarks
Tis idcological study has attcmptcd to problcmatizc cxplanations that
posit singular, prclcrcntial, and “objcctivc” victimagc in rclation to conflict
intcrvcntion and rcsolution. !t has qucstioncd thc intcrrclationship bctwccn
claiming historical victimagc and using national historics, pcrsonal and col
lcctivc mcmorics to substantiatc it.
First, it has argucd that looking at history as objcctivc in contrast to
collcctivc mcmory as distortcd and mythical, lcads to sclcctivc sanctioning
ol victimagc narrativcs and rigid dcfinitions ol victims and villains, which
lcads to incffcctivc conflict intcrvcntion and rcsolution, hclping to pcrpctu
atc violcncc.
Sccond, looking at vcrnacular discourscs ol Kosovo Scrbs and Alba
nians this idcological study illustratcd how historical victimagc is crcatcd
and rcproduccd in cvcryday mclodramatic “commcmoration rituals” (8urkc
+µ6¸). Tc analysis dcmonstratcd how official historiographics amalgamatc
with pcrsonal and collcctivc mcmorics, both rcgional and national, to pro
ducc cohcrcnt and rational victimagc narrativcs lor thc spcakcrs.
Kosovo and Mctohija +:6
Tird, it has bccn pointcd out that thc historical victim status is dc
sirablc bccausc it affords cmotional, symbolic and political rcsourccs, whilc
bcing thc villain implics guilt and punishmcnt. Narrativcs ol historical vic
timagc invokc thc past to makc scnsc ol thc prcscnt, scrvc to crcatc harsh
dichotomics ol opprcssor/opprcsscd, through which thc Òthcr is dclcgiti
mizcd and bccomcs thc targct ol violcncc, justificd as rcvcngc.
!ntractablc conflict and thc inhcrcntly hostilc rclationship toward thc Òthcr,
bccomc cmbcddcd in cvcryday lilc through vcrnacular narrativcs ol histori
cal victimagc. Multigcncrational trauma is translatcd into a victim idcntity,
which is givcn historical proportions. Tc conflict bccomcs mircd in fixcd
binary oppositions ol victim vcrsus villain. !t is conccptualizcd and undcr
stood as a continuous strugglc ol thc innoccnt suffcrcrs against thc tyranny
ol thc Òthcr. Such rationalizations sustain and pcrpctuatc conflict, making
it cvcn morc intractablc and impcrvious to rcsolution, not only is thcrc no
room lor cmpathy and implicaturc, but thcrc is no room lor divcrgcnt voiccs
and inclusivc discourscs ol victimagc.
!nstcad ol looking solcly at thc surlacc – that is thc official and clitc
rhctoric – cxamining thc dccp and undcrlying structurcs ol vcrnacular dis
courscs uncovcrs thc intcrplay ol multiplc mcmorics and rhctorical stratc
gics in cstablishing thc Òthcr as thc sourcc ol all tragcdics. Lack ol critical
attcntion to thc complcxitics ol historical victimagc rhctoric lcads to claims
ol primordial hatrcd and antagonism, and lails to undcrstand how thcsc cx
trcmc cmotions arisc out ol thc vcrnacular discoursc ol thc groups involvcd.
Tis idcological study shows that thc conflict in Kosovo is not propcllcd by
such primordial instincts, but that hatrcd and violcncc arc constructcd as
lcgitimatc rcsponscs to ccnturics ol opprcssion. 8y uncovcring thc complcx
rhctoric ol historical victimagc in Kosovo it aims to makc a modcst contri
bution to thc undcrstanding ol intractablc conflict dynamics, which rcvolvc
around historical victimagc. Tc implications ol this study can bc applicd in
othcr conflicts, such as 8osnia, thc Middlc ¡ast, Northcrn !rcland, Spain,
Chcchnya, Cyprus, ¡ast Alrica, ¡ast Timor, Turkcy, !raq, and various oth
crs. Tc goal is to movc us away lrom simplistic rationalizations, rcmcdics
and pcrpctual cyclcs ol violcncc in thcsc arcas.
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\alcntina Pitulić
Folklore in the Serb Enclave
PFESEF!ING IDENTITY IN HOSTILE EN!IFONMENT
Hugc social and cconomic uphcavals in thc 8alkans throughout thc agcs
havc shapcd thc mcntality ol thc Scrbs in Kosovo and Mctohija. A con
tinual strugglc lor survival undcr long ccnturics ol dccaying Òttoman rulc,
Fascist !talian and Nazi Gcrman occupation, and thc prcscrvation ol both
lilc and idcntity, is cncodcd in thc individual and collcctivc unconscious as
an archaic lcgacy. Tcsc lorms ol collcctivc consciousncss arc cxprcsscd by
way ol cstablishcd lorms ol lormulaic narration, through lolklorc. Tcrc wc
find thc archctypc as a rcflcction ol thc unconscious manilcstation ol thc
human psychc.
+
As changcs in thc idcntity ol a pcoplc dcpcnd on cxtcrnal and intcr
nal lactors, thcrc is also a ccrtain adjustmcnt to thc givcn circumstanccs. !n
arcas oncc undcr lorcign control thc patriarchal way ol lilc was prcscrvcd.
!n such an atmosphcrc, ol nurturing stoicism and conlronting cvil, ccrtain
archctypal modcls ol bchaviour camc to prcdominatc whcrc pridc ol placc
is hcld by thc archctypal hcro.
!t is thc task to show that a scrics ol archctypcs is a main constitucnt
ol mythology, that thcy stand in an organic rclation to onc anothcr,
and that thcir stadial succcssion dctcrmincs thc cvolution ol con
sciousncss. !n thc coursc ol its ontogcnctic dcvclopmcnt, thc indi
vidual cgo consciousncss has to pass through thc samc archctypal
stagcs which dctcrmincd thc cvolution ol consciousncss in thc lilc ol
humanity. Tc individual has in his own lilc to lollow thc road that
humanity has trod bclorc him, lcaving traccs ol its journcy in thc
archctypal scqucncc ol thc mythological imagcs wc arc now about to
cxaminc. (Ncumann +µµ¡: ¸)
Following cthnopsychological rcscarch (notably 8. Jovanović +µµ+: +o, ac
cording to whom thc clcmcnts that bccomc most important in pcriods ol
crisis arc spiritual culturc, mythology, rcligion, ritual practicc and lolklorc),
+
A rcviscd vcrsion ol Pitulić :oo¡.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸:
wc shall attcmpt to cstablish a corrclation bctwccn thc traditional hcritagc
ol Scrbs in Kosovo and Mctohija and thc currcnt situation arising altcr
thc scvcrc NATÒ bombing ol +µµµ. Tc qucstion is how thc pcoplc lrom
this tcrritory acccpt thc ncw situation and how it prcscrvcs thc anccstral
hcritagc.
As our intcrcst is in oral litcraturc, wc shall bcgin with a short rcvicw
ol what has bccn prcscrvcd in thc lolklorc writings ol Kosovo and Mctohija.
Prior to \uk |Stclanović| Karadžić who in thc carly ninctccnth ccntury
collcctcd Scrb cpic poctry lrom prcvious ccnturics ol Òttoman domination
thcrc arc no rcliablc rccords. Ònly lrom thc writtcn rccords ol thc last hun
drcd ycars can wc gain a bcttcr idca ol thc lolklorc ol thc rcgion. Tc 8attlc
ol Kosovo (+¸8µ) and its altcrmath must first havc madc strong impact on
thc Christian Òrthodox Scrb population ol Kosovo and Mctohija. Vith
thc lall ol Novo 8rdo and Prizrcn to thc Òttomans in thc midfiltccnth
ccntury (+¡¡¡) a ncw pcriod markcd by ccnturicslong Òttoman domina
tion bcgan lor Scrbia as a wholc and lor hcr mincralrich southcrn rcgion
ol Kosovo. Scrb cpic songs that cmcrgcd lrom thc Òttoman pcriod, “an
oral history” ol antiÒttoman strugglcs, rclcrrcd dircctly to historical cvcnts
markcd by cpic hcroism, whilc its lyric — cspccially ritual singing — has
bccn prcscrvcd up to our days almost intact.
!n thcsc conditions in thc sccond hall ol thc ninctccnth ccntury thc
Scrb lolk song in Kosovo and Mctohija lulfillcd its lunction without
losing any ol its lrcshncss. National propaganda lrom Scrbia not
only did not prcvcnt thc prcscrvation and nurturing ol thcsc lorms
ol poctry, but on thc contrary lostcrcd to cultivatc lolk songs and thc
oral tradition as strongly as possiblc. Tc lolk song in Kosovo and
Mctohija in thc sccond hall ol thc ninctccnth ccntury was cnlivcncd
by many ncw thcmcs, whcthcr singing ol thc ncw situation, dcscrib
ing important cvcnts taking placc locally, or taking idcas and mo
tils lrom thc grcat numbcr ol song books and publications ol lolk
songs printcd at thc timc. Tc hcroic song cspccially gaincd in ncw
contcnt. Tc ncw culturc ol rising class ol bourgcoisic was slow to
pcnctratc thc patriarchal Scrb cnvironmcnt in Kosovo and Mctohija,
cvcn in thc towns. Tc lyric lolk song continucd to livc on within
thc ancicnt pagan rituals and customs, in various cclcbrations ol
daily lilc: during work, in thc lamily and .adrugas |cxtcndcd lamilics
consisting ol thirty to cighty mcmbcrs on avcragc|, among young
pcoplc. Ncw songs lrom Scrbia and othcr placcs wcrc also acccptcd,
cvcn thosc ol thc cmcrging bourgcois class, but thcir influcncc was
still rathcr limitcd. Tc patriarchal Scrb cnvironmcnt in Kosovo and
Mctohija was not yct prcparcd to cmbracc ncw lorms at thc cxpcnsc
ol its own lolk culturc and art. Tc sccond part ol thc ninctccnth
and carly twcnticth ccntury rcprcscnt a pcriod whcn it bccamc casy
to lollow thc lilc ol thc Scrbian lolk song, both lyric and cpic, with
thcir individual catcgorics. (8ovan +µ¸¸: +6)
\. Pitulić, Folklorc in thc Scrb ¡nclavc +¸¸
!n lyric and cpic lolk songs ol thc Scrbs lrom Kosovo and Mctohija wc
can casily rccognizc thc important symbols

which rcflcct both thc csscntial
national and cultural idcntity ol thc Scrbs.
:
Ritual songs cvincc a prcdomi
nation ol agrarian symbols. Tc lrcqucnt appcarancc ol plants indicatcs a
dccp conncction to naturc and thc nccd to cstablish a bond with thc cosmic
rhythm. Ccrtain symbols indicatc antiquity, cspccially thc solar charactcr,
thc domination ol light and man’s nccd lor it (thc sun going down, with
that whitc whcat, to carry whitc churchcs, what shows whitc down thcrc,
thcy suppcd on a purc whitc pogača |round brcad|, makc mc a hcro ol gold,
a goldcn applc flcw down, Ðcbcljković +µ8¡).
:
For morc, scc Serbian Dictionary of Mythology.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸¡
Many rcscarchcrs who havc comc in pcrsonal contact with Scrbs
lrom Kosovo and Mctohija havc writtcn ol thc strong cmotion containcd
in thcir lolksongs. Tis rcgion has bccn thc sccnc ol grcat conflicts and
clashcs ol civilisations, bcginning with thc 8attlc ol Kosovo and continuing
up to impcrial wars, national and modcrn idcological conflicts combincd
with growing intcrcthnic conlrontations until thc prcscnt day, causing thc
obscrvcr to wondcr whcthcr thc lolklorc had any kind ol influcncc on thc
prcscrvation ol thc idcntity ol Scrbian nation. For modcrn cthnopsychol
ogy, opcn “to a ncw cognitivc approach to thc national mcntality and psy
chological aspccts ol traditional culturc”,
¸
this is an opportunity to rcscarch
thc influcncc ol lolk crcativity on thc prcscrvation ol idcntity in thc difficult
contcxt ol prolongcd pcriods ol cthnic strilc and lailcd cfforts ol rcconcili
ation, and, on top ol it, thc tcrriblc Scrbian suffcring in post+µµµ Kosovo
and Mctohija, which, unlikc thc hugc and oltcn cxaggcratcd covcragc ol thc
prcvious Kosovo Albanian suffcrings, rcmaincd totally obscurcd to thc in
flucntial world mcdia: as il thc Scrbs wcrc not a distinct nation with a strong
national idcntity, crcators ol a splcndid mcdicval culturc with churchcs that
arc on thc world hcritagc list, and makcrs ol modcrn and contcmporary
Scrbian culturc. Tcir cultural hcritagc on Kosovo and Mctohija compriscs
+,¸oo churchcs and monastcrics, at lcast onc third ol thcm ol a mcdicval
datc. Tcy wcrc and still arc not only a vital clcmcnt ol thc national idcntity
ol Kosovo Scrbs, but arc a constitucnt clcmcnt ol thc idcntity ol thc wholc
Scrbian nation.
Following thc NATÒ bombing, thcrc was a mass migratory wavc
ol Scrbs lrom Kosovo and Mctohija: within thc contcxt ol lcar causcd by
thc rctribution and discrimination by thc Kosovo Albanians rcturning lrom
thcir tcmporary cxilc in ncighbouring countrics altcr thc +µµµ war was ovcr.
Amidst thc gcncral chaos, thc incvitablc qucstion was thc vcry survival ol
thc rcmaining Scrbs. !n Junc +µµµ somc +¸o,ooo wcrc in scvcral isolatcd
cnclavcs with ghcttolikc living conditions, surviving only duc to continu
ous humanitarian and logistic support lrom 8clgradc, and occasional pro
tcction ol KFÒR lorccs in thc most cndangcrcd arcas: in Mctohija, cthni
cally clcanscd ol Scrbs within wccks (Pcć, !stok, Ðcčani, Ðjakovica, Priz
rcn), and, clcanscd at a slowcr pacc, in ccntral (Òbilić) and castcrn Kosovo
(Gnjilanc, \itina, \rbovac, Partcš, Klokot).
Tc Scrb community that accountcd lor approximatcly :o to :: pcr
ccnt ol thc ovcrall population ol Kosovo and Mctohija until +µµµ (making
with Montcngrins, Muslim Slavs Goranics and Roma at lcast ¸o pcrccnt ol
thc ovcrall Kosovo Provincc population), was lacing difficult choiccs.
¸
Ethnopsychology Today, +¡.
\. Pitulić, Folklorc in thc Scrb ¡nclavc +¸¡
Tis grcat cxodus lrom thc cradlc ol thc nation rcsultcd in thc migra
tion ol not only thc Scrb population but also ol an cntirc languagc corpus,
or rathcr dialcct, and with it also a grcat part ol thc lolklorc.!n thc collcctivc
consciousncss ol thc pcoplc who rcmaincd in thcir ancicnt homcs thcrc
has bccn a rcvival ol thc opposition modcls up/down, thcrc/hcrc, good/cvil,
us/thcm, tradition/globalization. Finding thcmsclvcs caught bctwccn thc
lully armcd Kosovo Albanians committcd to achicvc an indcpcndcnt statc
through post+µµµ cthnic clcansing, and UN administration (UNM!K) still
unablc to providc basic protcction, lacing collcctivc rcvcngc ol thc armcd
Kosovo Albanian cxtrcmists, thc disarmcd or unarmcd Scrb civilians havc
bccomc conluscd and lcarlul ol an unknown luturc thrcatcning not only
thcir vital intcrcsts, but thcir idcntity and thcir vcry survival in thc hostilc
cnvironmcnt.
Vhat do wc scc today on thc laccs ol our |Scrb| compatriots, what
do thcy muttcr to cach othcr, what do thcy strain to hcar, what is
happcning to thcm. Ðo wc not hcar that thcy talk ol trcason, ol pos
siblc pcrsccutions, somc lcar rctribution, othcrs again arc dcprcsscd,
and thc third arc lrantically cclcbrating. Tcrc is lrcqucnt talk ol
divisions, diffcrcntiation, a lcar ol bloodshcd, othcr pcoplc’s actions
‘rcck ol inhumanity’, somc arc prcparcd to sacrificc thcmsclvcs, and
othcrs to makc sacrificcs. \cry oltcn thc impcrativc ol dccision is
imposcd, lrom within and by oursclvcs and lrom without by othcrs.
Howcvcr, isn’t all this alrcady lamiliar lrom somcwhcrc, do wc not
spcak, do wc not livc, do wc not lccl, do wc not lcar, do wc not suffcr
somconc clsc’s words, livcs, lcclings, lcars and wounds: How much
arc thcsc psychological statcs ours, and how much thosc ol othcrs:
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸6
!t is probablc that thcy arc both. Tcsc arc all our pcrsonal prob
lcms, but at thc samc timc thcy arc suprapcrsonal, collcctivc. Tis is
thcrclorc an archctypal contcnt cmbodicd in our idcas, symptoms,
vicws, lcclings. As thcy arc not cxclusivcly our own but archctypal,
wc must takc oursclvcs back, as pcrsonalitics and thc psychologi
cal matcrial ol which wc arc madc, to our archctypal loundations.
Archctypal psychology bclicvcs that thc basic idcas, lcclings and
suffcrings ol thc soul arc pcrsonificd in thc hcropcrsonality, thc
Mothcr, Fairy, Child, Visc Man, Traitor, Fathcr, Scapcgoat, Young
8oy and many othcrs, numcrous and individual prototypcs who arc
thc protagonists ol talcs ol gods and hcrocs. Tcsc charactcrs lorm
thc roots ol mctaphor, thcy pcrmcatc thc pattcrns and loundations
ol our thought, but also ol our lcclings, illncsscs, pcrccptions and
mcmorics. (Popović +µµ+: ¡8)
As thc dcmographic chart ol Kosovo and Mctohija (altcr thc cxpulsion ol
morc than 6o pcrccnt ol thc ovcrall Scrbian population ol thc Provincc)
has complctcly changcd, thc discriminatcd Scrb population, laccd thc most
difficult problcm: how to organisc a normal lilc with minimal scmblancc
ol dignity. Changing placc namcs lrom Scrb to Albanian onc, lollowcd by
thc lorccd changc ol cthnic composition ol many prcviously Scrb scttlc
mcnts (altcr thc cxpulsion ol Scrb population, thc abandoncd villagcs and
urban ccntrcs wcrc gradually rcscttlcd by Albanians), thc constant prcssurc
by Albanian cxtrcmist to bc cxpcllcd lrom Kosovo and Mctohija as wcll as
thc most dangcrous situation: both thc abscncc ol rulc ol law and abscncc
ol lrccdom ol movcmcnt havc drivcn thc Scrb population to conccntratc in
villagcs in ordcr to rcorganisc thcir shattcrcd lilc thcrc. Tc joint problcm
ol all thcsc rcmaining Scrbs, both nativcs ol thc lrcshly ghcttoiscd villagcs
and influx ol cxpcllcd oncs (who joincd thcm hoping to find thc asylum and
rclativc sccurity within rcmaining prcdominantly Scrbinhabitcd Kosovo
cnclavcs), whatcvcr thcir agc, was to find a ncw mcaning to scvcrcly rcduccd
lilc conditions. Mislortunc that shook thc wholc lamilics, with oltcn losscs
ol both propcrty and lamily mcmbcrs, has lclt dccp traccs on thcir physi
ological stability.
Conccrn ovcr an unccrtain luturc combincd with a latcnt sadncss has
rcsultcd in a constant cry lor mcaning. Tc lccling ol having bccn aban
doncd, thc crumbling ol cthical norms which livcd on in thc oral narration
ol thc Scrb Kosovo pcoplc has rcsultcd in a scarch lor signposts to show thc
way. Tc prcscncc ol lorcigncrs, as ruling clcmcnts in thc Provincc, dcfin
ing political and cconomic conditions, with all thcir matcrial and mcntal
machincry, has lcd to a complctc disoricntation within thc rcduccd com
munity ol roughly +¸o,ooo Kosovo Scrbs rcmaining in thc Provincc sincc
Junc +µµµ, oncthird ol thc prcwar population.
From thc nccd to prcscrvc thcir mcntal hcalth, and rcvivc thcir lan
guagc, cultural traditions and rituals that arc lilctimc pillars ol thcir idcn
\. Pitulić, Folklorc in thc Scrb ¡nclavc +¸¸
tity, thc Scrbs soon lclt thc urgc to “takc a stcp out ol timc” in thc lorm
ol holidays cclcbrations as both lamily and national rituals, primarily thc
most vcncratcd saints’ days, Holy Vcck |¡astcr as thc symbol ol rcsur
rcction bcing thc main rcligious stronghold|, in addition to morc popular
cclcbrations ol Christmas and St Gcorgc’s Ðay (6 Junc, Òld Stylc). Tcsc
customs bccamc a kind ol important, il not csscntial psychological shcltcr
lor thc Christian Òrthodox Scrbs Community, strongly attachcd to thcir
rcligious traditions, intcrwovcn into thcir cvcryday lilc, in particular in rural
arcas. Tcsc customs wcrc, in addition, an anccstral knowlcdgc and mcmory
which had thc lilcsaving lunction as a “rcgrcssion to paradisc”.
Scrb studcnts lrom North Kosovska Mitrovica School ol Philoso
phy’s Ðcpartmcnt ol Scrbian Litcraturc and Languagc (which has an outly
ing dcpartmcnt in Gračanica, a Scrb cnclavc ncar Priština), wcrc assigncd to
writc an cssay on lolklorc, rcquiring ficld rcscarch and thc rccording ol old
and ncw lolk storics. Tis was an opportunity to comc lacc to lacc with thc
tradition handcd down lrom onc gcncration to anothcr. Tc laccs ol thcsc
young pcoplc lit up as thcy rcccivcd instructions lor thcir initial work. For
thcm, it was a joy to mcct lolk singcrs, or rathcr “visit thcir anccstors”, who
camc in contact with thc national matrix through lormulaic narration. 8y
taking an intcrcst in thc lolk customs and way ol lilc thcy unconsciously
rcvivcd a dormant scnsc ol joy. Tc languagc ol lolk storics in a miraculous
way raiscd dcjcctcd spirits. !t transpircd that both thc young Scrb rcscarchcs
(thc rccordcrs) and thc oldcr oncs (thc narrators) cxpcricnccd thc samc sud
dcn rush ol happincss during thcir cncountcr with thc wcalth ol thc lolk
languagc, particularly whilc talking about Christmas |+|, ¡astcr |:| and St
Gcorgc’s Ðay (Djurdje.dan) |¸|. Tcir discovcrics in thc ficld wcrc mostly
lyric lolk songs, oral lolklorc and ccrtain lorms ol lolk bclicls.
¡
|+| 8clorc, Christmas uscd to bc cclcbratcd diffcrcntly than it is
today. Òn Christmas ¡vc thc hcad ol thc houschold would risc carly
and alonc or with a son would go into thc woods to cut thc Yulc log
and bring it homc. Hc would also bring a bottlc ol brandy and ol
winc. 8clorc hc cut thc Yulc log hc would cross himscll thrcc timcs
and pray to God lor hcalth, kiss thc wood and thcn cut it. Hc would
thcn drink brandy with thc othcr mcn who had also comc to lctch a
Yulc log.
!n thc cvcning thcy would placc thc Yulc log in lront ol thc housc
door and thc lamily would say to it: “Good cvcning, Yulc log, you
arc wclcomc, God givc us good.” Tcn thcy would takc it and bring
it into thc housc. !nsidc thc housc, straw would bc sprcad around
¡
¡ssays: Ljubinka Lcmajić, Folklore of Dobrotin !illage, Radmila Ristić, Folklore of the
!illages of Babuš and Skulane.o; Ana Micić, Folklore of Fa.o.ci !illage; Mirjana Pctković,
Folklore of Gračanica and Surroundings; Mirjana Stolić, Folklore of No.o Selo.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸8
thc Yulc log and on thc floor, and a drill would bc uscd to picrcc
thc Yulc log and a bit ol thc floor and thc childrcn would cup thcir
hands to wait lor thc sawdust lrom thc Yulc log and throw it on
thcmsclvcs likc a swarm ol bccs. Tcn thc hcad ol thc housc would
cross himscll and put lard on thc Yulc log, thcn takc a walnut and
crack it and placc thc shclls on thc Yulc log, and so on with any lruit
that thcrc happcncd to bc in thc housc. First thc childrcn takc a bitc
and thcn placc it on thc Yulc log and say to it “To your hcalth, Yulc
log, yours and ours”. Vhcn thc ritual with thc Yulc log is finishcd
thcy “sing around” thc housc. First gocs thc hcad ol thc lamily car
rying thc Yulc log, thcn thc mistrcss ol thc housc with a siltcr in
hcr hand (in thc siltcr shc puts whcat and thcn throws it around thc
housc), lollowcd by thc childrcn with nuts, chcstnuts, pcars, applcs.
And thcy imitatc a roostcr, a hcn, a cow, a dog, oxcn, and God ga
vcth brcad and “with brcad” in thc housc and cattlc in thc pcn, and
prospcrity. Altcrwards thcy lay out thc mcal on thc floor and sit
down to cat. All thc lood uscd to bc lasting lood thcn, on Christ
mas ¡vc thc mistrcss ol thc housc bakcs krsnik and .ečernja brcads,
makcs cabbagc pic, bcans without mcat or lat, and thcn thcsc arc
catcn, and lruit also. 8ut bclorc thc mcal cvcryonc has a littlc lick
ol salt ammoniac to avoid thc sorc throat. Altcrwards thc hcad ol
thc houschold roasts mcat and thc othcrs go to bcd. !l not thcy play
thc gamc na parče – you placc a coin on a nail and throw nuts at it,
whocvcr topplcs thc coin gcts thc coin and thc nuts. !n thc morning
thc pola.nik |first loot| comcs to thc housc. Hc takcs a stcm lrom
thc Yulc log and throws it on thc firc to burn and il thc stcm crack
lcs and sprays sparks around hc says: “God givc us as much moncy
as thcrc arc sparks”. And hc says to thc hcad ol thc housc: “Christ is
born, minc host.” And thc host rcplics: “!ndccd Hc is born!” So thcy
sit down, and nibblc a piccc ol sparrow mcat to brcak thcir last and
thcn thcy drink winc and brandy. Tc mistrcss ol thc housc prcscnts
him with lruit, and woollcn socks. Tc first child to risc on Christ
mas morning is callcd ranče. Tcrc is a racc to scc who will bc first to
put on ncw socks which thcir mothcr has knittcd lor thcm, sincc thc
onc who puts on his or hcr shocs first will bc first lor thc wholc ycar.
Òn Christmas morning, whcn thc pola.nik lcavcs, wc uscd to go to
thc ficlds. A cross was madc ol thc Yulc log and thcy would takc a
littlc straw lrom thc housc and lcavc it in thc ficlds lor God to grant
prospcrity and protcct thc ficld. And thc man would lrightcn thc
lruit trccs. Hc would prctcnd to attack an applc trcc with an axc
and thcn ask his wilc, or somconc clsc: “Should ! cut down this lruit
trcc:” And thcy would answcr: “No, no, it will bcar lruit, it will bcar
lruit!” And so with cvcry trcc. Tcn hc makcs crosscs lrom thc Yulc
log, and placcs thcm in thc windows ol thc buildings in thc yard and
on thc rool ol thc housc. Òn that day it is not good to bcat thc chil
drcn nor is it good that thcy fight amongst thcmsclvcs, nor lor thc
man and wilc to fight or bcat cach othcr bccausc il thcy do thcy will
brcak out in boils. Tc girls ol thc housc should not crack nuts at
\. Pitulić, Folklorc in thc Scrb ¡nclavc +¸µ
Christmas sincc thcy will thcn brcak cvcrything around thc housc.
Tat day thc housc is not swcpt at all as long as thc rcd lcttcr days
arc on thc calcndar. At Christmas wc sing:
8ožić, 8ožić, bata, Christmas, Fathcr Christmas
Nosi kitu zlata 8caring a string ol gold
Ða pozlati vrata To dccoratc thc door
Svc od boja do boja All thc housc lrom wall to wall
! svu kuću do krova. And thc cntirc housc up to thc rool. And thc cntirc housc up to thc rool.
U 8ožića tri nožića Fathcr Christmas has thrcc littlc
knivcs
Jcdan scčc scčcnicu Ònc to cut thc sausagc
Ðrugi scčc pcčcnicu Tc sccond to cut thc mcat
Trcći scčc nckomatnicu. Tc third to cut thc Christmas
brcad.
Niti jcla, niti pila No lood, no drink
Trcba čovck da sc čuva Man must takc carc ol himscll
Jcrbo ncma dva trbuva. Sincc hc docsn’t havc two stomachs.
(Narrated by Ljubica Stojano.ić, born in :,¸¸ in Lipljan; re-
corded by Mirjana Petko.ić, student of Serbian Literature and
Language at Gračanica)
|:| At ¡astcr somc pcoplc colouring cggs on Friday and somc on
Saturday. Vc mostly dicd thcm rcd with onion pcal. Rcd was lor
happincss. Somctimcs wc uscd wax to paint thc cggs. Mothcr would
takc a rcd cgg and paint thc childrcn’s lorchcads and chccks lor
thcm to bc rcd and hcalthy. For ¡astcr wc would tap cach othcr’s
cggs and thc onc who brokc thc othcr’s cgg would gct thc cgg.
Vhcn wc gavc thcm to thc Shiptars |Albanians| and Turks, ! don’t
know why, thcy likcd thcm a lot. Tc samc whcn you gavc thcm
somc lruit at Christmas
(Narrated by Djordje Æritono.ić, Gračanica; recorded in :cc, by
Mirjana Petko.ić, student of Serbian Literature and Language
at Gračanica)
|¸| Vhcn Ðjurdjcvdan camc wc’d go to pick willows. Vc’d takc
pails and adorn thcm with flowcrs. For God to adorn and lor thc
cattlc to providc a bountilul harvcst. !n thc pails wc’d takc watcr
lrom thc rivcr and with thc willow branchcs wc dccoratcd thc wholc
yard. Tc dccorations wcrc lor cvcrything to bc lruitlul and amplc,
prospcrous. Vith thc watcr lrom thc rivcr wc’d rclrcsh thc cattlc so
that cvcrything would bc good and prospcrous.
Vc sang songs:
Ðjurđcvo lcto, prclcto, St Gcorgc’s summcr, summcr,
Ðjurđcvo cvcćc cvctalo, St Gcorgc’s flowcrs havc bloomcd
Ðjurđcvo moma bcrašc, St Gcorgc’s lass has pickcd thcm,
U skut ga scbi stavljašc. And put thcm in hcr lap. And put thcm in hcr lap.
Young girls placc bluc and rcd flowcrs undcr thcir pillows so that
thcy will drcam ol whom thcy arc going to marry. Òn Djurdje.dan,
bclorc thc sun comcs up, childrcn bathc lor thcir hcalth so that
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡o
Djurdje.dan may takc away all thc bad and bring cvcrything good.
8clorc sunrisc wc clcan thc housc and throw thc dirt in thc rivcr.
Tis is how wc in Crkvcna \odica cclcbratcd Djurdje.dan, but now
indccd it is not likc that, thc young don’t rcspcct that custom. (Nar
ratcd by \idosava 8ojkovićMilić born in +µ:¸) lrom Crkvcna \od
ica, marricd in Skulancvo villagc, which was complctcly dcstroycd
altcr thc arrival ol thc NATÒ/lcd KFÒR pcacckccping lorccs, so
that today not a singlc Scrb livcs thcrc.
(Fecorded in :cc, by Fadmila Fistić, student of Serbian Litera-
ture and Language at Gračanica)
Tc awakcning ol individual archctypcs (thc archctypc ol thc Saviour is
dominant) has rcsultcd in thc cstablishmcnt ol a ccrtain harmony in thc mi
croworld ol thc cnclavc. ¡ntcring into thc world ol customs and traditions
is purilying and hcaling, cspccially in thc physical and mcntal confincmcnt
in which thc Scrbian pcoplc ol Kosovo and Mctohija now find thcmsclvcs.
Tc occasional usc ol lolklorc has an almost hcaling powcr sincc it rcminds
us ol thc timc ol paradisc and thc finding ol thc Saviour archctypc.
¡
!n
lolklorc lrom thcsc parts thcrc arc imagcs with associations to lilc, dignity,
happincss, univcrsal bcauty. Tcir prcscncc in ccrtain customs rcprcscnts a
rcturn to csscntial lilc. !t also happcns that thc KFÒR soldicrs stationcd in
thc tcrritory ol Kosovo and Mctohija, find thcmsclvcs surpriscd and con
luscd by thc kindncss ol thc Scrb host, cspccially il by somc chancc thcy
happcn to find thcmsclvcs at a Scrbian sla.a, or lamily patron saint’s day
(among thc Scrbian pcoplc thc arrival ol a gucst had thc significancc ol a
visitation lrom a dcity).
6
!n this last instancc ol lolklorc lrom Kosovo and Mctohija wc find
vcrscs which prcscrvc thc original languagc matrix:
St Gcorgc’s summcr, summcr / St Gcorgc’s flowcrs havc bloomcd /
Ðjurdja lass has pickcd thcm, shinc on moon until thc dawn / don’t
¡
“Tc wcalth ol possibilitics containcd in thc Christian mcssagc to man, to thc nations
ol thc world, morc than two thousand ycars ago, and which arc a magnificcnt challcngc
to man, havc barcly bccn undcrstood, and cvcn lcss uscd lor thc bcncfit ol mankind.
Two thousand ycars ago thc lacc ol human history was changcd uttcrly by thc powcrlul
sctting in motion ol a whccl ol cvcnts. Tc circular flow ol history, sccn and cxpcricnccd
in pagan panthcistic philosophy and rcligion in thc prcChristian world, opcns up into
a lincar path lrom Alpha to Òmcga, lrom God, through Christ, to thc Holy Spirit, sincc
Alpha and Òmcga arc onc and thc samc. !t cannot bc a coincidcncc that thc two grcat
cst human migrations in thc known history ol thc world, onc at thc bcginning ol thc
Middlc Agcs and onc today at thc cnd ol thc modcrn agc, takc placc in thc Christian
agc ol mankind’s culturc” ( Jcrotić +µµ+: +:¸).
6
As is shown in thc customs ol many pcoplcs, somc actions on thc occasion ol rccciving
a gucst havc a rcligious significancc, sincc thc arrival ol a gucst oncc mcant thc arrival ol
thc dcity itscll (thcophany), cl. Serbian Dictionary of Mythology, µ+.
\. Pitulić, Folklorc in thc Scrb ¡nclavc +¡+
go down it’s carly yct, whocvcr givcs prcscnts to thc Lazarkc / may
all bc hcalthy in his housc, hcy, girl, rosylaccd / you arc whitc and
rosy / you arc slcndcr and tall.
Tc rcsilicncc ol thc lolk cntity which withstands thc challcngcs ol timc is
particularly rcflcctcd in thc prcscrvation ol customs. An obvious conlusion
and disoricntation is obscrvablc, which on contact with thc original hcritagc
bccomcs translormcd into a suddcn radiancc which points to a primcval
cncountcr with thc “timc ol paradisc”.
Tc importancc ol a scnsc ol bclonging during crucial cvcnts in thc
history ol a pcoplc is also indicatcd by thc way thc narrators usually cnd
cd thcir rcminisccnccs ol past timcs by concluding: “Ycs, thosc wcrc good
timcs!” A radiancc was noticcablc during thcir rcmcmbranccs ol holidays
and thc songs that wcrc sung during that timc, although thcrc wcrc also
rcminisccnccs ol unhappy cvcnts:
! had an oldcr brothcr, thcn mc, my sistcr, and thc youngcst brothcr.
My oldcr brothcr was marricd, ! had a sistcrinlaw. Tc Shiptars
saw my youngcr sistcr and wantcd to takc hcr. My sistcr was lour
tccn, it was a Monday. Tc gatc to thc pcn wasn’t closcd, and somc
onc was shouting. My mothcr wcnt to scc who it was. !t was thc
Arnauts |Albanians| at thc gatc. Tcy camc in. My lathcr closcd us
in thc room, uf, kuku mene |ritual cxprcssion ol gricl.| Tcy tcll my
lathcr: “You know what it is, givc us thc whitc girl!” Fathcr says: “!
don’t havc onc, ! only havc this onc”. And hc brings out thc small
child. Tcy won’t havc it. And my brothcr, kuka.ac i lasta.ac |poor
dcvil|, opcns thc door to scc what’s happcning. Ònc ol thcm takcs
out a gun and shoots my lathcr and brothcr. Vith onc bullct, kuka-
.ice mene. My mothcr scrcams: “Kuku mene, thcy’vc killcd my 8lago
and Mita.” Tc ncighbours and lamily gathcr round. Tcy shout, so
that thc dogs will not rcturn. Tcy carricd us to thc stablc, and my
mothcr takcs a pitchlork and waits lor thc Šiptars in casc thcy comc
back.
(Narrated by Budimka Fašić, born in :,:: in Dobrotin; re-
corded by Ljubinka Lemajić, student at Gračanica).
An occasional “visit” to thc trcasurc that is thc national lolklorc acquircs a
ncw significancc, rcminding us ol \iktor Frankl who spcaks ol man’s con
stant “unhcard cry lor mcaning”.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡:
References
8ovan +µ¸¸ — \. 8ovan: Srpske narodne pesme sa Koso.a i Metohije, Jcdinstvo, Priština.
Ðcbcljković +µ8¡ — Srpske narodne umot.orine sa Koso.a i. rukopisa Dene Debeljko.ića,
knj. !, Akadcmija nauka i umctnosti Kosova, Priština.
¡thnopsychology Today — Etnopsihologija danas, cd. 8. Jovanović, Ðom kulturc Stu
dcntski grad, 8cograd +µµ+.
Jcrotić +µµ+ — \. Jcrotić: ¡tnopsihološki aspckti scoba, in: Etnopsihologija danas, cd. 8
Jovanović, Ðom kulturc Studcntski grad, 8cograd, ++µ–+¸+.
Jovanović +µµ+ — 8. Jovanović: “Hcuristički izazov ctnopsihologijc”, in: Etnopsihologija
danas, cd. 8. Jovanović, Ðom kulturc Studcntski grad, 8cograd, ¸–+6.
Ncumann +µµ¡ — ¡. Nojman: Istorijsko poreklo s.esti, Prosvcta, 8cograd.
O narodnoj knjiže.nosti Srba na Koso.u, cds. \. 8ovan, \. Cvctanović and M. Jcvtović, cds. \. 8ovan, \. Cvctanović and M. Jcvtović,
Jcdinstvo, Priština, +µ8o.
Pcšić/Ðjordjcvić +µµ¸ — R. Pcšić, N. Milošcvić Ðjordjcvić: Narodna knjiže.nost, Trcb
nik, 8cograd.
Pitulić :oo¡ — \. Pitulić: Stanjc narodnih umotvorina na Kosovu i Mctohiji i njihova
psihološka lunkcija u novonastaloj životnoj stvarnosti, Ži.ot u enkla.i, Liceum µ,
Kragujcvac, +:µ–+¸8.
Popović +µµ+ —\. Popović: Psiha, mit i patos, in: Etnopsihologija danas, cd. 8. Jovanović,,
Ðom kulturc Studcntski grad, 8cograd, ¡¸–6¡.
Scrbian Ðictionary ol Mythology — Š. Kulišić, P. Ž. Pctrović and N. Pantclić: Srpski
mitološki rečnik, Nolit, 8cograd +µ86.
Harun Hasani
Migrations of Goranies
From social stimulus to political pressure
Tc namc ol Gora, a rcgion situatcd in thc Šar Mountain arca, was mcn
tioncd back in +¸¡8 in thc chartcr ol Scrbian ¡mpcror Stclan Ðušan.
r
!t
was a chrysobull, thc impcrial documcnt bcaring a goldcn scal, by which thc
¡mpcror bcstowcd scvcn villagcs in thc Gora rcgion to his main cndow
mcnt — thc monastcry ol thc Holy Archangcls ncar Prizrcn.
:
Among thcsc
villagcs was 8rod, thc main Slav scttlcmcnt in thc arca. Tc namc ol Gora as
a distinct gcographic arca rcappcarcd in thc official documcnts immcdiatcly
altcr thc Òttoman conqucst in thc middlc ol thc filtccnth ccntury: Prizrcn,
thc main Scrb ccntrc in this arca was cvcntually conqucrcd by thc Òttomans
in +¡¡¡.

Tc Ðistrict (nahi) ol Gora (subdivision ol a largcr Òttoman admin
istrativc unit — .ilayet) was mcntioncd bctwccn +¡¡: and +¡¡¡ in Òt
toman defters (ccnsus rccords comprising incomc and propcrty data) as a
part ol thc ncwlycstablishcd Sanjak ol Prizrcn. Almost all thc villagcs ol
Gora, including total numbcrs ol houscs, first and lamily namcs ol housc
or houschold owncrs, individual or in somc villagcs’ total incomc, wcrc rc
cordcd in thcsc comprchcnsivc Òttoman documcnts. First or lamily namcs
listcd in thc first Òttoman dcltcrs arc ol significant importancc as thcy givc
rcliablc cvidcncc on rcligious, cthnic and linguistic idcntity ol thc lamilics
in this arca, which wcrc prcdominantly Slavic.
¸
+
Tis papcr is a rcviscd vcrsion ol Hasani :oo:.
:
Chrysobull ol ¡mpcror Stclan Ðušan in Glasnik društ.a srpske slo.esnosti (8clgradc
+86:), :8:.
¸
!nlormation communicatcd in +µµ: by Mitar Pcšikan, mcmbcr ol thc Scrbian Acad
cmy ol Scicnccs and Arts.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡¡
Geography and politics
Tc rcgion ol Gora, covcring an arca ol ¸8¡.6 sq km, is locatcd in thc
southcrnmost mountain gorgc ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia, south ol Prizrcn,
bctwccn thc highcst pcaks ol thc mountains Šar, Korab and Koritnik. !ts
natural and cthnic boundary is thc Albanian mountain Galaic.
Altcr thc First Vorld Var, within thc ncwly cstablishcd Kingdom ol
Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs, thc rcgion ol Gora rcmaincd part ol Scrbia as
it was thc casc altcr thc First 8alkan Var (+µ+:). Ncvcrthclcss, thc natural
cthnic boundarics ol Gora had bccn significantly changcd duc to thc final
scttlcmcnt ol a bordcr disputc with Albania. Tc final bordcr with Alba
nia was dccidcd by “corrcctions” brought in by thc !ntcrnational Commis
sion on Ðclimitation in +µ:¡. To thc disappointmcnt ol its inhabitants, thc
district (župa) Gora, inhabitcd by Goranics (Muslim Slav, Scrbspcaking
population) ol thc Šar Mountain rcgion, was dividcd. Ninc prcdominantly
Goraniinhabitcd scttlcmcnts with ovcr +¡,ooo rcsidcnts (8orjc, Zapod,
Košarištc, Novo Sclo, Òrgosta, Òrcšck, Pakiša, Crncljcvo and Šištcvac) wcrc
allottcd to Albania.
Tc !ntcrnational Commission on Ðclimitation, dcaling with dil
lcrcnt bordcr disputcs, ccrtainly did not takc into account thc natural and
gcographical lramcwork, cthnic structurc and rclcvant historical data, nor
thc rightlul wish ol thc Gorani community to rcmain unitcd in a singlc
rcgion within a singlc statc — Kingdom ol Scrbs, Croats and Slovcncs. Po
litical intcrcsts and stratcgic aspirations ol !taly, cxcrting dccisivc influcncc
in thc southcrn 8alkans at that timc, wcrc dominant in Albania and among
Albanians in gcncral (Lutovac +µ¡¡: :¸¸).
Tc Muslim Slav population ol Goranics in indcpcndcnt Albania
was not rccognizcd as a scparatc minority. Tcy wcrc dcnicd thcir distinct
idcntity and collcctivc rights, and thcir culturc and languagc wcrc cxposcd
to thc intcnsc proccss ol assimilation, which lcd to lorccd displaccmcnt
lrom thcir villagcs that had cxistcd in thc arca lor ccnturics. !n that way
almost all ol thcir spccific cultural, linguistic, and cthnic charactcristics wcrc
crascd lorcibly by thc ccntral authoritics ol Albania, whilc contacts with
thcir nativc arca ol Gora was disruptcd lor dccadcs to comc.
Demographic structure: From Ottoman times to the present
Tc namc Goranics (Goranci) stands lor thc !slamizcd ScrbianSlavic pop
ulation. Jovan Cvijić (+µ++:+oµ8) and somc othcr cmincnt cxpcrts in thc
cthnographic past ol thc wcstcrn 8alkans considcrcd that thc proccss ol
!slamization in Gora undcr Òttoman domination was complctcd as carly
as thc sixtccnth ccntury, with occasional convcrsions in latcr ccnturics. !n
H. Hasani, Migrations ol Goranics +¡¡
contrast, cxtcnsivc ficld rcscarch donc during thc ninctccnth ccntury by
rcnowncd cxpcrts lor thc rcgion (Pctar Kostić lrom Prizrcn, !van Stcpa
novich Yastrcbov, a scholar and Russian consul in Prizrcn) collccting first
hand cvidcncc, or hall a ccntury latcr (Milisav Lutovac), as wcll as by othcr
contcmporary rcscarchcrs, dcscribcs thc proccss ol !slamization in Gora as
lasting longcr than in othcr arcas ol prcscntday Kosovo and Mctohija and
bcing complctcd in thc sccond hall ol thc ninctccnth ccntury.
¡
According to Pctar Kostić, a Prizrcn scholar with lamily tics in Gora,
thc last Christian rcsidcnt, an cldcrly lady namcd 8ožana, was buricd in thc
villagc ol 8rod in +8¡6 bccausc shc could not bcar to bc scparatcd lrom hcr
alrcady !slamizcd childrcn. Troughout thc ninctccnth and twcnticth ccn
turics Goranics rcmaincd a scparatc cthnic group in Kosovo and Mctohija,
with thcir own distinct culturc, spccific dialcct and lolk traditions. Vhcthcr
in thcir homcland or abroad thcy always dcscribc thcmsclvcs as Goranics,
whilc thcir local dialcct ol thc Scrbian languagc is usually rclcrrcd to as “our
lcllow countrymcn’s spccch”. Tcy havc managcd to rcmain a distinct com
munity in changing political contcxts and to prcscrvc thcir idcntity.
Tc Muslim Slav population ol Gora was not affcctcd by thc so
callcd Grcat Migrations that lollowcd a scrics ol wars bctwccn Òttomans
and Habsburgs wagcd in thc rcgion ol Kosovo and Mctohija, i.c. south
crn Scrbia, during thc latc scvcntccnth ccntury and thc subscqucnt mili
tary campaigns that markcd thc cightccnthccntury political history ol
thc rcgion. Tc Muslim Slav scttlcmcnts in Šar and Koritnik Mountains
rcmaincd to bc rclativcly isolatcd arcas, situatcd away lrom thc main dircc
tions ol Habsburg military campaigns, Òttoman incursions and lrcqucnt
postwar rcprisals pcrpctratcd by irrcgular troops ol thc Òttoman army. Tis
is thc main rcason why thc Slav population ol Gora was not lorccd into
mass migrations as wcrc thcir immcdiatc ncighbours, thc Christian Òrtho
dox Scrbs.
Ncvcrthclcss, a ccrtain migratory movcmcnt ol thc Goranics did bc
gin altcr !slamization and wcnt on in two main dircctions: +) towards thc
prospcrous town ol Prizrcn, commcrcial ccntrc ol thc rcgion, including thc
ncighbouring Sirinićka župa, and :) towards Tctovo, a town on thc othcr
sidc ol Šar Mountain (in prcscntday FYR ol Maccdonia), and thc villagcs
Ðolno, Palčištc and Tcarcc. Rcsidcnts ol scvcral villagcs ol Gora, carricd by
a migration wavc, cvcntually scttlcd down in Urvič and Jclovjanc, on thc
castcrn sidc ol Šar Mountain, lorming a subgroup ol thc Gora scttlcmcnts
(Trilunovski +µ¡:: ¡+¸).
Anothcr largcr migration ol Goranics occurrcd altcr thc First 8al
kan Var, i.c. altcr thc libcration lrom thc Òttomans in latc +µ+:. At that
¡
Kostić +µ:8: ¡¸–¡8, Jastrcbov +8¸µ, Lutovac +µ¡¡: :6µ.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡6
timc significant numbcrs ol Muslim Slav Goranics lclt thcir homcs lor both
sociocconomic and political rcasons and scttlcd in Òttoman Turkcy. Tc
First Vorld Var and thc military dclcat ol Scrbia in thc autumn ol +µ+¡
wcrc crucial lor thc dccrcasc ol thc Muslim Slav population ol Gora.
!t was bccausc ol thc laminc and grinding povcrty causcd by thc
Sccond Vorld Var that masscs ol Goranics lclt thcir homcs ancw and
wcnt to scttlc in Prizrcn and Tctovo. Rccords show that many ol thcm dicd
ol hungcr and discasc not only in thc villagcs ol Gora but on thc way to
Prizrcn and Tctovo as wcll.
Altcr thc Sccond Vorld Var many Gorani lamilics lclt thcir homc
land lorcvcr bccausc ol thc ncw sociocconomic rclations and thc imposcd
idcological lramcwork, i.c. political circumstanccs markcd by Sovicttypc
collcctivization and lorccd cxpropriation ol crops by thc communist au
thoritics in thcir villagcs. Land was oltcn abandoncd and sold vcry chcaply.
Ònc group ol lamilics wcnt to thc ncarcst towns: Prizrcn, Priština, Tctovo,
Skopjc and 8clgradc, whilc anothcr group cmigratcd to Turkcy. !ntcnsivc
migratory wavcs ol Goranics causcd by cconomic rcasons rcsumcd during
thc +µ¡os. Conscqucntly, thc +µ6+ ccnsus showcd that a numbcr ol Gorani
scttlcmcnts had a ncgativc balancc in comparison with thc rcsults obtaincd
by thc +µ¡8 ccnsus.
Sincc thcir sustainability in Gora did not dcpcnd on agriculturc but
on cattlcbrccding as thc dominant scctor ol cconomy, and thcrclorc on rich
pasturcs, it is bclicvcd that thc Goranics first startcd to movc abroad whcn
thc balancc was disturbcd bctwccn summcr pasturcs on thc vast slopcs ol
Šar Mountain and wintcr quartcrs in arcas alongsidc thc \ardar Rivcr. Rob
bcrs (haramije) and outlaws (kaçaks) coming lrom Albania (thc Luma arca)
wcrc morc and morc oltcn waiting lor shcphcrds on thcir way back lrom
wintcr quartcrs and wcrc grabbing wholc flocks lrom thcm. Cattlc brccd
ing in thc scttlcmcnts around Gora rapidly dccrcascd whilst thc numbcr
ol cmigrants incrcascd. Most ol thc young malc population wcnt away in
scarch lor work, vcry oltcn accompanicd by cldcr mcn as wcll as childrcn.
As soon as thc childrcn turncd scvcn, thcy would go away with thcir lathcrs,
rclativcs or ncighbours to bccomc smallscalc tradcsmcn in thc strccts ol
thc 8alkan towns, as rccordcd both by oral tradition and many lolk songs
composcd by migrant workcrs:
Comc, mc Mom, at crack ol dawn
To scc off thin tiny scvcnycar sonny,
Going to scrvc thcm bloody havcs,
Lcaving to carn thcm bloody quid’s,
Far, lar lrom thcc, mc Mom.
(Hasani +µ8¸:+¡, transl. Smiljana Naumović)
H. Hasani, Migrations ol Goranics +¡¸
Tc first gcncrations ol postSccond Vorld Var Gorani migrants lclt thcir
lamilics bchind in Gora, whilc bringing homc most ol thc salarics thcy
carncd abroad. Undcr conditions ol typical cconomic undcrdcvclopmcnt
and povcrty thc work abroad sccmcd to bc a spccific way to prcscrvc both
thc distinct charactcr ol Gora and its traditions. Tc wivcs ol migrant work
crs did hcavy manly work at homc, raising childrcn and supporting lamilics
at thc samc timc. !t should bc strcsscd that Gorani womcn succccdcd to
prcscrvc thcir spccific vcrnacular (a distinct dialcct ol thc Scrbian languagc),
as wcll as cpic and lyric popular songs, and thc colourlul lolklorc, which
contributcd significantly to thc continuity and prcscrvation ol both thcir
culturc and idcntity.
Comparison ol thc last ccnsus statistics (obtaincd lor Gora in +µµ+),
with thc prcvious ccnsuscs rcvcals that intcrcsting and important dcmo
graphic, cthnosocial, cconomic and othcr proccsscs arc currcntly ongoing.
A grcat numbcr ol cldcrly houscholds, thc rapidly dccrcasing numbcr ol
school childrcn and population in gcncral in spitc ol an cqualizcd birth
ratc, i.c. ol thc natural incrcasc ol population, lcad to thc conclusion that in
thc last dccadcs intcnsivc migration movcmcnts havc bccn taking placc in
Gora.
Migratory proccsscs havc continually bccn going on in Gora lor
morc than filty ycars. Tc migrations wcrc rathcr intcnsivc in thc +µ¸os
whcn Goranics, oltcn a sccond gcncration ol gucst workcrs in Vcstcrn ¡u
ropc, succccdcd in crcating morc lavourablc living conditions (apartmcnts,
houscs) in thcir ‘sccond homclands’ and thcrclorc dccidcd to bring ovcr
thcir lamily mcmbcrs. Tcy would usually comc to Gora lor Djurdje.dan
(St. Gcorgc’s Ðay lcstivitics lasting six days in thc spring) or lor thc summcr
holidays. Tcy did not want to work in thc ficlds and to collcct crops, work
that thc migrant workcrs had uscd to do in thc past. !nstcad thcy would
comc back to spcnd summcr vacations, to visit rclativcs, and to takc part in
traditional wcdding ccrcmonics, rich in local rituals. Traditionally, this was
thc occasion to ncgotiatc arrangcd marriagcs in ordcr to prcparc wcdding
ccrcmonics lor thc ncxt summcr.
Social origin of contemporary migratory .a.es
Ònc would cxpcctcd thc Gorani migrant to prclcr arcas or city quartcrs
with Muslim majority population. Òn thc contrary, data collcctcd and prc
scntcd in Tablc + show that thcir scttlcmcnt in urban ccntrcs was not mo
tivatcd by thc prcscncc ol thcir lcllow Muslims. ¡conomic rcasons, bcttcr
salarics and improvcd living conditions wcrc ol crucial importancc lor thc
choicc ol thcir rcsidcncc.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡8
!n thc lormcr Yugoslavia about +:,ooo Goranics distributcd in :¸¡
scttlcmcnts took part in migratory movcmcnts. Tc main migration objcc
tivcs wcrc to find jobs in thc urban ccntrcs ol Scrbia or clscwhcrc in Yu
goslavia. Morc than 8,¡¡: immigrants scttlcd in it in thc coursc ol scvcral
dccadcs. Morc than hall ol thc Gorani migrants (¡¸.8 pcrccnt) scttlcd in
scvcntyninc smallcr or biggcr urban ccntcrs in ccntral Scrbia.
Morc than ¡,¡oo Goranics who staycd in Gora altcr thc +µµµ NATÒ
bombing campaign wcrc, in gcncral, considcrcd to bc illlatcd. Tcy bclicvcd
that Kosovo and Mctohija, as thc southcrn provincc ol Scrbia, rcmaincd to
bc thcir propcr homcland and that this conviction, dcspitc cthnic conflict,
could bc sharcd with all othcr lcllow countrymcn. Unlortunatcly, undcr thc
prcssurc ol Albanian cxtrcmists in thc latc +µµos, and continuing in thc
ncxt dccadc, a significant numbcr ol Goranics wcrc lorccd to lcavc Kosovo
and Mctohija and scttlc pcrmancntly in thcir sccond homcland abroad.
Tcir privatc propcrty, including houscs, apartmcnts and shops, was oltcn
plundcrcd, dcstroycd, or, in many cascs, usurpcd, mostly by Albanians lrom
thc ncighbouring Òpoljc arca. Tc pcrsccutcd Goranics, cscaping Alba
nian cxtrcmism, wcrc lorccd to scck shcltcr with thcir rclativcs, lricnds and
ncighbours, most oltcn in ccntral Scrbia, or in thc towns ol hcr northcrn
provincc, \ojvodina.
Furthcr analysis ol thc migrants lrom Gora shows that ovcr ¸¡ pcr
ccnt scttlcd in 8clgradc with thcir lamilics, finding diffcrcnt, lrcqucntly
dcmanding, jobs, with thc cxccption ol about tcn pastry makcrs who had
thcir own shops. Mcmbcrs ol thc sccond and third gcncration ol Gorani
scttlcrs in 8clgadc arc gcncrally lully intcgratcd into 8clgradc cosmopolitan
socicty and quitc satisficd with thcir social position. Tcy all considcr 8cl
gradc as thcir sccond homcland, whilc in parallcl rcmain dcvotcd to thcir
nativc Gora rcgion.
Òthcr migration dircctions lcd towards othcr rcpublics ol thc lormcr
Yugoslavia.
!t has bccn vcrificd that all scttlcmcnts ol thc Gora rcgion wcrc morc
or lcss caught by migratory movcmcnts ol varicd scopc and intcnsity. !n thc
Goraniinhabitcd scttlcmcnts ol 8rod, \raništc, Lcštanc, Mlikc, Kukuljanc,
Òrčuša, Ðikancc and 8aćka thc migratory scgmcnt ol thc population has
bccn significantly largcr than thc stationary onc. For cxamplc, ovcr ¸: pcr
ccnt ol thc inhabitants ol thc villagc Mlikc rcsidc and work in placcs bcyond
thc boundarics ol thcir nativc rcgion, 8¡.¡ pcrccnt ol thcm in 8clgradc. An
othcr striking cxamplc is thc lollowing: in thc villagc 8aćka thcrc had bccn
++6 Goraniowncd houscs bclorc thc +µµµ NATÒ bombing ol Yugoslavia,
µ¡ ol which uninhabitcd and closcd lor most ol thc ycar. And yct, altcr
Albaniandominatcd P!SG and UNM!K took powcr in thc arca lrom Junc
+µµµ, ol 6¡o local Gorani rcsidcnts only 8¡ rcmaincd to rcsidc thcrc.
H. Hasani, Migrations ol Goranics +¡µ
Tc rcgion ol Gora was also markcd by strong and continuous wavcs
ol cconomic migrants to Vcstcrn ¡uropcan statcs, most intcnsivc, as clsc
whcrc in Scrbia and Yugoslavia, during thc latc +µ6os and carly +µ¸os.
Largc numbcrs ol gucst workcrs (gastarbeiters) lrom Gora wcnt to tcmpo
rarily work in othcr countrics.
Ðuring thc last two dccadcs ol thc twcnticth ccntury, thc Albanian
Muslim population, prcviously insignificant in Gora, had intcnsivcly bccn
scttling in Ðragaš, thc scat ol thc Municipality ol Gora. !t is difficult to
idcntily thc accuratc numbcr ol Muslim Albanians who movcd to Ðragaš,
bccausc thcy boycottcd thc last Yugoslav ccnsus ol +µµ+. Ncvcrthclcss, thc
numbcr ol Albanians in Ðragaš doublcd in thc pcriod lollowing thc +µµµ
NATÒ bombing, whcn Kosovo and Mctohija was placcd undcr intcrna
tional administration, and Ðragaš, until rcccntly populatcd prcdominantly
by Goranics, was dividcd into two scparatc urban arcas along cthnic lincs:
uppcr Ðragaš, whcrc Albanian scttlcrs havc rcccntly bccomc thc dominant
population, and lowcr Ðragaš, whcrc nativc Goranics havc rcmaincd to rc
sidc.
Feturn to Gora?
Possibilitics ol Gorani migrants coming back wcrc and still arc quitc limitcd
duc to thc lact that thc Municipality ol Gora was, and still is, onc ol thc
most undcrdcvclopcd rcgions ol Scrbia. Tc mass rcturn ol thc intcrnally
displaccd Gorani population, scattcrcd all ovcr thc rcst ol Scrbia, altcr thc
currcnt status talks bctwccn 8clgradc and Priština arc concludcd, will largcly
dcpcnd on thcir luturc status within Kosovo and Mctohija as thc substantial
autonomous cntity ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia. Tc basic prcconditions lor
thc rcturn ol intcrnally displaccd Goranics, as lor thc othcr nonAlbanian
population ol Kosovo and Mctohija, is a stablc political lramcwork lor thcir
longtcrm sccurity in contrast to thc post+µµµ orchcstratcd, Prištinaspon
sorcd discrimination and cxpulsion by mcans ol both administrativc prcs
surc and unrcstraincd violcncc. For thc Goranics, thcsc conditions includc
thcir pcrsonal salcty, rcturn ol privatc propcrty, and sustainablc dcvclop
mcnt. !l thcsc conditions, in lull compliancc with basic human rights and
¡uropcan standards ol dignificd lilc within thc rulc ol law, arc not mct, thc
majority ol Goranics and othcr nonAlbanians will continuc to lcavc bc
causc thcy spcak thc Scrbian languagc, or thc Scrb dialcct ol “our languagc”,
and rcgard Scrbia as thcir nativc country.
Tc numbcr ol Goranics who havc alrcady lclt thcir nativc arca or
arc in thc proccss ol lcaving is growing, and has rcachcd at this point al
most 6,¡oo pcrsons. Considcring that Gora is a rcgion both gcopolitically
and gcostratcgically vcry important to thc intcgrity and sovcrcignty ol thc
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡o
Rcpublic ol Scrbia, thc lull impact ol thcir lorccd post+µµµ migrations is
impossiblc to prcdict. As a Šar Mountain župa at thc southcrnmost tip ol
Scrbia, Gora is prcscntly cxpcricncing tragic historical momcnts with lar
rcaching conscqucnccs likcly to affcct thc chanccs ol Goranics to prcscrvc
and asscrt thcir distinct cthnic idcntity.
A rcport ol 8cncdict Givicr, thc hcad ol thc ÒSC¡ Rcgional Group
lor Prizrcn and its surroundings, publishcd by thc Ne. York Times,
¡
un
dcrlincs that “Albanians arc allowcd to thrcatcn and cvcn kill unprotcctcd
mcmbcrs ol thc national minoritics” in Kosovo and Mctohija, including
Scrbs, Roma, and othcr nonAlbanian population, cspccially “Slavic Mus
lims — Goranics” in thc southcrnmost part ol Scrbia.
6

Sincc thc bcginning ol hcr statchood Scrbia has bccn committcd to
protccting thc salcty and sccurity ol all hcr citizcns, and now, at thc bcgin
ning ol thc twcntyfirst ccntury, shc finds hcrscll dcprivcd ol that right
dcspitc thc lact that dcmocracy has bccn rcstorcd in 8clgradc in Òctobcr
:ooo. Tc Gora rcgion has during thc wholc twcnticth ccntury sharcd its
dcstiny with Scrbia as thc only guarantor ol thc Gorani cthnic and cultural
rights and thcir only homcland. !t has managcd to survivc down thc agcs
withstanding assaults ol Albanian outlaws. Tcrclorc Gora should not bc
now lclt to itscll or takcn as a mattcr ol somc political agrccmcnts that
would lcad to its scparation lrom Scrbia. 8y dclcnding thcmsclvcs through
out history thc population ol Gora has dclcndcd thc statc ol Scrbia and
its continucd cxistcncc. Tis is why ¡mpcror Ðušan grantcd thc pcoplc ol
Gora cxccptional privilcgcs: “Goranics should not pay tax pcr hcad or cattlc.
Tcy should pay annual tax pcr houschold. Vc ordcr thcm to do so bccausc
thcy arc thc grcatcst dcvotccs ol our statc and thc most laithlul clcmcnt ol
our population.”
References
Cvijić +µ++ — J. Cvijić: Osno.e .a geografiju i geologiju Makedonije i Stare Srbije |8asic
Gcography and Gcology ol Maccdonia and Òld Scrbia|, vol. !!!, 8cograd.
¡
Politika, 6 Novcmbcr +µµµ, p. +6.
6
Lacking protcction lrom both UNM!K and KFÒR, somc Goranics havc tricd to
avoid assimiliation by dcclaring thcmsclvcs as 8osniaks, duc to languagc rclatcdncss, or
cvcn as 8ulgarians, in ordcr to sccurc passports cnabling thcm to travcl abroad. Ncvcr
thclcss, most Gorani studcnts in both primary and sccondary schools in Gora in :oo¸,
just as in thc prcvious ycars undcr intcrnational administration, only acccpt thc curricula
and tcxtbooks providcd by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia and rcjcct thosc proposcd by Alba
niandominatcd Provisional !nstitutions ol ScllGovcrnmcnt lor Kosovo.
H. Hasani, Migrations ol Goranics +¡+
Hasani +µ8¸ — H. N. Hasani: Goranske narodne pesme |Folk Songs of Goranies|, Jcdin
stvo, Priština.
Hasani :oo: — H. Hasani: Migrations ol thc population ol thc Šar mountain župa
Gora, in: Goranies, Muslims and Turks in the Šar (Shar) Mountain župas (districts) of
Serbia, 8clgradc, ¸¸–¡¡.
Kostić +µ:8 — P. Kostić: Crk.eni ži.ot pra.osla.nih Srba u Pri.renu i njego.oj okolini
u XIX .eku |Tc Church Lilc ol Christian Òrthodox Scrbs in Prizrcn and its Sur
roundings in thc Ninctccnth Ccntury|, 8cograd.
Yastrcbov +8¸µ — !. S. Jastrcbov: Podaci .a istoriju srpske drža.e – i. putničkog .apisa
|Ðata lor thc History ol thc Scrbian Statc – From a Travcllcr’s Notcbook|, 8c
ograd.
Lutovac +µ¡¡ — M. Lutovac: Gora i Òpoljc – antropogcogralska proučavanja |Gora
and Òpoljc – Anthropogcographical Studics|, Srpski etnografski .bornik LX!X,
Naselja i poreklo stano.ništ.a |Scttlcmcnts and thc Òrigin ol Population|, ¸¡,
SANU, 8cograd.
Trilunovski +µ¡: — J. Trilunovski: Urvič i Jclovljanc |Urvič and Jclovljanc|, Glasnik
Etnografskog instituta SÆN +–:, 8cograd.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡:
APPEND¡X
¡nternally Displaced Persons
from the Gora Municipal Area
According to thc data and rccords ol thc local Unitcd Nations and ÒSC¡
missions in Scrbia, thc currcnt Slav population ol Gora (Goranci) is bclow
¸,ooo, that is to say, morc than +o,ooo pcoplc havc lclt (or wcrc lorccd to
lcavc) thcir homcs altcr Junc +µµµ with no immcdiatc prospcct ol rcturn,
indccd, with a trcnd towards lurthcr displaccmcnt lor rcasons ol insccurity
rcgarding thcir pcrsonal salcty, lcgal protcction and propcrty rights ovcr
usurpcd houscs, apartmcnts and shops.
According to a survcy conductcd by thc National Community ol
Goranics ol Kosovo and Mctohija, thc tcmporarily displaccd pcrsons havc
lound shcltcr in cighty towns in ccntral Scrbia, and twcnty towns in hcr
northcrn provincc ol \ojvodina.
Numbcr ol intcrnally displaccd Goranics by towns:
+) 8clgradc 6¸¡o
:) Novi Sad 8¡o
¸) Novi Pazar ¡¸o
¡) Niš +¸o
¡) Subotica +¡¡
6) Pirot 8o
¸) Kragujcvac 86
8) Jagodina ¡¡
µ) Zrcnjanin ¸o
+o) Trstcnik ¡¡
++) Òthcr towns +µoo
8ascd on thc survcy and rcgistcrs, childrcn and youth makc up a popula
tion ol ¡,¡oo within this community ol intcrnally displaccd Goranics. Tc
Projcct lor Rcturn would includc thc Gorani population currcntly houscd
in 8clgradc, Novi Pazar and Novi Sad. Tc numbcr ol pcrsons to bc cncom
passcd by thc Projcct is:
Total Agc 8–+¡ Agc +¡–+8 Agc ovcr +8
+) 8clgradc +¡¸¡ ¡8o ¸6¡ ¡µo
:) Novi Pazar ++¸ ¸: :¸ ¡8
¸) Novi Sad :6: 8¡ 6+ +o¸
Compilcd by Ðr. Harun Hasani and !bro Sait
H. Hasani, Migrations ol Goranics +¡¸
rqr¡ rq¡8 rq6r rqyr rq8r rqqr
8rod :6:¡ ::¡8 +6o¡ +¡88 +¡¸8 +¡88
8aćka ćka ¡+o ::: :¡µ ¸++ ¸8+ :+o
\raništa 6¸¡ ¸¡¡ 8+¡ 88¡ µ:¡ ¸:6
Ðikancc ¡¡o ¸+8 ¸¡µ ¸µ: :8+ :¡6
Kukaljanc ¡o6 ¡¡¸ ¡8: 6o¡ ¸¸¸ 6:µ
Mljikc ¸:6 ¡6+ ¡:8 ¡¡¡ ¡o¡ ¸¸¡
Òrčuša ¸¸6 ¡+¡ ¸µ¡ ¡¸+ ¡:¸ :+µ
Ðragaš ::¡ ¡o8 6+: 6µ¡ +o88 +oo8
Krstcc (G. and Ð.) 6¸¸ ¡6¡ ¡¸¡ ¡6: ¸µ8 8¸:
Ljcštanc ¡+¸ ¡¸¸ ¡µ8 6¡8 ¸¡¡ 666
Ljubojšta ¸+6 ¸¡¡ ¸8¡ ¡¡+ 6µ: ¸µ¡
Radcša ¡¡¸ ¸¡¸ 8¸¸ 88¡ +:¸¸ +:+¡
Rapča (G. and Ð.) ¸++ 88µ 88¡ ++:¡ +6¡¸ +¸µ¸
Globočica 6o¸ 6¡8 ¸¡¸ 8+¸ +o+: µ¡¸
Zljipotok µ+¡ ¡86 ¡¸: ¡68 6:¡ 6oµ
Krušcvo ¡o¡ :8+ ¸¸¸ ¡+¸ 6¡6 ¸+o
Rcstcljica ::¸µ +¸µ¸ +¸¸: :¡¸6 ¸¡¸¸ ¡o++
Total rz,¡¡r rr,r66 r¡,¡qy r6,886 r6,¡8o r6,¡6z
Goranies in the Twentieth Century
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡¡
Radivojc Mladcnović
Te Sirinićka Župa· Štrpce Municipality
HISTOFICÆL BÆCKGFOUND ÆND CUFFENT FIELD FESEÆFCH
Geographical, anthropological and historical background
!n thc sccond hall ol April :oo¸, ! spcnt two wccks in thc Sirinić arca, thc southcrnmost
Scrb cnclavc ol Kosovo and Mctohija, on thc northcrn slopcs ol Šar Mountain. My visit
thcrc was lundcd by thc projcct Æ Study of Sla.ic Speech in Koso.o and Metohija ol thc
!nstitutc lor Scrbian Languagc ol thc Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts, 8clgradc,
and financcd by UN¡SCÒ. Tc goal ol this projcct was to rccord local vcrnacular ma
tcrial suitablc lor multidisciplinary rcscarch in dialcctology, cthnolinguistics, sociolin
guistics, sociology, cthnology and musicology. About scvcnty hours ol autochthonous
vcrnacular was rccordcd on sitc. Prior to this, ! had spcnt at lcast tcn days in Sirinić in
+µµo, also gathcring languagc matcrial.
+
Tc Šar Mountain rcgion, ol which Sirinić is a part, is situatcd bc
twccn thc Prizrcn basin and thc narrow Polog vallcy and is a rcgion ol grcat
anthropological and cthnocultural complcxity. 8y way ol thc Lcpcnac rivcr
vallcy Sirinić is gcographically conncctcd to southcrn Kosovo and lurthcr
to Skopska Crna Gora, an arca ol today’s northcrn Maccdonia. Two mono
graphs havc bccn publishcd on thc dialcct ol thc othcr two Scrbian districts
on northcrn Šar Mountain, Gora and Srcdska (Pavlović +µ¸µ, Mladcnović
:oo+). My study into thc vcrnacular ol thc third Scrbinhabitcd cnclavc ol
thc Sirinić arca is in progrcss.
Tc intcrcst in thc Sirinić arca and its local vcrnacular (spccch) was
cncouragcd by its long history ol contact with hctcrogcncous spccch typcs
that wcrc oncc typologically vcry diffcrcnt. Tus, thcrc was contact with Scr
bian and Slav Maccdonian spccch typcs, with thosc ol southcrn Kosovo, ol
southcrn Mctohija, ol thc northcrn Šar Mountain, with south Slavic Macc
donian, wcstcrn Slavic Maccdonian and thosc dialccts spokcn in thc Skopjc
vallcy. !n addition to thc Scrb/Slav rcgions and spccchcs, thcrc was contact
+
Tis papcr is a rcviscd vcrsion ol Mladcnović :oo¡.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡6
with nonSlavic spccch systcms: \lach (oltcn callcd Tzintzar) and Albanian
vcrnaculars. Tis dynamic cthnolinguistic cxchangc lcd to thc cmcrgcncc
ol a spccific Scrbian vcrnacular with a singular dialcct ol its own.
Tc April :oo¸ visit aimcd to gathcr sufficicnt data lor a dialcctologi
cal dcscription ol Scrbian vcrnacular ol thc arca known as Sirinićka župa.
Tc obscrvation ol ccrtain scgmcnts ol languagc structurc in thc ficld was
aimcd to discovcr thc mcchanisms by which a pcriphcral Scrbian spccch
had cvolvcd. Tcrclorc, qucstionnaircs wcrc uscd lor somc ol thc rcscarch
subjccts. Tc topics ol discussion lor rccording spccch matcrial wcrc chan
nclcd towards various lorms and aspccts ol cvcryday and spiritual culturc.
8ccausc ol its abundant pasturcs and plcntilul supply ol watcr, thc northcrn Šar
Mountain, to which Sirinić bclongs, has bccn inhabitcd lrom thc carlicst timcs. Tcrc
wcrc pcrmancnt scttlcmcnts and migrant movcmcnt by scminomadic or nomadic pas
toralists ol thc ancicnt 8alkans. !n summcr thcy movcd to Šar, whilc spcnding thc
wintcrs with thcir hcrds in mildcr climatc to thc south. Tis scminomadic or nomadic
lilc on Šar Mountain disappcarcd probably in thc latc ninctccnth ccntury. Although thc
Scrbian clcmcnt by lar prcdominatcs in Sirinić in both gcographical and thc clan namcs
(pointing to a prcdominant Scrbian cthnographic and culturc), traccs ol palco8alkan
(Òld or ancicnt 8alkans) Aromanian \lachtypc namcs indicatc thc prcscncc on this
tcrritory ol nonSlavic palco8alkan pcoplcs who gradually mcrgcd into thc Scrbian
cthnocultural majority. Sincc thc locus hcrc is not a dctailcd analysis ol thc substratc,
it is obvious that with nonSlavic clcmcnts it is hard to say with ccrtainty which is ol
diachronic and which ol rcccnt origin. Tc dcnsity ol Romancc onomastics varics in thc
Slav part ol thc northcrn Šar Mountain whcrc Sirinić lics. Most ol thc confirmation
comcs lrom thc Muslim Slavinhabitcd Gora rcgion southwcst ol northcrn Šar, whosc
gcographical hintcrland is wcstcrn Maccdonia, whcrc thc conccntration ol nonSlavic
onomastics is highcr than in thc northcrn Šar Mountain arca.
Tc cthnic and cultural Slav group ol Sirinić considcrs thcmsclvcs in
cvcry way Scrbian by both languagc and idcntity whilc Sirinićans is thcir
local subrcgional idcntification, whcthcr thcir clan namc is ol Slav or non
Slav origin. Clans whosc namcs bcar traccs ol a nonSlav idiom lrcqucntly
insist that thcy wcrc and arc indigcnous. Tc cthnic and cultural mixturc
lound in Sirinić is a rcsult ol its gcographical location. Tc sitcs ol carly
8yzantinc lortifications point to its importancc in communications during
mcdicval timcs. Tcy wcrc built along an important routc which lcd lrom
Scupi (today’s Skopjc), crossing thc Lcpcnac rivcr and running parallcl to
it, along thc cdgc ol Šar Mountain, dcsccnding to thc Lcpcnac ncar thc
prcscnt Sirinić villagc ol Gotovuša whcrc thcrc is an carly 8yzantinc lorti
fication locally known as Zidinac. A littlc to thc northwcst, thc road madc
a turn towards thc \rbcštica vallcy. Vhcrc thc \rbcštica joins thc Lcpcnac
thcrc arc traccs ol anothcr carly 8yzantinc lortification (known locally by
two namcs – Čajlijc and Rimsko |Roman| Gradištc). Ncarby arc traccs ol a
8yzantinc structurc – Grčka (Grcck) Gradina. Northwcst ol Sirinić, traccs
ol a prcSlav prcscncc havc bccn prcscrvcd at a placc callcd Gradac. An ar
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +¡¸
chacological study ol thc carly 8yzantinc monumcnts mcntioncd abovc has
bcgun but is not yct complctc. Tc strcngth ol carly 8yzantinc prcscncc in
this arca, thc monumcnts and thc tcrritory warrant morc dctailcd rcscarch.
Ncar Sirinić, in a placc callcd Ravna Gora (about +¡¸o mctcrs abovc
sca lcvcl), bctwccn thc pcak ol Mt. Òstrovica and thc pass towards Šar
Mountain, gromile (stonc mounds) havc bccn lound – thc rcmains ol Scrb
tombstoncs prcdating convcrsion to Christianity. Tcy wcrc discovcrcd
about ¡oo mctrcs lrom thc lormcr Skopjc–Sirinić–Prizrcn road, and arc
thc oldcst known Scrbian sitc in this southcrnmost arca ol Scrbia. Tcy
datc lrom thc latc sixth to thc midninth ccntury, whcn thc Scrbs cvcntu
ally cmbraccd Christianity, thus abandoning thc crcmation ol thcir dcad. !t
is not clcar whcthcr thc prcscntday custom in Sirinić ol using a slcdgc to
Kosovo and Mctohija +¡8
bring thc dcccascd to thc ccmctcry is a tracc ol an carlicr Slavic burial ritual,
or is ol morc rcccnt datc, or whcthcr it owcs its origin to thc vagarics ol thc
mountainous tcrrain. Tc cult ol thc dcad is vcry promincnt in Sirinić.
Tc cstablishcd administrativc tcrm Sirinić has bccn uscd throughout this papcr,
although thc district is known by local pcoplc as Siriniće. Sirinić as a district is mcn
tioncd lor thc first timc in +¸¸+, whcn thc Scrbian King Stclan Ðušan, luturc “¡mpcror
ol Scrbs and Grccks” bcstowcd on thc Scrbian Monastcry ol Hilandar (Chilandar) on
Mount Athos in northcrn Grcccc “thc mountain ol Mlcčni Òt, abovc Sirinić”.
:
!t is also
mcntioncd in othcr Scrbian mcdicval documcnts as a Scrbian župa or district (¡mpcror
Stclan Ðušan’s chrysobull to thc Holy Archangcls ol +¸¡¡). Ðušan cndowcd thc towcr
(pyrgos) ol Hilandar Monastcry with “a small villagc abovc Sirinić”. Tc oldcst known
villagc ol this district is 8crcvcc, rclcrrcd to in thrcc placcs in a thirtccnthccntury Scr
bian gospcl book.
¸

!ts widcsprcad namc – Sirinićka Župa (thc Sirinić district) – which
occurs in local usagc and dcrivcs lrom thc prcvious onc is ol morc rcccnt
origin. !t is thc most widcsprcad tcrm uscd in rcccnt publications on Sirinić.
Tc local namc ol this district ol Šar Mountain is Siriniće, with its rccog
nizablc morphological pattcrn, commonly lound in thc namcs ol hamlcts
and Òttoman loundcd quartcrs or ncighbourhoods (mahalle) in this district:
Šarkoće, Orloće, Pećinoće, Gradoće ctc. Tc currcnt local namc ol Sirinićka
Župa is thc samc as it was in mcdicval Scrbia. !t was in thc post+µ¡os that
thc wholc district was cvcntually rcnamcd Štrpce, altcr thc administrativc
ccntrc locatcd in thc town ol Štrpcc.
Tc Scrbian population ol Sirinić call thcmsclvcs Sirinićani –
Sirinićans. Tc population ol thc Srctačka Župa, Prizrcn and surrounding
arcas in southcrn Mctohija call thcm Šopo.i – Šops. Tc namc has somc
what pcjorativc connotation and docs not appcar as an cthnographonym in
thc way thc Scrb population ol Sirinić dcfinc thcmsclvcs.
¡

Sirinić is a mountainous district, situatcd in onc ol thc northcast loothills ol Šar
Mountain, in thc uppcr coursc ol thc Lcpcnac rivcr. !t strctchcs to thc 8rodska Klisura
(thc 8rod Canyon), which cmcrgcs in thc southcrnmost part ol Kosovo. Sirinić sprcads
out in a wcstcast dircction. To thc wcst, thc district is conncctcd to thc Srcdačka župa
district by thc Prcvalac Pass, and to southcrn Mctohija by thc vallcy ol thc Prizrcnska
8istrica. To thc cast, it is conncctcd to southcrn Kosovo by thc canyon ol thc Lcpcnac.
To thc north and south, thc mountains scparatc Sirinić lrom othcr ncighbouring rc
gions. To thc south arc thc high ridgcs ol Šar, with a pass at ovcr :,ooo mctrcs. Tc
:
Cf. morc in Zadužbine Koso.a |¡ndowmcnts ol Kosovo|, ¸¡¡.
¸
As rccordcd in Zadužbine Koso.a, ¸µ¸.
¡
Tc usc ol thc tcrm Šop with a primarily pcjorativc mcaning appcars in thc ccntral
8alkans, including rcgions in 8ulgaria, Scrbia and Maccdonia. !ts usc in thc Kumanovo
arca is ol importancc lor Sirinićans, sincc thcrc arc somc intcrcsting parallcls in thc vcr
naculars ol thcsc two tiny arcas. Òn thc qucstion ol Šopluk and Šops, cf. thc inlormativc
but incomplctc study by 8ulgarian cthnologist P. Hristov (Hristov :oo¡).
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +¡µ
communication with thc Prizrcnski Podgor arca to thc north is much bcttcr than with
thc Polog arca. Tus most local migration took placc bctwccn thc Sirinić and Podgor
arcas, in both dircctions, notably until thc midninctccnth ccntury whcn Albanians
bcgan to inhabit somc ol thc villagcs ol Podgor. Frcqucnt contact with Scrb inhabitants
ol Prizrcnski Podgor, cspccially thc upland villagcs, rcsultcd in thc appcarancc ol ccrtain
charactcristic languagc traits in thcsc villagcs. Tcsc lcaturcs arc typical ol Sirinić spccch
and arc unknown clscwhcrc in southcrn Mctohija.
Sirinić cncompasscs sixtccn villagcs within its gcographical bound
arics. Travclling lrom wcst to cast along thc right bank ol thc Lcpcnac arc
thc lollowing placcs (scc map: Štrpcc Municipality, Tourist Map
¡
): Scvcc,
Jažnicc, 8rczovica (Bre.ojca
6
), Štrpcc, Gotovuša, Ðrajkovcc, Firaja, 8rod.
Òn thc lclt sidc ol Lcpcnac arc: \rbcštica, 8crcvcc (Berejce), Ðonja 8itin
ja (Dognja Bitinja), Gornja 8itinja, Sušićc (Šušiće), \iča, Koštanjcvo and
!žancc. Tc administrativc ccntrc is in Štrpcc, which is thc largcst populatcd
arca. Most villagcs arc old, confirmcd in sourccs mainly lrom thc lourtccnth
and filtccnth ccnturics. 8rczovica is thc only ncw villagc, cmcrging in thc
+µ6os on thc sitc ol lormcr hcrdsmcn’s shcltcrs and old mining scttlcmcnts.
As tourism dcvclopcd, thc last thrcc dccadcs ol thc twcnticth ccntury saw
thc cxpansion ol thc 8rczovica ski rcsort, it is thcrc or in thc immcdiatc sur
roundings that most ol thc hotcls and summcr homcs wcrc built.
!n :oo¸ twothirds ol thc Sirinić population wcrc Christian Scrbs,
and oncthird wcrc Muslim Albanians. Scrbs inhabit thc middlc and wcst
crn part ol thc district, whilc Albanians livc mainly in thc cast. Tc Scr
bian villagcs wcrc and still arc: Scvcc, Jažincc, \rbcštica, 8rczovica, Štrpcc,
8crcvcc, Gotovuša. \illagcs with mixcd Scrbian and Albanian populations
arc: Ðonja 8itinja, Gornja 8itinja, Sušićc, \iča, Ðrajkovcc. Tc Albanian
villagcs arc: Firaja, 8rod, !žancc, Koštanjcvo.
!l Scrbs and Albanians inhabit thc samc villagc, thcy tcnd to rcmain
in scparatc hamlcts. Tcsc hamlcts arc somctimcs so rcmotc that thcy could
bc rcgardcd as scparatc villagcs. Ðuring thc NATÒ bombing campaign in
+µµµ, most ol thc Albanians lrom thc mixcd villagcs ol ccntral Sirinić arca
lclt thcir hamlcts. Ncvcrthclcss, thcy rcturncd in :oo¸. Vith thc cxccption
ol \iča, Scrbs rcmaincd to bc thc majority in all cthnically mixcd villagcs
ol Sirinić.
!n April :oo¸, roughly +¸,ooo Scrbs wcrc living in Sirinić. Until
mid:oo¡, this numbcr had not changcd significantly. Altcr thc March
:oo¡ Albanianlcd pogroms against thc local Scrb population throughout
Kosovo and Mctohija, scvcral armcd attacks on Scrbs lollowcd – mainly
¡
Tc map map Štrpce Municipality Tourist Map is takcn lrom Srcćko Nikolić, cd. Štrpce
Municipality, Sirinić District, Gcographical !nstitutc „Jovan Cvijić“, Sp. ¡d., \ol. ¸¸/!!!
(8clgradc: Scrbian Acadcmy ol Arts and Scicnccs, +µµ+), +¡8 ff.
6
Vithin thc brackcts is thc local namc, il diffcrcnt lrom thc administrativc namc.
Kosovo and Mctohija +6o
on thc road which runs through thc Albanian villagcs ol Sirinić. !t was thc
rising conccrn lor thcir salcty that lorccd Sirinić Scrbs to bcgin moving out
lrom Kosovo and sclling thcir propcrty. Tc killing ol two and wounding ol
two othcr Scrbs in August :oo¡ madc intcrcommunity rclations morc dil
ficult, only to bccomc morc cstrangcd altcr an improviscd bomb cxplodcd
on +¸ Novcmbcr :oo¡ in thc ccntral Grccn Markct in Štrpcc. !n :oo6, altcr
numcrous cthnically motivatcd attacks, lrcqucnt harassmcnts and ovcrall
discrimination by thc Kosovo Albanians, most ol thc Scrbs startcd to rc
think thcir luturc in an arca dcprivcd ol basic sccurity and human rights
guarantccs and wcrc cvcn taking into considcration to lcavc thc Sirinić dis
trict lor ccntral Scrbia.
According to both Scrbian mcdicval sourccs and Òttoman land rcg
istry rccords, Sirinić was populatcd by Christian Òrthodox Scrbs. Practi
cally all thc villagcs ol Sirinić which still cxist today wcrc mcntioncd in
thc first Òttoman ccnsus ol +¡¡¡ (cxccpt lor Ðrajkovac and Sušićc), which
points to thc continuity ol thc population ol this district. According to
this ccnsus, thc largcst villagc was Sclcc (86 houscs), and thc smallcst was
Koštanjcvo (:o houscs). Midfiltccnthccntury Òttoman defters also con
firm that Sirinić was a dcnscly populatcd rural arca, mostly by a Christian
Òrthodox Scrb population.
Until thc midcightccnth ccntury thcrc wcrc no Albanians living in
this district. Tc oldcst Albanian clans appcar in thc villagcs ol Firaja and
Gornja 8itinja. Most ol today’s Muslim Albanian clans camc to thc Scrbian
villagcs ol Sirinić lrom northcrn Albania during thc ninctccnth ccntury.
Tc Sirinić Albanians arc mostly thc dcsccndants ol !slamizcd and cvcntu
ally Albanizcd Scrbs who, although lcw in numbcr, passcd on thc cxisting
placcnamcs to thc Albanian ncwcomcrs. Until thc rcccnt rcnaming into
Albanian, thc pcrccntagc ol placcnamcs ol Scrb origin in Albanianinhab
itcd villagcs was considcrablc.
Tc grazing lands, thc largcst and bcst ol that kind in thc 8alkans arc
locatcd on thc north sidc ol Šar Mountain, making both an orographic and
hydrographic watcrshcd. !t is no wondcr thcn that Šar Mountain has bccn
wcll populatcd lrom thc carlicst timcs. Tc namc Šar, uscd locally today,
dcrivcs lrom its ancicnt namc ol Scardus, as notcd by thc Grcck gcographcr
Strabo at thc bcginning ol thc Christian cra.
!n ancicnt timcs, Šar Mountain was inhabitcd by an !llyrian tribc
known as thc Ðardanians. Tcrc arc traccs ol prcSlavic scttlcmcnts in
Sirinić at scvcral locations. Vhcn Scrbs movcd to thc arca, thc Òld 8al
kan population bccamc partly assimilatcd, as thc prcscrvcd nonScrbian
toponyms tcstily. Tc vcry namc ol thc district (Siriniće) is ol Scrbian ori
gin. Tc namcs ol villagcs, whcthcr populatcd by Scrbs or Albanians, arc
Scrbian. Tc namc ol thc Albanian villagc Firaja was Papraćina´Papradina
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +6+
(Fcrns) until thc cnd ol thc ninctccnth ccntury, whilc its currcnt namc is
a translation ol thc Scrbian. !n contrast, Albanians kcpt othcr Scrb namcs:
Brod (mcaning a ship) is at a rivcr crossing, Koštanje.o took its namc lrom
thc chcstnut trcc (thc local Scrbian tcrm is koštanj).
A numbcr ol toponyms point to a nonSlav substratc, and bcar wit
ncss to pcoplcs who oncc livcd hcrc. !n thc namc ol rivcr Muržica, thc first
part ol thc word is Romancc and thc sccond (ica) is Scrbian. Tc mcaning
ol thc namc bccomcs clcar whcn wc know that thc rivcr flows through an
arca ol dark grcy rocks, and whcn wc comparc it to local namcs lor domcstic
animals with a rccognizablc \lach substratum: murga is a shccp with black
flcccc, murdžo is a dog with grcyblack hair. Tc namcs ol somc Scrbian
clans lrom Sirinić, such as thc Cuculcvi, Lingurci, Cumpalcvi, 8udurini ctc.
point to a nonSlavic, \lach substratum. Tc prcscncc ol othcr clcmcnts in
thc substratc, howcvcr, docs not disputc thc prcdominancc ol thc Scrbian
cthnocultural typc in Sirinić.
Tc prcscncc ol hctcrogcncous anthropologic typcs may bc traccd
throughout thc Sirinić arca. Tc varicty ol spccch spcaks ol thc continuity
ol diffcrcnt cthnocultural groups and contact among diffcrcnt populations
ovcr a lcngthy pcriod ol timc. Unlortunatcly, no morphological rcscarch has
bccn carricd out in Sirinić.
Tcrc havc bccn no migrations ol any significancc to Scrbinhabitcd
Sirinić in rcccnt timcs. Hcncc, thc prcscnt Scrbian cthnocultural typc in
Sirinić arca has bccn both stablc and prolific. As thc villagcs ol Sirinić wcrc
off thc main roads, thc arca was not grcatly dcpopulatcd, as othcr parts
ol Kosovo and Mctohija wcrc during thc scrics ol Scrb migrations to thc
Habsburg ¡mpirc lrom ncighbouring arcas lrom thc latc scvcntccnth to
thc midcightccnth ccntury. Sirinić Scrbs movcd mainly out ol villagcs in
thc ncighbourhood ol southcrn Kosovo, lollowing thc main currcnts ol mi
gratory movcmcnts. Albanians scttlcd into thcsc partially cmpticd villagcs,
which cxplains why thcy arc to bc lound mostly in arcas in thc vicinity ol
southcrn Kosovo.
A smallcr numbcr ol Scrbs scttlcd in thc Sirinić arca, mostly lrom
thc bordcr rcgions ol southcrn Kosovo, southcrn Mctohija and northwcst
crn Maccdonia, and morc rarcly, thcy wcrc coming lrom thc morc rcmotc
arcas ol northcrn Albania and Montcncgro (Gusinjc, Kuči, 8oka). Most ol
thcsc smallinnumbcr migrations took placc bctwccn thc midcightccnth
and thc sccond hall ol thc ninctccnth ccntury. Apart lrom Montcncgrins,
immigrants brought cthnocultural and languagc charactcristics to Sirinić
that did not diffcr much lrom thc languagc ol thc nativc Scrb population.
!n Sušićc, which had a significant numbcr ol Montcncgrin immigrants, thc
ijeka.ian variant ol Scrbian thcy introduccd rcsistcd adjustmcnt to local
spccch lor a prctty long timc. ¡vcn though by now Sušićc has intcgratcd to
Kosovo and Mctohija +6:
a grcat cxtcnt with thc rcst ol Sirinić, it still has not adjustcd complctcly to
thc local cthnocultural typc.
Tra.elling to Sirinić and back
Travclling to Sirinić by onc ol scvcral rcgular bus lincs lrom 8clgradc is
intcrruptcd at Mcrdarc chcckpoint, whcrc lics thc boundary ol thc Au
tonomous Provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija, undcr UNM!K (Unitcd Na
tions !ntcrim Administration Mission in Kosovo) control sincc +µµµ. Tat
chcckpoint, although an administrativc boundary insidc Scrbia, diffcrs littlc
lrom a bordcr crossing. Altcr thc customs control, cvcry Scrb convoy must
bc additionally protcctcd lrom possiblc attacks ol Albanian cxtrcmists by
Kosovo Forcc (KFÒR) soldicrs. ¡scortcd by KFÒR wc sct off towards thc
city ol Podujcvo, clcanscd ol Scrbs alrcady in +µµµ. Tc convoy passcd it by,
and continucd towards Milošcvo, bypassing thc provincial capital Priština,
clcanscd ol Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanians in +µµµ, and stopping outsidc
thc Scrbinhabitcd cnclavc ol Gračanica. Tc convoy (i.c. bus lull ol Kosovo
Scrbs, cscortcd by KFÒR) thcn took thc main road to Kačanik and Skopjc
until it had passcd Urošcvac, whcrc it turncd on to thc road that lcads to
Sirinić through thc 8rod Canyon. Tc military cscort rcmaincd with us as
lar as Ðrajkovac whcrc, lollowing thc Rivcr Lcpcnac, bcgins thc Scrbian
part ol Sirinić.
Tc Albanianinhabitcd villagcs wc passcd through wcrc usually
lairly dcvoid ol pcoplc and vchiclcs. !t was obvious that thcy got out ol thc
way whcn Scrb convoys cscortcd by KFÒR soldicrs and armourcd vchiclcs
wcrc passing. !n somc ol thc gardcns ol thc houscs by thc road, Albanian
childrcn by mimc and gcsturc mimickcd cutting thc throats ol thc passcn
gcrs in thc convoy. A lcw stoncs wcrc thrown at thc bus ! was travclling in
and towards othcr vchiclcs as wcll. Tc KFÒR soldicrs did not rcact to thcsc
provocations.
As a lormcr citizcn ol Prizrcn (until +µ8µ), and a lrcqucnt travcl
lcr throughout Kosovo and Mctohija, ! noticcd thc striking changc in thc
landscapc that had takcn placc bctwccn +µµµ and :oo¸. Tc burntout vil
lagcs and ncighbourhoods that wcrc Scrbinhabitcd up to midJunc +µµµ,
all bccamc abandoncd. Tc abandoncd houscs ol thc cxpcllcd Kosovo Scrbs
tcstificd to ccnturicsold ScrbianAlbanian misundcrstandings, rivalrics
and antagonism. Vhilc thc burnt Scrbian villagcs rcmaincd dcscrtcd, in thc
burntout Albanian villagcs ncw houscs wcrc rcbuilt lrom thc ashcs – most
ol thcm without whitcwashcd laçadcs. ! could scc lrom thc bus many Al
banianowncd ncw buildings ol diffcrcnt sizcs, intcndcd lor diffcrcnt pur
poscs and with Albanian flags.
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +6¸
Tc strctch ol thc main road to Skopjc lrom Priština to Urošcvac
was particularly diffcrcnt. Formcr crop ficlds wcrc altcr Junc +µµµ trans
lormcd into onc long strcct. Apart lrom houscs, thcrc arc hotcls, motcls,
pctrol stations, shopping malls. Tc buildings wcrc lor thc most part cmpty
and in thc gaps bctwccn, cows and shccp wcrc lrcqucntly to bc sccn, grazing
contcntcdly. Almost all thc largcr buildings wcrc flying thc flags ol Albania
in thc first placc, showing that Albania comcs first, with occasionally US,
Gcrman, NATÒ or ¡U flags as wcll, covcring total disrcgard lor both urban
planning and cnvironmcntal protcction.
Vhcn thc Scrb convoy turncd off thc main road onto thc road lcad
ing to Sirinić through thc 8rod Canyon a tcnsc silcncc was lclt in thc bus.
Tcrc had bccn many armcd attacks on convoys carrying Scrbs in this part
ol thc canyon altcr Junc +µµµ, cvcn whcn thcy wcrc undcr KFÒR cscort.
Fcar ol a possiblc Albanian attack was morc than visiblc among thc pas
scngcrs.
!n Sirinić itscll, by thc samc road thc convoy took, ncar thc Albanian
villagc ol Firaja, thc socallcd Kosovo Libcration Army (KLA) had built a
monumcnt to thcir lallcn, a lamiliar iconography with flags ol ncighbouring
Albania. As thc convoy passcd, thcrc wcrc about a hundrcd Albanian pri
maryschool childrcn who had bccn brought thcrc to visit thc monumcnt.
! did not rcturn to 8clgradc thc samc way but wcnt via castcrn
Kosovo, passing thc Gnjilanc arca through Klokot, Gnjilanc, Končulj and
lurthcr into ccntral Scrbia – to 8ujanovac in thc Prcšcvo basin. Tcrc was
no KFÒR cscort on this road,
¸
although thc Niš-Express bus kcpt its largc
Scrbian logo. Frcqucnt traffic jams in thc ovcrpopulatcd rcsidcntial arcas arc
duc to a high birthratc and thc influx ol thc rural Albanian population into
thc urban arcas. At Gnjilanc, altcr +µµµ gradually clcanscd ol its Scrbian
population, thc bus was haltcd lor twcnty minutcs and cncirclcd by a group
ol hostilc Albanians thrcatcning us with lrightcning vcrbal provocations.
Sirinić can also bc rcachcd lrom Prizrcn via thc Srcdačka Župa dis
trict. Sincc thc uppcr (Scrbian) part ol Sirinić and thc Srcdačka Župa arc
populatcd by Christian Scrbs and Muslim Slavs, local intcrcthnic commu
nication, givcn thc lact that thc two communitics spcak thc samc languagc
and sharc thc lcar ol Albanian cxtrcmists, is considcrcd as vital, whilc mu
tual rclations havc rcmaincd dcccnt and almost lricndly.
¸
At thc bcginning ol :oo¡, thc obligatory KFÒR cscort lrom thc Mcrdarc chcckpoint
dircction was also abolishcd, lcaving Scrb passcngcrs to travcl, sccuritywisc, on thcir
own rcsponsibility.
Kosovo and Mctohija +6¡
Sirinić, Æpril :cc¸
At thc hotcl Narcis on 8rczovica most ol thc gucsts wcrc lorcigncrs, mcm
bcrs ol various organizations and UN contingcnts. Tcrc wcrc also somc
Albanian tourists cnjoying thc natural splcndour ol Sirinić. As ! was told
by thc hotcl staff, thcy hostcd numcrous mcctings attcndcd by Kosovo Al
banians and mcmbcrs ol intcrnational organizations stationcd in Kosovo.
Albanians wcrc in and passing through thc Scrbian part ol Sirinić without
mccting any inconvcnicncc.
Tc allScrbian hotcl staff was struggling with shorttcrm hot wa
tcr supplics and unprcdictablc shortagcs ol clcctricity oltcn tcn hours long.
Sincc thc hotcl had a powcr unit, this inconvcnicncc was mitigatcd. Tc
hcating was satislactory, thc lood wcllprcparcd, thc scrvicc adcquatc. !t was
noticcablc that lorcigncrs avoidcd cating grccn salad and applcs. A Ukra
nian KFÒR officcr adviscd mc to avoid cating lood that might havc comc
lrom thc Kosovo arca bccausc ol thc incrcascd radiation causcd by tons
ol clustcr bombs with dcplctcd uranium that wcrc uscd during thc +µµµ
bombing campaign.
! spcnt most ol my timc spcnt in Scrbian villagcs and hamlcts, rc
cording languagc matcrial. Tc hotcl staff arrangcd transport to thc morc
rcmotc placcs, whilc to villagcs not lar lrom 8rczovica ! wcnt on loot, awarc
ol thc dangcr ol cthnically motivatcd attacks by Albanian cxtrcmists. Al
though thc road through Sirinić lrom thc Urošcvac, Skopjc and Prizrcn
dircction was rcopcncd, thcrc wcrc scvcral cthnically motivatcd murdcrs
ol local Scrbs by thc Albanian cxtrcmists bctwccn Junc +µµµ and April
:oo¸. Ðcspitc thc discomlort duc to thc sccurity conccrns, ! walkcd thc
tcn kilomctrcs bctwccn thc wcstcrnmost villagc ol Scvcc and thc hotcl at
8rczovica, along thc loaming Lcpcnac Rivcr, on a sunny day undcr thc dccp
bluc sky ol thc mountain. ! lound thc local Scrb population vcry lrightcncd,
lcaring cthically motivatcd attacks, and rcluctant to lcavc inhabitcd arcas
without military cscort. Ðriving at night through this arca was avoidcd cvcn
by mcmbcrs ol thc lully armcd KFÒR contingcnt.
Tis unccrtainty mcans that most ol thc larming ficlds and mcadows
in thc Scrbian part ol Sirinić arc abandoncd and ovcrgrown with brush.
Local Scrb larmcrs do not darc to work in thcir own land unlcss thcy arc
locatcd ncxt to thc villagcs. A KFÒR military basc manncd mainly by
Ukrainian soldicrs had takcn ovcr thc hotcl Bre.a, not lar lrom thc Narcis.
Tc soldicrs bchavcd wcll and did not intcrlcrc much in thc lilc ol thc Scrb
Sirinićans. \isiblc was thc Kosovo policc lorcc that includcd Albanians and
local Scrbs as wcll.
How do pcoplc livc in thc Scrbian part ol Sirinić: Tcrc was no ma
jor migration lrom thc district in +µµµ. Ncvcrthclcss a ccrtain numbcr ol
displaccd Scrbs movcd into this arca lrom thc surrounding rcgions: thc
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +6¡
Srcdačka Župa, Prizrcn, Urošcvac and lrom villagcs in southcrn Kosovo and
southcrn Mctohija. According to currcnt cstimatcs, thc numbcr ol displaccd
Scrbs varics lrom ¸¡o to +:¡o, including lourtccn Krajina Scrb rclugccs
lrom Croatia and onc cxtcndcd Roma lamily. Scrbs wcrc mainly placcd in
lour collcctivc ccntrcs lor intcrnally displaccd pcrsons. Somc ol thc Scrb
!ÐPs wcrc scttlcd in rcntcd apartmcnts and houscs, whilc a small numbcr
ol thcsc Scrbs lound rclugc in summcr houscs locatcd abovc thc mountain
ol 8rczovica.
8

Hotcls and holiday villagcs bclonging to Scrbian statcowncd com
panics lrom Kosovo and Mctohija havc bccn turncd into rclugcc ccntrcs.
Lilc in thcm is difficult: too many ol thc sad and dcspcratc, thc sullcnly
staring, thc rcdcycd, thosc whosc voiccs brcak whcn thcy spcak, crammcd
into a spacc too small lor thcm. Ðuring my many prc+µµµ visits in Sirinić
and 8rczovica both thc rclugcc ccntrcs and thc displaccd pcrsons inhabit
ing thcm wcrc miscrablc and prcmaturcly agcd.
According to inlormation lrom March :oo6, living conditions in thc
collcctivc ccntrcs lor intcrnally displaccd pcrsons havc not improvcd. Òn
thc contrary, thcy havc had no clcctricity or hcating sincc Ðcccmbcr :oo¡.
!n this way, thc Albaniandominatcd Kosovo institutions arc trying to lorcc
out thc Scrb !ÐPs in ordcr to scll off thc hotcls and rcsorts.
8
According to data lrom March :oo¡, Scrbian owncrs sold thcsc summcrhouscs to Al
banians, and thc intcrnally displaccd Scrbs wcrc cvcntually compcllcd to lcavc thc arca.
Kosovo and Mctohija +66
Vhat arc thc living conditions ol thc Scrbs in Sirinić: Tc mctal
industry in Štrpcc ccascd to lunction in thc carly +µµos. Ònly thosc whosc
salarics wcrc financcd lrom thc Scrbian statc budgct wcrc paid a minimal
wagc. Ncvcrthclcss, in ordcr to cncouragc Scrbs to stay in thc arca, thc wagcs
lor Scrb statc cmployccs wcrc doublcd. !n :oo¸, both Scrb mcdical doctors,
and clcmcntary and sccondary school tcachcrs wcrc paid thrcc timcs morc
than thcir collcagucs in Kragujcvac or 8clgradc. Twothirds ol thc salary
camc lrom thc budgct ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia, whilc thc rcmaining third
was supplcmcntcd by UNM!K.
As in thc dccadcs prior to +µµµ, most Sirinićans work in tourism
and thc hotcl busincss. Apart lrom largc hotcls such as thc Narcis or thc
Molika, thcrc arc also smallcr privatc tourist lacilitics, somc built altcr +µµµ.
Morc comlortablc buildings, mainly in Štrpcc, havc bccn rcntcd to various
intcrnational organizations, and lor thc samc rcnting purposc (to bc rcntcd
solcly to intcrnationals) scvcral ncw buildings owncd by thc local Scrbs
wcrc rcccntly constructcd in Štrpcc. Howcvcr, thcrc wcrc no construction
sitcs lor anything ol a diffcrcnt naturc, which rcflccts widcsprcad insccurity
among thc Scrb community.
Until thc mid+µµos thcrc wcrc many local and lorcign gucsts to bc
sccn skiing in Sirinić. Tc numbcr was sharply rcduccd during and altcr thc
+µµµ NATÒ bombing. Many lorcigncrs arc back, this timc solcly consisting
ol thc mcmbcrs ol thc UN mission. Ncvcrthclcss, morc Albanians arc on thc
ski slopcs than prior to Junc +µµµ. !n January :oo¡, thc first thrcc groups ol
tourists lrom 8clgradc had managcd to comc in Sirinić. !n thc mcantimc,
according to data lrom March :oo6, thc Albaniancontrollcd Kosovo gov
crnmcnt as a part ol P!SG has bccn prcparing to pursuc thc privatization
ol Scrb statcowncd tourist lacilitics, with Albanians intcrcstcd in buying
thc important !ncx Ski Ccntrc. Albanians, as thc ncw mastcrs in thc arca,
havc bought up almost all thc summcr houscs along thc rivcr Muržica lrom
thcir prcvious Scrb owncrs, cithcr cxpcllcd lrom statcowncd companics or
simply displaccd lrom Kosovo and Mctohija. Tcrclorc, somc Sirinićans arc
in thc tradc busincss. Tcir wcllsupplicd shops offcr priccs lowcr than in
8clgradc sincc thcy pay no tax. Modcst trading has bccn rccstablishcd with
Albanians lrom ncarby arcas, in towns lrom which thc Scrbs wcrc drivcn
out in +µµµ.
Until thc +µ¡os, thc main branch ol thc cconomy in Sirinić was hcrd
ing. \cry lcw pcoplc arc still cngagcd in this whilc thc numbcr ol shccp has
bccn significantly rcduccd sincc +µµµ. Tc rcason is that – duc to Albanian
violcncc – grazing lands havc bccn rcduccd to thc land within a villagc, and
hay is no longcr cut in rcmotc mcadows. Ðuring my visit, thcrc wcrc hardly
any bačilo lclt in thc Scrbian part ol Sirinić. Tcsc wcrc groups ol Òld 8al
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +6¸
kantypc mountain huts whcrc shccp wcrc kcpt and milk proccsscd in thc
traditional way.
Much ol Sirinić is covcrcd in lorcst, so barrcl making, cart making
and charcoal burning uscd to bc highly dcvclopcd busincss, whilc today, it is
only thc lcgcnds that arc lclt. !n thc vicinity ol Jažincc and \rbcštica traccs
ol old chromium mincs arc still visiblc. Tc mincs wcrc closcd down scvcral
dccadcs ago.
Ðuring thc ninctccnth ccntury, duc to thc dccrcasing numbcr ol
hcrds causcd by incrcasing violcncc in Òttoman Turkcyin¡uropc and
attacks by Albanian bandits lrom ncighbouring arcas, including thc Al
banianinhabitcd arca ol Luma, somc Sirinićans turncd to migrant labour
during thc ninctccnth ccntury. Tcy wcnt to ncarby arcas as tailors (ter.ija),
masons and diggcrs. !n thc latc ninctccnth ccntury thcy bcgan cmigrating
to Romania and both Amcricas. Ðuring thc last dccadcs ol thc twcnticth
ccntury thcy oltcn wcnt to Vcstcrn ¡uropc looking lor work. Tc inhabit
ants ol Kosovo, including thc population ol Sirinić, rcccivc financial aid
lrom UNM!K according to ccrtain critcria.
Local institutions in Sirinić
a) A dual systcm ol paymcnt transactions lunctioncd in Sirinić – onc undcr
thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia, thc othcr undcr thc provisional Kosovo institutions.
Pcoplc rcccivcd thcir pcnsions as usual lrom thc Pcnsions Fund ol thc Rc
public ol Scrbia, with both Scrb dinars and curos in circulation.
b) Tcrc was a rilt among Scrbs in Sirinić ovcr thc lunctioning ol
thc local authoritics. Tc rcal powcr rcsidcs in thc hands ol thosc Scrbs
who participatcd in Kosovo local clcctions ol :oo:. Tc othcrs, lacking rcal
compctcncc, wcrc in powcr bclorc Junc +µµµ.
Tc Štrpcc Municipal Asscmbly was clcctcd bclorc Junc 1999. Al
banians boycottcd thcsc clcctions. Altcr Junc 1999, ncw local clcctions or
ganizcd by UNM!K wcrc, in turn, boycottcd by thc Scrbs. Tc Albanians,
although a minority in thc municipality, wcnt to thc polls and won all mu
nicipal scats. A major disagrccmcnt blcw up bctwccn UNM!K and local
Scrbs who would not allow thc Albanian rcprcscntativcs to cntcr thc As
scmbly building. At thc samc timc, thosc holding powcr prior to Junc 1999
rcmaincd in officc.
!n ordcr to casc tcnsions, UNM!K hcld local clcctions in :oo:. Tc
Scrbs ol Sirinić took part, won twothirds ol thc scats in Štrpcc Municipal
Asscmbly and thus hold thc rcins ol powcr at local lcvcl. Howcvcr, somc
ol thosc clcctcd prior to Junc +µµµ rcluscd to rccognizc thc ncw clcctions,
which lcd to a split among thc Scrbs. So it happcncd that in January :oo¡,
Kosovo and Mctohija +68
supportcrs ol both local authoritics cclcbratcd Sa.indan (thc lcast ol St.
Sava) in thc samc hall ol thc local cultural ccntrc at thc samc timc, but on
oppositc sidcs ol thc room. Squabblcs ol this kind arc not rarc.
c) !n thc Scrbinhabitcd parts ol Sirinić, tcaching in schools lollows
thc curriculum and tcxtbooks ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia, and rccognizcd
school documcnts and administration rcmain within thc samc systcm. Tc
numbcr ol pupils in primary and sccondary schools is sufficicnt. Rcqucsts
by thc tcmporary administration and UNM!K to confinc tcaching to thc
Kosovo cducational systcm arc ignorcd. Somc ol thc tcaching staff arc dis
placcd pcrsons lrom thc surrounding Scrbinhabitcd rcgions ol Kosovo,
bringing thc lcvcl ol qualification highcr than it was in +µµµ.
Living as thcy do within a rclativcly compact unit ol Scrbian villagcs
and rclying to thc wcst on thc Scrbian (Slav) district ol thc Srcdačka Župa,
Sirinićans livc in bcttcr conditions than Scrbs in othcr parts ol Kosovo and
Mctohija, and ccrtainly bcttcr than Scrbs in cnclavcs in Mctohija. How
cvcr, thc anxicty causcd by thc ghcttolikc situation is prcscnt in Sirinić
as wcll. Rcluctantly, thcy spcak ol constant lcar. Tcrc is bittcrncss ovcr
somc Sirinićans who dicd bccausc thc ncarcst mcdical assistancc was in thc
Scrbhospital ol Kosovska Mitrovica. Tc only salc way to rcach Mitrovica,
withouth bcing harasscd or attackcd by thc Albanian cxtrcmists was and
rcmains to bc with a KFÒR cscort. A wcck altcr my arrival in Sirinić a
thirtyycarold woman was buricd. Shc had dicd in childbirth bccausc thc
KFÒR vchiclc that was supposcd to takc hcr to Mitrovica camc about tcn
hours altcr rccciving thc call. Scrbs arc lrustratcd bccausc thcy cannot lrccly
movc around outsidc Sirinić. Frustration and uncmploymcnt havc incrcascd
thc numbcr ol alcoholics and ncurotics in this district.
!n April :oo¸, thc Sirinićans did not want to movc out and scttlc
clscwhcrc. Tc Scrbs lrom this arca wcrc rcady to fight lor both thcir human
and collcctivc rights, protccting thcir vcry survival in thc arca. Tcy oltcn
cxpcctcd morc assistancc and additional undcrstanding lrom thcir lcllow
countrymcn in othcr parts ol Scrbia. Tcir cxpcctations wcrc somctimcs
unrcalistic, whilc somctimcs, duc to thc ghcttosituation thcy rcactcd vcry
cmotionally.
!n thc mcantimc, altcr scvcral Scrbs had bccn attackcd, woundcd and
murdcrcd, and altcr bombs had bccn plantcd, thc numbcr ol thosc who bc
licvcd that survival was possiblc dccrcascd. Tcy said that il Kosovo bccamc
an indcpcndcnt statc, thcy would collcctivcly movc out. Tcir hopcs arc that
thc local Scrbian administration will rcmain in any luturc arrangcmcnts lor
Kosovo status within thc tcrritorial intcgrity ol thc Rcpubic ol Scrbia.
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +6µ
!illages and buildings
!n Sirinić, villagcs wcrc built along thc Rivcr Lcpcnac or its strcams. Tc
houscs arc usually clustcrcd togcthcr, oltcn with dctachcd mahalas. Voodcn,
or lcss lrcqucntly wattlcanddaub, houscs wcrc oncc prcdominant. Rools
wcrc oltcn thatchcd. Such houscs no longcr cxist in Sirinić. Sincc thc grcat
fircs ol thc ninctccnth ccntury, stonc houscs bcgan rcplacing woodcn oncs.
Traccs ol carlicr wattlcanddaub homcs can bc lound on thc villagc out
skirts, mainly in upland arcas. Tcy arc uscd today as outhouscs lor shccp
and goats or lor storing hay. Local watcr supply systcms havc bccn installcd
in all villagcs in Sirinić, both Scrbian and Albanian.
Apart lrom houscs, thcrc arc also somc small shcds lor larm animals
within thc villagc boundarics, usually within thc samc yard as thc housc.
Òutsidc thc villagcs arc long cowbyrcs whcrc grcatcr numbcrs ol cattlc
uscd to bc kcpt. Many lamilics had a bačilo, placcs whcrc animals wcrc kcpt
in summcr. Òn a bačilo, thcrc was a bače.ina (bačejnja), a building in which
thc bačica madc chccsc. Mcadows and ficlds arc lcrtiliscd by rotating stock
lrom onc to anothcr (“thc mobilc pcn”). ¡ach flock had scvcral shcphcrd
dogs – thc local Šarplaninac brccd.
Sincc hunting was banncd in +µµµ, thcrc has bccn an incrcasc in thc
numbcr ol wolvcs, loxcs and wild boars. Sirinićans say that thcrc arc morc
bcars too. !n Sušić, ! camc across two bcar cubs, thrcc or lour months old,
lrolicking lrccly in a gardcn with somc childrcn. Mcmbcrs ol this housc
hold claimcd that thc mothcr had walkcd off and lclt thc hclplcss offspring
who wcrc only a lcw days old. Vhcthcr thc mothcr had rcally abandoncd
hcr offspring or somcthing clsc happcncd, ! do not know. UNM!K would
not allow thc cubs to bc takcn out ol Kosovo and Mctohija. !n Novcmbcr
:oo¸, thcy wcrc still in Sušić. !n mid:oo¡, thcy wcrc purchascd and takcn
to a privatc zoo ncar Priština.
Studies of Sirinić
Sirinić has bccn rcscarchcd lrom thc gcographical, anthropological, gco
graphical, cthnographic, archacological and linguistic aspccts. Howcvcr, in
vicw ol thc wcalth ol cthnographic matcrial, thc cthnocultural pcriphcry
and thc lact that this district has bccn wcll populatcd sincc ancicnt timcs, it
is not gctting thc attcntion it dcscrvcs. Among carlicr studics ol this district,
thc works ol thc ninctccnthccntury Russian scholar and diplomat !van
Stcpanovich Yastrcbov arc ol cxccptional importancc. !n thc sccond hall
ol thc ninctccnth ccntury hc was stationcd in Prizrcn as Russian consul to
Òttoman Turkcyin¡uropc. Ðuring his stay, hc visitcd Sirinić and pro
vidcd cthnographic data on thc district in thc ninctccnth ccntury in scvcral
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸o
books: Obychai i pesni turetskikh Serbo. (Yastrcbov +886), Staraya Serbiya i
Ælbaniya (Yastrcbov +µo¡), Information for a History of the Serbian Church
(Yastrcbov +8¸µ). Rcscarch by Jovan Cvijić (Cvijić +µ++) and Atanasijc
Urošcvić (Urošcvić +µ¡8) has hclpcd undcrstand thc gcographical and an
thropogcographical proccsscs. As part ol thc “Štrpcc Municipality, Sirinić
Ðistrict” projcct (Štrpcc +µµo), Tc Jo.an C.ijić Gcographical !nstitutc ol
thc Scrbian Acadcmy ol Arts and Scicnccs dcalt, among othcr things, with
thc dcmographic dcvclopmcnt, social charactcristics and sociocconomic
dcvclopmcnt ol Sirinić. Milcta 8ukumirić (8ukumirić +µ8¡) has gathcrcd
and cditcd matcrial on contcmporary onomastics in Sirinić. !mportant data
on thc onomastics and cthnic structurc ol Sirinić in thc midfiltccnth ccn
tury can bc lound in a land rcgistry ccnsus ol thc 8ranković Provincc ol
+¡¡¡ (Popis (Ccnsus) +¡¡¡). M. Pcšikan (Pcšikan +µ8¡) madc anothcr valu
ablc contribution to historical onomastics, with data on Sirinić in thc Mid
dlc Agcs. Tc most complctc historical and gcographical dcscription with
inlormation on villagcs and pcoplc, thc anthroponomy and toponyms ol thc
8ranković Provincc in +¡¡¡ can bc lound in Naselja i stano.ništ.o oblasti
Branko.ića :,¸¸. godine (\illagcs and Pcoplc ol thc 8ranković Rcalm in
+¡¡¡).
Not many authors havc studicd thc spccch ol Sirinić. !n approxi
matcly filtccn papcrs, thc prcscnt author has writtcn on ccrtain lcaturcs ol
thc languagc. Howcvcr, only thc lorthcoming monograph can givc a truc
picturc ol this spccch.
Sirinić speech
Tc spccch spokcn by any group bcars witncss to its passagc through vari
ous stagcs ol historical, cthnographical, cthnic and social lilc. !t is not thc
intcntion ol this work to givc a dctailcd dcscription ol Sirinić spccch. Hcncc
thc inlormation it contains is confincd to its gcncral dialcct composition,
including its rclation to othcr spccch typcs in thc surroundings.
a) Sirinić lics along thc linguistic and cthnic bordcr ol thc Scrbian
pcoplc and thcir languagc. A gcographical barricr ol high mountain rangcs
along thc bordcr ol what is now thc Formcr Yugoslav Rcpublic ol Macc
donia (FYRÒM) has madc contact bctwccn Sirinić and thc ncarby Slav
Maccdonian arcas difficult, but not impossiblc. Howcvcr, an carlicr cthno
languagc conncction bctwccn Sirinić and thc bordcr rcgions ol north and
northwcst Maccdonia is idcntifiablc in rcgions and spccch typcs in Macc
donia whcrc thc inhcrcnt conncction to thc Scrbian languagc and pcoplc
is obvious. Tcsc rcgions arc primarily Skopska Crna Gora, thc Kumanovo
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +¸+
rcgion and Ðonji (Lowcr) Polog. Tc link through thc Lcpcnac rivcr vallcy
to thc spccch ol Skopska Crna Gora is ol spccial importancc.
b) Tc gcographical, cconomic, cthnographic and linguistic conncc
tion to ncighbouring Scrbian rcgions on Šar Mountain, in southcrn Mcto
hija and southcrn Kosovo had most influcncc on thc lorming ol Sirinić
spccch. Hcncc, a spccch typc was lormcd that to a grcat cxtcnt rcscmblcd
surrounding typcs ol Scrbian spccch, whilc containing laint traccs ol thc
contiguous Scrbiantypc Maccdonian. Tc gcncral pattcrn ol Scrbian
spccch in Sirinić confirms thc cxistcncc ol a largc southSlav cthnocultural
and linguistic arca in this part ol thc 8alkans morc intcrrclatcd in thc past
than it is today.
c) Ðcspitc traccs ol thc influcncc that thc Scrbian languagc had on
ncighbouring SlavMaccdonian idioms, thc Scrbian basc ol Sirinić spccch
is spccific and almost uniquc with its charactcristics. !n thc roots ol words it
rctains thc inhcritcd Scrbian pattcrns. Local migrations and contacts with
southcrn Kosovo mcant thc appcarancc ol ccrtain traits in Sirinić spccch
that arc not charactcristic ol southcrn Mctohija, but cxist in southcrn Koso
vo. Tc Sirinić spccch diffcrs in somc ol its lcaturcs lrom thc surrounding
Scrbian typcs ol Mctohija and is morc similar to thosc ol thc southcrn Šar
Mountain.
d) Sincc Sirinić is at thc vcry cdgc ol Scrbia and thc southcrnmost
bordcr ol thc Scrbian languagc (with scvcral Scrbian spccchcs in today’s
northcrn and wcstcrn FYRÒM), somc archaic charactcristics, cnhanccd by
a ccrtain gcographic isolation lrom ncighbouring arcas havc survivcd that
cannot bc lound in most othcr Scrbian spccch typcs. Traccs ol diffcrcnt
migrant groups who movcd towards Sirinić may bc hcard in thc spccch ol
this rcgion.
Tc Scrbian charactcr ol Sirinić spccch is unqucstionablc. Vhcn
comparcd with contiguous and morc distant typcs, howcvcr, it is clcar
that nonSlavic typcs havc had an influcncc in Sirinić, as on othcr Scrbian
spccch typcs in this part ol thc Scrbian cthnolinguistic arca. Tcsc non
Slavic typcs arc mainly 8alkanRomancc, whilc somc minor clcmcnts may
havc comc lrom Albanian Gcghs spccch typcs ol northcrn Albania.
!n thc basic structurc ol its dialcct, Sirinić spccch is thc Scrbian lan
guagc ol Prizrcn and thc widcr south Morava Rivcr rcgion, with innova
tions charactcristic ol Šar Mountain. Tcrc arc linguistic diffcrcnccs within
Sirinić itscll. Tcy arc thc rcsult ol local migrations and immigration into
thc arca lrom lar and ncar. Hcncc, two trcnds arc cvidcnt in Sirinić spccch:
onc lrom thc villagcs on thc lowcr rcachcs ol thc Rivcr Lcpcnac and an
othcr lrom thc morc pcriphcral upland villagcs. Tcsc diffcrcnccs arc not
so numcrous or pronounccd as to scparatc Sirinić spccch (vcrnacular) into
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸:
two diffcrcnt typcs, but thcy arc sufficicnt to makc an obvious grouping ol
villagcs by linguistic clcmcnts.
Some ethnographic details
Tc visit to Sirinić discovcrcd a wcalth ol local Scrb tradition rclatcd to
diffcrcnt aspccts ol Christianinspircd spiritual and cvcryday lilc. Furthcr
rcscarch will providc answcrs to many qucstions on thc cmcrgcncc ol thc
currcnt cthnocultural matrix. Nowhcrc in thc surrounding arcas is thc tra
ditional culturc ol thc Scrbs as divcrsc and wcllprcscrvcd as it is in Sirinić.
Sirinić is not compact cithcr linguistically or cthnographically. Tcrc
is a parallclism ol cthnographic and linguistic coincidcncc.
a) Tc languagc matcrial lor thc projcct “Study ol Slavic Spccch in
Kosovo and Mctohija”, ccntrcd on a Scrbian spccch, was intcndcd lor an
intcrdisciplinary study ol Sirinić, so rccordings wcrc madc ol spccch rclcr
ring to diffcrcnt arcas ol cvcryday lilc and spiritual culturc. Tis channcl
ling ol our rcscarch yicldcd somc intcrcsting data. Two cthnographic dctails
tcstily to thc anthropologicgcographic pcculiaritics ol ccrtain villagcs. Ònc
is thc way ol warding off hailstorms |krušac|. !n Sirinić, but not in Sušić, a
low tablc |sofra| is takcn outsidc and a spoon |ložica| and a dish with lood
|čanak, kaljanica| arc placcd on it. Tc dcmon is callcd upon to cat in ordcr
to propitiatc him. Tc firstborn child lics down in thc hail and takcs a piccc
ol it. Tis lorm ol warding off hailstorms is typical ol southcrn Kosovo. !n
Sušićc, howcvcr, thcy shoot at thc hailcarrying cloud so as to kill thc dc
mon (pcoplc in Sušićc say: “Vc brought that lrom Montcncgro”). Anothcr
dctail has to do with taking thc bride lrom hcr parcnts’ homc. !n Sušićc,
thc bridc must not turn around and look at hcr parcnts’ housc so as not to
bc chascd out ol hcr ncw lamily and rcturncd to hcr parcnts. !n thc rcst ol
Sirinić, thc bridc should turn around so as not to brcak off thc conncction
to hcr parcnts’ housc, and so that thc offspring may rcscmblc mcmbcrs ol
hcr lamily.
b) Tcrc arc about tcn lamilics ol thc Scrb Ljubići clan in Štrpcc.
Anccstors ol thc Ljubići movcd lrom thc Šar Mountain district ol Gora
in thc latc cightccnth and carly ninctccnth ccntury. Tcy kcpt thcir sla.a
or patron saint’s day, thc only oncs in Sirinić to cclcbratc St. 8arbara (S..
!ar.ara). Tc Ljubići complctcly adoptcd thc Štrpcc vcrnacular. An cth
nographic microdctail, howcvcr, confirms thcir Gora origin: whcn thcrc is
a hailstorm (krušac), only mcmbcrs ol thc Ljubići clan bring out an axc in
lront ol thc housc and placc it with thc bladc lacing up. !n thc surrounding
districts, this is donc only in Gora, a ncighbouring arca scttlcd by Muslim
Slav Scrbspcaking population with its own culturc and traditions. Customs
R. Mladcnović, Tc Sirinićka Župa: Štrpcc Municipality +¸¸
rclatcd to thc calcndar havc survivcd in Sirinić much bcttcr than in thc
adjaccnt Scrbinhabitcd arcas ol Mctohija and Kosovo.
Sirinić is known lor thc ritual proccssions callcd la.aricas. Comparcd
with thc Srcdačka Župa district, Prizrcnski Podgor and southcrn Kosovo,
thc proccssion and singing arc diffcrcnt, whilc thc words arc somcwhat
similar. !n Sirinić itscll thcrc arc diffcrcnccs in thc proccssion and singing
bctwccn thc uppcr and lowcr villagcs along thc Rivcr Lcpcnac. Tis diffcr
cncc is lollowcd by a numbcr ol distinguishing linguistic lcaturcs.
Vomcn’s drcss in Sirinić is a mixturc ol Scrb costumcs lrom thc Šar
Mountain and southcrn Kosovo. Tc influcncc ol southcrn Kosovo drcss
is manilcstcd by thc introduction ol black skirts, cspccially in thc lowcr
villagcs. Vomcn no longcr wcar traditional drcss, cvcn though many oldcr
Sirinićan womcn still kccp thcir traditional costumcs to wcar on spccial
occasions. Mcn wcar lairly convcntional drcss on all occasions, without any
particular local lcaturcs. Until thc 8alkan Vars (+µ+:–+¸), to givc thcm
sclvcs improvcd lrccdom ol movcmcnt, within hostilc cnvironmcnt, Scrb
mcn in Sirinić and in othcr adjaccnt arcas had takcn to wcaring a costumc
similar to thc Albanian, with pronounccd clcmcnts ol 8alkan shcphcrd
drcss. Altcr thc 8alkan Vars, whcn most ol Kosovo, and thc Prizrcn arca,
including Sirinić, rcunitcd with Scrbia, convcntional ¡uropcantypc suits
wcrc acccptcd as a mark ol thcir Scrb idcntity as wcll as to lurthcr distancc
thcm lrom thc Muslim Albanians and thcir Òttoman and Òricntal habits.
References
8ukumirić +µ8¡ — M. 8ukumirić: !z onomastikc južnc Mctohijc, Onomatološki prilo.i
\, 8cograd.
Cvijić +µ++ — J. Cvijić: Osno.e .a geografiju i geologiju Makedonije i stare Srbije, !!! SKA,
8cograd.
Hristov :oo¡ — P. Hristov: Granicitc na „Šopluka” i/ili Šopi bcz granici, Skri.ene man-
jine na Balkanu, 8alkanološki institut SANU, 8cograd.
Janković +µµ¸ — Ðj. Janković: Ravna Gora izmcdju Prizrcna i Štrpca – najstarijc
poznato srpsko nalazištc na jugu Srbijc. Starine Koso.a i Metohije, knj. +o, Priština.
Mladcnović :oo+ — R. Mladcnović: Govor šarplaninskc župc Gora, Srpski dijalektološki
.bornik XL\!!!, 8cograd.
Mladcnović :oo¡ — R. Mladcnović: Ðijalcktološko istraživanjc Sirinića, Ži.ot u en-
kla.i, Liceum µ, Kragujcvac, +6¸–+µ:.
Òblast +¡¡¡ — M. Macura: (gl. i odg. urcdnik) Naselja i stano.ništ.o oblasti Branko.ića
:,¸¸. godine, SANU i „Službcni glasnik”, 8cograd :oo+.
Pavlović +µ¸µ — M. Pavlović: Govor Srctcčkc župc, Srpski dijalektološki .bornik \!!!,
8cograd.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸¡
Popis +¡¡¡ — H. Hadžibcgić, A. Handžić & ¡. Kovačcvić (cds.), Oblast Branko.ića
– opširni katastarski popis i. :,¸¸. godine, Òrijcntalni institut, Sarajcvo +µ¸:.
Štrpcc +µµo — Grupa autora: Opština Štrpce – Sirinićka župa, Poscbna izdanja Gcogral
skog instituta „Jovan Cvijić” SANU, knj. ¸¸/!, 8cograd.
Urošcvić +µ¡8 — A. Urošcvić: Šarplaninska župa Sirinić, Godišen .bornik +, Filozolski
lakultct na Univcrzitct–Skopjc, Prirodnomatcmatički otdcl, Skopjc.
Yastrcbov ( Jastcrbov) +8¸µ — !. S. Yastrcbov: Podatci .a istoriju srpske crk.e, Ðržavna
štamparija, Srpska Kraljcvska Akadcmija 8cograd.
Yastrcbov ( Jastcrbov) +886 — !. S. Yastrcbov: Obyčai i pesni tureckih serbo., Tipografija
\. S. 8alašcva, S. Pctcrburg.
Yastrcbov +µo¡ — !. S. Yastrcbov: Staraja Serbija i Ælbanija, Spomcnik SKA XL!, knj.
¸6, 8cograd.
Zadužbinc Kosova +µ8¸ — Zadužbine Koso.a: spomenici i .namenja srpskog naroda,
Prizrcn: ¡parhija Raškoprizrcnska, 8ogoslovski lakultct, 8cograd.
Mirjana Mcnković
Te Enclave of Velika Hoča
CULTUFÆL HEFITÆGE ÆS Æ MEÆNS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC
FENE!ÆL ÆND PFESEF!ÆTION OF SEFBIÆN IDENTITY
IN KOSO!O ÆND METOHIJÆ
Introduction
\clika Hoča
r
is onc ol thc oldcst Scrbian villagcs in thc 8cli Ðrim Rivcr
basin, in :oo¸, it is thc largcst Scrbian cnclavc in this part ol Mctohija, an
arca almost complctcly cthnically clcanscd ol Scrbs by Albanian cxtrcm
ists altcr +o Junc +µµµ, lrom !stok and Pcć to Ðjakovica and Prizrcn and
+
Sourccs ol inlormation uscd in this papcr: !elika Hoča: ranija istraži.anja, 8cograd:
Rcpublički zavod za zaštitu prirodc Srbijc, +µµ¡, Kulturno nasleđe Koso.a i Metohije,
8cograd: RZZSK, +µµµ, Project Urgcnt Protcction ol Natural and Cultural Hcritagc
in Mctohija: Final Feport, 8clgradc: MN¡MÒSYN¡, :oo¸ (with parallcl Scrbian and
¡nglish tcxts), !elika Hoča: Te Pearl of Metohija, 8clgradc: MN¡MÒSYN¡, :oo¸,
Guidance for the De.elopment of Legislation and Ædministration Systems in the field of Cul-
tural Heritage, Council ol ¡uropc, :ooo, Mncmosync’s documcntation. \clika Hoča has
bccn a subjcct ol rcscarch by Mncmosync’s cxpcrts sincc :oo. Tc rcsults ol thc projcct
Urgent Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Metohija wcrc prcscntcd to both
domcstic and intcrnational audicncc in April :oo¸, has bccn continucd. \clika Hoča
has also bccn a subjcct ol cthnographic rcscarch undcrtakcn by Ðcpartmcnt ol ¡thnol
ogy and Anthropology ol thc Faculty ol Philosophy in 8clgradc during :oo¸–:oo¡ in
coopcration with Mncmosync. Tc rcsults ol this rcscarch, as wcll as oldcr and morc
rcccnt studics dcaling with diffcrcnt aspccts ol this villagc havc also bccn takcn into
considcration. Cf. G. Jovanović, Koso.o i Metohija u s.etlu etnologije: prilog bibliografiji,
8cograd: ¡tnogralski muzcj, :oo¡. Vc also uscd lour rcports submittcd during :oo6
to rcsponsiblc institutions by Mr Ðcjan 8aljošcvić, coordinator lor thc Municipality ol
Òrahovac and thc villagc ol \clika Hoča. As a curator with thc ¡thnographic Muscum
in 8clgradc and a mcmbcr ol Mncmosync, thc author ol this papcr was involvcd in ficld
rcscarch in Kosovo and Mctohija during past twcnty ycars. Tc city ol Prizrcn and thc
villagc ol \clika Hoča havc bccn thc subjcct ol a scparatc rcscarch projcct thc rcsults
ol which will bc publishcd in a twovolumc study Bases for Policy and Planning Docu-
ments for !elika Hoča (Mncmosync in coopcration with thc Coordination Ccntrc ol thc
Rcpublic ol Scrbia lor Kosovo and Mctohija, :oo¸).
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸6
thcir hintcrland towards Ðrcnica.
:
\clika Hoča is situatcd at a distancc ol
six kilomctrcs southcast ol thc littlc town ol Òrahovac, and twcntyfivc
kilomctrcs lrom Prizrcn, a historic city cthnically clcanscd ol Scrbs alrcady
in mid+µµµ. Gcntlc slopcs ol thc surrounding hills, lavourablc altitudc and
mild climatc along thc 8cli Ðrim Rivcr vallcy havc crcatcd a ccnturicslong
sctting lor strong agricultural activitics and havc had bcncficial cffccts in
particular on vincgrowing hills covcring morc than +6o hcctarcs.
Altcr thc latcst wavc ol lorccd migrations, largcscalc dcstruction
during thc +µµµ NATÒ bombing and thc arrival ol thc UN Mission to
this part ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia’s tcrritory, thc Scrbian cnclavc ol \clika
Hoča has rcmaincd a spccial casc. Tis is thc only Scrbpopulatcd villagc in
Mctohija with lourtccn old Scrb churchcs dccoratcd with lrcscocs lrom thc
thirtccnth to cightccnth ccntury, cithcr lully prcscrvcd or in ruins.
Apart lrom \clika Hoča, thcrc wcrc only two villagcs on thc cdgc ol
Mctohija, in Prizrcnski Podgor, with thirtccn or lourtccn churchcs: Mušutištc
ncar Suva Rcka, and Ljubižda adjaccnt to Prizrcn’s castcrn rim. Tc church
ol thc Mothcr ol God Hodegetria in Mušutištc (with thc prcscrvcd donor’s
inscription dating lrom +¸+¡) was mincd by Albanian tcrrorists on scvcral
occasions and finally razcd to thc ground in July +µµµ. Somc ol thc churchcs
in Ljubižda wcrc swcpt away and it is now vcry difficult to idcntily thc sitcs
at which thcy oncc stood (lor cxamplc, thc church ol St John).
¸

Tc only rclugc lor thc Scrbs lrom Mctohija is \clika Hoča with
its numcrous churchcs – St Nicholas’, St John thc 8aptist’s, St Lukc’s, St
:
“Soon altcr thc scttlcmcnt ol thc Slavs in thc sixth and scvcnth ccnturics, Mctohija
dcvclopcd into onc ol thc most dcsirablc and thc most dcnscly populatcd Scrbian mcdi
cval lands. Tc crucial rolc in thc rapid assimilation ol thc old |prcSlav| 8alkan cthnic
substratc into thc Scrbian cthnos was playcd not only by thc numcric prcdomination
ol thc Scrbs but also by thc powcrlul dcvclopmcnt ol thc Scrbian statc and Scrbian
Òrthodox Christian civilization bascd upon 8yzantinc tradition and cxposcd to ccrtain
wcstcrn influcnccs sprcading lor ccnturics lrom thc Mcditcrrancan and thc Adriatic
coast towards Mctohija and particularly towards thc Prizrcn rcgion. Apart lrom that,
thcrc wcrc othcr important mcans that contributcd to thc dcvclopmcnt ol Scrbian ma
tcrial and spiritual culturc, thcsc includc an cconomy and culturc bascd on larming,
ordcr in villagcs and districts (župe), rcgulatcd proprictary and class rclations, thc risc ol
rich monastcry cstatcs – principally thosc bclonging to Ðcčani and thc monastcry ol thc
Holy Archangcls ncar Prizrcn, a dcnsc nctwork ol pcrmancnt scttlcmcnts conccntratcd
in Prizrcnski Podgor, Podrima, Hvosno, thc surroundings ol thc monastcry ol Ðcčani,
and Pcćki Podgor. !n thc pcriod ol thc most vigorous dcvclopmcnt ol mcdicval Scrbia,
Mctohija with Kosovo bccamc hcr nuclcus, cthnocultural, spiritual, cconomic, dcmo
graphic and political.” (M. Radovanović, Koso.o i Metohija u Fepublici Srbiji i Sa.e.noj
Fepublici Jugosla.iji (\aljcvo +µµ¸)
¸
Project Urgcnt Protcction ol Natural and Cultural Hcritagc in Mctohija: Final Feport
(8clgradc: Mncmosync, :oo¸).
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +¸¸
Stcphcn’s, St ¡lias’, St Pctcr’s, St Annc’s and St Cyriaca’s, thc rcmains ol
thc churchcs ol Holy Archangcl Gabricl, St Paraskcvc ol Tirnovo and thc
Mothcr ol God, thc ruins ol thc church dcdicatcd to an unknown saint at
Ðugi Rid, as wcll as thc churchcs ol St 8asil and St Saviour, whosc loca
tion has not bccn idcntificd, and thc monastcry ol !zbištc, dcscrtcd and
dcstroycd a long timc ago.
!n ordcr to gct thc picturc ol thc ccnturicslong significancc ol \clika
Hoča and its still considcrablc natural and rcligious hcritagc and to outlinc
a propcr schcmc lor its protcction in thc luturc, it is ncccssary to makc a
bricl outlinc ol thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc villagc and dcscribc thc prcscnt situ
ation in thc cnclavc and among its rcmaining population.
Te .illage of !elika Hoča
Tc villagc ol \clika Hoča, togcthcr with cight othcr villagcs, was first mcn
tioncd in a twcllthccntury chartcr issucd by .eliki župan Stclan Ncmanja
– namcly, in ++µ8, whcn hc cstablishcd thc “Metochion ol Hoča” and grantcd
it to thc monastcry ol Hilandar on Mt. Athos.
¡
!n that chartcr, thc grand
župan spccificd thc numbcr ol villagcs grantcd to thc monastcry and listcd
thcm mcntioning also \clika Hoča, whcrc hc “plantcd two vincyards”. Tc
metochion was lurthcr cnlargcd whcn King Uroš ! Ncmanjić (+:¡¸–+:¸6),
thc grandson ol Ncmanja, grantcd to Hilandar two morc villagcs, onc ol
which is prcscntday Zočištc, lourkilomctrcs lrom \clika Hoča.
Tc two Hilandar chartcrs ol Scrbian King Stclan Uroš !! Milutin
(+:8:–+¸:+) confirmcd thc donations ol his lathcr and contributcd ncw
cstatcs to thc monastcry, whcrcas on 8 Fcbruary +¸:¸, King Stclan Uroš
!!! Ðcčanski grantcd to thc monastcry ol Hilandar two villagcs in thc im
mcdiatc surroundings ol \clika Hoča. 8y King Ðušan’s chartcr ol +¸¡:, an
cstatc ncar Sofia in 8ulgaria was grantcd lor lilclong posscssion to Jovan,
thc oeconom ol Hilandar’s metochion in \clika Hoča and its larms, vincyards,
wincccllars and lodgings. Ncw grants ol land camc lrom a high royal dig
nitary, čelnik Miloš Pović, thc lord ol Zvcčan, during thc rcign ol ¡mpcror
Stclan Ðušan. !t was on +¡ Òctobcr +¡o6 that Lady Mara, thc widow ol
\uk 8ranković, with hcr sons (luturc dcspots ol Scrbia) Ðjuradj, Grgur and
Lazar, madc an important financial contribution to \clika Hoča, chargcd as
tax on thc “markctplacc in Hoča”.
As lor thc status ol thc villagc, thc situation rcmaincd unchangcd
until thc Òttoman conqucst in thc midfiltccnth ccntury. Tc lact that it
was Hilandar’s metochion playcd a crucial rolc in its lurthcr dcvclopmcnt.
Tc grcat part ol thc vallcy ol thc 8cli Ðrim (Vhitc Ðrin) Rivcr was thc
¡
Cl. !elika Hoča: Te Pearl of Metohija ¦8clgradc: Mncmosync, :oo¸), :¡–¸6.
Kosovo and Mctohija +¸8
propcrty ol this monastcry, and owing to its lavourablc gcographic posi
tion and thc vicinity ol thc mcdicval road lrom Prizrcn to Ras, thc villagc
soon bccamc thc ccntrc ol thc largc Metochion ol Hoča (Hotčka Metohija),
which also cncompasscd largc portions ol Prckorupljc (thc ccntral part ol
Mctohija). !n addition, thc southlacing and lcrtilc slopcs madc possiblc thc
planting ol vincyards in largc arcas adjaccnt to \clika Hoča.
Tradc, winc cxport and viniculturc dcvclopcd to such an cxtcnt that
¡mpcror Stclan Ðušan imposcd a customs duty on winc in thc midlour
tccnth ccntury. Almost cvcry landowncr in thc villagc had his own win
cry (.inica) lor grapc proccssing. Tosc tcmporarily staying in thc villagc,
also cngagcd in winc making, built numcrous lodgings (konaci), mansions,
summcrhouscs and othcr buildings (monks lrom othcr monastcrics, likc
Ðcčani and Ðcvič, wcalthy individuals, ctc.). \clika Hoča had bccomc a
rcgional, cultural, tradc and handicralt ccntrc ol latc mcdicval Scrbia.
Stagnation and dcclinc ol \clika Hoča camc with thc Òttoman con
qucst, i.c. altcr +¡¡¡. Tc proccss was accclcratcd by thc risc ol Òrahovac
as thc scat ol local authoritics. !n thc latc sixtccnth ccntury, \clika Hoča
witncsscd anothcr pcriod ol prospcrity undcr thc auspiccs ol thc Patriarch
atc ol Pcć, in winc production in particular. !ts dcvclopmcnt was brought
to an cnd by thc mass Scrb migration lrom Mctohija and Kosovo in thc
carly cightccnth ccntury, opcning a pcriod ol continuous stagnation. Vith
thc cxccption ol a bricl cpisodc ol consolidation and prospcrity altcr thc
Sccond Vorld Var, this situation has continucd into thc prcscnt.
Prcscntday \clika Hoča is an cnclavc, a ghctto, as arc scvcral othcr
Scrbpopulatcd cnclavcs in Kosovo and Mctohija, with living conditions
bcncath human dignity. Vhat still makcs \clika Hoča an outstanding cul
tural sitc is thc grcat numbcr ol prcscrvcd or ruincd churchcs, as wcll as
its vcrnacular architccturc. 8y thcir antiquity, numbcr and artistic qualitics
(rcmains ol lrcsco paintings, othcr artistic dccoration and icons in particu
lar), thcy makc an cxccptionally valuablc cultural and historical complcx. 8y
rcvitalization and lcgal protcction ol its ncglcctcd rcsourccs, through thcir
sustainablc usc, thc cnclavc ol \clika Hoča could dcvclop into a dcsirablc
tourist dcstination – a “Pcarl ol Mctohija”. Tc samc schcmc ol thc protcc
tion and prcscrvation ol cultural hcritagc could bc applicd to scvcral othcr
Scrbpopulatcd arcas in Kosovo and Mctohija – namcly, Srcdačka župa or
thc prcviously Scrbinhabitcd quartcr ol Prizrcn known as Potkaljaja (“bc
low thc lortrcss”).
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +¸µ
SEFBIÆN ENCLÆ!ES ON THE METOHIJÆ FIM: !ELIKÆ HOČÆ. OFÆHO!ÆC ÆND OTHEFS
¡
Population and habitation
Tc Municipality ol Òrahovac is situatcd in thc southwcstcrn scction ol
Kosovo and Mctohija in thc Podrimljc arca, namcd altcr thc 8cli Ðrim, a
rivcr passing by Òrahovac (about tcn kilomctrcs lrom thc city). !t is a part
ol thc Pri.ren District and is bordcrcd by fivc municipalitics: Klina (to thc
north), thc ncwlycstablishcd Municipality ol Mališcvo (to thc cast), Suva
Rcka (to thc southcast), Prizrcn (to thc south) and Ðjakovica (to thc wcst).
Tc municipality has a total population ol ¸+,ooo, an avcragc altitudc ol ¸µ¡
mctrcs abovc sca lcvcl, and covcrs :¸µ.¸o sq kilomctrcs.
6
Until mid+µµµ, ¡,8oo Scrbs rcsidcd in thc Municipality ol Òraho
vac. Tc majority ol thcm livcd in thc town ol Òrahovac, whcrcas thc rcst
wcrc dispcrscd in ninc villagcs bclonging to thc municipality.
No. sv::iv:vx: :vvv svvni~x vovui~:iox
+ Òrahovac town :,¸+o
: \clika Hoča villagc +,¡oo
¸ Zočištc villagc ¸¸¡
¡ Òptcruša villagc µ¡
¡ Rctimljc villagc µo
6 Zrzc villagc ¡¡
¸ 8ratotin villagc ¡o
8 \clika Kruša villagc ¸o
µ 8rnjača villagc +o
+o Ratkovac villagc ¡
Total ¡,8oo
Nowadays, cight ycars altcr thc war, no morc than +,+¡o Scrbs, or
:¸.¡ pcrccnt ol thc total Scrbian population bclorc thc war, havc rcmaincd
in thc Municipality ol Òrahovac. Tcy arc conccntratcd in two isolatcd cn
clavcs – Uppcr Òrahovac (¡8¡ Scrbs) and thc villagc ol \clika Hoča (66¡
Scrbs). Apart lrom Scrbs, thc population ol Uppcr Òrahovac includcs :¸o
¡
Vithin cach topic (population and habitation, villagc and thc villagc arca, urban and
lunctional spccifics, cconomic activitics and lacilitics, administration, public scrviccs,
inlrastructurc) wc will prcscnt thc data obtaincd in :oo¸, during thc implcmcntation ol
Mncmosync’s rcscarch projcct, and inlormation providcd by Municipal Coordinator’s
official rcports writtcn during :oo6.
6
Altcr thc arrival ol thc UN Mission in Junc +µµµ, thc tcrritory ol thc provincc was
administrativcly dividcd into fivc districts. Apart lrom thc Prizrcn Ðistrict, thcsc arc thc
districts ol Pcć, Kosovska Mitrovica, Ccntral Kosovo, and Gnjilanc.
Kosovo and Mctohija +8o
¡gyptians, 8¡ Roma, a thrccmcmbcr 8osniak lamily and a ccrtain numbcr
ol Albanians. !t should bc pointcd out that thc mcmbcrs ol thc ¡gyptian
and Roma communitics havc absolutc lrccdom ol movcmcnt.
Tc abovcmcntioncd data show that ¸,6¡o (¸6 pcrccnt) Scrbs lclt
thc Municipality ol Òrahovac altcr thc +µµµ NATÒ bombing campaign
and cthnic clcansing carricd out by Albanian cxtrcmists. Although its in
tcnsity dccrcascd considcrably, lorccd migration can still bc obscrvcd. Òut
ol thc total numbcr ol displaccd Scrbs, ¸,¸8¡ (µ:.¸¡ pcrccnt) havc thc status
ol intcrnally displaccd pcrsons (!ÐPs) in Scrbia, whcrcas :6¡ pcrsons (¸.:6
pcrccnt) wcrc displaccd to Montcncgro.
Te formation of Serbian encla.es
Scrbian cnclavcs on thc rim ol Mctohija – Uppcr Òrahovac and thc vil
lagc ol \clika Hoča – wcrc cstablishcd altcr thc war and thc withdrawal ol
Scrbian military and policc troops lrom Kosovo and Mctohija in Junc +µµµ.
!n ordcr to protcct thcmsclvcs lrom attacks by KLA cxtrcmists advancing
with KFÒR troops lrom Albania, Scrbs, alrcady rcduccd to small groups
within thc cthnically mixcd population ol villagcs and thc dominantly Al
banian “lowcr” part ol Òrahovac, wcrc lorccd to lcavc thcir homcs and con
ccntratc in prcdominantly Scrbinhabitcd Uppcr Òrahovac and thc ncarby
villagc ol \clika Hoča. Vartimc horrors and dccadcslong pcrsccution by
thc Albanian majority rcsultcd in thc lormation ol Scrbinhabitcd cnclavcs
throughout thc Provincc. Altcr UNM!K took lull control, Scrbs wcrc dc
privcd ol lrccdom ol movcmcnt, whilc thc Albanians, dominant in numbcr
and ncvcr disarmcd (in addition considcrcd as allics ol both UNM!K and
KFÒR during thc +µµµ war) wcrc allowcd to movc lrccly through all thc
Scrbian cnclavcs.
Two homogcncous Scrbian cnclavcs in this arca havc bccomc a pro
visional solution lor thc scllprotcction ol Scrbs and bridgcd thc socallcd
“sccurity vacuum” that prcccdcd thc dcploymcnt ol KFÒR troops. Numcr
ous unrcsolvcd cascs ol murdcr, kidnapping and illcgal confincmcnt ol
Scrbs, systcmatic burning ol houscs, dcstruction ol Scrb Christian Òrtho
dox churchcs and monastcrics, and usurpation ol privatc propcrty bclonging
to Scrbs, as wcll as Scrbia’s sociallyowncd and statcowncd propcrty, dcm
onstratcd that intcrnational military and civil authoritics lailcd to cstablish
control and cnsurc thc salcty and sccurity ol all citizcns ol thc Autonomous
Provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija.
¸

Tc luturc status ol thcsc cnclavcs, smallinnumbcr but highly im
portant as Scrbian cultural sitcs, nccds to bc clcarly dcfincd in tcrms ol
¸
Scc thc rcports ol thc KiM !nloscrvicc.
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +8+
basic sccurity, scllgovcrnmcnt and sustainablc dcvclopmcnt. Prior to thc
+µµµ war, Zočištc was thc third largcst Scrbian scttlcmcnt in thc arca, altcr
Òrahovac and \clika Hoča. !n Òctobcr :oo¡, thrcc Scrb monks rcturncd
to thc monastcry (lcvclcd to thc ground by Albanian cxtrcmists in Òctobcr
+µµµ) in ordcr to commcncc its rcconstruction. Tis projcct is cxpcctcd to
cncouragc thc displaccd villagcrs to rcturn to thcir homcs. UNM!K has
commissioncd thc Ministry ol Community and Rcturn ol thc Albanian
controllcd Provisional !nstitutions ol ScllGovcrnmcnt in Kosovo to build
¸µ out ol ¡¡ planncd houscs lor thc Scrbian rcturnccs, as wcll as a small
hospital and ncccssary lacilitics. Having in mind that thc distancc bctwccn
thcsc cnclavcs is bctwccn lour and scvcn kilomctrcs, thcir strcngthcning
and linking into a kind ol nctwork is dcsirablc and sccms lcasiblc.
Tc villagc ol \clika Hoča officially rcmains a constitucnt part ol thc
Òrahovac Municipality. Until July :oo6, it was thc scat ol thc Community
Òfficc, cstablishcd by UNM!K, in chargc ol \clika Hoča and thc Scrbin
habitcd part ol Òrahovac. !n July :oo6, thc rcsponsibility lor thc Munici
pality ol Òrahovac and \clika Hoča was translcrrcd to a Scrbian Municipal
Coordinator, a rcprcscntativc ol thc Coordination Ccntrc ol thc Rcpublic
ol Scrbia lor Kosovo and Mctohija. 8ctwccn +µµµ and :oo¡, thc villagc
was protcctcd by Gcrman armcd lorccs within KFÒR. ¡ncirclcd by barbcd
wirc, bunkcrs and obscrvation posts, thc inhabitants ol thc villagc havc not
lclt thcir homcs dcspitc thc growing prcssurc ol thc ncighbouring Albanian
majority cxpccting thcm to movc to ccntral Scrbia. !n :oo¡, chcckpoints
wcrc rcmovcd. At prcscnt, thc villagc is protcctcd by a singlc obscrvation
bunkcr, KFÒR patrols and lorccs ol thc ncwlycstablishcd Kosovo Policc
Scrvicc (KPS).
8clorc +µµµ, thcrc wcrc ¸oo houscholds, including +,¡oo Scrbs and
scvcral Roma lamilics. According to thc data providcd by thc Community
Òfficc ol :¸ Òctobcr :oo+, gathcrcd lor UNM!K, thcrc wcrc 6:: inhabit
ants in \clika Hoča: ¸:¡ (¡:.+ pcrccnt) ol thcm wcrc malc, :µ8 (¡¸.µ pcr
ccnt) lcmalc. !t has bccn cstimatcd that thcrc arc up to ¸:o pcoplc living in
thc villagc. All ol thcm arc Scrbs, with thc cxccption ol +6 Roma, lour ol
whom camc to thc villagc altcr thc bombing in +µµµ. Ðcspitc thc consid
crablc numbcr ol intcrnally displaccd pcoplc, thc population shows quitc
lavourablc agc distribution: ¸:o pcoplc (¡+.+ pcrccnt) lall into thc +6–6o
agc group. Howcvcr, a grcat disproportion in thc scx ratio in thc 6–+8 agc
group is cvidcnt: thcrc arc morc boys (out ol +:¸ pcrsons, 8o or 6¸ pcrccnt
arc malc).
Tc support coming lrom various intcrnational organizations is in
sufficicnt and both ovcrt and “quict” (unannounccd) migrations arc still vis
iblc. Tc proccss ol migration is cxpcctcd to cxtcnd to schoolagc childrcn,
Kosovo and Mctohija +8:
who, having complctcd primary school, will continuc thcir schooling somc
whcrc in ccntral Scrbia.
Vith thc cxccption ol a minor part ol thc population cmploycd
in public scrvicc, thc rcst ol thc inhabitants subsist on larming or on hu
manitarian aid providcd by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia or, to a lcsscr dcgrcc, by
subsidics ol UNM!K. Tc cconomic situation varics lrom lamily to lamily.
Singlcparcnt lamilics, cldcrly houscholds, and lamilics living in inadcquatc
housing, which as a rulc arc ol thc grcatcst intcrcst lor thc protcction ol ar
chitcctural hcritagc or prcscrvation ol thc cultural idcntity ol \clika Hoča,
arc in a particularly difficult situation.
Most rcsidcntial and auxiliary buildings wcrc built prior to or im
mcdiatcly altcr thc Sccond Vorld Var. Most oldcr buildings arc dcscrtcd
and dilapidatcd, i.c. unfit lor habitation. Tis particularly applics to subsid
iary objccts and thosc uscd in thc domcstic cconomy. Tc traditional usc ol
wood and stonc as chicl building matcrials, as wcll as thc practicc ol covcr
ing rools and lcnccs with stonc slatcs, has bccn abandoncd.
Te .illage and the surrounding area
Tc figurcs prcscntcd in thc tablc bclow illustratc thc modcs ol land usc in
thc villagc ol \clika Hoča catcgorizcd by owncr or occupant.
8
Land ownership by category of owners/occupants –
Cadastral Municipality Velika Hoča
owxvv / occuv~x: ha/acrc/sq m
Statcowncd land
+ Public Company “Srbijašumc” ¡¡¸.6¡.88
: Ministry ol Rcligion ¸.¸8.µ8
¸ Public Vatcr Company “Srbijavodc” +¸.¡¡.µ:
¡ \clika Hoča ¡¡.:o
¡ Municipality ol Òrahovac +¸.¸¡
6 Municipality ol Òrahovac :+.+o.µ6
To:~i ¡q¡.zq.z8 ¡¡.q¡ %
Sociallyowncd land
+ Municipality ol Òrahovac :6.¸6.::
8
Sourcc: matcrials lor thc study Bases for Policy and Planning Documents for !elika Hoča
(in prcparation, Mncmosync in coopcration with thc Coordination Ccntrc ol thc Rc
public ol Scrbia lor Kosovo and Mctohija, to bc publishcd in :oo¸).
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +8¸
: Municipality ol Òrahovac ¸¡.¸8
¸ Municipality ol Òrahovac +.¸8.8:
¡ Municipality ol Òrahovac :6.µ¸
¡ Agroindustrial Company “Òrvin”, Òrahovac 8¡.¸¡.¡+
To:~i ++:.¸:.¸o 8.¸¸ º
Churchowncd land
+ Parish ¡.+:.¡¡
: ¡statc ol thc monastcry ol Ðcvič ¸.+:.¡6
¸ Metochia ol thc monastcry ol Ðcčani 8.:¸.:+
¡ Church ol thc Holy \irgin 8.¡¡
To:~i +¡.6o.¸6 +.+¡ º
To:~i ¸::.6:.¸¡ ¸.¡¸ º
Privatclyowncd land
Scrbian ¡+:.8¸.µ+ ¸¸,µ: º
Òthcr ++¸.o:.:¸ 8.66 º
To:~i 6zq.86.r8 ¡6.¡y %
Privately-owned land
Serbian 8r.¡z percent
Other r8.¡8 percent
Urban and functional features of the .illage
Tc villagc ol \clika Hoča took shapc around thc main mcdicval road run
ning along thc Hoča Rivcr (Hočanska reka). An archacological survcy ol
thc cntirc villagc arca to dctcrminc thc cxtcnt ol thc inhabitcd arca in thc
Middlc Agcs has not yct bccn undcrtakcn. Howcvcr, thc position ol thc cx
isting and rccordcd rcligious structurcs and mcdicval wincrics suggcsts that
thc location ol thc prcscnt scttlcmcnt corrcsponds to thc onc lrom mcdicval
sourccs – limitcd to thc ccntrc ol thc villagc arca. Spatial and lunctional dc
tcrminants ol thc villagc arc thc lollowing: public buildings, rcligious struc
turcs, and ninctccnthccntury rcsidcntial buildings. Tc historic division ol
thc scttlcmcnt into Gornja (Uppcr) and Donja (Lowcr) mahala (quartcr),
dating lrom thc pcriod ol its lormation, and thc organic traffic matrix, pos
sibly dcvclopcd during thc cightccnth and ninctccnth ccnturics, havc bccn
prcscrvcd. Howcvcr, it is not possiblc to cstablish historical phascs in tcrms
ol urban dcvclopmcnt. !t is a compact scttlcmcnt, with lcw rcccntly built
objccts along thc road or in thc ficld in its immcdiatc vicinity. All struc
turcs ol public significancc, with thc cxccption ol thc ccmctcry and sports
Kosovo and Mctohija +8¡
grounds, which wcrc rcccntly built, arc dircctly rclatcd to thc main traffic
linc.
Churchcs and wincrics arc rccognizcd as thc historic nuclcus ol thc
villagc.
µ
!t is not possiblc to cstablish which ol thc idcntificd locations had
priority ovcr thc othcrs. At thc prcscnt momcnt, it is cvidcnt that thc arca
dclimitcd by thc Dečani !inery, St Stephen’s Church and thc Parish House is
thc most dcvclopcd in urban tcrms and that it rcscmblcs a squarc. !n tcrms
ol thc prcscnt dcvclopmcnt rcquircmcnts ol thc villagc, thc arca bctwccn
thc school and thc Serai (listcd as hcritagc by Mncmosync’s cxpcrts, :oo+–
:oo¸), uphill and downhill lrom thc road, appcars particularly significant.
Òn thc onc hand, it is unarrangcd and on sloping tcrrain, but on thc othcr
it is spacious and has prcscrvcd sufficicnt architcctural and urban lcaturcs
to bccomc thc ccntrc ol thc villagc in thc luturc. Rcccntly built structurcs
arc rclatcd to ncw community programmcs, conscqucntly, thc arca around
thc Cultural Ccntrc on thc cdgc ol thc old nuclcus ol thc scttlcmcnt could
bccomc a ncw mcctingpoint.
Economic acti.ities and facilities
A portion ol \clika Hoča’s population uscd to work in thc plant produc
ing plastic packing matcrials, in thc distillcry “Òrvin” in Òrahovac, and thc
handicralt workshop that cmploycd about filty womcn. Howcvcr, lor thc
majority ol thc population thc main sourcc ol incomc has bccn agriculturc,
morc prcciscly, viniculturc. Privatc vincyards surrounding thc villagc covcrcd
an arca ol +:o ha. Òwing to lavourablc ccological conditions, vincgrowcrs
could plant bctwccn +o,ooo and +:,ooo vincs pcr hcctarc. Prokupac, !ranac
and Gamai, among rcd, and Smedere.ka and Fiesling, among whitc grapcs,
wcrc thc most thriving and thc most oltcn cultivatcd sorts. Most ol thc
produccd grapcs was sold to thc distillcry “Òrvin”, and a part was uscd lor
µ
Prcscrvcd wincrics arc monumcnts charactcristic ol Scrbian traditional culturc, tcstily
ing to a ccnturylong tradition ol vincgrowing. Tcy arc also a tcstimony to thc Church’s
rolc as a landowncr and winc produccr cvcr sincc thc Middlc Agcs. Tc lamous complcx
ol buildings bclonging to thc metochion ol Ðcčani Monastcry sincc mcdicval timcs is
situatcd in thc vcry ccntrc ol thc villagc. Tc monastcry was grantcd largc vincyards as
carly as thc rcign ol Stclan Ðušan, in thc midlourtccnth ccntury. Tc significancc ol
“¡mpcror Ðušan’s vincyard”, bclonging to thc monastcry, was particularly highlightcd
in writtcn documcnts bccausc thc winc madc ol grapcs lrom that vincyard has bccn
uscd lor thc ¡ucharist. !t has rcmaincd so until thc prcscnt… !n thc intcrwar pcriod
thc monastcry ol Ðcčani posscsscd about :o hcctarcs ol vincyards in \clika Hoča alonc.
Tcsc cstatcs arc now considcrably smallcr but thc tradition ol “¡mpcror Ðušan’s vinc
yard” is still maintaincd. Scc !elika Hoča: Te Pearl of Metohija, 8:–86.
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +8¡
hor homc production, consumption and rctail. Vinc production has bccn
accompanicd by thc production ol homcmadc brandy.
Animal husbandry has always had a sccondary significancc (poultry
and cattlc), as wcll as tillagc, lruitgrowing and vcgcculturc – whcat, maizc,
walnut, applc, plum, pcar, tomato, cabbagc, onion and bcans havc bccn thc
most oltcn cultivatcd spccics.
As lar as economic acti.ities arc conccrncd, it must bc pointcd out that
almost all ol thcm havc ccascd sincc +µµµ and that thc villagc ol \clika
Hoča is in a vcry difficult position. Tc youngcst population cohort, includ
ing, according to thc municipal coordinator, about ¸o pcoplc, is particularly
vulncrablc. Tc condition ol thc cxisting cconomic/industrial lacilitics in
thc villagc can bc illustratcd by thc lollowing lacts:
• A wcllknown, modcrn lactory ol plastic packing matcrials was closcd
until :oo6 bccausc it had bccn dcmolishcd and all thc machincs and
cquipmcnt, as wcll as lactory translormcr station, had bccn takcn away,
in :oo6, “Plant C” within thc sociallyowncd company “+8 Novcmbar”
– Òrahovac, situatcd in \clika Hoča, was rcntcd to thc company “Frcs
kct”, owncd by !brahim Jupa ol Òrahovac, by thc Kosovo Trust Agcncy,
thc ncw “owncr” plans to cstablish a mcat production lacility thcrc and,
through scvcral dcvclopmcnt stagcs, cmploy somc thirty workcrs lrom
\clika Hoča.
• Tc branch lactory “Moda” – \cliko Gradištc was closcd.
• 8usincss arrangcmcnts with major wholcsalcrs ol grapcs, winc and
brandy (which arc thc most important tradc product) arc brokcn, unco
ordinatcd individual production ol grapcs and winc is still cxistcnt and
thc metochion ol Ðcčani, gcarcd lor largcrscalc grapc proccssing, is thc
lcading winc manulacturcr in thc villagc.
• Tosc who workcd in Òrahovac wcrc cxpcllcd lrom thcir jobs, thc
managcmcnt ol thc “Òrvin” wincry was takcn ovcr by rcprcscntativcs ol
thc Albanian majority, cmployccs lrom \clika Hoča wcrc dismisscd.
Vith considcrably limitcd local production, thc villagc’s capacity lor scll
sustainability is put in qucstion:
• For sccurity rcasons, larming (tillagc in particular) has almost ccascd,
lruitgrowing and vcgcculturc can bc practiscd only in gardcns in thc
immcdiatc vicinity ol houscs.
• Α small numbcr ol cattlc havc rcmaincd in thc villagc sincc it is dil
ficult to providc lood (cattlc cannot bc pasturcd bccausc ol thc thrcat ol
attack by Albanians, no stocklccd supplics arc providcd).
• !n :oo+, cultivatcd vincyards covcrcd an arca ol ¸¸ hcctarcs (out ol
+:o hcctarcs undcr vincyards), thcsc wcrc thc vincyards in thc immcdi
atc vicinity ol thc villagc and KFÒR’s control points. Ðuring thc past
fivc ycars, it has bccn impossiblc to cultivatc thosc locatcd at a grcatcr
distancc lrom thc villagc and thc vincs withcrcd. Ðuring :oo¡, thc mon
Kosovo and Mctohija +86
astcry ol Ðcčani and a numbcr ol villagcrs plantcd ncw vincyards, owing
to which thc total vincgrowing arca incrcascd by fivc hcctarcs. A major
part ol thc vincs and thc stakcs that uscd to support thcm wcrc takcn
away by Albanians lrom thc ncarby villagcs.
• !rrcgular clcctricity supply and inability to providc supplics ol firc
wood lrom thc ncarby privatclyowncd woods lcd to thc practicc ol cut
ting walnut trccs in thc villagc.
Apart lrom agricultural rcsourccs, thcrc arc othcr important asscts in thc
broadcr villagc arca:
• an old quarry at thc loot ol Milanovac Mountain, and
• a slatc quarry on thc boundary bctwccn \clika Hoča and Milanović.
For ccnturics, thcsc locations havc scrvcd as sourccs ol building matcrials
lor construction in \clika Hoča and thc ncarby villagcs.
Ædministration
Tc Community Òfficc in \clika Hoča, cstablishcd by an UNM!K Rcgula
tion, opcratcd until July :oo6 and was rcsponsiblc lor thc villagc and thc
Scrbpopulatcd part ol Òrahovac. Tc Òfficc cmploycd :µ pcoplc, thc ma
jority ol whom (+¸) dccidcd to tcrminatc thc tcmporary scrvicc contract
with UNM!K and takc thcir salary only lrom thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia in July
:oo6. All thc public scrviccs in thc villagc and Òrahovac arc lundcd lrom
two sourccs: thc budgct ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia and that ol UNM!K.
8ctwccn :ooo and :oo¡, thc Community Òfficc was in chargc lor pcti
tions to and contacts with thc Municipality ol Òrahovac. Tc opportunity
to takc part in prcdominantly Albanian municipal administration was takcn
by thc inhabitants ol \clika Hoča, sincc :oo¡, thcir rcprcscntativc is \icc
Mayor ol Òrahovac. Sincc July :oo6, thc position ol thc Municipal Coor
dinator, cstablishcd by thc Coordination Ccntrc ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia
lor Kosovo and Mctohija immcdiatcly altcr thc arrival ol thc UN Mission,
has attaincd incrcasing importancc. All calls lor assistancc, intcrvcntions
rcgarding public and privatc buildings and inlrastructurc, and invcstmcnts
arc submittcd to thc Scrbian Municipal Coordinator and thc Scrbian rcp
rcscntativc in thc municipal administration.
Public ser.ices and facilities
\clika Hoča has all public scrviccs cxpcctcd to bc availablc in an inhabitcd
placc ol its rank. Tc problcm ariscs as to whcrc an asscssmcnt ol thc condi
tion ol thc prcmiscs, thc quality ol human rcsourccs, and cquipmcnt should
bc madc.
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +8¸
Cultural Centre – Tc oldcr wing ol thc building was constructcd altcr
Vorld Var !! on thc schcmc typical lor that building typc. Tc construc
tion ol an anncx attachcd to thc cxisting building, undcrtakcn in thc +µµos,
lundcd by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia, was rcsumcd owing to lunds providcd by
UNM!K and othcr intcrnational organizations activc in thc Provincc (c.g.
!ntcrnational Òrganization ol Migration). Considcrablc lunding lor thc rc
construction ol thc Cultural Ccntrc was providcd by thc ¡xccutivc Council
ol thc Autonomous Provincc ol \ojvodina through thc National Chanccry
Òfficc ol thc Prcsidcnt ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia.
Tc Cultural Ccntrc includcs a cincma hall with ¸oo scats, thc officc
ol thc lormcr Ðcpartmcnt lor Local ScllGovcrnmcnt, a library, an outpa
ticnt hospital with a pharmacy, thc officc ol thc Rcd Cross, and UNM!K’s
officc.
As an illustration ol thc cultural activitics in thc villagc ol \clika
Hoča and Òrahovac wc shall quotc somc figurcs lrom thc Municipal Co
ordinator’s rcport.
+o
\arious cultural projccts, aiming to lacilitatc thc lilc
ol Scrbs, confincd to living bchind barbcd wirc and undcr strong KFÒR
protcction, includcd thc lcstival organizcd in \clika Hoča on thc occasion
ol thc lcast ol St Cyriac (Miholjdan), art colonics with thc participation ol
8alkan artists, thc commcmoration ol thc +ooth annivcrsary ol thc hcroic
dcath ol Lazar Kujundžić, an antiÒttoman Scrb gucrrilla lcadcr ol thc
carly twcnticth ccntury lrom \clika Hoča.
Primary School “S.eto.ar Marko.ić” – cstablishcd in +8¡6 and lunc
tioning within thc Parish Housc. !ts prcmiscs, including two buildings on a
Churchowncd lot wcrc constructcd in +µ:6. Tcrc arc still about a hundrcd
studcnts in comparison with +¡o bclorc thc +µµµ war. Tc staff (tcachcrs,
principal, tcchnical staff) includcs bctwccn +6 and :o pcrsons. Uppcr Òra
hovac also has a primary school (rcsulting lrom thc lusion ol two primary
schools, “Ðositcj Òbradović” and “\uk Karadžić”), and a grammar school.
Infrastructure
For thc most part, thc villagc ol \clika Hoča is covcrcd by thc commu
nal inlrastructurc nctwork. Howcvcr, in somc aspccts thc nctwork docs not
mcct quality standards. !ater-supply: thc watcr is supplicd lrom a basin in
Òrahovac to a watcrtank in \clika Hoča, constructcd upon a ridgc abovc
thc villagc. !t has bccn cstimatcd that about µ¡ pcrccnt ol houscs havc ac
ccss to this watcrsupply constructcd in +µµ+/: owing to lunding providcd
by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia. Howcvcr, thc construction was poorly donc and
+o
Sourcc: Rcport ol thc Municipal Coordinator submittcd to thc Coordination Ccntrc
ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia lor Kosovo and Mctohija on :¡ March :oo6.
Kosovo and Mctohija +88
hcrc and thcrc thc pipcs arc lcaking. Apart lrom that, thc villagc docs not
havc acccss to thc rcgional watcrsupply systcm in Òrahovac any morc. All
thc houscs usc watcr lrom thcir own wclls, in most cascs by mcans ol a
watcr pump (whcn clcctricity is availablc). Tc poor quality ol thc watcr
lrom thcsc wclls is thc most difficult problcm. Tcrc is a spring callcd \rclo
at thc cdgc ol thc villagc, it supplics thc school with watcr. Se.age: thc vil
lagc is partly covcrcd by thc scwagc systcm. Tc major part ol houscs in thc
lowcr part ol thc villagc is conncctcd to thc scwagc accumulator. Likc thc
watcrsupply, thc scwagc systcm was constructcd in +µµ+/: owing to lund
ing providcd by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia. Although UNM!K allocatcd lunds
ncccssary to rcsumc thc work, nothing has bccn donc so lar. Electricity sup-
ply and postal ser.ice: thcrc arc thrcc substations in thc villagc. !t has bccn
cstimatcd that thc availablc clcctrical powcr could mcct thc prcscnt nccds
ol thc villagc, as wcll as thosc dictatcd by its dcvclopmcnt, il thc rcgularity
ol thc clcctricity supply was to bc cnsurcd and thc rationing schcmc madc
lcss scvcrc. Tc villagc is conncctcd to thc tclcphonc nctwork but its quality
is not satislactory. Somc :oo uscrs arc conncctcd to thc tclcphonc cxchangc
in Òrahovac. Traffic: only a minor part ol thc strccts in thc villagc arc as
phaltcd. Scvcral major strccts wcrc pavcd with concrctc blocks, whcrcas all
thc othcr tracks arc unpavcd or stoncpavcd with rcmains ol macadam. Tc
width ol thc strccts docs not conlorm to any planncd classification, it is dic
tatcd by thc position ol houscs and lails to mcct thc prcscnt nccds. Ònly thc
main strcct has a sidcwalk. Tc villagc docs not havc a parking lot and lor
that purposc is uscd thc arca in lront ol thc Parish Housc and thc Ðcčani
Vincry in thc ccntrc ol \clika Hoča.
Spatial planning and building regulations
Ncithcr an urban plan lor thc villagc ol \clika Hoča, nor a spatial plan
lor thc Municipality ol Òrahovac that could providc a lramcwork lor thc
dcvclopmcnt ol thc villagc, has bccn dcviscd. 8uilding liccnscs arc issucd
through thc Community Òfficc and UNM!K. Tc rcpcatcd attcmpts by
thc Albanians ol thc Òrahovac Municipality to gain acccss to thc villagc,
considcrcd as an attcmpt to imposc thcir domination, rcmains to bc a sourcc
ol both rising lcars and scrious sccurity conccrn among thc rcmaining Scrb
inhabitants ol \clika Hoča.
Te UN mission
!n :ooo, UNM!K initiatcd thc cstablishmcnt ol thc Group lor \illagc Ðc
vclopmcnt Planning undcr thc auspiccs ol thc Community Òfficc in \clika
Hoča. !n scminars organizcd in Òrahovac and Prizrcn, participants wcrc
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +8µ
traincd to takc an activc part in planning projccts, data proccssing, dcvclop
mcnt and implcmcntation ol dcmocratic principlcs, ctc. Ðuring our visits
to \clika Hoča wc wcrc inlormcd that a study titlcd Profile of the !illage was
bcing prcparcd within a projcct aimcd at thc dralting ol thc Frame.ork for
the De.elopment of the Municipality of Oraho.ac. Tc study including a plan
lor thc villagc, idcntification ol thc nccds, and an action plan was probably
ncvcr complctcd – wc did not havc thc opportunity to scc its lull tcxt.
Fully awarc ol thc poor and oltcn humiliating living conditions in
thc ghcttoizcd cnclavc ol \clika Hoča, thc intcrnationals havc undcrtakcn
numcrous actions aimcd at thcir improvcmcnt. Tc most important arc:
• An association ol vincgrowcrs was cstablishcd in \clika Hoča, intcr
national assistancc was providcd lor thc rcvitalization ol vincgrowing
and winc production (manurc, pcsticidcs, twcnty vats lor winc, sccdlings,
ctc.), thc !ntcrnational Òrganization ol Migration (!ÒM) providcd a
portion ol thc cquipmcnt lor thc vincgrowcrs association and various
smallbusincss and handicralt cntcrpriscs, it also providcd viniculturc
and tillagc mcchanization.
• NGÒ Æmica, ol Òrahovac, cngagcd womcn lrom \clika Hoča in
handicralt production, on thc prcmiscs ol thc branch lactory “Moda”,
womcn knittcd, scwcd and wovc clothing and acccssorics.
• Construction work in thc Cultural Ccntrc, rcmodclling ol thrcc officcs
to bc uscd by UNM!K.
• Tc rool ol thc primary school was rcconstructcd, thc school was sup
plicd with ccntral hcating, thc schoolyard was cmbankcd, thc school and
public lountains wcrc switchcd to a watcr linc, ctc.
Municipal Coordinator’s reports – :cc&
Trough considcrablc lunding providcd by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia lor \clika
Hoča – thc two latcst projccts havc bccn thc Feconstruction of the Cultural
Centre (sponsorcd by thc ¡xccutivc Council ol thc Asscmbly ol thc Au
tonomous Provincc ol \ojvodina through thc National Chanccry ol thc
Prcsidcnt ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia) and thc Installing the Cable Distribu-
tion System in the Upper (Serbian) Part of Oraho.ac and the !illage of !elika
Hoča (lundcd by thc Ministry ol Culturc ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia) – and
humanitarian aid coming lrom various sourccs, practically all houscholds in
thc cnclavc rcccivcd somc sort ol assistancc. Howcvcr, not a singlc scrious
and complcx projcct lundcd by cithcr thc intcrnationals or thc Rcpublic ol
Scrbia managcd to yicld cxpcctcd rcsults: thc bakcry was closcd, thc fish
pond and grccnhouscs arc not opcrating, thc vincyards arc only partially cn
largcd (somc individual manulacturcrs and thc monastcry ol Ðcčani man
Kosovo and Mctohija +µo
agcd to cxpand thcir vincyards during thc past scvcral ycars), thc intcgration
ol womcn into cconomic lilc has rcachcd thc lowcst lcvcl, thc inlrastructurc
has not bccn improvcd. For all thcsc rcasons, dcspitc availablc rcsourccs,
thc cnclavc, still within a hostilc Albanian cnvironmcnt, is in continuous
stagnation — it is on thc cdgc ol sustainability. Òvcrall insccurity paralyzcs
crcativc and cfficicnt mcchanisms. Movcmcnt rcstrictions havc limitcd thc
univcrsc ol thc inhabitants to +¸.¡ squarc kilomctrcs.
++
No. !nhabitcd placc
Arca
(sq km)
+ Òrahovac ¡µ.oo
: \clika Hoča +¸.¡o
¸ Zočištc ¡.:o
¡ Òptcruša µ.oo
¡ Rctimljc µ.8o
6 8rcstovac ¡.¡o
¸ Mala Hoča ¸.oo
8 Nogavac ¸.:o
µ \clika Kruša +o.¡o
+o 8cla Crkva ++.oo
++ Zrzc +o.+o
+: Gcdžc ¸.:o
+¸ Radostc +o.µo
+¡ Ratkovac ++.8o
+¡ Ðanjanc 6.¡o
+6 Ðobri Ðo ¸.¡o
+¸ Čiflak ¡.oo
+8 Kramovik +o.¸o
+µ Mramor ¸.:o
:o Pctković +o.oo
:+ Koznik 8.8o
:: Zatrić +¡.:o
:¸ Ðrcnovac 8.+o
:¡ Sanovac 6.¡o
:¡ Pusto Sclo ¡.¡o
++
Tc list ol inhabitcd placcs in thc Municipality ol Òrahovac and thcir arcas (in sq
km), according to thc Rcport ol thc Municipal Coordinator submittcd to thc Coordi
nation Ccntrc ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia lor Kosovo and Mctohija ol ¡ July :oo6.
:6 Poluža ¡.¸o
:¸ 8ratotin ¸.oo
:8 \ranjak ¡.oo
:µ Našpalc o.6o
¸o Gornjc Potočanc :.¸o
¸+ Ðonjc Potočanc ¸.¡o
¸: 8rnjača ¡.¡o
¸¸ Sopnić ¡.oo
¸¡ Cclinc ¡.¸o
TÒTAL zy6.¡o
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +µ+
• Rcgular bus convoys with UN labcls plying bctwccn \clika Hoča and
Zvcčan twicc a wcck (Tucsdays and Fridays), as wcll as thc socallcd
“shopping tour” to Gračanica oncc in a lortnight (on Saturdays), escorted
by the Koso.o Police Ser.ice patrols, arc not, dcspitc a hostilc Albanian
cnvironmcnt, burdcncd by morc scrious thrcats.
• Tc clcctricity supply in Uppcr Òrahovac and \clika Hoča still con
lorms to an irrcgular rationing schcmc with powcr intcrruptions last
ing lor scvcral hours (max. ¡ hours) and shorter periods .hen electricity
is a.ailable (:–¸ hours), thc Scrbian population wondcrs what is to bc
cxpcctcd during thc wintcr whcn thcy havc such long powcr intcrrup
tions during thc summcr.
• Æs far as .ater supply is concerned, the present situation is typical of this
part of the year: drinking .ater is a.ailable only in the morning, i.e. bet.een
c¸.cc and :c.cc a.m.,
• Vorkcrs ol thc Post and Tclccom ol Kosovo conncctcd thc monastcry
ol Sts. Cosmas and Ðamian in Zočištc to thc tclcphonc systcm, altcr a
long pcriod ol timc, thc monastcry finally got a fixcd tclcphonc linc ow
ing to thc intcrccssion ol thc !slamic Community in Òrahovac with thc
rcsponsiblc officcrs in thc Post and Tclccom ol Kosovo.
• A commission including cducation and hcalth survcyors ol thc Scctor
lor Social !ssucs, Hcalth and ¡ducation within thc Coordination Ccntrc
lor Kosovo and Mctohija visitcd Òrahovac, i.c. schools and hcalth insti
tutions in Uppcr Òrahovac and \clika Hoča on ¸ July :oo6.
• Scrbs in Lowcr (Albanianpopulatcd) Òrahovac whosc flats wcrc
usurpcd by Albanians altcr +µµµ arc prcvcntcd lrom visiting thcir prop
crty: an owncr must submit a rcqucst in writing to thc Albanian domi
natcdpolicc station in Òrahovac, spccilying thc addrcss, il thc answcr
by thc opcrational policc hcadquartcrs (cxamining rcqucsts oncc a wcck)
is positivc, hc has to providc a vchiclc to takc him thcrc sincc mcmbcrs
ol thc KPS arc not allowcd to takc civilians in thcir cars, whcn hc finds
a vchiclc, hc gocs to thc policc oncc again, thc policc scnds him to thc
Municipal Asscmbly ol Òrahovac whosc duty is to arrangc a mccting
with thc usurpcr and chcck whcthcr hc is willing to lct thc owncr into
thc flat: as thcy say, policc mcrcly cscorts thc owncrs to thc flat — it
is not on thcm to arrangc mcctings bctwccn owncrs and usurpcrs, thc
officcrs ol thc Municipal Asscmbly instruct thc owncr to apply to thc
Municipal Court, cxplaining that only a court can rcsolvc his problcm,
sincc it is actually a lcgal issuc, officcrs ol thc Municipal Court scnd him
to HA8!TAT as thc only organization rcsponsiblc lor housing issucs,
caught in a vicious circlc, thc owncr loscs his paticncc and givcs up thc
idca ol visiting his own propcrty. Such cascs usually cnd in thc sclling
ol propcrty, which sccms to bc thc bcst solution lor rcprcscntativcs ol
intcrnational organizations, cnabling thcm to lrcc thcmsclvcs ol rcspon
sibility.
Kosovo and Mctohija +µ:
• Tc monk Miron Kosać ol thc monastcry ol St John in \clika Hoča,
submittcd to thc Local ScllGovcrnmcnt in Òrahovac a rcqucst lor sup
port in providing an additional housing lacility lor thc monastic broth
crhood. Prcscntly, lour monks sharc two availablc rooms in thc monas
tcry.
• Òwing to thc lunds providcd by thc ¡uropcan Agcncy lor Rccon
struction within its Civil Socicty Call lor Proposals, thc 8clgradcbascd
Mncmosync Ccntcr, has opcncd a national cuisinc rcstaurant in \clika
Hoča. Tc rcstaurant was cstablishcd in a rcmodcllcd room in thc Par
ish Housc, to which an anncx containing a kitchcn and a toilct was at
tachcd. !t has bccn announccd that thc rcstaurant will bc blcsscd by His
Gracc 8ishop ol Raška and Prizrcn Mgr. Artcmijc. Togcthcr with pricst
Milcnko Ðragićcvić, thc 8ishop will dccidc to whom among thc intcr
cstcd inhabitants ol \clika Hoča and Uppcr Òrahovac to cntrust thc
managcmcnt ol thc rcstaurant.
• Òn ¡ July :oo6, Ðcputy UN Spccial ¡nvoy Amb. A. Rohan and a tcam
ol intcrnational hcritagc cxpcrts visitcd \clika Hoča, at a mccting with
local rcprcscntativcs ol thc Scrb community, thc pricst and monks ol \c
lika Hoča, thc possibility ol dcsignating thc status ol a protcctcd zonc to
thc villagc (as a cultural and historical cnscmblc) was discusscd. Ðuring
thc prcparatory arrangcmcnts lor thc mccting, UNM!K’s rcprcscntativcs
in thc Municipal Asscmbly ol Òrahovac adviscd mc to prcparc lor Amb.
Rohan somc writtcn matcrials highlighting thc most important lacts
and figurcs cconccrning thc Scrbian population and inlormation about
\clika Hoča as a cultural and historical cnscmblc in ordcr to pcrsuadc
him that thc villagc mccts thc conditions to gct thc status ol a protcctcd
zonc.
• Òn ¡ July :oo6, ++.oo a.m., thc rcstorcd mcmorial housc Gospodarska
kuća – Serai in \clika Hoča was inauguratcd. Tc rcstoration was carricd
out by thc Swcdish NGÒ Cultural Heritage .ithout Borders lundcd by
thc ¡uropcan Agcncy lor Rcconstruction and thc Swcdish !ntcrnational
Ðcvclopmcnt Agcncy, on thc basis ol thc Projcct Protection, Preser.ation
and Fe.itali.ation of the !illage of !elika Hoča, draltcd by thc 8clgradc
Mncmosync Ccntrc, and thc Mcmorandum ol Undcrstanding and Co
opcration in thc Protcction ol Cultural Hcritagc in Kosovo and Mcto
hija, signcd bctwccn thc Swcdish NGÒ and thc Ministry ol Culturc ol
thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia.
• Òn Saturday 8 July :oo6, Uppcr Òrahovac was visitcd by an Amcrican
dclcgation ol politicians involvcd in rcscarch projccts carricd out lor thc
U.S. Scnatc and Congrcss |…| ! mct thcm in thc ccntrc ol thc cnclavc
and acquaintcd thcm with thc appalling living conditions ol thc Scrbian
community. A walk through thc strccts ol thc uppcr part ol thc town
gavc thcm a rcalistic picturc ol an isolatcd cnclavc, as wcll as a scnsc ol
tcnsions burdcning thc lilc ol Scrbian lamilics ncar thc dcmarcation linc
with thc Albanian parts ol thc town. Tc Amcrican dclcgation took thc
opportunity to talk with Austrian KFÒR soldicrs about sccurity and
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +µ¸
discrimination ol thc Scrb community. Tcy wcrc providcd with writtcn
matcrials in which thc basic data on thc living conditions ol thc Scrbian
community in thc Municipality ol Òrahovac and thc lists ol murdcrcd
and kidnappcd Scrbs, burnt houscs, scizcd flats, ctc. wcrc prcscntcd in
lull dctail.
• Òn ++ July :oo6, ! wrotc a lcttcr to thc Coordination Ccntrc in which
! inlormcd thc rcsponsiblc officcrs that Scrbian cmployccs ol thc Lo
cal ScllGovcrnmcnt in Òrahovac rcsigncd lrom thc Kosovo P!SG, i.c.
lrom thc Community Òfficc |…|
• Òn +¡ July :oo6, a church lcstival was hcld in thc monastcry ol Sts
Cosmas and Ðamian in Zočištc on thc occasion ol thc monastcry’s pa
tron saints’ day.
From his own point ol vicw, thc Municipal Coordinator summcd up thc
rcsults ol numcrous visits by lorcign dclcgation in thc lollowing words:
“Numcrous dclcgations visiting our cnclavcs just comc and scc, i.c. mcrc
ly takc a snapshot ol thc situation, gct acquaintcd with our hardship, and
go away to dralt thcir storics and moving rcports in a morc comlortablc
cnvironmcnt, bclicving that it would soothc thcir conscicncc, whilc thc
hclplcss population – thc young in particular, arc lclt to thcmsclvcs, thcir
unrcsolvcd problcms, and an unccrtain luturc.” (Municipal Coordinator’s
Rcport ol :¡ March :oo6)
´ ´ ´
Living in cnclavcs protcctcd by barbcd wirc and military contingcnts at
thc bcginning ol thc third millcnnium in ¡uropc is morc than a paradox.
Ðcprivcd ol thc lrccdom ol movcmcnt and thc right to work, lacing an
insccurc luturc, thc Scrbian population in Kosovo and Mctohija living in
thcsc cnclavcs, ghcttos on ¡uropc’s soil, is trying to dcvclop a modcl ol sur
vival. 8cwildcrmcnt, angcr, dcspair, but also pcrscvcrancc and pcrsistcncc,
rcflcct thc complcx and basically ambivalcnt attitudc ol thosc who dircctly
or indircctly participatc in thc prolongcd human and political drama. Òncc
again wc can scc that without a goal, dcvclopmcnt prospccts, organizcd as
sistancc and human solidarity, i.c. ccrtainty and sccurity, lilc bccomcs a rcal
drama. Too many unknown and unlorcsccablc lactors makc thc inhabitants
ol this cnclavc (as wcll as thosc living in othcr Scrbian cnclavcs in Kosovo
and Mctohija) lccl insccurc and lrustratcd.
\iniculturc, thc major industry ol thc Scrb population in \clika Hoča,
thcir main occupation lor ccnturics, has bccn rcduccd to thc cultivation ol
salc vincyards (thosc not usurpcd by thc local Albanians or closc cnough
to thc houscs to bc tcndcd without sccurity conccrns), thus rcsulting in
limitcdscalc production in privatc wincrics. Tc tcchnological lcvcl ol winc
production varics lrom wincry to wincry. Accordingly, thc rctail ol products
is limitcd to “privatc distribution” through rclativcs and catcrcrs. ¡ndcav
Kosovo and Mctohija +µ¡
ours ol intcrnational organizations to cnhancc thc production by providing
sccdlings and prolcssional assistancc in viniculturc or by supplying modcrn
cquipmcnt, lailcd to yicld thc cxpcctcd rcsults. Tc ccnturicslong practicc
ol individual production opposcs thc spirit ol coopcration. Conscqucntly,
support providcd to any onc individual produccrs gcncratcs tcnsions and
conflicts within thc community. Tc only succcsslul winc produccr, with an
cvcrincrcasing output, is thc metochion ol thc Ðcčani monastcry. !ts suc
ccss rcsts upon a wcllorganizcd production proccss run by thc monastcry’s
brothcrhood. Tc rcnting ol thc prcmiscs ol “Òrvin” to an Albanian com
pany intcnt on cstablishing a mcat production lacility thcrc, disturbs ccntu
ricslong pcacc and harmony in thc villagc. Ncgativc conscqucnccs ol this
dccision arc incvitablc.
As it was bccoming morc and morc obvious that thc “provisional
solution” ol living in an cnclavc could bccomc a final onc, thc cohcsivc
lorccs within thc community, vcry strong in :ooo and :oo+, considcrably
wcakcncd. Tc transitional pcriod ol accommodation to thc ncw living con
ditions was markcd by a dccp distrust ol cvcryonc and lack ol disciplinc. Tc
gravc sociopsychological situation in thc villagc affcctcd dircctly thc im
plcmcntation ol all projccts. Òrganizcd and dcvclopcd hcalth and cducation
programmcs ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia havc madc thc situation cvcn morc
complicatcd by putting thcsc occupations into a morc lavourablc position.
Tc social structurc ol thc population in thc Scrbian cnclavcs has not bccn
thoroughly studicd, no ovcrall stratcgy covcring all thc aspccts ol lilc has
bccn dcviscd. No vision ol thc luturc dcvclopmcnt ol thc cnclavcs and co
habitation has cvcr bccn takcn into considcration. !rrcsponsiblc and corrupt
mcmbcrs ol intcrnational organizations and somc ol Scrbia’s institutions scc
such dcvclopmcnts mcrcly as a good opportunity lor pcrsonal promotion
and profit making. Tcir own irrcsponsibility hits thcm back likc a boomcr
ang. A dcccptivc imprcssion that thc pcoplc living in thc cnclavc do not carc
lor thc quality ol thcir livcs prcvails. Tc inclusion ol poorly prcparcd Scrb
rcprcscntativcs into thc prcdominantly Albanian municipal administration
in Òrahovac was a scvcrc blow to thc vital issuc ol survival and sustainablc
rcturn ol thc Scrb community – namcly, thc problcm ol managcmcnt in
an uttcrly hostilc Albanian cnvironmcnt, lacing intimidation that has put
in dangcr both thcir individual and collcctivc intcgrity. Faccd with numcr
ous training programmcs offcrcd by intcrnational organizations, along with
partly wrong cxplanations ol thc situation which incvitably lcad to wrong
solutions, thc pcoplc living in thc cnclavc arc lorccd to copc with a culturc
that “drivcs thcm mad”. Tc “proccdurc” ol visiting onc’s own usurpcd housc
is so complicatcd that it makcs onc want to go away and ncvcr comc back.
Vhcn wc takc into considcration all thcsc lact, do wc havc any right
to condcmn thc Scrbs living in thc cnclavc ol \clika Hoča lor not sccing thc
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +µ¡
cultural hcritagc surrounding thcm as an advantagc and a rcsourcc capablc
ol cnsuring a lar bcttcr lilc in thc luturc: \incgrowing, practiscd lor ccntu
rics, and thc manmadc ambicncc arc dcfinitcly such rcsourccs. !t must also
bc bornc in mind that thc majority ol thc pcoplc living in thc cnclavc bc
licvc that thcir dccision to stay is also “God’s will cxprcsscd in thrcc tokcns”:
thc bclicl in sacrcd placcs surrounding thcm was rccognizcd and gratificd
by lrcc will and thc choicc to bc thc guardians ol this important spiritual
hcritagc that is a lcgacy ol thc wholc Scrbian nation.
Te encla.e of !elika Hoča – a protected ambience, a cultural and historic
ensemble
Te .alori.ation of natural´landscape and cultural, historic´heritage .alues of
the .illage of !elika Hoča and its surroundings (Final Feport: Projcct Urgent
Protection of Heritage in Metohija, 8clgradc: Mncmosync Ccntcr, :oo¸), has
shown that thc villagc and its cnvirons i.c. thc villagc arca, mcct all thc con
ditions lor protcction as an ambicncc, a cultural and historical cnscmblc ol
cxtraordinary importancc lor both Scrbian and ¡uropcan cultural hcritagc.
Morcovcr, ccrtain objccts and parts ol thc villagc should bc subjcct to a
spccial systcm ol protcction.
Tcrc arc twcnty listcd, protcctcd, catcgorizcd and publishcd cultural asscts
in \clika Hoča:
Protection category Number of cultural assets
Vorld Hcritagc /
¡xtraordinary importancc / First catcgory
St John’s Church, St Nicholas’ Church
:
Grcat importancc / Sccond catcgory /
Protcctcd / Tird catcgory
St Lukc’s Church, Metochia ol thc Monastcry ol
Ðcčani,Vincry ol St Stcphcn’s Church, Lazar
Kujundžić Mcmorial Towcr, Tc Hadžispasić Family
Housc
¡
Rccognizcd hcritagc
St Stcphcn’s Church, thc churchcs ol St Cyriaca, St
Annc, St Paraskcvc, St ¡lias and thc Holy \irgin, thc
Patrnogić Family Housc with a wincry, thc Lodgings
ol thc Monastcry ol St Marko ol Koriša, Serai, thc
houscs ol thc Stolić, Simić, Micić and Stašić lamilics

Total zo
Kosovo and Mctohija +µ6
Priority issues and tasks to be dealt .ith .ithin the protection plan for the .illage
of !elika Hoča, ol utmost importancc at this momcnt, can bc dividcd into
two groups:
r. Protection of all natural and man-made values including:
• Prcscrvation ol thc authcnticity ol thc villagc in its urban, architcctural
and landscapc aspccts.
• Protcction ol dctcrioratcd structurcs which arc or should bc listcd as
hcritagc on thc grounds ol thcir historical, ambicntal, architcctural and
artistic valucs.
• Protcction ol indigcnous plant spccics charactcristic ol thc vcgctation
zonc, and prcscrvation ol thc authcnticity ol thc landscapc.
• Spccial protcction lor viniculturc arcas, vcgctation ol rivcr banks and
walnuttrccs.
• Prohibition ol land parcclling, i.c. thc bulking ol small parccls, aimcd
at thc prcscrvation ol thc landscapc lcaturcs ol thc arca.
• Prohibition ol any activity that could rcsult in pollution or thrcatcn thc
cnvironmcnt.
z. Ensuring conditions for the development of the village and for the
normal life of its inhabitants, which includes the following·
• Physical protcction ol thc Scrb population and thcir usurpcd propcrty
whilc, and thc cnsuring ol normal and salc work in thcir ficlds whcrc
thcy havc oltcn bccn victims ol armcd attacks ol Albanian cxtrcmists.
• Rcvitalization and planting ol vincyards dcstroycd altcr thc arrival ol
intcrnational military and civil authoritics in all thc arcas lormcrly uscd
lor vincgrowing.
• ¡nsuring political, financial, and prolcssional support lor thc rcvital
ization and cnhanccmcnt ol local microcconomy in accordancc with
both rcgional nccds and availablc rcsourccs.
• ¡nsuring lunds, tcchnical conditions, and prolcssional support lor thc
improvcmcnt ol living standards in thc villagc through thc rccovcry ol
public and communal lunds and cquipmcnt provisions.
Rcvitalization ol thc cconomy is onc ol thc crucial prcconditions lor thc
rchabilitation and dcvclopmcnt ol \clika Hoča. Tcsc activitics, cxpcctcd to
yicld positivc sociocconomic cffccts in a short timc and cnsurc thc rcturn
and sustainability ol displaccd lamilics, arc at thc samc timc compatiblc
with thc cxpcctcd protcctcd status ol thc villagc and its surroundings. Tc
attcntion will bc drawn only to thc most important production activitics
that should bc rcvitalizcd and supportcd:
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +µ¸
• Rccstablishmcnt ol traditional winc production in compliancc with
intcrnational standards, thc rcconstruction ol old privatc wincrics that
should dcvclop into major grapc collcction and proccssing ccntrcs, and
cstablishmcnt ol a production linc lor bottling winc with protcctcd gco
graphical origin.
• !nitiating a smallscalc handicralt production ol clothing, souvcnirs,
traditional lood, i.c. thc promotion ol !elika Hoča as a dcsirablc tourist
and cultural dcstination.
• !n thc luturc, production is cxpcctcd to absorb raw matcrials com
ing lrom a widcr arca, thc product rangc could bc cxpandcd to includc
brandy, must, juiccs and traditional local lood (undcr prcscnt cxtrcmcly
unlavourablc conditions it is possiblc to markct somc &c,ccc litres of
.ine).
Tc involvcmcnt ol thc local community should bc cncouragcd by thc es-
tablishing of a proper institutional, administrati.e frame.ork in charge of the
Serbian encla.es ol Uppcr Òrahovac, \clika Hoča, and possibly thc villagc ol
Zočištc. Tc lact that thc position ol \clika Hoča can bc dcscribcd as “drilt
ing” on thc rim ol Mctohija, inacccssiblc to any ol thc administrativc lcvcls
ol dcccntralizcd Scrbian local scllgovcrnmcnt, may bc uscd as a prctcxt
lor untcnablc solutions ovcrlooking thc basic lact that any dccision rcgard
ing thc protcction ol cultural hcritagc, including thc dcsignation ol \clika
Hoča as an ambicntal, cultural and historic cnscmblc, is firmly loundcd in
¡uropcan common practicc. Tcmporary suspcnsion ol rclcvant lcgislation
ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia docs not justily willlul suspcnsion ol ¡uropcan
lcgislation and common practicc. Tc situation is vcry difficult and dcmands
complcx and novcl solutions compatiblc with common ¡uropcan practicc.
Cultural hcritagc has a wcll dcfincd, undisputcd, and vcry important placc
in ¡uropcan culturc, thcrclorc its protcction and prcscrvation cannot rcst
upon arbitrary solutions and voluntccr cngagcmcnt ol nongovcrnmcntal or
ganizations. Tc civil socicty scctor in Scrbia could significantly hclp to put
in placc propcr hcritagc protcction mcchanisms and lacilitatc thcir implc
mcntation (or could providc cxpcrt assistancc in thc conscrvation ol build
ings and monumcnts) but it docs not and could ncvcr assumc thc prcroga
tivcs ol thc statc and its institutions. !t is a mattcr ol political bcncvolcncc
whcthcr thcsc lundamcntal lacts will bc acknowlcdgcd and put into opcra
tion, which would yicld immcasurablc bcncfits lor a gcnuinc rcconciliation
proccss bctwccn thc Scrbs and thc Albanians.
Conscqucntly, thc administration ol thc \clika Hoča cnclavc (in
cluding Uppcr Òrahovac and, possibly, Zočištc) must bc cntrustcd to pcoplc
living in thc cnclavc organizcd within a local scllgovcrnmcnt that would
bc part ol a widcr dcccntralizcd Scrbian scllgovcrnmcnt structurc in thc
Provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija. Tc administration ol thc cnclavc must
Kosovo and Mctohija +µ8
bc part ol a systcm with which it could cstablish cfficicnt rclationships bascd
on mutual rcsponsibility. Tat systcm is a dcccntralizcd Scrbian scllgovcrn
mcnt structurc in Kosovo and Mctohija, which could in prospcct bccomc
a compatiblc part ol somc luturc administrativc systcm in thc provincc.
Placing thc cnclavc undcr thc rcsponsibility ol thc Albanian municipal ad
ministration in Òrahovac would cnablc longtcrm discrimination lollowcd
by subvcrsivc actions against thc Scrb community: thc Albanian municipal
administration would usc “cxclusivc privilcgcs” to crcatc an illusion ol al
lcgcdly lair intcrcthnic cohabitation in thc Kosovo and Mctohija Provincc
among thc “rcasonablc” inhabitants ol thc cnclavc on thc onc hand, whcrcas
thc spurious cxaltation ol thc Scrbian officials, corruptcd by thcsc privilcgcs,
would cnd in scvcrc disillusionmcnt bclorc thcir compatriots and thcir rca
sonablc dcmands.
To clarily, thc prospccts and chanccs ol \clika Hoča rcst in its vast
natural rcsourccs cntwincd with thc ambicncc that has bccn crcatcd lor
ccnturics. Somc ol thc structurcs in thc villagc arc listcd hcritagc sitcs –
thcy wcrc dcsignatcd that status by institutions ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia in
compliancc with its lcgislation. Accordingly, a rclcvant institution must bc
rcsponsiblc lor thc continuity ol hcritagc managcmcnt in \clika Hoča and
its dcsignation as an ambicntal, cultural and historic cnscmblc, that institu
tion is thc Fegional Centre for the Study and Protection of Cultural Heritage in
Koso.o and Metohija. Ònly with such an institution would thc discmpow
crcd and pcrplcxcd populacc ol thc cnclavc lccl that thcir latc is in thcir
own hands and that thcir hardship is not in vain. Tc hcritagc protcction
proccss would bc brought back to thc coursc ol ¡uropcan common practicc
cndorsing onc ol thc lundamcntal human rights – thc right ol thc hcirs to
protcct thcir own cultural hcritagc.
To dcprivc thc Scrbs ol that right, i.c. to dcprivc thcm ol that scg
mcnt ol organizcd institutional action, would mcan thc lurthcrancc ol thc
agony and a total fiasco ol ¡uropcan norms and valucs.
Vho is rcady to takc rcsponsibility lor such a scqucncc ol cvcnts:
M. Mcnković, Tc ¡nclavc ol \clika Hoča +µµ
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C
Miloš Luković
Tzintzars in Uroševac, Lipljan, Obilić, Priština
and Kosovska Mitrovica
Introduction
For morc than +:o ycars, a sizcablc community ol Hcllcnizcd \lachs, known
as Tzintzars
+
has livcd in Urošcvac (Fcrizović, Fcrizaj), on thc southcrn rim
ol thc Kosovo 8asin.
:
Tcrc was in lact a “Tzintzar Allcy” ncar thc main
+
T.int.ars (altcrnativc namcs |doublcts|: !lachs, Æromanians/Ærumanians, and in Tz
intzar: Ærămăn, Æromăn, Fomăn, Făman) arc mostly Hcllcnizcd \lachs, and havc bccn
a lamiliar subjcct ol historiography on Scrbia, Òld Scrbia and both Slavic and Grcck
Maccdonia. Rcccnt dccadcs havc sccn a prolusion ol litcraturc on Tzintzars in vari
ous 8alkan countrics (Maccdonia, 8ulgaria, Romania, Grcccc, Turkcy), scc also usclul
but not always rcliablc inlormation providcd by thc wcbsitcs on Tzintzars www.vla
chophilcs.nct and www.aromanian.nct. Tc work ol organisations such as thc 8clgradc
bascd Serb-T.int.ar Society “Lunjina” (Lunjina- “Light”), and thc Skopjcbascd Union
for the Culture of T.int.ars from Macedonia (Unija .a kultura na !lasite od Makedonija)
has contributcd to this. Rcgulations on cultural and languagc rights ol Tzintzars (Aro
manians) havc bccn includcd in acts ol thc Council ol ¡uropc Parliamcntary Asscmbly
in Strasbourg in +µµ¸ and +µµ8, scc wcb sitc: www.coc.int/T/¡/Human_Rights_Mi
noritics/+.G¡N¡RAL_PR¡S¡NTAT!ÒN/PÐF_ÐHM!N(µ8)¸.pdl.
:
Tc tcrm Koso.o (altcrnativcly thc Koso.o Basin) is uscd in this papcr not in its po
litical but in its gcographical mcaning as dcfincd by Jovan Cvijić, 8ranislav Nušić and
Atanasijc Urošcvić. Cvijić dcfincs Kosovo as a “sizcablc basin cxtcnding in a mcridian
dircction, its longcst longitudinal axis bcing 8¡ km lrom Kačanik to Zvcčan abovc
Mitrovica, and thc widcst latitudinal +¡ km bctwccn Priština and Ðrcnica (scc Cvijić
+µµ6: ¸68, cl. Urošcvić +µ6¡, Nušić +µo:: ¡, ¡). Tcrclorc, thc tcrm Koso.o rclcrs hcrc
ncithcr to an administrativc subdivision ol thc Òttoman ¡mpirc nor to an autonomous
subdivision ol thc postSccond Vorld Var Rcpublic ol Scrbia (first thc Autonomous
Rcgion ol Kosovo and Mctohija +µ¡¡–+µ6¸, thcn thc Socialist Autonomous Provincc
ol Kosovo +µ6¸–+µµo, and finally thc Autonomous Provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija
+µµo–+µµµ.) Tc tcrritory ol this provincc was placcd undcr thc administration ol UN
and NATÒlcd military lorccs (KFÒR) in Junc +µµµ. !n Scrbian tradition, Kosovo as
Kosovo and Mctohija ::6
strcct, whcrc all thc Tzintzar lamilics, usually at lcast bilingual, Scrb and
\lach, but somctimcs Grcckspcaking as wcll, wcrc originally groupcd and
livcd thcrc until thc +µµµ cxpulsion ol both Scrbs and nonAlbanians by
Albanian cxtrcmists. Urošcvac rcmaincd clcanscd, without its prcvious Scrb
and Scrbo\lach Tzintzar population. Facing violcncc, thcy lclt prior to or
soon altcr KFÒR took control ol Kosovo and Mctohija in Junc +µµµ. Ònly
thrcc womcn ol thc Nikolić lamily havc rcmaincd (two sistcrs with thcir
agcd mothcr). And so it happcncd that thcrc arc hardly any Tzintzars lclt in
Urošcvac, dcspitc thcir visiblc rolc in its origin and dcvclopmcnt.
¸
!n lcsscr numbcrs, Tzintzars (Cincari or Цинцари) also inhabitcd
othcr Kosovo towns along thc railway linc opcncd in +8¸¸: Lipljan, Òbilić,
Priština and Kosovska Mitrovica. Lacking basic sccurity lor Christian popu
lation, anothcr two towns along thc samc railway linc, \učitrn and Kačanik,
did not attract thc Tzintzars, traditionally tradcrs ( Jugović +µo6: +:6, Cvijić ( Jugović +µo6: +:6, Cvijić
+µµ6: ¡:¸). Tis railway linc conncctcd thc Kosovo towns Mitrovica (thc . Tis railway linc conncctcd thc Kosovo towns Mitrovica (thc Tis railway linc conncctcd thc Kosovo towns Mitrovica (thc
last station to thc north), \učitrn, Priština, Lipljan, Urošcvac and Kačanik
with Skopljc, and lurthcr south along thc \ardar \allcy with Gcvgclija and
with Tcssalonica in thc Salonica 8ay. Vith thc opcning in thc Kingdom
ol Scrbia in +88¡ ol thc railway lrom 8clgradc via Niš to \ranjc, and its
conncction with thc railway in thc \ardar \allcy (via Skopljc), thc Kosovo
railway lost somc ol its prcvious importancc, whilc rctaining ccrtain influ
cncc on tradc and cconomy within Kosovo (cl. Nušić +µo:: ¡¡, ¡6, Urošcvić
+µ6¡: +¸¸, Lutovac +µ¸:: ¸, ¡). Tcsc Kosovo “railway towns” – as tcrmcd by
Jovan Cvijić
¡
– wcrc markcd by thcir busincssoricntcd Tzintzar communi
tics, who usually intcrmarricd with Scrbs and Grccks. Tc landmark arca
ol thcir prcscncc was Urošcvac – known as thc “youngcst town in Kosovo”
(\idačić +µ6¸: ¸, Maloku +µ¡¸: :¡). Tcir prcscncc is rccordcd by various
sourccs, including both publishcd and oral oncs. publishcd and oral oncs.
a gcographical arca is clcarly diffcrcntiatcd lrom thc ncighbouring gcographical arcas
ol Ðrcnica, Mctohija, !barski Kolašin, Srcdnjc Poibarjc and Gornja Morava, which to
gcthcr makc up thc Autonomous Provincc ol Kosovo and Mctohija. Albanians lrom
this tcrritory insist on thc monomial tcrm Koso.o or, in Albanian, Koso.a lor this ad
ministrativc unit, and thcsc appcllations arc also acccptcd, at lcast thc first Scrb onc, by
thc intcrnational community.
¸
Tis papcr is a rcviscd vcrsion ol Luković :oo¡, publishcd in Scrbian.
¡
Jovan Cvijić (+86¡–+µ:¸) was thc lcading Scrbian and intcrnationally rccognizcd gc
ographcr and anthropogcographcr, cxpcrt on thc gcography ol thc Vcstcrn 8alkans and
intcrcthnic rclations within Turkcyin¡uropc. Cvijić classificd all Kosovo towns into:
+) Koso.o rail.ay to.ns, and :) remote to.ns. Ncithcr hc nor othcr Scrbian scholars
havc countcd as Kosovo towns thosc in thc adjaccnt arca callcd Metohija by thc Scrbs,
\lachs and othcr nonAlbanians, and Dukagjin by thc Albanians. Cl. Cvijić +µµ6: ¡+µ,
¡::–¡:6.
M. Luković, Tzintzars in Urošcvac, Lipljan, Òbilić, Priština... ::¸
Tis papcr rclics on amplc inlormation providcd by Nikola (Niko)
and Mcropi Nikolić, a couplc lrom a promincnt Urošcvac lamily, wcllin
lormcd on othcr Tzintzar lamilics. Nikola Nikolić (b. +µ:¡, Urošcvac) and . Nikola Nikolić (b. +µ:¡, Urošcvac) and Nikolić (b. +µ:¡, Urošcvac) and
his wilc Mrs. Mcropi Nikolić (b. +µ:8, Urošcvac, ol thc Tzintzar Ðcdić
lamily) livcd in Urošcvac until thc arrival ol NATÒlcd intcrnational lorccs
in Kosovo in Junc +µµµ, whcn thcy wcrc lorccd to movc out, arriving cvcn
tually in 8clgradc. Tcir nativc languagc rcmaincd to bc \lach or Tzintzar.
Uroše.ac (Feri.o.ić)
:) Published sources
Ðata on thc Tzintzar community in Fcrizović (rcnamcd to Urošcvac altcr
thc First 8alkan Var +µ+:) is availablc in thc various publications ol thc
oldcr gcncration ol anthropogcographcrs ( J. Cvijić, Jclto Ðcdijcr, Atanasijc
Urošcvić), political analysts (8ranislav Ðj. Nušić, 8oško Jugović), historians
(Ðušan Popović |+µ¸¸|), travclwritcrs or Kosovo Scrb culturc historians
(Pctar Kostić), with occassional data in thc consular dispatchcs ol 8. Nušić
and Milan M. Rakić, both Scrbian consuls in Priština in thc last dccadcs
ol Òttoman rulc. Tc most dctailcd data is providcd by Urošcvić, whilc thc
postSccond Vorld Var monographs rcgarding thc Tzintzar community in
Urošcvac wcrc bascd mostly on carlicr rcsults (\idačić +µ6¸, Kalcshi +µ¸¡), \idačić +µ6¸, Kalcshi +µ¸¡),,
and on studics on Scrbia in gcncral (\lahović +µµµ: 88) and on Tzintzars in (\lahović +µµµ: 88) and on Tzintzars in +µµµ: 88) and on Tzintzars in
particular, in thc rcst ol Scrbia (Pctrović +µµ6: ¸8). (Pctrović +µµ6: ¸8). .
Prior to thc building ol thc railway, thc location whcrc Urošcvac was thc building ol thc railway, thc location whcrc Urošcvac was was
loundcd was in thc lcns and lorcsts ol Nikodim villagc. Tcrc was an Òtto
man inn (han) thcrc, bclonging to Fcriz Šcšivar, an cthnic Turk whosc lam
ily cvcntually movcd to Turkcy altcr thc 8alkan Vars (+µ+:–+¸). Tc local
pcasants callcd thc ncwlylormcd scttlcmcnt Tasjan (a mctathcsis ol thc
Frcnch word station). Soon altcrwards thc namc Feri.o.ić (with thc Scrbian
cxtcnsion ić) cstablishcd itscll among thc inhabitants ol thc town and thc
vicinity. !n +µoo thc town was raiscd to thc lcvcl ol mudirluk (district sta
tion), thc Òttoman authoritics discardcd thc namc Feri.o.ić lrom public
usc on account ol its Scrbian lorm and introduccd thc namc Feri. Bey altcr
an Òttoman hcro who in thc latc lourtccnth ccntury had scizcd Zvcčan
lrom thc Scrbs and bccomc its commandcr (kefalija). Tc ncw namc was
not casily acccptcd by thc population, cithcr Albanian or Scrb, and thc old
namc Feri.o.ić rcmaincd in widcsprcad usc. Altcr Kosovo was rcintcgratcd
into thc Kingdom ol Scrbia in +µ+: thc town was rcnamcd Uroše.ac, altcr
thc Scrbian ¡mpcror Uroš !, thc last rulcr lrom thc Housc ol Ncmanjić
who dicd in thc ncarby royal rcsidcncc ol Ncrodimljc in +¸¸+. !n thc post
Sccond Vorld Var pcriod, along with thc namc Urošcvac, thc Albanian
Kosovo and Mctohija ::8
lorm Feri.aj was in usc as wcll (cl. Urošcvić +µ¸6: :66–:6¸, \idačić +µ6¸:
+¡–+¸, Kalcshi +µ¸¡: ¡µ, 6¸).
!n his major work on Òttomanhcld Òld Scrbia and Maccdonia,
¡

Cvijić concludcs that among thc railway towns, Fcrizović bccamc “thc most
important as a crossroads and important trading station”, sincc at that timc
this littlc town was thc “stop lor Prizrcn, Podrima, Prizrcnski Podgor, Òbi
ca, Lugovi and Gnjilanc”.
6
Hc also notcs that “thcrc arc but a lcw Albanians
in it” and that it is “a comparativcly salc littlc town”. Cvijić points out that
Fcrizović “originatcd lrom thc timc whcn thc Kosovo railway linc passcd
through it”, and rccords its swilt dcvclopmcnt. At thc timc ol Cvijić’s visit
in +µo+ Fcrizović alrcady had about ¡oo houscholds and :oo shops with
largc warchouscs, cspccially lor Kosovo grain, as wcll as lor transport ol
importcd ¡uropcan goods to othcr locations.
Vriting on thc population ol Fcrizović, Cvijić idcntificd thrcc rcli
gious groups: Christian Òrthodox, Muslim and Roman Catholic. Among
thc Christian Òrthodox population, mostly Scrbs, thcrc wcrc cightccn
Tzintzar houscs (Cvijić +µµ6: :8¡, :86, also uscs thc altcrnativc Scrbian
tcrm Æromuni i.c. Aromanians). Tcy wcrc originally lrom thc Tzintzarin
habitcd arca ol 8itolj–Krušcvo (8itolj, Gopcš, Magarcvo and Krušcvo) and
wcrc “vcry activc” at thc timc. Howcvcr, Cvijić lails to mcntion thc namcs ol
thcsc lamilics (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡¡¡, ¡:¸). (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡¡¡, ¡:¸). +µµ6: ¡¡¡, ¡:¸).
As viccconsul ol thc Kingdom ol Scrbia, 8ranislav Ðj. Nušić spcnt
thrcc ycars (+8µ¸–µ6) in Priština, altcr his first twomonth sojourn thcrc
in +8µo. Ðuring thosc ycars Nušić visitcd many placcs in Kosovo, travcl
ing as lar as Scutari in northcrn Albania. As a rcsult, hc publishcd scvcral
important travcl books and a richly documcntcd monograph on Kosovo
(Nušić +µo:). !n Koso.o Nušić notcs that “Fcrizović is a vcry livcly sta
tion”, which lcd to “a villagc, which uscd to bc vcry small and a long way off
lrom thc station, dcvclop quitc a littlc town around it with a propcr čaršija
(downtown), storcs, inns, shops and unintcrruptcd tradc” (Nušić +µo:: ¡¸, (Nušić +µo:: ¡¸,
¡8). Grain trading was a profitablc busincss in Kosovo. “To thc Tcssalonica . Grain trading was a profitablc busincss in Kosovo. “To thc Tcssalonica
markct alonc, Kosovo scnds ovcr tcn million okas ol grain annually |+,:8o
wagons|, as wcll as somc to markcts ncarcr homc” (Nušić +µo:: ¡:). ¡vcn (Nušić +µo:: ¡:). ¡vcn . ¡vcn
though Priština (“as thc most populous town and surroundcd by thc richcst
¡
Cvijić +µµ6: ¡::. Cvijić’s monumcntal rcscarch on thc wholc ol Òld Scrbia and Mac
cdonia was publishcd in thrcc cxtcnsivc volumcs by thc Royal Scrbian Acadcmy +µo6–
+µ++ (sccond cdition in +µµ6).
6
!n thc +88os solid roads lrom Fcrizović to Štimljc (on thc road to Prizrcn) and lrom
Fcrizović to Gnjilanc wcrc constructcd, considcrably lacilitating local traffic, whilc
thc road to Prizrcn was rcconstructcd in +µ¸o–¸:, as was thc road to Sirinićka Župa
( Jugović +µo6, Maloku +µ¸¡: 6o).
M. Luković, Tzintzars in Urošcvac, Lipljan, Òbilić, Priština... ::µ
villagcs”) had “thc livclicst tradc”, at that timc Fcrizović and Mitrovica wcrc
alrcady “thrcatcning to surpass Priština” (Nušić +µo:: 6µ). (Nušić +µo:: 6µ)..
!n rclcrring to Kosovo, Nušić dcscribcs thc Tzintzars as !lachs, a namc
much uscd lor Tzintzars in othcr languagcs as wcll. Nušić says that thcrc arc
“considcrablc numbcrs” ol \lachs in Kosovo, that thcy all arc Christian Òr
thodox, and that thcy arc cngagcd in tradc, thcrc arc somc in villagcs, “but
thcy mostly gravitatc towards bcttcr markcts, such as thosc in |Kosovska|
Mitrovica, Priština and Fcrizović”. Pointing out that pcoplc call thcm Goge,
¸

Nušić concludcs that thcy, howcvcr, arc “mostly lrom thc \ilayct ol Mo
nastir, lrom thosc samc villagcs that scnd thcm to Scrbia”.
!n his +µo6 travcloguc 8. Jugović, an cmploycc at thc Scrbian consul
atc in Skopjc (in +µo¡ hc travcllcd lrom Skopljc through Kosovo as lar as
Ðcvič monastcry in thc Ðrcnica arca), notcs that Fcrizović is “thc ccntrc
ol all thc tradc lor thosc arcas” (thosc ol Prizrcn, Ðjakovica and Gnjilanc)
in which Grcck or Tzintzar mcrchants arc involvcd. Hc providcs a morc
thorough cxplanation ol thcir busincss succcss: “Flccing lrom opprcssion
in thcir homclands, thcy scttlcd hcrc onc by onc. Vith thcir skills thcy
soon bccamc thc mastcrs ol tradc. Tcir moving hcrc may bc obscrvcd cvcn
today in Kosovo. Ònc rclugcc opcns a small shop and tradcs in cvcrything,
buys and sclls cvcrything, lcnds cvcrything, bcars cvcrything: thc scorn, thc
snccrs and bcatings. His first conccrn is moncy, hc is as diligcnt as a molc.
Vhcn hc has stood on his own lcct, hc scnds lor his wilc and childrcn, and
whcn thcy havc scttlcd in, it will bc thcir rclativcs’ turn, his and his wilc’s.
And so thcir colony strcngthcns gradually” ( Jugović +µo6: +:¸). ( Jugović +µo6: +:¸). +µo6: +:¸).
8
Tc rcnowncd cxpcrt lor Kosovo intcrcthnic rclations Atanasijc
Urošcvić, in his short prcwar volumc Uroše.ac, a To.n in Koso.o (+µ¸6),
lists thc namcs ol all thc promincnt lamilics in Urošcvac, in particular thosc
involvcd in tradc and commcrcc. Among thc quitc numcrous scttlcrs lrom
Prizrcn, thcrc was a singlc Tzintzar lamily, by thc namc ol Konstantinović.
Howcvcr, according to Urošcvić, thc Tzintzar group ol thc 8itolj |Monastir|
arca movcd thcrc in lar grcatcr numbcrs: thc Santić, Kurtić,
µ
Nikolić, Ðcdić,
Ðinić, Ðorča, ¡rka and Cingar lamilics lrom Gopcš, thc Paralcst lamily
¸
Tc namc Gogc was a common cxprcssion uscd only lor thc Tzintzars ol Prizrcn
(Kostić +µ:¡).
8
Òbviously lacking timc lor additional rcscarch, Cvijić’s disciplc Jclto Ðcdijcr simply
rcitcratcs Cvijić’s obscrvations and data on Fcrizović in his book No.a Srbija (Tc Ncw
Scrbia), publishcd in +µ+¸ altcr thc 8alkan Vars to covcr thc arcas ol Òld Scrbia and
Slavic Maccdonia rcintcgratcd into thc Kingdom ol Scrbia. Scc Ðcdijcr +µ+¸: :6¸,
:6¡.
µ
Tc Tzintzar Kurtić lamily should bc distinguishcd lrom thc Albanian Catholic Kurtić
lamily in Urošcvac. 8oth livcd in Urošcvac at thc samc timc.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸o
lrom Nižopoljc ncar 8itolj, thc Mazni lamily also camc lrom Gopcš and
movcd to Skopjc in +µ+o.
+o
Tc arrival ol muhadjirs |displaccd Muslims|
altcr thc +8¸¸–¸8 war bctwccn Scrbia and thc Òttoman ¡mpirc – 8osniaks
lrom 8osnia and Hcrzcgovina, Albanians lrom Toplica and Jablanica and
Circassians lrom Niš – lorccd thc Òttomans to providc grcatcr sccurity lor
thc inhabitants ol thc ncwlylormcd scttlcmcnt. Tcrclorc, thc mcrchants
lrom Prizrcn commcnccd moving thcir lamilics to busincsspromising
Urošcvac (Urošcvić +µ¸6: :¸o). (Urošcvić +µ¸6: :¸o). +µ¸6: :¸o).
Tc scttling ol thc Tzintzars in Urošcvac bcgan with thc arrival ol thc
Kurtić and Santić lamilics lrom Gopcš, who “took ovcr thc cntirc grain cx
port busincss”, duc to thc profitability ol this busincss, thc grain mcrchants
multiplicd, and bctwccn +8µo and +µoo ncw Tzintzar lamilics arrivcd lrom
Slavic Maccdonia (thcsc arc not mcntioncd by namc, but thcrc arc sporadic
rclcrcnccs to thc Nikolić lamily, cl. \idačić +µ6¸: +¸–+µ).
Tc samc data is confirmcd in Feri.aj dhe rrethina (Urošcvac and its
¡nvirons) publishcd in Albanian in +µ¸¡, whcrc thc “lamous Tzintzar mcr
chant lamilics ol Kurtić and Santić lrom thc vicinity ol 8itolj, lrom thc
villagc ol Gopcš” arc mcntioncd (Maloku +µ¸¡: :6), as wcll as thc piccc ol (Maloku +µ¸¡: :6), as wcll as thc piccc ol
inlormation that Tzintzar lamilics, such as thc Nikolićs, continucd to arrivc that Tzintzar lamilics, such as thc Nikolićs, continucd to arrivc
throughout thc latc ninctccnth ccntury (Zdravković +µ¸¡: :+¡). (Zdravković +µ¸¡: :+¡)..
:) Oral histories: Families and destinies
Tc Nikolićcs point out that thc first lamilics to movc to Urošcvac wcrc
thc Santićs and Kurtićs (thc Kurtić lamily lclt thc arca a long timc ago),
whilc most ol thc Tzintzar lamilics in Urošcvac camc lrom Gopcš. Tcsc
wcrc thc Santić, Nikolić, Atanasijcvić, Ðcdić and Jovanović lamilics, as wcll
as somc pcrsons without thcir cxtcndcd lamilics. Tc surnamcs ol lamilics
originally lrom Krušcvo and Prizrcn arc also known. !nlormation givcn by
thc Nikolićs is lragmcntcd and not ol cqual dctail lor all Tzintzar lamilics,
but it is usclul lor lurthcr rcscarch and will, thcrclorc, bc givcn hcrc in its
cntircty.
!n thc intcrwar pcriod Ðimitrijc Santić was in thc grain tradc. Hc had
two sons and a daughtcr. ¡vcn bclorc thc Sccond Vorld Var, thcy owncd a
largc apartmcnt building in Tcssalonica and larmland ncar Urošcvac. Altcr
thc war, thcy first movcd to Skopjc and cvcntually on to Tcssalonica. For
a timc onc ol thc Santićs was thc rcprcscntativc ol thc Yugoslav Tehno-
promet Company in Tcssalonica. Tc prcscnt day surnamc ol thc Santićs in
Grcccc is not known.
+o
Urošcvić +µ¸6: :6¡–:¸+. Urošcvić also lists thc lamilics ol othcr scttlcrs in Urošcvac.
M. Luković, Tzintzars in Urošcvac, Lipljan, Òbilić, Priština... :¸+
Ðjordjc Atanasijcvić was brought lrom Gopcš by his brothcrin
law and sistcr, Nača and Santa Nikolić, who had alrcady livcd in Urošcvac.
Vhcn hc arrivcd, thcy hclpcd him dcvclop his busincss in thc grain tradc.
Ðjordjc and his wilc Kostandina (also lrom Gopcš) had no childrcn ol thcir
own, but thcy adoptcd a boy and a girl lrom among thcir rclativcs. Ðjordjc
and Kostandina wcrc buricd in Urošcvac. Tcir adoptcd childrcn movcd
lrom Urošcvac to 8clgradc, which is whcrc thcy dicd.
Alcksa Ðcdić in thc intcrwar pcriod tradcd in “colonial” or mixcd
groccrics and mctal products (ploughs, tools, hardwarc products ctc.). Òn
thc cvc ol thc world war hc wcnt bankrupt (“a good man, hc signcd too
many promissory notcs lor othcrs”), so thc bank lorccloscd on his housc,
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸:
which was mortgagcd. Altcr thc dcath ol his wilc Kostandina, Alcksa rc
marricd. From his first marriagc hc had fivc childrcn: two sons – a) Ðjordjc
(nicknamcd Ðjoka), and b) Ðimitrijc, and thrcc daughtcrs – c) Agapi, d)
Stcrija (callcd Tcža in Urošcvac and Tcrdjo by thc Tzintzars), and c) Marika.
Alcksa’s sccond wilc was \asilika, originally lrom Gopcš. !n Gopcš, \asilika
was lormcrly marricd to Ðjordjc (Ðjordjaki in Tzintzar) lrom thc Pagcnaki
lamily (Ðjordjc’s lathcr was a pricst in Gopcš), who dicd. A daughtcr, An
tula, was born ol this marriagc (+µ+¡). From his marriagc to \asilika, Alcksa
had two childrcn: a daughtcr, Mcropi (+µ:8), and a son, Nikola (+µ¸+).
Antula (thc Scrbian cquivalcnt ol hcr namc is Cvcta) also livcd with thcm.
Alcksa Ðcdić and his two wivcs wcrc buricd in Urošcvac.
Atanas Jovanović livcd lor a short whilc in thc villagc ol 8abljak (on
thc railway linc to Kosovo Poljc) whcrc hc tradcd in “colonial goods”. Tcn
hc movcd to Urošcvac, whcrc hc cxpandcd his busincss to thc grain tradc.
Atanas’s wilc had dicd bclorc thc Sccond Vorld Var, and hc rcmarricd.
Hc had lour sons lrom this first marriagc: Kosta, Alcksandar, Ðjordjc and
Mihailo. From his sccond marriagc, hc had two morc sons and a daugh
tcr. Hc livcd in Urošcvac whcrc his busincss was, whilc his wilc and thcir
thrcc childrcn rcmaincd in Gopcš. Atanas supportcd and visitcd thcm thcrc.
Howcvcr, during thc war, Atanas’s cntirc lamily movcd lrom Urošcvac to
Gopcš, and altcr thc war thosc who had livcd in Urošcvac rcturncd thcrc.
Latcr on thcy all dispcrscd, so that Kosta was buricd in Kovin, Alcksandar
in 8clgradc, Ðjordjc in Krušcvac, and Mihailo in Urošcvac. Tc Nikolićs
also rcmcmbcr somc individual Tzintzars in Urošcvac (without an cxtcndcd
lamily), originally lrom Gopcš (thcir surnamcs arc also mcntioncd by A.
Urošcvić in his work on Urošcvac publishcd in +µ¸¡).
++
Panta Ðorča workcd as a bus drivcr on intcrcity lincs maintaincd
by thc transport company owncd by Rogošić. Hc movcd with his sistcr to
Skopjc. \andjcl, nicknamcd Sotir (his surnamc was probably Lcrka), was in
thc tradc busincss. Altcr hc wcnt bankrupt, hc movcd to Romania. Prior to
+µ¡+, Kosta |al| Ðina, prcviously a smallscalc mcrchant in thc ncarby vil
lagc ol 8abljak, livcd in Urošcvac.
+:
Nikola Cingara workcd in thc Nikolić lamily bank in Urošcvac. Altcr
+歭 whcn this privatc bank was liquidatcd, hc movcd to Skopjc and mar
ricd a Grcck woman. Nikola dicd and was buricd in Skopjc. Tcir son Koča
(Kosta) studicd tcchnology in Zagrcb, scttlcd thcrc and was joincd by his
++
Among thc scttlcrs lrom Gopcš, A. Urošcvić citcs thc Ðorča, ¡rka, Ðinić and Cingar
lamilics, and thc Paralcst lamily scttlcrs lrom Nižopoljc (ncar Gopcš).
+:
Dina is a lcmalc Tzintzar namc, and thc prcposition al bclorc it is uscd to givc it thc
posscssivc gcnitivc lorm, hcncc Kosta al Dina mcans “Ðina’s Kosta” and this is undoubt
cdly thc Dinić lamily citcd by A. Urošcvić.
M. Luković, Tzintzars in Urošcvac, Lipljan, Òbilić, Priština... :¸¸
widowcd mothcr Aliki. Atanas Kostić (his wilc’s namc was \ita) was, as a
“litcratc man”, thc prcsidcnt ol thc tradcsmcn’s association in Urošcvac altcr
+µ¡¡. Atanas’s brothcr took thc surnamc ol Ðimitrijcvić and his dcsccn
dants carry this namc.
Panta Sotirović livcd on lor somc filtccn ycars altcr +µ¡¡ and was
buricd in Urošcvac. Hc ncvcr marricd and livcd lrom rcnting apartmcnts
in his housc.
Prior to +µ¡+ Nikola Paralcsta, originally lrom Nižopoljc (Nižcpolc)
ncar 8itolj, uscd to bc thc municipal “organ ol ordcr” (night watchman) in
Urošcvac. Hc dicd and was buricd in Urošcvac.
Tc Ristić lamily originally camc lrom Krušcvo. 8ctwccn thc two
world wars Jovan Ristić (who also marricd in Krušcvo) workcd as a cop
pcrsmith. Hc had scvcn childrcn: thrcc sons – \asilj (thc coppcrsmith
busincssman in his lathcr’s shop, movcd to Skopjc and marricd a girl lrom
Krušcvo), Tomislav (bank clcrk, dicd vcry young) and Hristaki (or Rista,
an clcctrician), and lour daughtcrs – Filomcna, Ljubica (born about +µ:o),
Marija and Antina.
Tc Zabunović, Konstantinović and 8ilicarcvić lamilics wcrc origi
nally lrom Prizrcn. !n Urošcvac (as in Prizrcn) thcsc Tzintzar lamilics wcrc
callcd thc Goge community. !n thc bcginning thcsc lamilics wcrc craltsmcn.
Latcr onc ol thc 8ilicarcvić lamily bccamc a lawycr and a judgc.
Again according to thc Nikolićs, scvcral Tzintzar lamilics livcd, lor
various pcriods, in thc villagc ol 8abljak ncar Urošcvac and in placcs a littlc
lurthcr away: in Štimljc and Štrpcc. As wc havc mcntioncd alrcady, thc
Jovanović lamily livcd lor a short pcriod in thc villagc ol 8abljak (on thc
Kosovo Poljc railway linc). Tcy tradcd in “colonial mcrchandisc”, and thcn
thcy movcd to Urošcvac, cxpanding thcir tradc to thc grain busincss. Tc
samc gocs lor thc Ðina lamily. !n thc latc ninctccnth ccntury, Spira Kostić,
originally lrom Gopcš, scttlcd in Štimljc, whcrc hc tradcd in “colonial mcr
chandisc” and liquor, as owncr ol a winc and brandy ccllar. His childrcn lclt
Štimljc. At thc samc timc, Nikola Maću, also originally lrom Gopcš, owncd
an inn (han) in Štimljc, which hc subscqucntly sold and opcncd a shop
sclling assortcd goods. Altcr +歭 his dcsccndants movcd to Skopjc. Tc
Nikolić and Ðcdić lamilics also first camc to Štrpcc, and altcr a couplc ol
ycars ol working in thc rctail tradc thcy movcd to Urošcvac.
Lipljan
!n thc carly twcnticth ccntury, J. Cvijić rccordcd that in a ncw scttlcmcnt
around thc railway station at thc villagc ol Lipljan thcrc wcrc cight Tzintzar
houscs, who had movcd thcrc during thc prcvious two dccadcs, and all ol
thcm lrom Gopcš (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡:¸). !n his +µo6 travcloguc, 8. Jugović (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡:¸). !n his +µo6 travcloguc, 8. Jugović +µµ6: ¡:¸). !n his +µo6 travcloguc, 8. Jugović
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸¡
says that in thc “small dirty villagc” ol Lipljan bcsidc thc railway track thcrc
arc scvcral shops and kafane (coffcchouscscumrcstaurants) “mostly bc
longing to Tzintzars” ( Jugović +µo6: :¸¡). And in March +µo¸ M. Rakić ( Jugović +µo6: :¸¡). And in March +µo¸ M. Rakić +µo6: :¸¡). And in March +µo¸ M. Rakić
(Rakić +µ8¡) rcportcd that thcrc arc “ninc houscs” bclonging to Tzintzars
and Grccks in Lipljan.
According to rcscarch by A. Urošcvić (+µ¡¸b: ¸¡+–¸¡¡), until thc (+µ¡¸b: ¸¡+–¸¡¡), until thc µ¡¸b: ¸¡+–¸¡¡), until thc
opcning ol thc railway linc in +8¸¸, Lipljan was “an ordinary villagc, but wcll
known as a road junction”. Vith thc opcning ol thc railway, mcrchant shops
(primarily lor thc cxport ol grain lrom Kosovo to Tcssalonica) and work
shops opcncd around thc station, on thc spot whcrc a grovc uscd to bc, and
in this way thc čaršija (a strcct ol shops) sprang up. Tc first building with
a kafana was built in +8¸¡ by a Tzintzar immigrant lrom Gopcš, Ðjordjc
Pcško. Altcr him, during thc samc ycar, grain mcrchants ol thc Ðorča lam
ily, also lrom Gopcš, built houscs and shops. Tcrc wcrc somc othcr Tzint
zar lamilics thcrc too, but during thc +8¸¸–¸8 ScrbianÒttoman war thcy
lclt Lipljan. Until that war thc railway station in Lipljan was also uscd lor
grain cxport by othcr Tzintzars who had groccry storcs in thc ncighbour
ing villagcs. Howcvcr, thc war brought turmoil, so thc Tzintzar lamilics ol
Pcško, Ðorča and othcrs (and a Scrb mcrchant lamily, thc Markovićs) flcd
to 8itolj and Gopcš. Vhcn thc war was ovcr, thc Ðorčas did not rcturn to
Lipljan (although thc Markovićs did) but scttlcd in Urošcvac. Howcvcr,
ncw scttlcrs lrom Gopcš arrivcd in Lipljan: thc Romo and \cljan lamilics
(thc lattcr thcn took on thc surnamc Kuzmanović). A couplc ol ycars latcr
(+88¡) two morc Tzintzar mcrchant lamilics scttlcd in Lipljan: thc Trpu
lamily lrom Gopcš, who ran a groccry storc in thc surrounding villagcs as
lar back as +868, and thc Trpčc lamily lrom Gopcš, who in +µ:6 movcd to
Romania (Turnu Scvcrin).
Urošcvić also writcs that in +µ+¸ thc Tzintzar Janković lamily movcd
to Lipljan lrom Malovištc villagc ncar 8itolj, and opcncd a winc, groccry
and grain shop. Altcr thc First Vorld Var (+µ+µ) two houscs ol thc Tzint
zar lamily ol Torbu (Ðjordjcvić), originally lrom Gopcš, who ran groccry
storcs in Janjcvo and thc ncighbouring villagc ol Ðobrotin, movcd to Lipljan
and opcncd groccrycumgrain storcs. Ðuring that pcriod in Urošcvac thcrc
wcrc also somc Scrb lamilics lrom Prizrcn and Lipljan and thc vicinity,
immigrants lrom around \clcs (Maccdonia) and an Albanian lamily lrom
Priština (Scjclcdini) who also tradcd in grain (and othcr goods). Ðuring
thc pcriod bctwccn two world wars thcrc was an incrcasc in thc numbcr ol
Scrb lamilics in tradc and somc ol thcm rcccivcd financial support lrom thc
Tzintzar Trpčc lamily. Tzintzar lamilics continucd living in Lipljan (in +µ¡8
Lipljan only had +¡¸µ inhabitants). Howcvcr, according to Urošcvić, thcsc
lamilics wcrc alrcady bccoming Scrbianizcd. !n thc \cljan (Kuzmanović)
lamily, whcrc thc mothcr was Scrbian, Tzintzar was no longcr spokcn. At
M. Luković, Tzintzars in Urošcvac, Lipljan, Òbilić, Priština... :¸¡
that timc, two Scrbian girls marricd into thc Torbu (Ðjordjcvić) lamily, so
that Tzintzar was not thc only languagc spokcn in thc housc.
According to thc Nikolićs, thcrc wcrc two Tzintzar lamilics living in
Lipljan: Ðjordjcvić and Jovanović, thc lattcr movcd to Skopjc altcr +µ¡¡.
Tcy can also vcrily thc inlormation givcn by A. Urošcvić that thc Ðjordjcvić
lamily prcviously livcd in thc villagc ol Ðobrotin.
Obilić
Tc station in Globoderica villagc, somc tcn kilomctrcs lrom Priština, at
first thc only onc on thc Lipljan–\učitrn railway linc, bccamc a station lor
Priština (thc villagc was namcd Obilić altcr thc 8alkan Vars, cl. Urošcvić
+µ¡+: ++, Urošcvić +µ6¡: ¸8). Altcr thc opcning ol a ncw station lor Priština
in Kosovo Poljc in thc carly twcnticth ccntury, Globodcrica rcmaincd an
important railway station lor thc arca ol thc Kosovo 8asin around thc con
flucncc ol thc Lab and thc Sitnica, whilc lor thc Lab and Ðrcnica arcas it
was cspccially important as a grain markct (Urošcvić +µ6¡: :¡¸). According
to carlicr rcscarch, lour Tzintzar lamilics scttlcd in Globodcrica, but thc
namcs ol only thrcc arc availablc: Jovanović, ¡rković and Trpčcvić (Urošcvić (Urošcvić
+µ6¡: 8o–8+, :¡8). Tc first Jovanovićs arrivcd as carly as +8¸¸, but thcy Tc first Jovanovićs arrivcd as carly as +8¸¸, but thcy
did not bring thcir lamilics lrom Gopcš until altcr thc 8alkan Vars, whcn
thc wholc ol Kosovo and Mctohija wcrc rcintcgratcd into thc Kingdom ol
Scrbia. Ðuring thc Grcat Var thcy tcmporarily withdrcw to Gopcš. Tc
¡rković lamily arrivcd in +µ+:, rcturncd to Gopcš during thc Grcat Var,
and thcn back to Òbilić in +µ+8. Tc Trpčcvić lamily camc lrom Gopcš
only in +µ:+ (Urošcvić +µ6¡: 8¸).
According to thc Nikolićs (and bascd on inlormation lrom dcsccn
dants ol thc Trpčcvić lamily), thc first to arrivc in +µoo wcrc thc two Trpčcvić
brothcrs: Tclcmah and Janaćko. Tclcmah ncvcr marricd, and Janaćko brought
his lamily lrom Gopcš only altcr thc Grcat Var. His two sons continucd
thc lamily mcrchant tradc. 8csidcs thcm, according to thc Nikolićs, othcr
Tzintzar lamilics in Òbilić wcrc: Maznić (probably that lourth lamily in
Òbilić lclt unnamcd by Urošcvić) and Jovanović (who movcd away to Sko
pjc altcr +歭).
Priština
Today’s scttlcmcnt ol Kosovo Poljc was lormcd in thc intcrwar pcriod
around thc Priština railway station. Ònly with thc opcning ol a ncw railway
linc to Pcć in +µ¸6 was thc station officially namcd Kosovo Poljc, thc samc
as thc Scrbinhabitcd villagc around thc station with no Tzintzar lamilics
(Urošcvić +µ6¡: :::).
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸6
Tcrc wcrc Tzintzars, howcvcr, in ncarby Priština, which in +8¸¸ bc
camc an important Òttoman administrativc ccntrc, thc scat ol thc ncwly
cstablishcd \ilayct ol Kosovo. Altcr thc scat ol this vilayct was movcd to
Skopjc in +888, Priština rcmaincd thc ccntrc ol onc ol its sanjaks. 8ack in
+8¡:, travcl writcr Jukić rccordcd that with thc cconomic dcclinc ol thc
town, many ol its thirty Tzintzar lamilics movcd away to Skopljc (Uskub).
!n thc +8¡os thc Tzintzars wcrc mostly immigrants lrom Prizrcn with only
lcw lamilics lrom Gopcš and onc lrom Urošcvac. Prior to thc 8alkan Vars
thcrc wcrc twcntyfivc Tzintzar houscs in Priština, mostly Scrbianizcd
but awarc ol thcir cthnic origin. Tc lamilics ol \ančctović, Lazić, Nastić,
Nikolić and Ðjordjcvić, with thcir roots in Prizrcn, spokc only Scrbian. Tc
Topal and Ganga lamilics wcrc lrom Gopcš, whilc thc Kočović lamily camc
lrom Urošcvac (Urošcvić +µ¡+: ::). Altcr +µ¡¡, among Priština’s +¡,¸¸8 in (Urošcvić +µ¡+: ::). Altcr +µ¡¡, among Priština’s +¡,¸¸8 in Altcr +µ¡¡, among Priština’s +¡,¸¸8 in
habitants thcrc wcrc only scvcntccn pcrsons dcclarcd as Tzintzars (Urošcvić
+µ¡+: :o).
Koso.ska Mitro.ica
Mitrovica dcvclopcd much in thc samc way as Fcrizović (Urošcvac). !t was
thc last stop on thc Kosovo railway linc. “!n +8¸+ still a villagc with +¡o
thatchcd houscs”, Mitrovica, as sccn by Cvijić in thc carly twcnticth ccntury,
“is bccoming thc main trading placc in Kosovo, with which only Fcrizović
will bc ablc to compctc in thc luturc” (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡:¡). Rclying on thc (Cvijić +µµ6: ¡:¡). Rclying on thc . Rclying on thc
data providcd by thc travcllcr !ppcn in +8µo (that ycar Mitrovica had just
bcgun to bc callcd Koso.ska instcad ol Pa.arska, bccausc it was madc part ol
thc Priština sanjak instcad ol thc Novi Pazar sanjak, Urošcvić +µ¡¸a: +µo),
Cvijić says that along with thc Grccks “thcrc is a small numbcr ol \lachs”
(i.c. Tzintzars) in Mitrovica.
Atanasijc Urošcvić confirms that among thc numcrous lamilics living
in Kosovska Mitrovica altcr thc opcning ol thc railway and thc +8¸¸–¸8
ScrbianÒttoman Var thcrc arc also Tzintzar lamilics: thc Nikolićs lrom
8itolj, and thc Karamika, Pirikli and Marina lamilics lrom Krušcvo. Tc
Tzintzars tradcd in consumcr goods and cxportcd timbcr (timbcr was trans
portcd down thc !bar lrom thc Rožajc arca). Ònly onc Tzintzar (Mijalčc
Nikolić) was in thc grain busincss, which was at thc timc in thc hands ol
Scrb, Òttoman and Albanian tradcsmcn. Tc Tzintzars latcr movcd lrom
Mitrovica, but somc ol thc houscs bclonging to thcsc lamilics rcmaincd
cvcn altcr +µ¡¡ (Urošcvić +µ¡¸a). (Urošcvić +µ¡¸a)..
Tc Nikolićs mcntion two Tzintzar lamilics who continucd to livc
in Kosovska Mitrovica altcr +歭: thc Karamika lamily, originally lrom
Krušcvo, and thc \aka lamily lrom Prizrcn. Tcy also know about lamilics
M. Luković, Tzintzars in Urošcvac, Lipljan, Òbilić, Priština... :¸¸
originating lrom Gopcš, but only rcmcmbcr thc namc ol thc Hcntu lam
ily.
Ðata containcd in thc publishcd sourccs and oral traditions prcscntcd
in this papcr lay thc groundwork lor gcncalogics ol thc Tzintzar lamilics
that oncc livcd in Kosovo and Mctohija. Such gcncalogics may bc ol broad
cr rclcvancc than just to thc historical past ol thc lamilics or thc idcntity ol
thcir mcmbcrs, prcscnt and luturc, thcy may providc distinctivc cvidcncc lor
thc Tzintzar componcnt ol thc multicthnic structurc ol Kosovo and Mcto
hija in thc past.

References
Cvijić +µ66 ć +µ66 +µ66
:
— J. Cvijić: Balkansko poluostr.o i južnoslo.enske .emlje. Osno.i
antropogeografije, 8cograd.
Cvijić +µµ6
:
— J. Cvijić: Sabrana dela. Knjiga +:. Osno.e .a geografiju i geologiju Make-
donije i Stare Srbije, 8cograd.
Ðcdijcr +µ+¸ — J. Ðcdijcr: No.a Srbija, 8cograd.
Jugović +µo6 — 8. Jugović, Jcdna rctka knjiga, Delo. List .a nauku, knjiže.nost i društ.eni
ži.ot ¡+, 8cograd, +:6–+:¸.
Kalcshi +µ¸¡ — H. Kalcši: Pod turskom vlašću, |in:| Uroše.ac i okolina. Feri.aj dhe rre-
thina |cd. Mihailo Malctić|, 8cograd, ¡8–6¡.
Kostić +µ:¡ — P. Kostić: Cincarska nascobina u Prizrcnu i borba oko crkvc sv. Spasa,
Brast.o X!X, 8cograd, :µ¡–¸o+.
Luković :oo¡ — M. Luković: Cincari u Urošcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim Cincari u Urošcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim u Urošcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim u Urošcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim Urošcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim Urošcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim šcvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim cvcu i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim i drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim drugim „kosovskim žcljczničkim „kosovskim žcljczničkim cljczničkim čkim kim
varošima” – prilog istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, šima” – prilog istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, ima” – prilog istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, ” – prilog istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, prilog istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, istoriji Cincara u Srbiji, Cincara u Srbiji, Cincara u Srbiji, u Srbiji, u Srbiji, Srbiji, Srbiji,, Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SÆNU Etnografskog instituta SÆNU Etnografskog instituta SÆNU instituta SÆNU instituta SÆNU SÆNU SÆNU L!!, ,
8cograd,+6¡–+8¡. ,+6¡–+8¡.
Lutovac +µ¸: — M. \. Lutovac: Gcogralski i političkogcogralski značaj pokrajinc
Kosova u Srbiji, Glas SÆNU CCLXXX!!, 8cograd, +–¸µ.
Maloku +µ¸¡ — Š. Maljoku: Gcogralski položaj, in: Uroše.ac i okolina. Feri.aj dhe rre-
thina, cd. Mihailo Malctić, 8cograd, µ–+:.
Nušić +µo: — 8. Nušić: Koso.o. Opis .emlje i naroda |cdicija Knjigc Maticc srpskc, broj
6|, Novi Sad.
Pctrović +µµ6 — Ðj. Pctrović: Cincari u Rcpublici Srbiji, in Položaj manjina u Fepublici
Srbiji, ¸¸+—¸µ¡.
Popović +µ¸¸ — Ð. J. Popović, O Cincarima, Novi Sad (+st cd. +µ:¸).
Rakić +µ8¡ — M. Rakić: Kon.ulska pisma :,c¸–:,::, 8cograd.
Rcčnik na makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — čnik na makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — nik na makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — na makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — na makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — makcdonskiot jazik +µ6+ — jazik +µ6+ — jazik +µ6+ — +µ6+ — Fečnik na makedonskiot ja.ik so srpskohr.atski
tolku.anja !–!!!, Skopjc. !–!!!, Skopjc. –!!!, Skopjc. !!!, Skopjc. , Skopjc.

Luković :oo¡ offcrs thc account ol a typical and branchcd Tzintzar lamily ol Urošcvac,
thc Nikolićs. Supplying dctailcd data lor thc lamily’s gcncalogy and thc basic gcnca
logical tablc, it has hopcd to cncouragc gcncalogical study into othcr Tzintzar lamilics
inhabiting Kosovo and Mctohija until rcccntly.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸8
Urošcvić +µ¸6 — A. Urošcvić: Urošcvac, varošica na Kosovu, Glasnik Skopskog učenog
društ.a X\–X\!, Skopljc, :6¡–:¸+.
Urošcvić +µ¡+ — A. Urošcvić: Priština (Antropogcogralska ispitivanja), Zbornik rado.a
Etnografskog instituta SÆNU X!\, 8cograd, +–¸6.
Urošcvić +µ¡¸a — A. Urošcvić: Kosovska Mitrovica (Antropogcogralska ispitivanja),
Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SÆNU !!–!!!, 8cograd, +µ¡¸, +8¸–:+:.
Urošcvić +µ¡¸b — A. Urošcvić: Lipljan, Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SÆNU !!–!!!,
8cograd, ¸¸¸–¸¡8.
Urošcvić +µ6¡ — A.Urošcvić: Kosovo, Srpski etnografski .bornik, knjiga LXX!II. Naselja
i poreklo stano.ništ.a, ¸µ, 8cograd, +–¸8¸.
\idačić +µ6¸ — N. \idačić: Na obalama Nerodimke, Novi Sad.
\lahović +µµµ — P. \lahović: Srbija. Zemlja, narod, ži.ot, običaji, 8cograd, +–¡++.
Zdravković +µ¸¡a — S. Zdravković: Trgovina, in: Uroše.ac i okolina. Feri.aj dhe rre-
thina, cd. M. Malctić, 8cograd, +8¡–+µ¡.
Zdravković +µ¸¡b — S. Zdravković: Saobraćaj i vczc, in: Uroše.ac i okolina. Feri.aj dhe
rrethina, cd. M. Malctić, 8cograd, ::o–::8.
Ðušan T. 8ataković
Surviving in Ghetto-like Enclaves
THE SEFBS OF KOSO!O ÆND METOHIJÆ
:,,,–:cc¸
Tc lcgal position ol Scrbia’s troublcsomc autonomous provincc ol Kosovo
and Mctohija was rcdcfincd altcr thc scvcntycight days ol NATÒ bomb
ing campaign (lrom :¡ March to +o Junc +µµµ). Tc bombing campaign,
lacking UN approval, consistcd ol a massivc airstrikcs opcration in ordcr
to stop thc “humanitarian catastrophc” ol thc Kosovo Albanians and thcir
fighting units (KLA) conlrontcd by thc Yugoslav armcd and policc lorccs.
Tc MilitaryTcchnical Agrccmcnt bctwccn NATÒ and Yugoslav military
rcprcscntativcs was signcd in Kumanovo (FYRÒM) on µ Junc +µµµ.
Undcr thc Kumanovo Agrccmcnt, Kosovo and Mctohija — consti
tutionally an autonomous provincc within Scrbia, a mcmbcr statc ol thc
Fcdcral Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia — was to bc cntrustcd, altcr thc cvcntual
withdrawal ol all Yugoslav military and policc pcrsonncl, to thc military
protcction ol a NATÒlcd ¡8,ooostrong Kosovo lorcc (KFÒR). Tc bi
latcral MilitaryTcchnical Agrccmcnt that finally cndcd thc bombing cam
paign was a prcrcquisitc lor UN Sccurity Council Rcsolution +:¡¡, adoptcd
on thc ¡ast Rivcr in Ncw York thc lollowing day, +o Junc +µµµ. Kosovo and
Mctohija (rclcrrcd to only as Kosovo by thc UN Rcsolution) wcrc placcd
undcr thc administration ol thc Unitcd Nations.
+
Calling lor thc disarmamcnt ol Albanian paramilitary units (thc
Kosovo Libcration Army), UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡ rcaffirmcd thc sovcr
cignty ol thc Fcdcral Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia ovcr Kosovo and Mctohija and
lorcsaw thc rcturn ol an agrccd numbcr (lcss than +,ooo) ol Yugoslav (i.c.
Scrbian) sccurity and military lorccs to thc Provincc. Tc UN Rcsolution
also cnvisagcd thc cstablishmcnt ol “a substantial autonomy” lor Kosovo
+
Ð. T. 8ataković, “Kosovo: lrom Scparation to !ntcgration”, Serbian Studies. Journal of
the North Æmerican Society for Serbian Studies, vol. +8, No : (Vashington ÐC :oo¡),
¸++–¸:o.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡o
and Mctohija within Scrbia — sincc Junc :oo6 thc lcgal succcssor ol both
thc Fcdcral Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia (April +µµ: – Fcbruary :oo¸) and thc
Statc Union ol Scrbia and Montcncgro (Fcbruary :oo¸ – Junc :oo6).
:
Tc
main purposc ol UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡ — at lcast thc onc officially dc
clarcd as such — was not to bring about thc scparation ol Kosovo and
Mctohija lrom thc rcst ol Scrbia, but to rcbuild this wartorn arca into a
ncw dcmocratic, tolcrant multicultural socicty that would cvcntually, cnjoy
ing thc highcst possiblc dcgrcc ol autonomy, bc rcintcgratcd into a luturc
dcmocratic lramcwork ol thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia.
Undcr UN administration sincc Junc +µµµ, thc Autonomous Prov
incc ol Kosovo and Mctohija and its Albaniandominatcd Provisional !n
stitutions ol ScllGovcrnmcnt (P!SG) wcrc undcr obligation to rcstorc thc
protcction ol lundamcntal human rights and to cnsurc lrccdom ol movc
mcnt lor all ol Kosovo inhabitants, rcgardlcss ol thcir cthnic origin or rc
ligious affiliation. Furthcrmorc, according to UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡, thcy
wcrc obligcd to providc lor thc last and salc rcturn ol intcrnally displaccd
pcrsons and to crcatc a stablc lcgal lramcwork as thc main prccondition lor
thc rcstoration ol multicultural, multicthnic socicty in compliancc with
lundamcntal UN and ¡uropcan standards rcgarding human rights, prop
crty rights, and so on.
Howcvcr, nonc ol thcsc solcmnly proclaimcd goals havc bccn
achicvcd, not cvcn partially, within thc first cight ycars ol UN administra
tion, dcspitc thc lact that dcmocracy was finally rcstorcd in 8clgradc altcr
thc ousting ol thc authoritarian rcgimc ol Slobodan Milošcvić in Òctobcr
:ooo, and thc ncw authoritics wcrc cagcr to coopcratc closcly with both
thc Unitcd Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNM!K) and NATÒlcd KFÒR.
Furthcrmorc, both thc lcdcral and Scrbian govcrnmcnts wcrc offcring scri
ous ncgotiations with thc lcgitimatc rcprcscntativcs ol Kosovo Albanians,
to support thc lulfillmcnt ol thc rcquircmcnts ol UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡.
8clgradc’s dcmocratic approach to thc Kosovo problcm was manilcstcd in
thc rapid libcration ol all Kosovo Albanian civilian prisoncrs ol war dc
taincd in Scrbian prisons, whilc cfficicnt coopcration with KFÒR was cs
tablishcd in managing thc sccurity in thc Ground Salcty Zonc cstablishcd
bctwccn Kosovo and thc rcst ol Scrbia altcr Junc +µµµ.
!n contrast to thc opcn and dcmocratic policy ol 8clgradc, thc wholc
postJunc +µµµ proccss ol rcbuilding Kosovo and Mctohija as a dcmocratic,
multicthnic socicty lailcd, as it madc littlc or no progrcss in most ol thc
scnsitivc arcas that involvcd multicthnic coopcration or intcrcthnic rcc
:
Tc Fcdcral Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia, rcnamcd thc Statc Union ol Scrbia and Montcnc
gro on ¡ Fcbruary :oo¸, was cvcntually succccdcd by thc Rcpublic ol Scrbia on ¡ Junc
:oo6, altcr thc rclcrcndum on indcpcndcncc ol Montcncgro.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡+
onciliation. UNM!K administration and KFÒR lorccs, locuscd on hclping
Albanians, pcrccivcd as thc main victims ol civil conflict, lailcd to providc
cfficicnt protcction lor nonAlbanian communitics and minority groups
lrom thc highly orchcstratcd largcscalc campaign ol cthnic clcansing di
rcctcd primarily against Scrbs, a constitucnt nation in Kosovo and Mctohija.
Carricd out by Albanian cxtrcmists lcd by lormcr warlords, this ncw wavc
ol postwar cthnic clcansing against thc Scrbs, Roma, Goranics and othcr
nonAlbanian cthnic groups was tacitly approvcd not only by thc majority
ol Kosovo Albanians, but by thcir political lcadcrs as wcll.
Tc cthnic clcansing against thc Kosovo Scrbs was opcnly justificd
both by Albanians and by thcir supportcrs throughout thc intcrnational
community as a kind ol ugly and rcgrcttablc but incvitablc rcvcngc lor all
thc criminal acts against local Albanians prcviously committcd by thc Scr
bian policc or paramilitarics undcr thc Milošcvić rcgimc whilc fighting thc
KLA and its supportcrs during thc filtccn months ol armcd clashcs bc
lorc and during thc NATÒ bombing campaign.
¸
!n compliancc with thc
Kumanovo Agrccmcnt, thc Yugoslav army took all its military cquipmcnt
out ol Kosovo and Mctohija, whilc KLA fighting units rcmaincd armcd,
dcspitc occasional, mostly symbolic, handovcrs ol arms to KFÒR. Tc com
plctc disarmamcnt ol thc KLA was ncvcr accomplishcd although it was onc
ol thc main prcrcquisitcs in UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡. Tus, lully disarmcd,
thc Kosovo Scrbs could find protcction only with KFÒR, whilc Albanians,
using thc rcluctancc ol KFÒR to conlront thc KLA, a major NATÒ ally
during thc bombing campaign, wcrc lrcc to takc thcir rcvcngc against thc
Scrbs and thc mcmbcrs ol thosc cthnic groups considcrcd as having bccn
loyal to Scrbia during thc +µµµ conflict.
!t is not a surprisc thcn that dcspitc thc massivc military prcscncc
ol intcrnational (KFÒR) troops, thc ovcrall sccurity situation conccrning
pcrsonal salcty and lrccdom ol movcmcnt lor thc Scrbs and nonAlbanian
minoritics has bccn constantly dctcriorating sincc Junc +µµµ. Tc major
positivc achicvcmcnt ol thc UN mission in Kosovo was thc quick and salc
rcturn ol hundrcds ol thousands ol Albanians who had flcd or had bccn
lorccd to lcavc Kosovo during thc +µµµ NATÒ bombing campaign. Tcy
salcly rcturncd to thcir oltcn dcstroycd homcs within wccks altcr KFÒR
and UNM!K took lull control ovcr thc administration ol thc Provincc. As
confirmcd by indcpcndcnt sourccs, howcvcr, along with thcm camc dozcns
ol thousands ol Albanians lrom thc cconomically backward arcas ol north
¸
Tc Albanian tcstimonics to wartimc suffcrings, cxtcnsivc but not always lully rcliablc,
arc availablc in Under Orders. !ar Crimes in Koso.o (Ncw York: Human Rights Vatch,
:oo+).
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡:
crn Albania in ordcr to pillagc thc abandoncd propcrty ol thc Scrbs who, in
lcar ol spiralling violcncc, had flcd to ccntral Scrbia or to Montcncgro.
¡
Post-:,,, ethnic cleansing
Convcrscly, most ol thc Kosovo Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanians wcrc lorccd
out ol thc Provincc by Albanian cxtrcmists, whilc thc rcmaining oncs wcrc
and still arc dcprivcd ol thcir lundamcntal human rights. Tc chronology
ol postwar dcvclopmcnts as lar as thc Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanians arc
conccrncd is thc lollowing: prior to thc cstablishmcnt ol UNM!K, at lcast
¸o,ooo Scrbs hastily lclt Kosovo and Mctohija flccing lrom Albanian pcr
sccutions, rctribution and attacks. Ðuring thc first thrcc months ol UN
M!KKFÒR administration, approximatcly +¡o,ooo Scrbs wcrc cxpcllcd
lrom Kosovo and lorccd to find rclugc in ccntral Scrbia or in Montcncgro.
Altcr KFÒR officially took ovcr in Priština on +: Junc, busy with
finding suitablc accommodation lor thc incoming troops, “a wavc ol un
prcccdcntcd violcncc, looting, murdcrs and abductions sprcad throughout
thc Provincc, cspccially in thc citics, thc victims ol which wcrc thc rcmain
ing Scrbs, Roma, Goranics and Muslim 8osniacs”.
¡
Furthcrmorc, tcns ol
thousands ol Roma, and thousands ol Muslim Slavs (mostly Goranics),
whosc houscs wcrc also burnt or usurpcd by Albanians, also flcd thc Scrbian
provincc lrcshly cntrustcd to UN.
6
Tc vcry difficult situation lor thc Scrb and nonAlbanian popula
tion bccamc critical, going lrom bad to worsc. Tus, on +¸ Junc +µµµ, about
¡,ooo Kosovo Scrbs lclt Urošcvac, an important town in thc south ol thc
Provincc, cscortcd by a strong KFÒR contingcnt. According to thc data
offcrcd by thc Scrbian policc and cvcntually confirmcd by UNM!K, sincc
+ January +µµ8 thcrc wcrc +,¸o¸ missing pcrsons: µ¡¡ Scrbs, :+o Muslim
Roma and +¡µ cthnic Albanians. According to othcr data providcd by Tc
Haguc Tribunal (!CTY), ¡¡¸ Scrbs wcrc killcd and µ¸: Scrbs and non
Albanians kidnappcd in Junc +µµµ alonc.
¸
¡
Tc first UNM!K administrator 8crnard Kouchncr warncd publicly on : August +µµµ
ol “thc prcscncc ol gangstcrs coming lrom ncighbouring Albania and amplilying thc
alrcady cxistcnt chaos in Kosovo”. Ðcspitc ¸6,¡oostrong military lorccs and civilian
pcrsonncl, with only ¡¡¡ intcrnational policcmcn and :o judgcs, it was impossiblc to
dcal with a KLAsponsorcd Albanian mafia in UNM!Kadministratcd Kosovo.
¡
Cf. morc in thc Memorandum of the Serbian Orthodox Church on Koso.o and Metohija.
6
Cf. thc documcntation in “Nc ubijaju Srbc tamo gdc ih ncma” |Scrbs not bcing killcd
only in placcs whcrc thcrc arc nonc|, Blic, 8clgradc, :: August +µµµ.
¸
Cf. dctailcd documcntation on µ¸: missing pcrsons in Æbductions and Disappearances of
non-Ælbanians in Koso.o (8clgradc: Humanitarian Law Ccntcr, :oo+).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡¸
Tc first fivc Scrb civilians wcrc abductcd on thc strccts ol Priština as
carly as +: Junc +µµµ, whilc ncws kcpt arriving ol an orchcstratcd campaign
ol tcrror against both thc Scrb and Roma populations. Tc Scrb population
ol thc villagc ol Zočištc ncar Òrahovac flcd on +¡ Junc altcr thcir homcs
and thc lourtccnthccntury Scrbian monastcry ol Sts. Kosmas and Ðamian
wcrc sct on firc by a group ol Albanian cxtrcmists. Altcr that, thc small but
historically important mcdicval monastcry church was blown up. 8ctwccn
+¡ and +6 Junc in Òrahovac (a vincgrowing arca ol Mctohija) about 6oo
Kosovo and Mctohija in carly +µµµ
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡¡
Scrb rcsidcnts scattcrcd in various parts ol thc town all flcd to thc Scrbian
quartcr in thc vicinity ol thc church, rcady to organizc joint rcsistancc to
Albanians who wcrc sctting firc to all Scrbian houscs, onc altcr anothcr. Òn
:¡ Junc +µµµ roughly ¸,:oo Scrbs wcrc lorccd to lcavc Òrahovac cscortcd
by KFÒR: ol 6,ooo prcwar Scrb rcsidcnts barcly :,ooo rcmaincd ghcttoizcd
in thc Scrbinhabitcd quartcr. A +,:ooScrbstrong cnclavc in ncighbour
ing \clika Hoča, a historic Scrb villagc with lourtccn churchcs dating lrom
various pcriods, monumcnts ol Òricntal architccturc and thc wcllprcscrvcd
lourtccnthccntury winc ccllars loundcd by thc Scrbian ¡mpcror Stclan
Ðušan (+¸¸+–+¸¡¡) and prcscntly in thc owncrship ol thc monastcry ol
Ðcčani, managcd to survivc at that momcnt, protcctcd, as thc Scrbs ol Òra
hovac, by KFÒR tanks and barbcd wirc.
Anothcr notablc lourtccnthccntury Scrb monastcry, thc Holy Trin
ity in Mušutištc was lootcd and burncd to thc ground on +: Junc, whilc thc
nuns barcly managcd to cscapc. Four days altcr Gcrman KFÒR troops cn
tcrcd Prizrcn, on +6 Junc +µµµ, a KLA group kidnappcd Fr. Chariton Lukić,
a monk ol thc monastcry ol thc Holy Archangcls ncar Prizrcn, in chargc
ol thc cvacuation ol Scrb nuns lrom Mušutištc and monks lrom Zočištc.
Morc than a ycar latcr his bchcadcd, mutilatcd body was lound ncar Priz
rcn. Òn +¡ Junc +µµµ, Gcrman KFÒR finally dccidcd, though not until thc
Albanian mob had dcstroycd most ol thc Scrbian monumcnts around thc
scat ol thc ¡parchy ol RaškaPrizrcn, to providc military protcction lor thc
bcsicgcd Scrbian cathcdral and bishopric.
Tc othcr arcas ol Mctohija, with significant Scrb scttlcmcnts, wcrc
rapidly cmpticd as thc cthnically motivatcd tcrror ol armcd Albanian cx
trcmists continucd unhindcrcd, lrom abduction and cxpulsion to torturc
and random killings. 8clo Poljc and \itomirica ncar Pcć wcrc complctc
ly cmpticd ol Scrbs. Ðrivcn out ol thcir houscs, thc Scrbs ol 8clo Poljc
ncar Pcć lclt lor ncighbouring Montcncgro on +µ Junc, altcr thrcc ol thcir
compatriots wcrc lound slaughtcrcd. 8ctwccn thc middlc ol Junc and latc
July +µµµ, thc Mctropolitan ol Montcncgro and his monks, authorizcd by
thc Scrb Patriarch to providc protcction lor thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć and its
flock, lound and buricd somc thirty bodics ol Scrbs, mostly cldcrly mcn and
womcn, civilians brutally massacrcd throughout thc Pcć arca. Tc monastcry
ol Ðcčani, lamous lor giving shcltcr to civilians in dangcr rcgardlcss ol thcir
cthnic origin, cspccially to Albanians during thc +µµµ war, now providcd
shcltcr not only to Scrbs but also to filty Roma whosc houscs in thc ncigh
bouring arca wcrc torchcd by thc Albanians. Anothcr lamily shcltcrcd in
Ðcčani was lrom thc MuslimSlav Gorani (Goranci) community. Tc tiny
Christian Scrb community ol Ðjakovica, living in a singlc strcct, known as
Scrbian Strcct (Srpska ulica), totalling roughly ¸oo pcrsons, gathcrcd around
thc walls ol thc parish church ol thc Mothcr ol God. A scrics ol migrations
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡¡
rcduccd thc prcscncc ol Scrbs to six old ladics, living in complctc isolation
undcr thc protcction ol !talian KFÒR lorccs.
8
As rcportcd on +¡ August +µµµ thc situation in thc 8ritishcontrollcd
arca ol ccntral Kosovo was thc lollowing: “Lootcd houscs, banishcd scnior
citizcns, stolcn cars, rackctccring, murdcrs, abductions, rapc, trafficking: thc
KFÒR troops arc lacing crimc, both organizcd and uncontrollcd, commit
tcd by Kosovars and Albanian Mafia. !n two months, in thc 8ritish Scctor
only, thcrc wcrc +:¸ murdcrs (accountcd lor), ¸¸8 arsons, ¡o¡ known rob
bcrics. Kosovo has only bccn undcr UNM!K administration lor six wccks,
and thc word ‘mafia’ cmcrgcd into mcdia rcports. A coincidcncc:”
µ
According to thc vcrifiablc sourccs ol thc Kosovo and Mctohija dio
ccsc ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church (RaškaPrizrcn ¡parchy), thc num
bcr ol Scrbs rcmaining in thc largcr citics in August +µµµ was as lollows:
Gnjilane: :¡,ooo Scrbs rcduccd to about ¡,ooo
K. Mitro.ica: :¸,ooo Scrbs rcduccd to +¡,ooo
Koso.o Polje: :o,ooo Scrbs rcduccd to lcss than +o,ooo
Peć: +:,ooo Scrbs rcduccd to lcss than +oo
Pristina: ¸o,ooo Scrbs rcduccd to ¡oo to +ooo
Pri.ren: ¡,ooo–6,ooo Scrbs rcduccd to 6oo
+o
Ðuring thc first thrcc months ol UN administration approximatcly :¡o,ooo
Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanians (Roma, Muslim Slavs, Croats and thc tiny
Jcwish community) wcrc drivcn out and displaccd lrom Kosovo, finding
rclugc in thc rcst ol Scrbia or in Montcncgro, thc othcr constitucnt rc
public ol thc FRY. Abductions and random killings ol Scrbs in all parts ol
thc UNgovcrncd Provincc bccamc thc prcdominant contcnts ol hundrcds
ol cxhaustivc and wclldocumcntcd rcports ol local pricsts and church
pcoplc’s councils, covcring thc cvcnts involving Scrb victims lrom thc Gn
jilanc, \itina, Lipljan, Klina, Urošcvac, Prizrcn, Òrahovac and Pcć arcas.
++

A significant numbcr ol Scrbs lclt Kosovska \itina on +µ July +µµµ, altcr
8
Tcsc ladics wcrc cvcntually cvacuatcd by !talian KFÒR on +¸ March :oo¡ whcn
thousands ol Kosovo Albanian riotcrs attackcd thcir parish scat and church hurling
stoncs and pctrol bombs. Altcr thcir cvacuation to thc monastcry ol Ðcčani, thc par
ish church and scat wcrc lootcd and sct on firc. !n thc lollowing days all rcmains ol thc
church wcrc complctcly rcmovcd.
µ
Rcport by Ægence France-Presse ol +¡ August +µµµ.
+o
For a dctailcd account, scc Ð. T. 8ataković, “Kosovo: From Sparkling \ictory to Trou
blcsomc Pcacc” in Ð. Simko & H. Haumann, cds., Peace Perspecti.es for South East-
ern Europe, Procccdings ol thc Symposium :ooo 8ascl, Switzcrland, :µ–¸o Junc :ooo
(Acadcmia: Praguc :oo+), +:¸–+¡¸.
++
Tcsc Feports, covcring cspccially thc first postwar months ( July–Òctobcr +µµµ),
scnt lrom Gnjilanc, \itina, Lipljan, Prizrcn, Òrahovac and Pcć, havc bccn partially rc
produccd in thc collcction ol documcnts on postwar crimcs against Scrbs and nonAl
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡6
thc random attacks by Albanian cxtrcmists culminatcd in a group ol Scrbs
bcing injurcd by a hand grcnadc thrown ncar thc Scrbian Òrthodox church
in thc town.
Hicromonk Stclan Puljić ol thc monastcry ol 8udisavci (a dcpcn
dcncy ol thc Pcć Patriarchatc) was abductcd with onc othcr Scrb civilian
by cxtrcmist Albanian Roman Catholics, only to bc torturcd and cvcntually
killcd.
Mctohija, thc lcrtilc plain strctching lrom Pcć to Prizrcn and bor
dcring Albania, was thc first arca to bccomc cthnically clcanscd ol Scrbs
as carly as August +µµµ, with tiny surviving cnclavcs, apart lrom Òrahovac
and \clika Hoča, rcmaining as small pockcts (villagc ol Goraždcvac ncar
Pcć, thc villagcs ol Suvo Grlo, 8anja and Crkolcz cast ol !stok). Tc Scrbian
ccmctcrics in all thc abandoncd villagcs — such as 8clo Poljc ncar Pcć, and
thc villagcs ol Scča, 8rcstovik and Šakovica in thc vicinity — wcrc cithcr
dcsccratcd or totally dcstroycd.
Tc worst crimc in thc first wccks ol largcscalc tcrror and violcncc
against Scrbs committcd by thc Kosovo Albanians was thc “Harvcst Mas
sacrc”. Òn :¸ July +µµµ, lourtccn Scrbian larmcrs lrom thc villagc ol Staro
Gracko in thc Lipljan arca ol castcrn Kosovo wcrc killcd by local Albanian
cxtrcmists whilc harvcsting thcir crops in thc carly cvcning hours. Tc UN
HCR official rcport strcsscd that “a wavc ol arson and looting ol Scrb and
Roma homcs throughout Kosovo has cnsucd. Scrbs and Roma rcmaining
in Kosovo havc bccn subjcct to rcpcatcd incidcnts ol harassmcnt and in
timidation”, whilc “morc scriously, thcrc has bccn a spatc ol murdcrs and
abductions ol Scrbs sincc midJunc, including thc latcJuly |Staro Gracko|
massacrc ol Scrb larmcrs.” Ðcspitc official scalingdown ol thc lcvcl ol dis
crimination and pcrsccution against Kosovo Scrbs, it was thc Philadelphia
Inquirer that rcportcd “a sinistcr pattcrn ol violcncc and intimidation” whcrc
“Scrb houscs arc bombcd and sct ablazc” and whcrc thc scalc ol violcncc
amounts to “systcmatic cthnic clcansing.”
+:
Tc Albanian pcrpctrators ol thc “Harvcst Massacrc” havc not bccn
idcntificd, apprchcndcd or tricd, as in thousands othcr similar cascs ol cth
nically motivatcd crimcs against mcmbcrs ol thc Scrbian community. !t
bccamc a practicc that additionally lorccd thc Kosovo Scrbs still surviving
in thc mixcd ScrbAlbanian arcas to lcavc thc Provincc. Ðcspitc a hugc
intcrnational civilian and military prcscncc, thcy rcmaincd dcprivcd ol thc
rulc ol law and minimal guarantccs lor both thcir sccurity and propcrty.
Rulcd by thc criminal gangs that cmcrgcd lrom thc highcst ranking ol
banians No.a Srpska Golgota |A Ncw Scrbian Golgotha|, vols. +–¸ (Cctinjc: Svctigora,
:ooo).
+:
Philadelphia Inquirer, +8 Novcmbcr +µµµ.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡¸
ficials ol thc KLA gucrrilla, Albaniandominatcd Kosovo was turncd into
a lawlrcc arca lor all sorts ol criminal activitics and illcgal trafficking, but
its dominant political agcnda rcmaincd to bc cthnic and rcligious discrimi
nation, abductions, propcrty usurpations and random killings ol Scrbs and
nonAlbanians.
Mixed .illages gradually emptied, urban areas completely cleansed
Ðuring thc last months ol +µµµ, thc prcwar Scrbian population ol ¡o,ooo
ol Priština, thc provincial capital — urban (¸o,ooo) and suburban (up to
+o,ooo) — dccrcascd to lcss than +,ooo only to bc additionally rcduccd,
Kosovo and Mctohija in :oo:
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡8
within months, to barcly +:o, all confincd to a singlc apartmcnt building
(YU Program 8uilding), hcavily guardcd by KFÒR, but lully dcprivcd ol
lrccdom ol movcmcnt through thc city.

Priština, prcviously thc main cco
nomic, cultural and univcrsity ccntrc lor thc Kosovo Scrbs, bccamc totally
dcvoid ol Scrb intcllcctuals, prolcssors, mcdical doctors, cnginccrs ctc. Tcns
ol thousands ol Roma ol urban and suburban Priština, a distinct componcnt
ol thc provincial capital’s population, virtually disappcarcd undcr orchcs
tratcd Albanian violcncc. 8oth Scrbs and Roma mostly wcrc rcplaccd by
rural Kosovo Albanians, who rushcd to scttlc in Priština, moving with thcir
cxtcndcd lamilics into thc vacant houscs and apartmcnts ol thc cxpcllcd
Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanian groups.
Furthcrmorc, during thc last months ol +µµµ and in carly :ooo, thc
urban Kosovo Scrbs wcrc first rcduccd and cvcntually complctcly cvictcd
lrom all othcr major Kosovo towns such as Pcć, Prizrcn, Ðjakovica and
Urošcvac. Òl thc original scvcral thousand Scrb inhabitants ol Prizrcn, only
lcw dozcn pcrsons rcmaincd, mostly cldcrly, surviving by hiding in churchcs
or in thc Scrbian Òrthodox Tcological School (Bogoslo.ija), as clscwhcrc
owing to thc protcction ol KFÒR units. At lcast :oo Scrb, Roma and Mus
lim rcsidcnts ol Prizrcn lound rclugc in thc Scrb Tcological School in
Prizrcn undcr Gcrman guard, along with a group ol Kosovo Albanians who
rcccivcd dcath thrcats lrom thcir compatriots lor supporting Scrbs.

Tc lormcrly flourishing community ol +:,ooo Scrbs and Mon
tcncgrins in thc town ol Pcć, succcsslul in tradc, busincss and cralts, was
complctcly drivcn out by carly :ooo, whilc thc numbcr ol Scrbs in Prizrcn,
alrcady rcduccd to lcss than :oo in :ooo, lurthcr dcclincd to 68, mostly cl
dcrly pcoplc in :oo:. Tc first wavc ol attacks on Scrbs in Gnjilanc startcd
on :¡ July +µµµ. Tc first wavc ol dcstruction targctcd thc monumcnt to
thc Holy Princc Lazar, thc hcro ol thc +¸8µ 8attlc ol Kosovo, whilc six
mutilatcd Scrb bodics wcrc lound on thc local hospital garbagc dump. Òncc
numcrous, strong and prospcrous, thc Scrb urban rcsidcnts ol Gnjilanc and
Òrahovac, lacking cfficicnt and continuous protcction lrom intcrnational
lorccs, wcrc cvcntually lorccd to flcc Kosovo in :ooo: in carly :oo+ thcir
numbcr was rcduccd lrom prcwar +:,ooo to ¡oo in Gnjilanc and approxi
matcly ¡¡o in Òrahovac.
Tc monastcry ol Ðcvič, in thc Ðrcnica arca, vcncratcd by thc Chris
tian Scrbs and a privilcgcd targct ol Muslim Albanian cxtrcmists (sct ablazc

JcanArnault Ðércns, Koso.o, annee .ero (Paris: ¡d. Paris – Méditcrranéc, :oo6),
:+¡.

For morc dctail, scc Ðušan T. 8ataković, “Tc Scrbs in Kosovo and Mctohija: Var,
!ntcrnational Protcctoratc and National Catastrophc”, Eurobalkans ¸6–¸¸ (Athcns, Au
tumn/Vintcr +µµµ), :¸–¡o.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡µ
in +µ¡+ and rcconstructcd altcr +µ¡¡) was hcld lor thrcc days undcr thc
KLA sicgc in midJunc +µµµ, and rcstorcd to its sistcrhood only altcr nuns
lrom Kosovo’s northcrnmost monastcry, Sokolica, brought Frcnch KFÒR
lorccs to cstablish military protcction ol this oldcst mcdicval Scrb cndow
mcnt in thc Ðrcnica arca. Tc monastcry ol Ðcvič, lamous in mcdicval Scr
bia and during Òttoman rulc, vcncratcd by pilgrims lrom all ncighbouring
statcs lor thc rclics ol thc local saint St. Joanikijc Ðcvički, was dcsccratcd
ancw by thc KLA in +µµµ.
Tc rcvcngclul wavc ol cthnic clcansing, carricd out by Albanian cx
trcmists against Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanian populations bccamc a by
product ol thc ncw political landscapc dominatcd by Kosovo Albanians and
controllcd by cxtrcmists: “Amid this anarchy, thc qucstion has to bc askcd:
can thc shamclul campaign ol ‘cthnic clcansing’ and murdcr ol Scrbs that
continucs undcr KFÒR’s cycs still bc cxplaincd away as rcvcngc attacks,
as rctaliation lor thc mass atrocitics committcd against Albanians by Scrb
lorccs bclorc and during thc Kosovo war: A growing numbcr ol Albanian
intcllcctuals, including scvcral couragcous journalists on thc |Albanian|
daily Koha Ditore ncwspapcr, lcar that thc murdcrs and disposscssion ol
Scrbs arc now bcing organizcd.”

Most ol thc rcmaining Kosovo Scrbs havc sincc Junc +µµµ bccn con
fincd to ghcttolikc living in virtual scgrcgation within thc KFÒRpro
tcctcd cnclavcs in Kosovo and Mctohija. Tc Kosovo Scrbs’ cnclavcs lo
catcd south ol thc !bar Rivcr in particular wcrc all dcprivcd ol basic sccu
rity provisions, lacking lrccdom ol movcmcnt and othcr lundamcntal civil
rights. Ònly scvcral prcdominantly Scrbinhabitcd arcas north ol thc !bar
Rivcr, owing only to thc dircct tcrritorial link with thc rcst ol Scrbia, in thc
Kosovska Mitrovica arca (districts ol North Mitrovica) as wcll as in thc mu
nicipalitics ol Zubin Potok, Zvcčan and Lcposavić, havc managcd to cscapc
thc discrimination and isolation that thc Scrbs confincd in smallcr or largcr
cnclavcs (Štrpcc, Kosovska \itina, Gračanica, Gnjilanc, Goraždcvac, Novo
8rdo, \clika Hoča and othcrs), usually bordcring prcdominantly Albanian
inhabitcd arcas, could not.

“Armcd Albanians takc rcvcngc with campaign ol murdcr, houscburning and in
timidation that has drivcn out thousands Scrbs murdcrcd by thc hundrcd sincc ‘lib
cration’ ” rcportcd Robcrt Fisk lrom Priština to Te Independent, :¡ Novcmbcr +µµµ.
Òthcr cycwitncsscs whosc rcports havc bccn publishcd: Mikc Ò’Connor, “Rcbcl Tcr
ror Forcing Minority Scrbs Òut ol Kosovo”, Ne. York Times, ¸+ August +µµ8, R. Jcffrcy
Smith, “Kosovo Rcbcls Makc Òwn Law”, !ashington Post, :¡ Novcmbcr +µµµ, Pctcr
Vorthington, “NATÒ’s Rcputation a Casualty ol Var”, Te Toronto Sun, +8 Novcmbcr
+µµµ. Cf. also Max 8oot, “U.N. Ðiscovcrs Colonialism !sn’t ¡asy in Kosovo”, Te !all
Street Journal, : Novcmbcr +µµµ.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡o
Tc imposcd rcgrouping ol thc rcmaining Scrbs into scvcral KFÒR
protcctcd cnclavcs kccps about +¸o,ooo Scrbs in lour scparatc zoncs: +) thc
northcrn zonc, north ol thc rivcr !bar and Kosovska Mitrovica (cncom
passing Zubin Potok, Zvcčan and Lcposavić municipalitics), to which thc
citizcns ol thc \učitrn rcgion rcsortcd, :) thc ccntral zonc, cncompassing
thc arca bctwccn thc villagc ol Gračanica and thc town ol Lipljan with
thirtccn Scrbinhabitcd villagcs, to which a ccrtain numbcr ol Scrb citi
zcns lrom Priština and thc ncighbouring villagcs flcd and lound rclugc, ¸)
thc zonc lrom Kosovska Kamcnica to Gnjilanc and Novo 8rdo, whcrc thc
Scrb majority cxilcd lrom thc Gnjilanc arca has lound tcmporary shcltcr, ¡)
thc Štrpcc municipality (Sirinićka župa) with 8rczovica Mountain, whcrc
a numbcr ol Prizrcn’s Scrbs and thc pcoplc lrom thc ncighbouring arcas
(Sredska or Sretačka župa) inhabitcd by Muslim Slavs flcd lrom violcncc
and pcrsccution by Albanian cxtrcmists. Rcmaining Scrb cnclavcs covcring
thc arcas ol Kosovska \itina, Ranilug, Partcš or \rbovac in castcrn Kosovo
rcmaincd to bc highly vulncrablc to cthnically motivatcd violcncc ranging
lrom random attacks and arson to abduction, dcspitc significant KFÒR
prcscncc and numcrous chcckpoints or cnhanccd patrolling in arcas with a
mixcd ScrbAlbanian population.
8ctwccn Junc +µµµ and Ðcccmbcr :ooo, all judgcs and prosccutors
wcrc Kosovo Albanians, whilc scvcn subscqucntly appointcd Kosovo Scrb
judgcs wcrc lorccd to rcsign and flcc to inncr Scrbia as a rcsult ol thrcats
by Albanian cxtrcmists. Tc appointmcnt ol intcrnational judgcs, although
wclcomcd, provcd to bc insufficicnt duc both to constant prcssurcs and to
thc rcluctancc ol thc prcdominantly Albanian cnvironmcnt to coopcratc in
finding thc pcrpctrators ol cthnically motivatcd crimcs. According to thc
rcport ol :6 Junc :oo¸ ol thc SccrctaryGcncral on UNM!K, thcrc wcrc
only filtccn intcrnational judgcs and tcn intcrnational prosccutors scrving
in thc local justicc systcm, capablc ol dcaling with only thrcc pcrccnt ol
criminal cascs. Tc incvitablc conscqucncc ol thc incfficicnt judiciary was
thc cmcrgcncc ol a culturc ol impunity surrounding violcncc against thc
nonAlbanian population, Scrbs in particular.
+6
!n addition, thousands ol houscs, apartmcnts (approximatcly ¡¡,ooo)
and cstatcs owncd by nonAlbanians wcrc in :oo6 still undcr thc occupa
tion ol squattcrs altcr usurpation by local Albanians, whilc an additional
¸o,ooo dwcllings and othcr propcrty wcrc cithcr robbcd or damagcd. !n
comparison to approximatcly ¸o,ooo Albanianowncd propcrtics that wcrc
burncd, damagcd or dcstroycd by Yugoslav lorccs during thc fighting in
+µµ8 and thc NATÒ bombing campaign in +µµµ, this postwar rccord ol
Kosovo undcr thc wcak and incfficicnt UNM!K administration is an obvi
+6
8ataković, “Kosovo: From Scparation to !ntcgration”.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡+
ous cvidcncc ol a largcscalc rcvcngc, a ninctccnthccnturystylc collcctivc
vcndctta against thc Scrbs, thc Albanians’ main rivals, as wcll as against
othcr nonAlbanian cthnic communitics.
“!andalism .ith a mission”: Te orchestrated destruction of the Serbian cultural
and religious heritage
!n parallcl with thc pcrsccution ol thc Scrb civilian population, thc targct ol
Albanian rctaliation wcrc numcrous Scrbian Òrthodox churchcs and mon
astcrics, ranging lrom mcdicval 8yzantincstylc monumcnts to morc rcccnt
churchcs built bctwccn thc sixtccnth and thc twcnticth ccntury. Until thc
cnd ol +µµµ, morc than scvcnty Scrbian Òrthodox churchcs and monastcr
ics wcrc plundcrcd, dcsccratcd and, in most cascs, lcvcllcd to thc ground.
Òncthird ol thcsc churchcs wcrc important cultural monumcnts dating
lrom thc mcdicval pcriod with invaluablc lrcscocs, sculpturcs, and icons.


As strcsscd by a Vcstcrn cycwitncss “…this dcmolition cannot bc just ‘rc
vcngc’ — NATÒ’s usual cxcusc lor thc dcstruction undcr its auspiccs. You
do not just fill with ragc and spcnd days gathcring cxplosivcs to blow up
churchcs. Tis is vandalism with a mission”.
+8
A rcnowncd 8ritish war corrcspondcnt rcportcd that “thc Scrb
Church has issucd its own list ol dcstroycd or partly dcmolishcd build
ings. 8ctwccn +¸ Junc — whcn NATÒ troops cntcrcd Kosovo — and :o
Òctobcr, thcy say, scvcntylour churchcs havc bccn turncd to dust or burnt
or vandalizcd. Tc filtccnthccntury monastcry ol thc Holy Trinity abovc
Mušutištc, bcgun in +¡6¡, has bccn lcvclcd with cxplosivcs. Tc monastcry
ol thc |Holy| Archangcls ncar \itina, built in thc lourtccnth ccntury, has
bccn lootcd and burnt. So havc thc church ol thc Archangcls in Gornjc
Ncrodimljc, and thc church ol St. Paraskcva ncar Pcć: and thc church ol St.
Nicholas in Prckorupljc — razcd and its ninc sixtccnthccntury icons lost,
including that ol thc apostlc Tomas. Tc rubblc ol Òrthodox churchcs
across Kosovo stands as a monumcnt to Albanian vandalism. Altcr dcclar
ing that Kosovo must rcmain a ‘multicthnic socicty’, ¡o,ooo troops lrom
KFor cannot, it sccms, look altcr its historical hcritagc against thc violcncc
ol thosc whom its spokcsmcn trcatcd as allics in thc war against Yugosla

Cf. bilingual Scrbian¡nglish publication: Crucified Koso.o. Destroyed and Desecrated
Serbian Orthodox Churches in Koso.o and Metohija ( June–Æugust :,,,), cd. Fr. Sava Janjić
(8clgradc +µµµ), rcviscd and updatcd !ntcrnct cdition: ....koso.o.net., Frcnch and
Russian cditions arc availablc at ....yunet.com´destruction.html and .... koso.o.net.
+8
Robcrt Fisk |lrom Ðjakovica|, “NATÒ turns a blind cyc as scorcs ol ancicnt Chris
tian churchcs arc rcduccd to rubblc”, Te Independent, :o Novcmbcr +µµµ.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡:
via’s Prcsidcnt, Slobodan Miloscvic, only fivc months ago.”

Tc dcstruction
continucd in thc Suva Rcka arca: thc Scrb parish church in thc town and
thc imprcssivc mcdicval church in Mušutištc, dcdicatcd to thc Mothcr ol
God and bcautilully lrcscocd (built in +¸+¡, immcdiatcly altcr thc monas
tcry ol Gračanica), wcrc both lcvcllcd to thc ground.
Ðuring thc sccond hall ol +µµµ, an additional numbcr ol ccnturics
old Scrb rcligious ccntrcs wcrc dcstroycd in a highly orchcstratcd action,
locusing primarily on thc living Scrb communitics around ccrtain churchcs
and monastcrics. Tc church ol Pctrič ncar Pcć, Ncrodimljc ncar Urošcvac,
thc monastcry ol 8inča ncar \itina, and anothcr filty churchcs and monas
tcrics wcrc dcstroycd or lcvcllcd to thc ground, dozcns ol Scrb ccmctcrics
dcsccratcd or dcvastatcd, in addition to an unknown numbcr, mounting
to thousands, ol abandoncd Scrb homcs routincly lootcd, torchcd and dc
stroycd, in ordcr to prcvcnt thc rcturn ol thcir rightlul owncrs.
A scrics ol rcncwcd attacks on civilian convoys took placc in Fcbru
ary :oo+ in ordcr to rcinlorcc lcar and insccurity within thc Scrbinhabitcd
cnclavcs ol Kosovo. Tc most criminal, among scvcral othcrs, occurrcd on
+¡ Fcbruary :oo+ bctwccn Mcrdarc and Podujcvo, whcn Albanian cxtrcm
ists, applying Sicilianmafia mcthods, plantcd cxplosivc bcncath thc road
and dcstroycd a wholc bus with ¡6 Scrb civilians travclling homc undcr
thc cscort ol Swcdish KFÒR troops. Among ¡¡ hcavily injurcd victims,
lourtccn Kosovo Scrb passcngcrs pcrishcd, including two childrcn. KFÒR
and UNM!K playcd down thc wholc incidcnt, not naming thc cthnic origin
and numbcr ol thc civilian victims ol thc “bus bombing massacrc” ncar thc
villagc ol Livadicc.
:o
From Junc +µµµ to Junc :oo¸ thc numbcr ol dcstroycd and dcsc
cratcd Scrb Òrthodox churchcs — at lcast oncthird ol thcm important
8yzantinctypc mcdicval Scrbian monumcnts — amountcd to ++¸, whilc
thc most important mcdicval monastcrics, lrom thc Patriarchatc ol Pcć and
\isoki Ðcčani to Gračanica and Prizrcn’s Cathcdral ol thc Mothcr ol God
Ljcviška, wcrc altcr Junc +µµµ put undcr continuous KFÒR protcction. Tc
gcncral imprcssion is that altcr thc cstablishmcnt ol UN administration
thcrc was an orchcstratcd attcmpt by Albanian cxtrcmists to cvict not only
all ol thc Scrbs, but also to rcmovc all traccs ol thcir cultural and historical

Te Independent, :o Novcmbcr +µµµ.
:o
A dctailcd rcport by 8ishop Atanasijc Jcvtić in thc Ðioccsan archivc in Gračanica
Monastcry dcscribcs thc attcmpt by UNM!K to scalc down thc numbcr ol Scrbs killcd
in this Albanianorganizcd attack. Although it was known right away that clcvcn pas
scngcrs dicd on thc spot, UNM!K claimcd only scvcn dcaths. Lcss than tcn killcd is
considcrcd a crimc, whilc morc than tcn is considcrcd an act ol tcrrorism.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡¸
hcritagc, somcthing pcrccivcd by thcm as an important prccondition lor
obtaining indcpcndcncc lor an Albaniandominatcd Kosovo.
As strcsscd on many occasions by rcprcscntativcs ol thc RaškaPriz
rcn ¡parchy ol thc Scrbian Òrthodox Church, this is a stratcgy ol cutting
off Kosovo Scrbs lrom thcir historical and rcligious traditions. Ònly in No
vcmbcr :oo:, lor instancc, a day bclorc UN Sccrctary Gcncral Kofi Annan’s
visit, two scparatc cxplosions blcw up two Scrbian Òrthodox churchcs in
wcstcrn Kosovo: a church in Ljubova was razcd to thc ground, whilc thc
intcrior ol thc church in ncarby Ðjurakovac sustaincd scrious damagc. !n
addition, during thc samc month, scvcral ccmctcrics in Ðcčani and Kosovo
Poljc wcrc vandalizcd by Albanian cxtrcmists, raising thc toll ol dcsccratcd
Scrbian ccmctcrics all ovcr thc provincc ol Kosovo to scvcral dozcn.
:+
!n May :oo¸, Spanish and Grcck soldicrs ol KFÒR wcrc attackcd
with hand grcnadcs whilc protccting Scrbian churchcs in !stok (monastcry
ol Gorioč) and Urošcvac rcspcctivcly. Òn :6 July :oo¸, thc discovcry ol a
powcrlul cxplosivc dcvicc in thc vicinity ol thc Holy Archangcls ncar Priz
rcn prcvcntcd thc massacrc ol at lcast onc thousand Scrbian pilgrims who
camc, undcr hcavy KFÒR cscort, to cclcbratc thc 6¡oth annivcrsary ol thc
monastcry. A dctonation rang out on thc hillsidc abovc thc Holy Archan
gcls during thc Ðivinc Liturgy. Tc ninc kilograms ol powcrlul cxplosivc
wcrc plantcd in thc hillsidc in ordcr to bring thc hugc cliff down on thc
gathcrcd Scrb pilgrims and thc monastcry. Tc ncxt targct was thc Scrb
church and community in Klokot (\itina arca in castcrn Kosovo).
Although thc Òrganisation lor Sccurity and Coopcration in ¡uropc
and thc UN High Commission lor Rclugccs strcsscd in thcir rcports that
:oo: saw a continucd lall in cthnically motivatcd crimc, this was only duc
to thc lact that many Scrbs had simply disappcarcd lrom many prcviously
mixcd arcas altcr continuous thrcats, attacks and assassinations pcrpctratcd
:+
!nlo Scrvicc ol Scrbian RaškaPrizrcn ¡parchy ol Kosovo and Mctohija (¡RP K!M),
rcport lrom Gračanica ol :8 Novcmbcr :oo:. Tc rcport rclatcd to thc dcstruction ol
ccmctcrics is as lollows: “Marking thc national holiday ol Albania, thc socallcd Flag
Ðay, in thc night bctwccn :8 and :µ Novcmbcr, local Albanian cxtrcmists dcstroycd
a total ol ¡6 gravcstoncs at thc |Christian| Òrthodox ccmctcry in Kosovo Poljc |…|
thc gravcstoncs ol promincnt Scrb lamilics and Scrbs killcd altcr thc arrival ol thc
intcrnational mission in Kosovo and Mctohija. Òn most gravcstoncs thc photographs
ol thc dcccascd wcrc complctcly dcstroycd and thcir namcs rcmovcd. |…| Following
thc attack on thc ccmctcry ol Ðcčani two days ago, this latcst act ol vandalism dcmon
stratcs thc intcnt ol thc Albanian cxtrcmists to lully achicvc thcir goal and crasc thc last
traccs ol Scrb gravcs and holy placcs in Kosovo and Mctohija. !n all ol this, cspccially
upsctting is thc lact that thc UN mission and KFÒR havc no solution to this problcm
and that ccmctcrics and morc rcccntly built churchcs havc bccn complctcly lclt to thcir
latc and thc barbarism ol thc ‘8alkan Taliban’.” (¡RP K!M, rcport lrom Gračanica, ¸o
Novcmbcr :oo:).
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡¡
by Albanian cxtrcmists. Sincc May :oo:, KFÒR has bcgun to scalc down
its prcscncc in thc socallcd ‘minority arcas’, which was a signal to Albanian
cxtrcmists to rcsumc thcir stratcgy ol cthnic clcansing, pcrsccuting Scrbs
lrom all parts ol Kosovo and Mctohija, through a ncw scrics ol cthnically
motivatcd crimcs, in ordcr to lorcc thcm to lcavc thc provincc, and, addi
tionally, discouragc thosc willing to rcturn.
Frccdom ol movcmcnt, altcr thrcc ycars ol KFÒR prcscncc, rcmaincd
unattainablc lor Scrbs and nonAlbanians. Among dozcns, il not hundrcds
ol cxamplcs, this is a striking onc: a group ol somc filty rctircd Scrbs trans
portcd by UNM!K bus lrom Òsojanc to Pcć wcrc hcading lor thc local
bank on ++ Òctobcr :oo:, but cxpcricnccd a brutal attack by ovcr 6oo Al
banians in thc strccts ol Pcć. Tcir bus was stoncd and additionally dcmol
ishcd by Molotov cocktails, whilc at lcast filtccn cldcrly Scrbs wcrc injurcd
and subscqucntly cvacuatcd by Spanish KFÒR to a tcmporary rclugc in thc
ncarby building only to bc hastily cscortcd back to thcir villagc.
::
Tc dccrcascd numbcr ol cthnically motivatcd killings in :oo:
showcd, howcvcr, that thc targcts wcrc not any morc largc Scrbian com
munitics, but usually smallcr and morc vulncrablc oncs, mostly in cthnically
mixcd arcas. Òn 6 January a Scrb was killcd by a grcnadc in lront ol his
housc in Kosovska Kamcnica. Òn :¸ Fcbruary, a Scrbian woman in Lipljan
was shot and killcd by an unknown pcrpctrator. !n August, fivc Scrbian
houscs in Klokot ncar Kosovska \itina wcrc dcstroycd by plantcd cxplosivc
dcviccs whilc scvcral pcrsons wcrc injurcd, including two mcmbcrs ol US
KFÒR troops. !n Òctobcr, a woman lrom thc samc villagc was assassinatcd.
!n Ðcccmbcr, a Scrbian pcasant lrom thc villagc ol Ccrnica, ncar Gnjilanc,
was killcd. Tc numbcr ol attacks that did not cnd up in killings was consid
crably highcr. Tc numbcr ol cthnically motivatcd attacks against Scrbs, rc
sulting in scrious injurics had incrcascd lrom :¸¡ in :oo+ to ¡¡¡ in :oo¸.

Tc ghcttolikc situation is typical lor smallcr Scrb communitics
(villagcs, parts ol villagcs or groups ol villagcs): thc villagc ol Ccrnica in
thc Gnjilanc arca prcviously had 8¡ Scrb houscholds amidst ¡oo Albanian.
From :ooo to :oo¸ Scrb rcsidcnts wcrc lrcqucntly attackcd by thc local Al
banian cxtrcmists, including arson and assassinations. Fivc Scrbian lamilics
in Ccrnica lost thcir mcmbcrs, including a child, dozcns wcrc woundcd,
thcir houscs burncd or dcstroycd, whilc thc church ol St. ¡lijah was dcvas
tatcd. Altcr lour ycars ol intcrnational rulc, at thc cnd ol :oo¸, in 6,¸µ+ cth
nically motivatcd attacks by Albanian cxtrcmists, +,+µ: Scrbs wcrc killcd,
::
Additional data in thc Memorandum of the Serbian Orthodox Church on Koso.o and
Metohija.

Morc in 8ataković, “Kosovo: From Scparation to !ntcgration”.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡¡
+,¸o¸ kidnappcd and anothcr +,¸o¡ woundcd. Ncvcrthclcss, lcw pcrpctra
tors havc bccn idcntificd, lct alonc arrcstcd, tricd and scntcnccd.

Òn +: April :oo¸ Albanian cxtrcmists plantcd ¡o kilograms ol cx
plosivc undcr thc railroad bridgc ol Ložištc ncar 8anjska and Zvcčan. Ðuc
to an crror madc during placcmcnt and activation, thc cxplosivc only slightly
damagcd thc bridgc but killcd both Albanian pcrpctrators, mcmbcrs ol thc
“Kosovo Protcction Corps” and thc tcrrorist group known as thc “Albanian
National Army”. An UNM!K policc invcstigation cstablishcd that thc pur
posc ol thc attack was to blow up thc train carrying Scrbs lrom thc ccntral
Kosovo cnclavcs to Scrbinhabitcd Lcposavić in thc north, on its way to its
final dcstination, 8clgradc.
!t was rightly obscrvcd that “ncithcr Unitcd Nations policc lorccs nor
NATÒ Kosovo pcacckccping lorccs (KFÒR) wcrc willing to acknowlcdgc
that as carly as thc prcvious summcr thcrc had bccn an incrcasc in cthnic
and criminal violcncc against minoritics and policc that had raiscd thc total
cxpulsions ol Scrbs, Roma and othcr minoritics sincc +µµµ to :¡o,ooo. Rc
gardlcss ol thc warnings ol minority lcadcrs, chcckpoints and scntrics pro
tccting Scrb scttlcmcnts and churchcs had bccn withdrawn. Tc numbcr ol
KFÒR pcrsonncl had bccn prcmaturcly rcduccd, to +¸,¡oo troops. Ncithcr
civilian officials nor thc military command wcrc prcparcd lor thc twoday
pogroms by majority Albanians against nonAlbanians. Tcrc simply wcrc
no contingcncy plans lor such an cmcrgcncy.”

Te March pogrom of :cc,
!n March :oo¡ it bccamc obvious, at lcast to intcrnational obscrvcrs, that
somc lcadcrs ol thc Kosovo Albanians bclicvcd that by scvcral orchcstratcd
wavcs ol cthnic clcansing ol all thc rcmaining Scrb population lrom thc
Provincc thcy could prcscnt thc intcrnational community with a fait accom-
pli. Tc inccntivc lor thc ncxt wavc ol cthnic clcansing was thc mild intcr
national rcaction to thc prcvious cthnic clcansing ol twothirds ol Kosovo’s
Scrbs that had bcgun in midJunc +µµµ. Although Kosovo’s Scrbs had bccn
warning ol thc rcal naturc ol Albanian nationalism in Kosovo lor ycars,
both thc UN and thc Vcst assumcd thcy wcrc cxaggcrating, only to rcccivc

For dctailcd data on thc victims ol Albanian tcrror in thc pcriod bctwccn Junc +µµµ
and Novcmbcr :oo+, scc !. Simić, cd., Žrt.e albanskog terori.ma na Koso.u i Metohiji
(8clgradc: Committcc lor Gathcring !nlormation on Crimcs against Humanity and
\iolations ol !ntcrnational Law, :oo+).

Quotcd lrom MaricJaninc Calic, “Standards and Status. \iolcncc against minoritics
a ycar ago scarcd cvcryonc”, Internationale Politik, Munich :oo¡.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡6
a confirmation ol almost all Scrbian claims in just thrcc days ol orchcstratcd
violcncc — thc March pogrom — Kosovo’s Kristallnacht.
Tc prcvious dcstruction ol at lcast ++¸ Scrbian cultural sitcs, mostly
churchcs and monastcrics, passcd almost unnoticcd or was mildly criticizcd
cvcrywhcrc cxccpt in Scrbia, Russia and Grcccc. ¡thnic purity, as cnvis
agcd by Kosovo Albanian cxtrcmists, howcvcr, is not a conccpt that can
bc acccptcd as thc lcgitimatc loundation lor cithcr dcmocracy or statc in
dcpcndcncc. !t bccamc cvidcnt that nonc ol thc valucs ol thc Vcst would
cvcntually takc root in thc lawlcss, illcgal trafficking paradisc ol mafiarulcd
Kosovo, a “8alkan Columbia”, as it was namcd by intcrnational cxpcrts lor
drug trafficking routcs to Vcstcrn capitals.
:6
Tc official prctcxt lor thc thrccday campaign ol violcncc against thc
Scrbinhabitcd cnclavcs triggcrcd on +¸ March :oo¸ was thc tragic drown
ing ol scvcral Albanian childrcn in thc !bar Rivcr ncar Kosovska Mitrovica.
Tc allcgations that thc Albanian boys drowncd altcr bcing chascd by local
Scrbs turncd out to bc lalsc, and this was latcr confirmcd by UNM!K. Quitc
thc oppositc, as obscrvcd by Ðcrck Chappcll, thc UNM!K spokcsman, “thc
wavc ol violcncc has bccn too coordinatcd to bc a spontancous, popular
rcaction to rumors |…| !t was planncd in advancc.”

Morc than ¡+,ooo
Albanians participatcd in thc thirtythrcc arcas whcrc thcrc was mass cth
nically motivatcd violcncc, whilc +6¸ ol thcm wcrc arrcstcd, as rcportcd by
UNM!K on :: March lor arson, murdcr and othcr criminal acts.
8usloads ol Albanians wcrc transportcd to Scrbinhabitcd arcas,
clashing occasionally with KFÒR units on thc way, whilc targcting in par
ticular thosc cnclavcs that stood in thc way ol controlling thc main trans
port and railway routcs in Kosovo. For this rcason, cntirc Scrb villagcs in
ccntral and castcrn Kosovo wcrc razcd to thc ground, and somc ¡,ooo Scrb
civilians bccamc homclcss within two days ol unconstraincd violcncc. Tc
UN cvacuatcd its missions lrom at lcast thrcc citics in Kosovo. !n two ol
thcm, Scrbian Òrthodox churchcs wcrc sct aflamc. Tc only lunctioning
Scrb Òrthodox church in Priština, St. Nicholas (S.. Nikola), dating lrom
:6
“!ntcrnational agcncics fighting thc drug tradc arc warning that Kosovo has bccomc
a ‘smugglcrs’ paradisc” supplying up to ¡oº ol thc hcroin sold in ¡uropc and North
Amcrica. NATÒlcd lorccs, struggling to kccp pcacc in thc provincc a ycar altcr thc
war, havc no mandatc to fight drug traffickcrs, and – with thc cxpulsion lrom Kosovo
ol thc Scrb policc, including thc ‘¡th unit’ narcotics squad – thc smugglcrs arc running
thc ‘8alkan routc’ with complctc lrccdom.” (Maggic Ò’Kanc |lrom 8clgradc|, “Kosovo
drug mafia supply hcroin to ¡uropc”, Te Guardian, +¸ March :ooo). Cf. also Nick
Vood |lrom Pristina|, “Kosovo ‘mafia’ strikcs”, Te Guardian, +¸ Scptcmbcr :ooo.

Cf. rcports and analysis ol RaškaPrizrcn Ðioccsc, ¡RP K!M +¸–+µ March :oo¡.
Cf. also Spccial rcport on violcncc on Kosovo by 8µ:, 8clgradc (Specijal B,:: Nasilje na
Koso.u. Hronologija dogadjaja (:&–::. marta :cc,).
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡¸
thc +8¸os, was cvcntually sct ablazc, as anothcr act ol dcnying thc Scrbs thc
vcry possibility ol living or rcturning to thc provincial capital ol Kosovo and
Mctohija.
:8
:8
Upon hcaring thc ncws ol thc pogrom and thc burning ol churchcs in Kosovo, a small
but aggrcssivc crowd ol 8clgradcrs surroundcd thc 8airakli mosquc. !n rctaliation, thc
windows wcrc brokcn, and a firc startcd. (A similar rctaliation against thc local mosquc
took placc in Niš, thc sccond largcst city ol inncr Scrbia.) !n contrast to thc sccnc in
Kosovo and Mctohija, thc Scrbian govcrnmcnt dispatchcd policc lorccs. Howcvcr, thcy
Kosovo and Mctohija: March pogrom :oo¡
Kosovo and Mctohija :¡8
Vhilc insisting that thcy arc capablc ol govcrning an indcpcndcnt
statc, thc Albanian lcadcrship in Kosovo and Mctohija also claim that thcy
wcrc unablc to control thcir compatriots and to halt thc pogrom against thc
Scrbs. Hcncc, whilc thc most influcntial Albanian party lcadcr in Kosovo,
Hashim Taçi, travcllcd ovcrscas prcaching thc virtucs ol multicthnicity
and a civicbascd idcntity, thc fivc most important mcdicval Scrbian sitcs in
his homctown ol Prizrcn wcrc burncd or hcavily damagcd by his supportcrs
in thc raging Albanian mob, in lront ol a passivc Gcrman KFÒR contin
gcnt, lacking ordcrs lrom 8crlin to act against thc pcrpctrators.

Tc March Pogrom ol :oo¡ was labcllcd by Admiral Grcgory John
son, NATÒ commandcr lor Southcastcrn ¡uropc, as “cthnic clcansing”,
whilc hc was still scnding additional troops to halt thc twoday outburst ol
violcncc against Scrbs.
¸o
As confirmcd by !talian Gcncral Albcrto Primiscri,
thc wholc campaign was planncd in advancc, lorcing Kosovo into blood and
firc.
¸+
UN ombudsman Marck Antoni Nowicki callcd this pogrom a rcal
“drama ol thc Scrbs”, whilc thc corrcspondcnt ol Le Figaro Maga.ine titlcd
his dctailcd rcport Koso.o Serbs: Suitcase or Coffin (Les Serbes du Koso.o : la
.alise ou le cercueil).
¸:
wcrc not cntircly succcsslul in dispcrsing thc angry mob. A Scrbian Òrthodox bishop
joincd his lcllow Muslim clcrics in 8clgradc in trying to prcvcnt thc crowd lrom attack
ing thc mosquc. Tcsc wcrc isolatcd incidcnts in rcaction to thc Kosovo pogrom, not a
systcmatic campaign ol dcstruction as in Kosovo and Mctohija.

“Murdcr upon murdcr, kidnapping upon kidnapping, arson upon arson, and now
finally this pogrom, havc lcd thc Scrbs to thc rcalization that thcy arc at thc mcrcy
ol barbarians. Tis is cthnic aggrcssion ol thc worst sort ‘in thc hcart ol ¡uropc’ (as
Madclcinc Albright lamously callcd Kosovo bclorc shc bombcd Scrbia). Today, wc scc
thc truc lacc ol thc ‘multicthnicity’ ol which all spokc so highly. And all this is happcn
ing undcr U.N. and NATÒ administration. !maginc how bad it could gct il Kosovo
bccomcs indcpcndcnt.” “Scnator Sam 8rownback (R., Kan.), altcr having mct 8ishop
Artcmijc ol Kosovo scvcral wccks ago |bclorc March :oo¡| in Vashington, wrotc a
lcttcr to Prcsidcnt 8ush in which hc concludcd: ‘Vc should not considcr advancing
thc causc ol indcpcndcncc ol a pcoplc whosc first act whcn libcratcd was to cthnically
clcansc a quartcr ol a million ol thcir lcllow citizcns and dcstroy ovcr a hundrcd ol thcir
holy sitcs.’ Tis wcck’s dismal cvcnts havc provcd him all too right. Pcrhaps this pogrom
will lorcc thc 8ush Administration to takc scriously thc warnings ol 8clgradc, and hclp
stop thc rivcrs ol Kosovo lrom flowing rcd with blood.” (Quotcd lrom “Kristallnacht in
Kosovo. Tc burning ol churchcs raiscs qucstions about indcpcndcncc”, +µ March :oo¡,
by Ðamjan KrnjcvicMiskovic, on www.nationalintcrcst.com).
¸o
!oice of Æmerica Ncws, +µ March :oo¡. Cf. also !VPR (!nstitutc lor Var and Pcacc
Rcporting), London, Rcport ol +µ March :oo¡, Danas, 8clgradc, :o March :oo¡.
¸+
Italijanski general: Ælbanci imali smišljen plan, FoNct & 8µ:, +µ March :oo¡.
¸:
JcanLous Trcmblais in Le Figaro Maga.ine, April :oo¡. Cf Cf. also Marck Valdcnbcrg,
“Vhy Kosovo should not bc indcpcndcnt” in Koso.o and Metohija. Past, Present, Future
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :¡µ
Tc scrics ol subscqucnt rcports ol Kosovo ombudspcrson Nowicki
about ncgativc trcnds in multicthnic rclations, as wcll as thc dctailcd No
vcmbcr :oo¡ rcport ol UN Spccial ¡nvoy in Kosovo, Ambassador Kai ¡idc,
about thc situation in thc Provincc havc shown that vcry littlc or no progrcss
has bccn rccordcd lor thc last scvcn ycars, i.c. sincc Junc +µµµ. Kai ¡idc rc
portcd that thc position ol Scrbs, and ol othcr nonAlbanians, was “grim”
¸¸

and that Kosovo Scrbs chosc to stay outsidc thc P!SG ol Kosovo and to
maintain dircct (“parallcl”) links with 8clgradc lor both hcalth and cduca
tional scrviccs. Hc dcscribcd that thc Kosovo Scrbs lcarcd that thcy would
bc, as thcy had bccn bclorc, simply a dccoration to any P!SG ol Kosovo,
with littlc ability to achicvc tangiblc rcsults or to protcct thcir rights. !n
turn, ¡idc confirmcd that thc Kosovo Albanians had donc littlc, il anything,
to dispcl this widcsprcad lcar.
¸¡
Morcovcr, thc Kosovo Albanians’ condcmnation ol cthnicallymo
tivatcd violcncc against thc Scrbs sincc Junc +µµµ has always comc tardily,
rcluctant and mildly phrascd, and cxclusivcly undcr strong prcssurc lrom
UNM!K or Contact Group rcprcscntativcs, who dcmandcd public con
dcmnation lrom thc Kosovo Albanian lcadcrs ol orchcstratcd campaigns ol
cthnically motivatcd crimcs pcrpctratcd by Albanian cxtrcmists.
Tc rcturn ol at lcast :¸o,ooo intcrnally displaccd pcrsons cxpcllcd
lrom Kosovo and Mctohija sincc Junc +µµµ rcmains an unrcsolvcd issuc.
Tc main obstaclc to thcir sustainablc rcturn is strong opposition lrom
both local Albanian communitics and thc Albaniandominatcd P!SG. Ac
cording to UNCHR, lor thc cight ycars ol UN administration ( Junc +µµµ
(8clgradc: Scrbian Acadcmy ol Scicnccs and Arts, :oo6), ¡:8.
¸¸
Vith rcgard to thc loundation lor a multicthnic socicty, thc situation is grim.
Kosovo lcadcrs and thc intcrnational community should takc urgcnt stcps in ordcr
to corrcct this picturc. Tc ovcrall sccurity situation is stablc, but lragilc. Tc lcvcl
ol rcportcd crimc, including intcrcthnic crimc, is low. Howcvcr, on thc ground,
thc situation is complcx and troubling, cspccially lor minority communitics. Tcrc
arc lrcqucnt unrcportcd cascs ol lowlcvcl, intcrcthnic violcncc and incidcnts. Tis
affccts lrccdom ol movcmcnt in a ncgativc way. To corrcct this situation, it will bc
important to prosccutc crimc morc vigorously. Vhcn pcrpctrators rcmain at largc,
a scnsc ol impunity prcvails.
¸¡
“Tc continucd cxistcncc ol camps insidc Kosovo is a disgracc lor thc govcrning
structurcs and lor thc intcrnational community. Tc Roma camps in Plcmcntina and
Žitkovac arc particularly distrcssing. Tcy should bc dcalt with on an cmcrgcncy basis.”
“Tc Scrbian Òrthodox rcligious sitcs and institutions rcprcscnt a critical clcmcnt ol
thc spiritual labric ol Kosovo Scrbs. Tcy arc also part ol thc world cultural hcritagc.
Tcrc is a nccd to crcatc a ‘protcctivc spacc’ around thcsc sitcs, with thc involvcmcnt
ol thc intcrnational community, in ordcr to makc thcm lcss vulncrablc to political ma
nipulation.”
Kosovo and Mctohija :6o
– Junc :oo¸) only ¸,+oo !ÐPs rcturncd, most ol thcm cldcrly pcasants. Fur
thcrmorc, dcspitc joint cfforts by both KFÒR and UNM!K, thc systcmatic
pcrsccution ol thc Kosovo Scrb population and ol nonAlbanians in gcncral
carricd out by cxtrcmists and tacitly approvcd by thc majority ol Albanians,
has continucd to bc thc main impcdimcnt to any viablc progrcss towards rc
building a tolcrant multicthnic, multicultural and multircligious Kosovo
socicty that would lunction undcr thc rulc ol law. According to thc UN
M!K officc lor rcturnccs, morc than +,¡6¸ ol ¡,+oo Scrbs lorcibly displaccd
in March :oo¡ wcrc still outsidc ol thcir prcvious houscholds morc than a
ycar latcr.
¸¡
According to a 8ctaPrcss rcport quoting thc UNHCR rcprc
scntativc in 8clgradc, in mid:oo¡ thcrc wcrc ::6,ooo Scrbs and mcmbcrs
ol othcr nonAlbanian communitics and cthnic groups still living as dis
placcd pcrsons in ccntral Scrbia and morc than :¡,ooo in Montcncgro.
¸6
Concluding remarks
Tc orchcstratcd cthnic clcansing ol thc Kosovo Scrbs, organizcd and car
ricd out in scvcral wavcs altcr Junc +µµµ, has continucd throughout :oo6
and :oo¸ with occasional attacks, bombing ol churchcs and random kill
ings. Tc final goal ol Albanian cxtrcmists was to rcducc radically thc num
bcr ol Scrbs in Kosovo and Mctohija lrom cightccn

to lcss than tcn pcrccnt,
in ordcr to bc ablc to prcscnt thcm as an insignificant minority not cntitlcd
to thc rights ol a constitucnt nation that thcy havc clscwhcrc in Scrbia. Tc
numbcr ol Scrbs rcmaining in northcrn Kosovo (in scvcral municipalitics
with a Scrb majority, Zvcčan, Zubin Potok, Lcposavić and thc northcrn
part ol thc city ol Mitrovica) and within scvcral KFÒRguardcd, variously
sizcd cnclavcs scattcrcd throughout thc Provincc (Gračanica, Novo 8rdo,
Štrpcc) is bctwccn +¸o,ooo and +¡6,ooo. Hcncc, roughly sixty pcrccnt ol
thc Scrbian population has bccn cxpcllcd lrom Kosovo and Mctohija dur
ing thc last cight ycars ol intcrnational rulc, most ol thcm still livc as !ÐPs
in ccntral Scrbia. Tc actual numbcr ol rcgistcrcd displaccd and cxpcllcd
pcrsons is :+:,¸8+ in Scrbia, and :µ,¡oo in Montcncgro.
All ol thc provincc’s citics, with thc cxccption ol thc Scrbcontrollcd
northcrn part ol Kosovska Mitrovica, wcrc cthnically clcanscd ol Scrbs in
+µµµ, and rcmain so today. Tcrc arc practically no Scrbs lclt in largc cit
¸¡
8ctaPrcss, 8clgradc, +6 Junc :oo¡.
¸6
8ctaPrcss, 8clgradc, :+ Junc :oo¡: “Roughly ::o,ooo Kosovo citizcns arc still living
as intcrnally displaccd pcrsons in othcr parts ol Scrbia and Montcncgro”. According to
UNHCR, altcr thc arrival ol intcrnational pcacckccping lorccs in +µµµ, :¸o,ooo Scrbs
and Roma lclt Kosovo, whilc 8oo,ooo Albanians rcturncd to Kosovo.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :6+
ics such as Priština, Prizrcn, Urošcvac or Pcć. !n Priština, thcrc wcrc about
¡o,ooo Scrbs prior to +µµµ, whilc today thcrc arc lcss than a hundrcd ol
thcm living in a singlc building, undcr appalling conditions and constantly
guardcd by KFÒR. Tc conditions in diffcrcnt Scrb cnclavcs in tcrms ol
pcrsonal sccurity and lrccdom ol movcmcnt arc still prccarious. Tcrc is
rampant uncmploymcnt among Scrbs (up to µ¸ pcrccnt) and cxtrcmc pov
crty, whilc thc living standards in gcncral rcmain lar bclow thc avcragc in
thc rcgion and thc Provincc itscll. Tc numbcr ol rcturnccs, dcspitc many
writtcn agrccmcnts with UNM!K and lrcqucnt promiscs by both UNM!K
and thc Albaniandominatcd provisional institutions, rcmains insignificant.
So lar, only ¡.¡ pcrccnt ol thc total numbcr ol intcrnally displaccd Scrbs and
othcr nonAlbanians havc rcturncd to thc UNadministcrcd Provincc sincc
Junc +µµµ, and in practicc, vcry lcw ol thc rcturnccs havc bccn pcrmancntly
rcscttlcd.
Tc cxport ol thc Kosovo war modcl ol cthnic domination, first, in
:ooo, to thc mixcd ScrbAlbanian municipalitics in thc Prcšcvo \allcy in
southcrn Scrbia, and thcn, in :oo+, to thc prcdominantly Albanianinhab
itcd arcas ol ncighbouring Slavic Maccdonia (FYRÒM), dcmonstratcd
that thc anachronistic conccpt ol Albanian nationalism in thc rcgion is not
motivatcd by thc noblc strugglc lor human, civil, collcctivc or any othcr
intcrnationally sanctificd rights, which is how it is usually prcscntcd to in
tcrnationals, but by a narrowmindcd longtcrm projcct ol cstablishing lull
and uncontcstcd cthnic domination ovcr a tcrritory through systcmatic pcr
sccution, prcssurc and discrimination ol all othcr, numcrically wcakcr cthnic
groups.
!n csscncc, thc Albanian war conccpt mcans making lilc impossiblc
lor mcmbcrs ol cvcry othcr national group or cthnic community until thcy
bccomc numcrically and politically so ncgligiblc that thcy no longcr rcprcscnt
any thrcat to thc wholc stratcgy ol cxclusivc cthnic domination. Tc conccpt
ol lull control ovcr a ccrtain tcrritory is combincd with somc sccmingly dcm
ocratic political dcmands, which, howcvcr, arc paving thc way to thc crcation
ol an indcpcndcnt Kosovo and, in thc ncxt phasc, most probably, ol a singlc,
cthnically unificd Grcatcr Albania, il not de iure, at lcast de facto.
For ycars thc cxtrcmists among thc Kosovo Albanians havc lound
crucial logistic support in thc cxtcndcd, and dominant in ¡uropc, Albanian
controllcd trafficking in drugs, arms and humans. Tus, organizcd crimc
gavc a strong cconomic stimulus to thc war conccpt ol thc Kosovo Al
banians, whilc cndcmic lawlcssncss additionally boostcd illcgal busincsscs,
cspccially drug smuggling.
¸¸
¸¸ Xavicr Raulcr (avcc Stéphanc Quéré), Une menace pour l ’Europe. La mafia albanaise.
Comment est nee cette superpuissance criminelle balkanique? (Lausannc: Favrc, :ooo).
Kosovo and Mctohija :6:
According to rcliablc data gathcrcd by thc Gcrman !ntclligcncc Scr
vicc (8NÐ), filcd in thc sixtyscvcn pagcs ol thc confidcntial rcport ol ::
Fcbruary :oo¡, rcccntly partly publishcd by thc Swiss wcckly !elt.oche,
thc lcading political figurcs ol Kosovo Albanians, lormcr KLA warlords
Hashim Taci, Ramush Haradinaj (indictcd by thc !CTY tribunal at Tc
Haguc) and Ðjavid Haliti, arc, lor ycars now, dccply involvcd in organizcd
crimc in thc Provincc, lrom arms and drugs smuggling to human trafficking
and moncy laundcring.
¸8
Tc samc rcport includcs thc statcmcnt ol Klaus Schmidt, chicl ol
thc ¡uropcan Mission lor Policc Assistancc ol thc ¡U Commission in Al
bania (PAM¡C), that “through Kosovo and Albania ¡oo to ¸oo kilos ol
drugs arc smugglcd daily, and that a part ol it is rcfincd in Kosovo labora
torics.” Tc lack ol control ovcr bordcrs and thc movcmcnt ol pcoplc and
goods bctwccn UNcontrollcd Kosovo and Albania additionally strcngthcn
organizcd crimc, which lurthcr incrcascs thc conccrns ol thc intcrnational
community.
¸µ
Òvcr thc last cight ycars, thc KLA war commandcrs, doubtlcssly in
volvcd in criminal activitics and accuscd ol war crimcs, havc bccomc thc
lcadcrs ol thc most influcntial Kosovo Albanian political partics. Tcy con
tinuc to bc thc main rcprcscntativcs ol thc war conccpt as thc only cffcctivc
mcthod ol rcsolving thc Kosovo status problcm, by harassing and discrimi
nating Scrbs, in ordcr to changc thc prcwar cthnic structurc and thus dclc
gitimizc all thc claims ol Scrbia to Kosovo and Mctohija.
Vithin such a contcxt, thc Scrbs and nonAlbanians in Kosovo and
Mctohija, sharply diminishcd in numbcr, arc still living undcr thc strong,
pcrmancnt and highly discriminating prcssurc ol cxtrcmist Albanians, most
oltcn lully dcprivcd ol basic sccurity, individual and collcctivc rights, lcgal
and owncrship protcction and thc right to maintain and lurthcr dcvclop
both thcir national and cultural idcntitics. Tc protcction ol thcir idcntity,
including thc right to rcturn, as strcsscd not only by UNSC Rcsolution
+:¡¡, but also by thc cight standards ol thc intcrnational community, sct to
dcvclop thc rulc ol law, intcrcthnic tolcrancc and dcmocracy, and to pro
vidc lor thc Provincc’s sustainablc dcvclopmcnt. Tus, Kosovo and Mctohija
rcmains vcry lar lrom thc minimal standards rcquircd lor a socicty to bc
modcrn, tolcrant and civilizcd and to lunction in accordancc with thc most
lundamcntal ¡uropcan valucs.
\iolcncc against thc Scrbs has somcwhat diminishcd duc to thc UN
sponsorcd ncgotiations on Kosovo’s luturc status in \icnna (:oo6–:oo¸),
but thc gcncral trcnd ol covcrt or ovcrt prcssurcs aiming at an Albanian
¸8
Jurgcn Roth, “Rcchtstaat: Licbcr nicht!”, !elt.oche ¡¸/o¡, pp. ¡8–¡o.
¸µ
Ibid.
Ð. T. 8ataković, Surviving in Ghcttolikc ¡nclavcs :6¸
dominatcd and cthnically clcanscd Kosovo is still undcrway. Òn ¡uropcan
soil, undcr thc UN flag, thc Scrbs, mcmbcrs ol onc ol thc oldcst ¡uropcan
nations, still livc in ghcttolikc conditions, in arcas guardcd by intcrnational
military lorccs, thcir armourcd vchiclcs and, in somc placcs, by barbcd wirc.
For thc majority ol thcm, thc only solution lor thcir vcry survival, lor thcir
dcmographic rccovcry, sustainablc rcturn and both political and cconomic
sustainability is to maintain Kosovo within Scrbia, on thc path towards thc
¡uropcan Union.
Land Propcrty in Kosovo and Mctohija
Kosovo and Mctohija :6¡
Appcndix
Documents and Opinions
Fr. Sava Janjić
Chaos and Disorder
Kosovo ~xu Mv:onij~ Fouv Yv~vs L~:vv
Four ycars altcr thc dcploymcnt ol thc UN Mission and KFÒR troops
in Kosovo and Mctohija onc can hardly claim that thc wartorn southcrn
Provincc ol Scrbia is on thc right track to bccomc a dcmocratic and multi
cthnic socicty. Quitc on thc contrary, UNM!K’s policy ol constant conccs
sions to Kosovo Albanians and thcir political goals has madc lilc lor thc
Scrbs and othcr nonAlbanian communitics cxtrcmcly difficult and with
out truc pcrspcctivcs in thc luturc. UNM!K’s constant ignoring ol UNSC
Rcsolution +:¡¡ and lcgitimatc claims ol thc Scrbian pcoplc on onc hand
and thc crcation ol tcmporary “multicthnic” institutions without any link to
ScrbiaMontcncgro on thc othcr, havc turncd Kosovo and Mctohija into a
virtually indcpcndcnt cthnic Albanian statc prior to any ncgotiations at all.
!n lact, it appcars that thc goal ol somc intcrnational circlcs and Kosovo
Albanian lcadcrs is to pursuc a policy ol fait accompli and practically lcavc
indcpcndcncc as thc only rcmaining option to which Scrbia is cxpcctcd to
agrcc pushcd along by ccrtain conccssions on thc othcr sidc.
Tc willingncss ol Kosovo Scrbs to participatc in thc building ol mul
ticthnic institutions along thc lincs stipulatcd by UNSCR +:¡¡ has only
bccn cxploitcd in ordcr to givc a lalsc lcgitimacy to thc institutions which
in rcality rcmain undcr thc complctc control ol Kosovo Albanians and havc
bccomc tools ol institutional rcprcssion. !l such policy ol UNM!K is con
tinucd in thc luturc and il thcrc is no constructivc rcvision ol thc Consti
tutional lramcwork to rcturn thc proccss ol institutionalization insidc thc
limits ol UNSCR +:¡¡, Kosovo may not only bccomc an indcpcndcnt statc
but also a statc in which all traccs ol thc Scrbian pcoplc and its culturc will
bc complctcly cradicatcd. Four ycars ol thc intcrnationally cnlorccd pcacc
with a tcrrilying rccord ol crimcs and dcstruction ol cultural hcritagc arc
only a shadow ol what thc Provincc might look likc oncc Kosovo Alba
nians arc givcn lull and unrcstraincd powcr. Last but not lcast, this “statc”
may bccomc thc main dcstabilizing lactor lor all ol Southcastcrn ¡uropc,
Kosovo and Mctohija :68
which will scriously obstruct thc proccss ol ¡uropcan intcgration and dc
mocratization ol thc 8alkans. As a local point lor luturc cthnic Albanian
intcgrations, indcpcndcnt Kosovo may bccomc a dangcrous prcccdcnt lor
rcdrawing political maps ol ¡uropc according to cthnic lincs.
Changes for the better for only one community
Frankly spcaking, in Kosovo and Mctohija much has changcd lor thc bcttcr
in thc last lour ycars but only lor thc Albanian community. Undcr UN
M!K’s rulc, howcvcr, changcs arc only slightly or not at all rcflcctcd in Scrb
arcas whcrc lcss than +oo,ooo rcmaining Scrbs arc hard prcsscd to scc any
csscntial improvcmcnts sincc thc cnd ol thc war. Vhilc it is truc that many
hospitals havc bccn rcstorcd, Scrbs cannot scck trcatmcnt in thcm, numcr
ous roads havc bccn tarmaccd but Scrbs lack thc lrccdom to travcl on thcm,
tcns ol thousands ol houscs havc bccn rcnovatcd but only about onc hun
drcd ol thcm arc owncd by Scrbs. Altcr thc war, all mosqucs wcrc rcpaircd
and many ncw oncs built whilc ovcr onc hundrcd Scrbian churchcs still lic
in ruins and not onc has bccn rcconstructcd, thcrc arc many ncw supcrmar
kcts, gas stations and rcstaurants, but what usc arc thcy to Scrbs whcn only
Albanians and lorcigncrs can salcly cntcr thcm. !n short, bascd on his first
hand cxpcricncc, thc avcragc Scrb lccls that UNM!K has comc to hclp only
onc community whilc Scrbs appcar latcd to livc as sccondclass citizcns on
thc margins ol socicty.
Ncvcrthclcss, thc grcatcst lailurc ol UNM!K is that in thrcc ycars it
has not managcd to stop thc ncgativc dcvclopmcnt ol crcating an cthnically
purc and dividcd socicty whcrc citizcns arc dividcd into thc privilcgcd and
thosc who lack basic human rights. Tis systcm is bcing pcrpctratcd largcly
duc to thc lact that UNM!K is simply not rcady to implcmcnt thc basic
provisions ol Rcsolution +:¡¡. Tc ovcrwhclming majority ol Kosovo Scrbs
still lack civil lrccdoms and rights, as wcll as lrcc acccss to public institu
tions in urban ccntcrs: hospitals, schools and cultural institutions. Tc citics
and towns ol Kosovo and Mctohija, cxccpt in thc north ol thc Provincc,
havc bccn almost cmpticd ol thcir Scrb population. !n Priština today thcrc
arc only about :¡o Scrbs rcmaining, an cqual numbcr arc in Gnjilanc, in
Òrahovac, thcrc arc about ¡¡o, in Prizrcn, 6¡, in Ðjakovica, ¡, in Pcć thcrc
arc nonc, with thc cxccption ol somc :o cldcrly nuns in thc Pcć Patriarchatc.
Towns such as Urošcvac, Srbica, Glogovac and Klina havc alrcady bccomc
cthnically purc Albanian scttlcmcnts. All asscssmcnts suggcst that thcsc
small Scrb communitics in urban ccntcrs will soon bc cxtinguishcd unlcss
thc provisions ol UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡ arc implcmcntcd.
!n a particularly difficult situation arc Scrbs living in “multicthnic” ar
cas such as Òbilić and \itina. !n thcsc arcas systcmatic prcssurcs, attacks and
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :6µ
murdcrs havc lclt thc rcmaining Scrbs without truc prospcct ol normal lilc.
¡vcrywhcrc around thc Provincc, institutions and scttlcmcnts arc dccoratcd
with flags ol thc Rcpublic ol Albania and postcrs ol Adcm Jashari, monu
mcnts to ncw hcrocs lrom “thc war ol national libcration” arc springing up
cvcrywhcrc, along with kitschy statucs ol ncw Kalashnikovarmcd “Alba
nian hcrocs”. At thc samc timc, Scrb ccmctcrics arc bcing translormcd into
public garbagc dumps and thc ruins ol dcstroycd churchcs arc ovcrgrown
with wccds. ¡vcrywhcrc signs in thc Scrb languagc havc bccn oblitcratcd,
and towns arc bcing givcn ncw langlcd namcs which havc ncvcr cxistcd
bclorc in history. History itscll is bcing lalsificd with thc goal ol crcating a
ncw artificial idcntity in ordcr to dcstroy ccnturics ol history and cultural
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸o
dcvclopmcnt. Òncc known as thc cradlc ol Òrthodox Christianity, mcdicval
churchcs and lrcscocs, Kosovo now morc rcscmblcs Alghanistan.
UNMIK and its .irtual reality
From UNM!K’s comlortablc and wcllprotcctcd hcadquartcrs onc cannot
scc thc Scrb ghctto in Priština’s “YU Program” building, nor thc lorsakcn
Scrb villagcs ncar Òbilić whcrc cvcry day brings unccrtainty and Scrb chil
drcn livc in daily lcar. From thcir virtual rcality, wcllpaid intcrnational bu
rcaucrats do not scc thc hospitals, schools, movic thcatcrs and rcstaurants
which havc bccn inacccssiblc to Scrbs lor thc past lour ycars dcspitc thc
prcscncc ol UN and NATÒ lorccs. Ncvcrthclcss, thc numbcr ol crimcs is
dccrcasing, proudly claim UNM!K officials. Tis claim is not incorrcct but
thc statistics do not cxplain that this positivc trcnd is largcly thc consc
qucncc ol thc isolation ol thc Scrb community in thcir protcctcd cnclavcs.
According to thc distortcd logic ol somc UNM!K officials thc citics in
which thcrc arc no Scrbs arc thc salcst and thc most stablc placcs in Kosovo.
For cxamplc, thc city ol Pcć was sccn as such a placc too. Tat is why hall a
ycar ago, intcrnational carctakcrs hurricd to takc a group ol ¡o cldcrly Scrb
pcnsioncrs lrom thc ncighbouring Scrb cnclavc to that city to claim thcir
pcnsions. Òl coursc, thcy barcly managcd to gct thcm out alivc undcr a hail
ol Molotov cocktails and stoncs lrom thc local Albanians. “8ut how can
this bc:” surpriscd UNM!K officials askcd thcmsclvcs. “According to our
asscssmcnts Pcć is a salc city lor Scrbs, not a singlc Scrb has bccn killcd
thcrc in thc past two ycars.” Vhat thcy lorgct to takc into account is that
thcrc arc no morc Scrbs in Pcć sincc thc war. According to thc samc logic,
thc city is cqually salc lor !nuit and Chincsc. Statistics and rcal lilc diffcr
considcrably.
For many intcrnationals in Priština thc situation sccms to bc quitc
normal and thcy lail to noticc that somc couragcous young Scrbs, usually
intcrprctcrs who work lor UNM!!K or ÒSC¡, appcar in public placcs cx
clusivcly using ¡nglish and !Ð cards with intcrnational namcs to avoid
risks. Tis has bccomc so normal that ccrtain intcrnational officcs rcgularly
organizc cultural cvcnts and prcscntations with translation only in Albanian
sincc it is assumcd that cvcn il any Scrbs darcd attcnd such cvcnts thcy
would naturally spcak only ¡nglish. Tc rcmaining Scrb nativc rcsidcnts
ol Priština who cannot buy brcad normally in Albanian shops and arc not
good at ¡nglish do not havc much choicc but to stay in thcir homcs. Such
is thc lilc in thc city in which to bc and to stay a Scrb is an advcnturc.
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :¸+
Feturns only on paper – Serbs forced to gi.e up return
Tc sccond grcatcst lailurc ol UNM!K is thc lack ol rcturn ol thc Scrb pop
ulation. Ònly scvcral hundrcd Scrbs havc bccn ablc to rcturn to thcir homcs,
most ol thcm cldcrly pcoplc whosc namcs wcrc first listcd and carclully
filtcrcd by local Albanian staff and KLA vctcrans. UNM!K’s inflatcd figurcs
ol thousands ol Scrb rcturnccs arc inaccuratc and rclcr to rcturnccs ol othcr
atrisk communitics, primarily Roma. Frcqucntly cvcn thosc who comc to
visit thcir rclativcs lrom Scrbia arc rcgistcrcd as rcturnccs whilc thosc who
lcavc Kosovo and Mctohija in thc mcanwhilc arc not. Ðcspitc all cfforts and
programs, thc rcturncc villagcs ol Òsojanc and 8ica ncar !stok continuc to
livc undcr sicgc, surroundcd by KFÒR protcctivc lorccs. Arc ¸o,ooo KFÒR
troops and scvcral thousand UNM!K policcmcn rcally unablc to cnsurc thc
rcturn ol cxpcllcd pcrsons to thcir homcs: Òbviously, that would not bc mct
with approval lrom Albanian cxtrcmists, and UNM!K and KFÒR havc no
intcntion ol gctting involvcd in a conflict with thcm and cndangcring thc
salcty ol thcir own pcrsonncl. Tis gcncratcs a vicious circlc with UNM!K
incrcasingly bccoming a passivc sponsor ol an cthnically clcanscd socicty in
thc cycs ol thc Scrbs, thc vcry kind ol socicty (according to thc official intcr
prctation) thc intcrnational community sought to prcvcnt by dropping tons
ol bombs on Scrbia in +µµµ and killing thousands ol innoccnt mcn, womcn
and childrcn. Sincc judgc and prosccutor in Kosovo and Mctohija arc onc
and thc samc, thc blamc lor thcsc problcms apparcntly lalls again on Scrbs
such as 8ishop Artcmijc, who, it appcars, stubbornly rcluscs to acknowlcdgc
what a good lilc his pcoplc arc living. Pcrhaps wc should blamc thc last rc
maining Scrb grannics in Ðjakovica. According to a “lucid” intcrprctation
ol an arrogant intcrnational burcaucrat, thcy arc “provoking thc Albanian
population by thcir isolation, conscqucntly justilying thcir rclusal to acccpt
thcm”: Tus fivc old ladics arc provoking +oo,ooo Albanians, who on thc
othcr hand rclusc to allow thcm to buy brcad in thc storc, lct alonc to livc
thc last ycars ol thcir livcs in pcacc.
Scvcral rcturncc projccts in thc Pcć rcgion, pompously announccd by
UNM!K last ycar, havc bccn practically abandoncd simply bccausc UNM!K
“docs not want to crcatc ncw cnclavcs”. !n lact this is just an cxcusc to avoid
rcsponsibility lor thc protcction ol rcturnccs and dcploymcnt ol additional
troops ablc only to providc a minimum ol sccurity lor thc rcturnccs. Òffi
cially, displaccd Scrbs arc kindly invitcd to rcturn individually. !n rcality, not
cvcn groups ol Scrbs arc salc lrom Albanian cxtrcmist attacks, which makcs
this invitation nothing but a bittcr irony. Vhcn displaccd Scrbs complain
and say that thcir rcturn is impossiblc undcr such conditions, UNM!K ol
ficials intcrprct thcir words as a lack ol willingncss to rcturn at all. Planncd
rcductions ol troops in many parts ol Kosovo and Mctohija, in which Scrbs
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸:
uscd to livc bclorc, practically bring hopcs ol rcturn to zcro, bccausc in thc
cxisting sccurity situation thcir rcturn is absolutcly not possiblc.
For cxamplc, UNM!K has announccd thc closing ol thc local officc
in Ðcčani Municipality, thc translcr ol compctcncics to thc local municipal
administration (which, by thc way, consists ol cthnic Albanians only), whilc
KFÒR plans to cut down thc numbcr ol troops to a minimum, which will
probably bc cnough to providc a ccrtain lcvcl ol sccurity only lor thc mon
astcry ol Ðcčani. !n such a situation +ooo displaccd Scrbs lrom this town
practically havc no hopc lor rcturn and arc thus lorccd to scll thcir propcrty.
Vith such a policy UNM!K and KFÒR arc indircctly prcssing displaccd
Scrbs to givc up thc idca ol rcturn. Òn thc othcr hand somc Vcstcrn gov
crnmcnts (likc thc USA) donatc moncy lor thc intcgration ol rclugccs in
ccntral Scrbia, which additionally discouragcs rcturns. Tc logic sccms to
bc clcar – thc lcss willing thc Scrbs arc to rcturn, thc casicr it will bc lor
KFÒR to rcducc troops and lor UNM!K to accomplish its cxit stratcgy and
pull out, thc lcss Scrbs in Kosovo and Mctohija, thc lcss problcms lor thc
intcrnational community and Kosovo Albanians.
Ðuring thc past ycars, Kosovo Scrbs wcrc cxposcd to hundrcds ol
various cxtrcmist attacks, and thousands ol provocations and thrcats. Hous
cs wcrc blown up, land mincs cxplodcd, pcoplc wcrc killcd and woundcd.
¡thnically motivatcd crimcs still continuc. Tc rcccnt massacrc ol a Scrb
lamily in Òbilić and thc murdcr ol a Scrb tcachcr ncar \itina arc not cx
ccptions but indicators ol thc prcvailing atmosphcrc ol cthnic tcrror. Not
onc mcmbcr ol thc lormcr KLA has bccn brought to justicc lor any ol thc
crimcs committcd against Scrbs during thc war. A lcw havc bccn arrcstcd,
but only lor crimcs against thcir own Albanian compatriots. Ðcspitc all this,
UNM!K insists that Scrbs “acccpt this ncw rcality and bccomc intcgratcd”
in a socicty whcrc thcrc is no room lor thcm. Tcrc is so much irony and
injusticc in this claim by which UNM!K hopclcssly trics to hidc its own
rcsponsibility lor lailurc.
Serbian Orthodox Church under persecution
Tc dcstruction ol Òrthodox Christian churchcs and Scrbian cultural mon
umcnts also continucs and thcir rcstoration is still not possiblc bccausc thcy
might bc dcstroycd again. !ndccd, Kosovo and Mctohija is a uniquc postwar
arca in which, lour ycars altcr thc conflict, thc rcstoration ol thc Christian
holy sitcs is impossiblc duc to thc prcvailing intolcrancc ol thc Albanian
Muslim majority. Vhilc at thc samc timc dozcns ol ncw mosqucs havc
bccn built, many ol thcm with amplc lunding lrom Arabian statcs, Òrtho
dox Christianity rcmains undcr pcrsccution: nuns arc stoncd and vcrbally
abuscd, pricsts cannot normally visit thcir flock, parish churchcs arc stoncd,
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :¸¸
and thc thcological school in Prizrcn, which workcd cvcn in thc timcs ol
thc Òttoman ¡mpirc, is closcd without any hopc ol rcopcning. Ccmctcrics
arc bcing systcmatically dcsccratcd, crosscs arc brokcn and holy icons burnt.
Hall a ycar ago onc Scrbian Òrthodox church was blown up and anothcr
scriously damagcd. Tc pcrpctrators ol thcsc attacks havc ncvcr bccn lound,
just likc in othcr attacks in which ++o churchcs wcrc blown up, burncd or
damagcd. Mcdicval churchcs which survivcd fivc ccnturics ol Òttoman rulc
pcrishcd undcr thc intcrnationally “grantcd” pcacc, in thc prcscncc ol thou
sands ol pcacckccpcrs. Now thc Scrbian Church strugglcs to prcscrvc thc
ruins ol thcsc churchcs bccausc local Albanian municipal councils would
gladly scc thcsc ruins rcmovcd and rcplaccd by thcir own monumcnts to
thc “war hcrocs”.
Serbs .ithout economic prospects
Vhilc cnormous financial rcsourccs havc bccn invcstcd to mcct thc nccds ol
thc Kosovo Albanians, Scrb villagcs and cnclavcs continuc to livc in povcrty
and miscry. Pcoplc arc without jobs, thousands ol hcctarcs ol Scrbowncd
land rcmain uncultivatcd duc to lack ol sccurity. Grazing onc’s livcstock in
a mcadow involvcs a scrious salcty risk, lct alonc contcmplating thc salc ol
larm products at thc local larmcrs’ markct. Ðaily prcssurc continucs on thc
rcmaining Scrbs to scll thcir propcrty, cspccially in citics and towns whcrc
thc Albanians havc illcgally occupicd thousands ol Scrbowncd privatc
houscs, apartmcnts and busincsscs. Tcy oltcn usc this usurpcd propcrty
without any compcnsation to thc owncrs bclorc UNM!K’s vcry cycs and
somctimcs with its tacit approval. At thc samc timc, thousands ol hcctarcs
ol statcowncd land and lorcsts havc bccn dcvastatcd by looting and illcgal
lumbcring.
¡vcry appcal to thc court is condcmncd to lail lrom thc start bc
causc thc justicc systcm in thc Provincc is a tragicomic parody ol law and
(dis)ordcr. Ðuc to a lack ol witncsscs, who arc undcr cnormous lcar ol Al
banian cxtrcmists, not onc major incidcnt against thc Scrbs has bccn posi
tivcly rcsolvcd. At thc samc timc, dozcns ol Scrbs arc wasting away in thc
intcrrogativc jails ol UNM!K, complctcly against all cxisting laws, bccausc
thc courts lack cvidcncc to scntcncc thcm as war criminals. Rcstitution ol
propcrty is a ncar impossibility, in thc lcw cascs whcrc, by somc miraclc, a
Scrb managcs to gct back his confiscatcd housc, hc is immcdiatcly lorccd
to scll it bccausc it is not salc lor him to rcturn with his lamily to livc in it.
UNM!K has an cxplanation lor this, too. Rcccntly thc dcputy civil admin
istrator lor Priština statcd nonchalantly that thc Scrbs in lact “do not want
to rcturn to thcir homcs at all dcspitc UNM!K’s invitation to do so”. How
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸¡
arc thcy supposcd to rcturn to constant dangcr, unccrtainty, injusticc and
povcrty:
Pri.ati.ation legitimi.es injustice done in the past
Altcr thc Sccond Vorld Var and thc cstablishmcnt ol Communist rulc in
Yugoslavia largc tracts ol arablc land and lorcsts wcrc confiscatcd lrom thc
Scrbian Òrthodox Church, primarily in Kosovo and Mctohija. Tc Church
has lailcd to rcstitutc its propcrty cvcr sincc bccausc it was vicwcd as onc ol
thc strongcst opponcnts ol thc Communist rulc. Altcr thc confiscation in
+µ¡6, a part ol thc Church land was simply distributcd to Albanian larm
crs, many ol whom had immigratcd to Kosovo and Mctohija lrom Albania
during Nazi occupation. Tc othcr part was kcpt as statcowncd propcrty
or assigncd to sociallyowncd companics. Kosovo Albanians who bcncfitcd
thc most lrom this confiscation now undcrstandably want to avoid rcstitu
tion ol thc Church land by all mcans and prcss UNM!K to pursuc a hasty
privatization which will finally bring thc lormcr Church propcrty into thcir
privatc hands bclorc a law on rcstitution is draltcd.
Tc latcst UNM!K rcgulation on privatization thrcatcns to allow
Kosovo Albanian companics and privatc owncrs to “lcgally” privatizc thc
lormcr Church propcrty and thus makc rcstitution impossiblc. To thc
Church, which has lost morc than +oo holy sitcs sincc thc bcginning ol thc
UN Mission in Kosovo, this is an additional blow and discouragcmcnt. Tc
Scrbian Òrthodox Ðioccsc has thcrclorc alrcady askcd thc Coordination
Ccntrc and UNM!K to takc into considcration its rightlul claims, but so lar
no assuranccs havc bccn givcn that lormcr Church propcrty will bc sparcd
lrom privatization and rcstitutcd to its owncr.
Institutions: Æ smokescreen for false multiethnicity
Howcvcr, thc grcatcst misconccption in Kosovo and Mctohija is that thc
constitutional lramcwork, supposcdly lrcc clcctions and institutionbuild
ing will cnablc thc Scrbs to improvc thcir position through thc institu
tions ol thc systcm. For a ycar rcprcscntativcs ol thc Scrb Rcturn (Po.ratak)
Coalition participatcd in thc work ol thc Kosovo parliamcnt without bc
ing ablc to achicvc a singlc concrctc rcsult. !s Kosovo any closcr to bcing
a multicthnic socicty: Havc bcttcr conditions bccn crcatcd lor thc rcturn
ol cxpcllcd pcrsons, thc goal lrom which thc Coalition took its namc: !s
Rcsolution +:¡¡ bcing morc cffcctivcly implcmcntcd: Tc answcr to all
thrcc qucstions is NÒ. !ncidcnts continuc to occur and Kosovo docs not
cvcn rcmotcly rcscmblc a multicthnic socicty, instcad, it has bccomc a clas
sic modcl ol institutionalizcd aparthcid and intolcrancc. Ònly a lcw hun
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :¸¡
drcd out ol about :oo,ooo cxpcllcd pcrsons havc a rool ovcr thcir hcad in
thcir isolatcd cnclavcs. And as lar as Rcsolution +:¡¡ is conccrncd, it has
ncvcr bccn morc tramplcd on and disrcgardcd. Kosovo Albanians arc using
institutions which Scrbs havc joincd to provc that Kosovo and Mctohija is
indccd “multicthnic” and that it should bccomc indcpcndcnt. Òccasionally
thcir lcadcrs, accompanicd by UNM!K officials, takc a stroll through a Scrb
cnclavc, snap a lcw photographs and immcdiatcly run to Vcstcrn capitals
to show picturcs which supposcdly provc thcir conccrn lor “thc Scrb mi
nority”. !n lact, hiding bchind this lalsc laçadc ol thc UN mission and thc
ncw Kosovo institutions is a tragic rcality ol unbridlcd violcncc, organizcd
crimc, corruption and burcaucratic chaos. UNM!K has not only tarnishcd
thc moral rcputation ol thc intcrnational community in thc 8alkans but is
now consciously turning as blind cyc to thc dcstruction ol an cntirc pcoplc
and thcir culturc lor no othcr rcason than to rationalizc its own lailurc.
!n thc past lour ycars thc Kosovo Albanians havc donc absolutcly
nothing with rcgard to rcspcct lor human rights ol thc Scrb community. Al
though Kosovo lcgislation contains many provisions guarantccing, thcorcti
cally, thc rights ol minoritics, Kosovo Scrbs can hardly makc usc ol thcm,
simply bccausc thcy livc on thc margins ol law and ordcr, isolatcd in thcir
poor cnclavcs and cxposcd to daily thrcats by Albanian cxtrcmists. So lar
UNM!K has not cvcn bccn ablc to guarantcc thc lrcc public usc ol thc Scr
bian languagc, lct alonc othcr rights. Almost all Scrbian signs bcaring thc
namcs ol towns put up by thc UNM!K administration havc bccn oblitcr
atcd by black spray paint. Many Scrbs dcducc corrcctly that il thc Albanians
cannot cvcn acccpt our languagc, thcn how can thcy acccpt and rcspcct our
othcr rights and cnsurc our lrcc and dignificd lilc:
In search of an exit strategy
Ðcspitc all difficultics and problcms which thcy cndurc lrom thc local Al
banians, what hurts Kosovo Scrbs thc most is thc unscrupulous propaganda
conductcd by UNM!K, which rudcly lalsifics thc actual situation in Kosovo
and Mctohija. Tc goal ol this campaign is to rationalizc thc trcmcndous
lailurcs ol this mission, whosc purportcd “succcsscs” arc incrcasingly com
ing undcr firc in Ncw York and 8russcls. Tc currcnt unofficial goal ol thc
Mission appcars to bc to finally implcmcnt an cffcctivc cxit stratcgy that in
cludcs translcrring all authority to thc local authoritics, i.c. institutions ovcr
whclmingly dominatcd by thc Albanian majority, prior to thc withdrawal
ol thc intcrnational community lrom thc Provincc and thc pronounccmcnt
ol thc succcsslul conclusion ol thc Mission. As thc logical conscqucncc ol
this stratcgy, local Albanians and somc intcrnational circlcs arc cxpccting
rccognition ol an indcpcndcnt Kosovo, i.c. a sccond cthnic Albanian statc in
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸6
thc 8alkans, which will supposcdly guarantcc Scrbs all rights “according to
thc highcst ¡uropcan standards”. Taking into account that arcas inhabitcd
by Albanians arc thc clcancst cthnic tcrritorics in thc 8alkans, it is difficult
to cxpcct an cxccption to thc rulc in an indcpcndcnt Kosovo whcrc cthnic
and rcligious tolcrancc arc out ol thc qucstion. Such a crcation would bc in
lundamcntal contradiction with cvcrything which contcmporary ¡uropc
rcprcscnts and wishcs to achicvc today. !t is not ncccssary to commcnt on
thc cconomic sustainability ol a socicty largcly bascd on smuggling and il
lcgal activitics. Vithout lricndly rclations with thcir ncxtdoor ncighbours,
Scrbs and Maccdonians, thc Kosovo Albanians can dcpcnd only on pov
crtystrickcn Albania, which has cnough problcms ol hcr own.
!t is vcry important to cmphasizc that thc activc prcscncc ol Scrb
dcputics in provincial institutions is sccn as a kcy clcmcnt lor a succcsslul
cxit stratcgy and thc cvcntual scccssion ol thc Provincc lrom Scrbia, bccausc
this would bc thc strongcst argumcnt bclorc thc world that thc Scrbs arc rc
ally ablc to shapc thcir luturc indcpcndcntly, lrccly and cffcctivcly through
thc multicthnic institutions ol a luturc indcpcndcnt statc. Òl coursc, thcsc
Scrb dcputics, who commutc to parliamcntary scssions in armourcd policc
vans and who do not darc to stcp outsidc thc building lor a simplc coffcc
brcak, arc thcmsclvcs bcginning to undcrstand what and whom thcy arc
in lact scrving. Tis is why lurthcr participation in such institutions, undcr
cxtrcmcly discriminatory and humiliating conditions, is not possiblc any
longcr. Vithout csscntial changcs in thc institutional systcm, which must
bc brought to compliancc with UNSC Rcsolution +:¡¡, Scrb participation
in thc Parliamcnt will only makc additional damagc to thc position ol thc
Scrbian pcoplc and hclp Kosovo Albanians crcatc thcir indcpcndcnt statc.
Ðcspitc cvcrything said abovc, thc Scrbian pcoplc still hopc that UN
M!K will finally abandon thc policy ol doublc standards and bcgin building
a truly lrcc and multicthnic socicty in accordancc with Rcsolution +:¡¡ and
intcrnational law. !n thc institutions ol such a socicty, whcrc all citizcns rc
gardlcss ol rcligion and cthnicity will havc a right to a dignificd and lrcc lilc,
thc Scrbian pcoplc will bc quitc rcady to participatc with all othcr citizcns
and to offcr thcir constructivc contribution. Howcvcr, il UNM!K intcnds to
continuc building a ncw cthnic Albanian statc in which Scrbs would con
tinuc to livc as sccondclass citizcns or disappcar complctcly, it is illusory
on thc part ol thc intcrnational community to cxpcct Scrb coopcration and
support lor such a projcct.
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :¸¸
AÐÐ!T!ÒNAL ANALYS!S
(Scptcmbcr :oo¸)
Æpp. :
Precise figures of post-conflict ethnically motivated crimes in Kosovo
Fr. Sa.a Janjić
¡RP KiM !nloScrvicc
Ðcvastating figurcs ol +,+µ: killcd and +,¸o¸ kidnappcd Scrbs sincc thc
UN/KFÒR arrival in Kosovo clcarly dcmonstratc that thc suffcrings cx
pcricnccd during thc conflict havc simply bccn rcplaccd with an organizcd
Kosovo Albanian campaign ol cthnic tcrror against Scrbs and othcr non
Albanians in timcs ol “pcacc”. Although somc UNM!K officials stubbornly
try to minimizc thc postconflict tragcdy ol Scrbs, Roma, 8osniaks, Croats
ctc. and to justily thcir cthnically biascd mission, thc lamilics ol thc Scrbs
killcd or abductcd dcspitc thc UN/NATÒ prcscncc audaciously bcar wit
ncss to Albanian cthnic tcrror and injusticc which continucs undcr thc UN
and NATÒ flags.
!nstcad ol stopping violcncc and disarming KLA gangs, UNM!K
allowcd KLA to lcgalizc its cxistcncc, cntcring thc political lilc ol Kosovo
and using thc UNsponsorcd institutions as a smokcscrccn lor cthnic dis
crimination. !nstcad ol implcmcnting a rcquircmcnt ol UN SC Rcsolution
+:¡¡ (Ch. +o, Anncx !!, ¡) to cstablish “a substantial autonomy (ol Kosovo)
within thc Fcdcral Rcpublic ol Yugoslavia (i.c. ScrbiaMontcncgro)” and
rccstablish a multicthnic socicty prior to thc final status scttlcmcnt, thc
UN Mission dc lacto crcatcd an cthnic Albanian quasistatc without any
links with thc intcrnationally rccognizcd statc to which thc Provincc ol
ficially bclongs. Tc inability ol UNM!K and KFÒR to prcvcnt cthnic Al
banian cxtrcmism and to isolatc thcir lcadcrs politically has rcsultcd in thc
largcst cthnic clcansing during thc pcriod ol a pcacc mission.
!n thc bcginning ol thc sccond millcnnium ol Christianity thc UN
administcrcd Kosovo Provincc is thc only part ol thc civilizcd world in
which Christian shrincs (churchcs and ccmctcrics) arc cxposcd to unrc
straincd dcstruction and dcsccration by Muslim Albanians. At thc samc
momcnt that morc than +oo dcmolishcd churchcs lic in ruins dcspitc thc
intcrnational prcscncc, somc Vcstcrn politicians still spcak ol a ¡uropcan
luturc ol thc Provincc which morc rcscmblcs Alghanistan than any ¡uro
pcan country.
Kosovo and Mctohija :¸8
Pcrhaps, il wc should say what thc rcal succcss ol thc Kosovo pcacc
mission is, wc can lrankly admit that thc situation on thc ground altcr thc
withdrawal ol thc lormcr Yugoslav lorccs would havc bccn much worsc
without thcir prcscncc, humanitarian assistancc and protcction ol Scrb cn
clavcs and somc Òrthodox Christian holy sitcs. All its othcr “succcsscs” arc
purcly rclativc and conccrn primarily thc cthnic Albanian community.
KÒSÒ\Ò — FRAG!L¡ P¡AC¡ !N TH¡ SHAÐÒV
ÒF CÒNT!NUAL ¡THN!C T¡RRÒR
Æpp. :
Unwillingness of Kosovo Albanian leaders to confront extremists in
their own ranks makes them accomplices in the ethnic cleansing of the
Province
Fr. Sa.a Janjić
¡RP KiM !nloscrvicc
Gračanica, ¡ Scptcmbcr :oo¸
!n thc past tcn ycars or so thc 8alkans havc sccn too much blood, suffcr
ing, rclugccs and dcstroycd holy shrincs. Tc common charactcristic ol all
rcgimcs undcr which crimcs against mcmbcrs ol othcr cthnic communitics
arc committcd is thcir complctc unwillingncss to lacc thc lact that thcrc
arc crimcs committcd against othcrs and that othcrs havc thc right to livc
in thcir homcs cvcn il thcy havc a diffcrcnt cthnic background and spcak a
diffcrcnt dialcct. Storics that wcrc rcgularly circulatcd by mcmbcrs ol thc
Milošcvić, Tudjman and !zctbcgović rcgimcs arc so similar to cach othcr
that thcy sccm to havc bccn writtcn by thc samc pcoplc. !n lact, thcsc rc
gimcs bascd on crimc as a mcans lor achicving political goals wcrc crcat
ing thc samc typc ol consciousncss, onc rccognizing or consciously dcnying
committcd crimcs as a lcgitimatc mcthod ol dccciving thc public. Unlor
tunatcly, vcry lcw pcoplc had thc strcngth to opcnly opposc this policy, but
thcrc wcrc somc ncvcrthclcss. Lct us rcmcmbcr thc thousands ol young
8clgradcrs and citizcns ol Scrbia who ran to mcct billy clubs and tcar gas
in thc strccts bccausc, lor thcm, thc luturc did not lic in thc rulc ol tcrror
and lics.
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :¸µ
Tings change but not in Koso.o
At long last, things bcgan to changc, slowly and scllconsciously, but ncvcr
thclcss thcy changcd. Tc ncw political cstablishmcnts in 8clgradc, Zagrcb
and Sarajcvo arc incrcasingly and morc couragcously opcning thc bloody
filcs ol thcir prcdcccssors in thc attcmpt to bring thc pcriod ol darkncss
and madncss to its final closc, and to rcplacc it with a ncw pcriod ol mutual
coopcration and trust. Òl coursc, thc wounds will not hcal quickly, but thc
proccss has bcgun and thc rcsults arc incrcasingly visiblc. Tc ncw gcn
crations ol politicians undcrstand that thc 8alkans burdcncd by its bloody
lcgacy can only rcmain a black holc in ¡uropc and thc world, and that
othcrwisc thousands ol young and cducatcd pcoplc will lcavc thcir homcs
in scarch ol a placc whcrc pcoplc arc valucd on thc basis ol thcir human
qualitics, not on thc basis ol thcir cthnicity.
!n this 8alkan story, Kosovo sccms to livc in a diffcrcnt timc and
placc cvcn though it is in lact thc only part ol thc tcrritory ol Tito’s lormcr
Yugoslavia undcr thc administration ol a Unitcd Nations civil mission and
a NATÒlcd pcacckccping lorcc. !n Kosovo, crimcs not only continuc to
occur but lor thc past lour ycars thcy havc bccn a silcntly acccptcd lcgiti
matc mcans ol pursuing thc policy ol cthnic clcansing which Kosovo Alba
nian cxtrcmists arc carrying out against Scrbs and nonAlbanian minoritics.
Tcir goal is to achicvc what dictators such as Milošcvić and Tudjman lailcd
to accomplish: to carry out a rcvision ol thc 8alkan bordcrs along cthnic
lincs and to dividc thc towns and villagcs that not cvcn thc fivc ccnturics ol
Turkish rulc or Milošcvić’s rcgimc wcrc ablc to dividc. Vhilc in 8clgradc,
Zagrcb, 8anja Luka and Sarajcvo politicians arc painlully and with diffi
culty, but also with incrcasing couragc and dctcrmination, conlronting thc
lcgacy ol thc past with thc intcnt ol joining thc rcst ol ¡uropc, in Kosovo
kcy figurcs among thc Kosovo Albanians not only pcrsistcntly dcny cthnic
tcrror against Scrbs but, in thc casc ol thc most rcccnt attacks rcsulting
in thc dcaths ol childrcn and hclplcss old pcoplc, arc oncc again accusing
phantom Scrb lorccs, as il timc lor thcm had stoppcd back in +µµµ whcn
Milošcvić rulcd thc latc ol 8alkan pcoplcs. Many Kosovo Albanians simply
cannot acccpt thc lact that thc ncw govcrnmcnt in Scrbia has scnt almost
thc cntirc Milošcvić cstablishmcnt to Tc Haguc Tribunal and that Scrbia
is not govcrncd by thosc who brought thcm pain, but by thosc who thcm
sclvcs suffcrcd undcr Milošcvić’s rcgimc.
Li.ing in a nightmare
Scrbs in Kosovo continuc to livc in thc nightmarc ol thc +µµos whcn thc
blood ol innoccnt civilians flowcd lrom Knin and Sarajcvo to Pcć and
Kosovo and Mctohija :8o
Urošcvac. !nvcstigations ol crimcs committcd against Scrbs arc at a stand
still, lor thcm thcrc is no lrccdom ol movcmcnt or lilc, thcir childrcn livc
in pcrpctual lcar, and old pcoplc cncloscd in thcir isolatcd homcs await cv
cry twilight in lcar. Undcr thc socallcd “intcrnationally guarantccd pcacc”
Òrthodox Christian churchcs and ccmctcrics continuc to bc dcstroycd and
dcsccratcd as il Kosovo wcrc not in ¡uropc but in thc land ol thc Taliban.
Vhilc Albanian journalists compctc in producing thc most lantastic thco
rics about invisiblc Scrbian paramilitary units making divcrsions in various
parts ol thc Provincc, unnoticcd and unsccn by thousands ol NATÒlcd
troops and almost two million cthnic Albanians, thcir politicians doggcdly
accusc UNM!K and KFÒR, claiming that thcy would do a bcttcr job thcm
sclvcs ol dcaling with “Scrbian criminals.” Tus yct anothcr attcmpt is bcing
madc to dcccivc thc intcrnational community with thc alrcady lraycd story
ol how thc Scrbs arc to blamc il it snows in thc month ol Òctobcr. At onc
timc, whcn thc first divcrsions by mcmbcrs ol thc KLA bcgan in +µµ6 and
+µµ¸, !brahim Rugova, thc prcscnt prcsidcnt ol Kosovo Provincc, sworc
that thcy wcrc carricd out by thc Scrbian sccrct scrvicc although cvcryonc
in thc world kncw about thc shadowy rcbcl group ol Albanian cxtrcmists.
Altcr Junc +µµµ thc samc story was warmcd up again in ncwspapcr articlcs
in ordcr to provc to thc world that dcspitc thc lact that cthnically motivatcd
crimcs wcrc occurring cvcry day, Kosovo was now “lrcc.” !n lact Kosovo was
bccoming morc and morc a Scrblrcc tcrritory. Albanian politicians who in
Junc +µµµ wcrc absolutcly ccrtain ol thcir complctc victory arc now growing
incrcasingly ncrvous and lcarlul bccausc thcy havc dcmonstratcd that thcir
vision ol Kosovo is not much diffcrcnt lrom Milošcvić’s. Vith thcir narrow
cthnoccntric and anachronistic vicws thcy arc hardly wclcomc as a luturc
part ol ¡uropc.
Tc crcators ol thcsc lantastic talcs ol Scrbian phantoms havc bcgun
to bclicvc in thcm thcmsclvcs. Vhcn thc rcccnt massacrc ol Scrb childrcn in
Goraždcvac occurrcd, a chorus ol Albanian languagc ncwspapcrs wrotc that
thc Scrbian childrcn wcrc playing with “a bomb that cxplodcd”. Albanian
physicians in Pcć, sccing multiplc gunshot wounds ol childrcn bclorc thcm,
nonchalantly diagnoscd thcm as bonc lracturcs and procccdcd to put casts
on thc childrcn’s arms and lcgs that still containcd machincgun bullcts.
Vhcn thc truth could not bc hiddcn altcr all, thc journalists and politicians
who had bccn lamcnting thc dcmisc ol Kosovo’s imagc morc than thc loss
ol young livcs bcgan to sing in chorus how thc Scrbs had in lact shot thcir
own childrcn bccausc, as onc Albanian journalist wrotc: “Tcy arc rcady to
kill thcir own childrcn il ncccssary to prcvcnt thc indcpcndcncc ol Kosovo.”
Òn thc samc day thc Scrbian childrcn wcrc massacrcd, thc world rcccivcd
ncws ol a young Albanian girl allcgcdly woundcd in thc attack. Latcr it
was “cxplaincd” that shc was not injurcd in thc attack but in lact “stoncd by
S. Janjić, Chaos and Ðisordcr: Kosovo and Mctohija Four Ycars Latcr :8+
angry Scrbs”. !n thc cnd, no onc was ablc to givc thc namc ol thc Albanian
girl or confirm that shc was hurt anywhcrc ncarby.
!n thc samc pcriod, a similar casc was that ol a Scrb, \ladimir
Jovanović ol !barska Slatina, arrcstcd with grcat lanlarc undcr suspicion ol
having killcd a UNM!K policcman lrom !ndia. Somc ol thc lorcign mcdia
wcnt so lar as to triumphantly cxplain to thcir rcadcrs that thcrc was not
only Albanian cxtrcmism in Kosovo but also “Scrbian tcrrorists.” Tc ncws
ol Jovanović’s rclcasc bccausc ol thc lact that sincc thc vcry bcginning thcrc
was no cvidcncc against him wcnt almost unnoticcd. Tc balancc ol crimc
had alrcady bccn achicvcd and a conccrncd 8crlin !nstitutc lor !ntcrnation
al Rclations publishcd an obscurc analysis on how Scrbian and Albanian
cxtrcmists rulc in Kosovo using thc vacuum ol thc intcrrcgnum. Tc biggcst
problcm lics in thc lact that ncithcr Kosovo Albanians nor thc intcrnational
community can clcarly statc who thcsc “Scrbian cxtrcmists” rcally arc and
publish at lcast a lcw namcs. 8ut this hardly mattcrs bccausc any Scrb who
lovcs his country and docs not want to scc it dividcd cannot bc anything
but “an cxtrcmist advocating a Grcatcr Scrbia.” !n thc cnd, stcrcotypcs lrom
anothcr timc and rcality must bc distinguishcd.
Unmik’s .irtual reality
!n thc wholc story ol covcring up thc rcal situation in Kosovo, somc rcprc
scntativcs ol thc UN civil mission and KFÒR havc also playcd a shamclul
rolc in that thcir ambiguous and unclcar attitudc toward thc cthnic tcrror
that has bccn unlolding in lront ol thcir cycs lor lour ycars has actually con
tributcd to crcating an atmosphcrc ol conlusion and indircctly cmboldcncd
Albanian cxtrcmism, which gocs unpunishcd. Tc mastcr in this sort ol ac
tivity is UNM!K’s propaganda ministcr Simon Hasclock, who miraculously
misscd thc bomb attack on thc UN mission in 8aghdad by only onc hour
and quickly rushcd back to Priština to dcclarc to thc world how thc sccu
rity situation in Kosovo rcally was much improvcd and indircctly accuscd
8clgradc ol crcating morc tcnsion. Tc samc Albanian politicians who havc
bccn blind lor lour ycars to all crimcs committcd against Scrbs, il in lact
thcy did not support or organizc thosc crimcs thcmsclvcs, arc now suddcnly
dcmonstrating touching conccrn lor “thc Scrb citizcns ol Kosovo” whom
thcy arc protccting lrom thc 8clgradc govcrnmcnt that, much to thcir hor
ror, is sacrificing its own pcoplc and killing thcm just to spoil “Kosovo’s im
agc” (as il Kosovo cvcn had onc). !t is bccoming incrcasingly apparcnt that
thc intcrnational UN civil mission and KFÒR arc unprcparcd to conlront
Albanian cxtrcmism, thc cxistcncc ol which thcy arc morc than awarc. !l
Albanian cxtrcmism was conlrontcd with anywhcrc ncar thc dctcrmination
ol a lcw ycars ago to topplc thc rcgimc ol Slobodan Milošcvić, intcrnational
Kosovo and Mctohija :8:
lorccs might bc lorccd to risk similar tragcdics to that which rcccntly oc
currcd in 8aghdad.
All in all, thc bloody drama ol Kosovo continucs. Tc Kosovo Scrbs,
with an Albanian knilc at thcir throat on thc onc hand and thc “gravc con
ccrns” and hypocrisy ol Vcstcrn pcaccmakcrs around thcm on thc othcr,
continuc to suffcr and pcrish. Tcir govcrnmcnt in 8clgradc can do lit
tlc to assist thcm bccausc thc smallcst gcsturc ol solidarity and conccrn
lor Kosovo is immcdiatcly intcrprctcd as a lorm ol ncw Scrbian tcrrito
rial hcgcmony. For many Albanians, Kosovo Scrbs arc just a minority that,
hopclully, will go away cvcntually and lcavc Kosovo solcly to thc Albanian
pcoplc. Mcmbcrs ol UNM!K and KFÒR rcgularly ask thcm how thcy scc
thcir luturc, as il to indircctly say: Vhy don’t you lcavc and makc lilc casicr
lor both yoursclvcs and lor us: Truthlully, thc mission that has complctcly
lailcd and lost all scnsc continucs only bccausc ol “a handlul ol stubborn
Scrbs” who rclusc to lcavc. !l only thcy would lcavc so cvcryonc could shcd
thc obligatory tcar ol sympathy and finally turn ovcr a ncw pagc by pro
claiming a ncw cthnic statc ol Albanians whosc bordcrs arc alrcady undcr
discussion by lcading politicians in Priština, Tctovo and Tirana, and in thc
proccss ol bcing carvcd out in thc ficld by tcrrorists ol thc socallcd Alba
nian National Army, Kosovo Libcration Army, Libcration Army ol Prcšcvo,
Mcdvcdja and 8ujanovac and who knows what othcr bands ol opportunists.
!n thc cnd it appcars that thc fistlul ol Scrbs and thc lcw Maccdonians who
rcmain in thc wcstcrn parts ol this southcrn rcpublic arc thc chicl obstaclc
to thc rcalization ol thc ccnturicsold Albanian drcam ol building thc only
cthnically purc statc in thc 8alkans.
!t rcmains to bc sccn whcthcr thc Vcst will sacrificc thc 8alkans to
its global intcrcsts in thc Middlc ¡ast. !t is possiblc that this might rcsult
in somc sort ol balancc ol intcrcsts but it is also ccrtain that it would cn
ablc thc flourishing ol thc most dangcrous tcrrorism and crimc right in thc
bosom ol ¡uropc which will hit ¡uropc likc a boomcrang.
Rajko Ðjurić
Roma in Kosovo and Metohija
Avcu:vx:s ~c~ixs: ixuvvvxuvxcv ov Kosovo ~xu Mv:onij~
Tc Roma ol Scrbia, likc Roma in many ¡uropcan and non¡uropcan
countrics, who havc bccn, along with Jcws, thc biggcst victims ol wars and
a “bargaining chip” in armcd conflicts bctwccn majority pcoplcs, lollow at
tcntivcly and anxiously thc start ol ncgotiations about thc luturc status ol
Kosovo and Mctohija, an autonomous provincc ol Scrbia undcr UN admin
istration (UNM!K) sincc Junc +µµµ.
Tc Unitcd Nations, whosc prcvious Sccrctary Gcncral Kofi Annan
had thc opportunity to convcrsc with a rcprcscntativc ol thc !ntcrnational
Roma Òrganisation, arc not unlamilar with lacts and data conccrning thc
ovcrall position ol +: million Roma, currcntly thc largcst cthnic minority
in thc world. Nor is it unknown that until Junc +µµµ Roma wcrc thc largcst
cthnic minority in Kosovo and Mctohija.
Tc Göttingcnbascd Society for Treatened Peoples (Gcrmany), Cari-
tas International and othcr important nongovcrnmcntal organizations
across ¡uropc havc bccn supplicd with dctailcd rcports on thc tragcdy ol
thc KosovoMctohija Roma altcr thcir mass cxpulsion by Albanian cxtrcm
ists in Junc +µµµ and cvcr sincc such rcports havc bccn publishcd almost
rcgularly in thc Cologncbascd Roman Catholic Church magazinc Good
Æfternoon.
¡uropcan Union, ÒSC¡ and thc wholc intcrnational community
havc bccn dully inlormcd, thcn, that thc socallcd Kosovo Libcration Army
(KLA/UÇK) not only committcd crimcs against Kosovo Roma, but carricd
out a radical “cthnical clcansing” ol Kosovo and Mctohija ol its largcst mi
nority. Òl about :6o,ooo Roma in +µµµ, now only :µ,6¡6 arc lclt! Òl +µ¸
Roma scttlcmcnts in Kosovo and Mctohija, thcrc now rcmain only :6!
Tis may bc dcscribcd as an almost total annihilation ol thc Romani
cthnic minority, unprcccdcntcd in thc history ol Kosovo and Mctohija,
not cvcn during thc horriblc Nazisponsorcd pcrsccutions against Scrbs
and Roma ol Kosovo and Mctohija in thc Sccond Vorld Var, although
Kosovo and Mctohija :8¡
thcrc wcrc prcscnt, altcring in thc rolc ol pcrsccutors, SS Na