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Influx Viruses
The Illegal Muslims in Arakan
By U Shw zan and Dr. Aye Chan

Published by Arakanes in United States

P-O-Box 484
Planetarium Station
NYC, NY 10024-0484
Name of Book Influx Virus - The Illegal Muslims in Arakan

Publisher Arakanese in United States

P-O-Box 484
Planetarium Station
NYC, NY 10024-0484

Distribution Arakanese in United States

P-O-Box 484
Planetarium Station
NYC, NY 10024-0484

Design and Layout Myint Myint Than

Number of Books Produced 1,000

Year of Published August, 2005

ISBN 0-9728698-4-0

English Section
Study of Muslim infiltration into Rakhine State
Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
Migration of Mohammedans before and during Mrauk-U periods ------------- 6
So much Muslim influence as alleged by Muslim writers and European and Foreign scholars ---------------
-------------------------------------------------------- 6
Rakhine under Burmese rule --------------------------------------------------------- 8
Rakhine under Burmese rule –Infiltration of Bengali Muslims ----------------- 8
Rakhine Division after independence --------------------------------------------- 12
Rakhine Division during Revolutionary Council period-------------------------14
Rakhne state during the period of successive peoples' councils --------------- 14
Reference ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
The Development of Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma
Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
Mass Migration in the Colonial Period (1826 - 1948)--------------------------- 22
Communal Violence ----------------------------------------------------------------- 26
Conclusion ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37
Appendix I – British Burma Census of 1872 -------------------------------------39
Appendix II – The Statement Showing the Distribution of People According to their Birth Places – British
Burma Census of 1881 (Arakan Division)---- 40
Bibliography -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42

Burmese Section
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There is a new trend concerning the so-called Rohingya. This trend, fashioned by some Islamic
radicals after Burma's independence, his been problematic, and a grave concern for (a) the Arakanese, (b)
the people of Burma and (c) historians and scholars. A proper understanding of the importance and nature
of illegal Muslim immigrant flow is crucial to comprehensively address the imperative issue of
development contest. Rohingya movements have been accompanied by certain dangers and challenges,
particularly for the Arakan State and beyond. In response to this problematic challenge, this book was
written by leading historians who focused on the central importance of origin, growth and historical
development of and the unproductive adventures of, illegal Bengali Muslims who desperately needed to
be recognized as having a racial distinct identity in Burma.
These collective contributions resulted in a comprehensive analysis of illegal Muslim immigrant
issues within the development contest. With contributions from two leading Arakanese intellectuals, this
work provides readers not only with exclusive historical facts but also coherent conclusions. Their
presentations adequately cover the interlocking themes of illegal Muslim immigrants who irreverently
claim themselves as Rohingyas in Burma, and that claim's impact in the region. Also covered is how these
claims affect historical write-ups by governments, international organizations, academics, researchers,
and practitioners, write-ups, which often go awry.
U Shwe Zan, who published a member of books on Arakan, has extensive experiences in
immigrant issues as a result of his long-term service as immigration officer in Arakan State. He examines
the historical facts with an insightful and innovative analysis about Muslim infiltration into Arakan State.
With ample background documentation, Professor Dr. Aye Chan provides an all-inclusive analysis of
illegal Bengali problems by re-examining the ethnicity of the so-called Rohingyas, and tracing their
history back to the earliest presence of their ancestors in Arakan. Both of their clued-up ventures offers a
wealth of information, data, advice, and issues to consider, along with a means to address them, based on
experiences and historical analysis relating to unlawful migration flows in Arakan. Their extensive works
leave no stoned unturned in their efforts to give comprehensive historical analysis of illegal Bengali
Muslims who cogently drum up popular support in advancing the demand for legitimacy of their racial
identity in Burma.
I hope this collective contribution will give both a broader understanding of so-called Rohingya
issues and practical measures to address challenges of the future. I extend my heartfelt gratitude to both
contributors whose scholastic works are credibly expected to give appropriate answers to all, particularly
to moderate Muslim who cherish peaceful co-existence in Burma.

Dr. Ashin Nayaka

Visiting Scholar
Department of History
Columbia University, New York
Study of Muslim infiltration


Rakhine State

By U Shwe Zan
1. The term “Rohingya” is unknown to the people of Rakhine in pre-war days. Because there is no such
indigenous race in Myanmar or particularly in Rakhine. So, the question does not arise to define the
meaning of “Rohingya” as a race.
2. So also, after the exodus of 1992, the minister of Foregin Affairs of state Law and order Restoration
Council Government issued the following statement in the conference of February 92: “Although there
are 135 national races living in Myanmar today, the so called the Rohingya people is not one of them.
Historically, there has never been a Rohinger race in Myanmar. People of Muslim faith from the adjacent
country illegally entered into Myanmar Naingan particular the Rakhine State.” Who ever they might be
the central authority the legal definition is that they are considered only as “alien” or “guest citizens”.
3. But Muslim writers like Ba Tha tried to publicize about Rohingya by writing some make shift stories of
the earlier settlement in Rakhine land as Arabs, Moors and Persians. Those shipwrecked people near
Ramree Island were supposed to be rescued and let them settled around Wethali area in round about AD
788, the founding date of Wethali. Those Muslim writers tried to refer the dating and writings of R.B
Smart, the author of British Gazetteer of Akyab District Gazetteer Vol. (A) 1921, as an authority.
4. We noticed that, AD 788 (8th century) was the date firstly recongnized by Lieutenant General Sir
Arthur P. Phayre, a well known Brain Child of the British administration who published a Historical
Book, entitled “History of Burma”, in which he mentioned and claimed the ascension date of king
Candathuria, founder of 3rd Dhanyawady as 146 AD and ending date of that period as 788 AD which was
also a starting date of Wethali.5. Generally speaking, we have so far, noted two kinds of Dynastic records
in our Ancient History, especially from the later part of second Dhanyawady up to the end of Wethali.
The first one is the dynastic list mentioned in the Rakhine chronicles and the other is the records inscribed
in the western face of Shitethaung pillar or Ananda Candra Inscription pillar.
6. We have many sound proofs and concrete-supporting evidences about the existence of Wethali
Dynasty mentioned in the inscription pillar of Shitethaung which definitely disapproved the separate
existence of Wethali Dynasty mentioned in Chronicle side. Hence, it is sure and justified to claim that the
two lists of Wethali mentioned in two different sides are not separate ones, but one and the same single
Wethali with a few difference of names which was clearly supported by Theinkan main twon, an eighth
century verse composed by Saw Prai Nyo alias Thuwunna Devi, a poet Queen of Dhamma Candra (a)
Theinga Candra of Wethali.
7. According to Dr. Sircar’s tentative assignment, the starting date of wethali (Table II) is 370 AD which
is only difference of 6 years (starting from later part of 2nd Dhanyawady to our calculation using Vikram
Sambat calendar dates) i.e. Asokan base dating system as 364 AD in chronicle side which is a negligible
figures compared to thousand years of life span. Moreover it is not reasonable and proper to accept the
starting date of Wethali as AD 788 or 8th century and it is also not justifiable to accept two Wethali theory
which will only upset the actually existed Wethali but also spoiled the whole show of the successive
periods of Lemro dynasty.
8. In fact, beginning of Wethali as AD 788 or 8th century is happened because of wrong or miscalculation
of dating by Sir Arthur P. Phayer and other European scholars including R.B smart and Historians. The
comparative statement between Phayer and Rakhine scholars are attached here. Please see annexure (1).
The following is a good example of their mistakes. Dr. Forchhammer, a renowned German Archeaologist,
collected an unreliable kawza dates 150 as founding date of Wethali and he tried to convert this era into
Christian era by adding a conversion factor 638 untimely and creating the result 788 and AD 788 which
they also claimed as ending date of 3rd Dhanyawady and simultaneously became the starting or founding
date of Wethali which is entirely unacceptable and wrong doings of historical recording and dating.
9. Therefore, it is clear to say that the ending date of 3rd Dhanyawady and starting date of Wethali is
definitely in 4th century AD.
10. We understand from Myanmar Encyclopedia or (Swe Sone Kyan) vol. 9 that the date of birth of
Prophet Mohamed was AD 571 (6th century). According to Muslim writers. It seemed to say that Muslim
setters like shipwrecked survivors of Persians, Moors and Arabs arrived to Rakhine Wethali about 200
years ahead of the Mohamed’s birth which is entirely absurdity. It shows that Muslim writers were so
much preoccupied interest to be claimed the Buddhist Rakhine land as a Muslim state.
11. However. As we all know. Rakhine people professed Buddhist since the life time of Guatama Buddha.
Guatama Buddha visited Dhanyawady in 123 Mahar era or BC 517 (Vikram Sambat dating) or BC 544
(Kaliyug dating) i.e. 6th century BC and preached the King Candathuria. The founder of third
Dhanyawady. At the same time, with the consent of Lord Buddha. The King cast a Bronze Image of
Buddha’s exact likeness. Which was popularly known as Mahamuni. (Now rested in Mandalay). In other
sense Rakhine professed Buddhism about 14 centuries ahead of supposed to be Muslim early settlers like.
Professed Buddhism about 14 centuries ahead of supposed to be Muslim early settlers like Persians,
Moors and Arabs to the Rakhine land.
12. Again, A highly delegated Buddhist mission by Emperor Asoka arrived to Rakhine Dhanyawady
during the reign of Thuria Sekka, 6th in the line of Candathuria dynasty in the year between R.E 214-234.
From that time onwards Rakhine people became a strong believers of Htayrawada Buddhism up till now.
Rakhine people began to practice Buddhist civilization and culture by doing noviciating ceremony to
there son and also entering monk hood after attaining the age of maturity since then. By combined effort,
Asokas’s Buddhist mission and King Thuria Sekka built many stuppas, cetias and temples and ordination
halls enshrining with Buddha relics, which were brought by the same mission, throughout length and
breadth of Rakhine land. Kyauk Ro Daw ceti of Thelagiri Hill and U rite Taung ceti were some of the
good examples. Moreover, King Thuria Sekka cast Buddha images with the same stock of noble metals
used by his forefather’s king Candathuria during the casting of Mahamuni. We can worship Sandamuni
Image, cast by Thuria sekka, which is now rested on the precinct of Bandoola Monastery in Mrauk-U.

Migration of Mohammedans before and during Mrauk-U periods.

13. Unlike in India, there were no Mohammedan conquest to Rakhine up to date. But there were some
settlement of Mohammedan we noticed in Rakhine land before and during Mrauk-U periods. Firstly a few
shipwrecked people of Arabs, Moors and Persians were supposed to be settled around Wethali in 8th
century AD.
14. Secondly, during the end of Laungret period, some followers of Jelludin Muhammed Shah (Sultan of
Gaur) who helped king Mon to regain the Rakhine throne (Laungret) in AD 1428. They were in return
allowed to settle around Laungret area.
15. Third occasion we noticed was, after the expedition of Min Ba Gri (AD 1531- 1556) to 12 Bengal
provinces, the king brought back some Muslim prisoners and they were allowed to settle in Mrauk-U
16. Fourth occasion we noticed was. During the reign of Sandathudamma Raza. Shah Shuja, the Governor
of Mogul Bengal, after defeat in the battle between two heirs of Mogul Emperor Aurunzab took refuge in
Mrauk-U, together with his family and folowers in AD 1661. After sometimes in Mrauk-U, Shah Shuja
and followers planned to wage a revolt against Sandathudamma Raza and attempted to capture the
Mrauk-U Palace. In no time the revolt was crushed by Sandathudamma Raza and all the family of the
Shah Shuja were executed. However some of the archers of Shah Shuja were asorbed into the
Sandathudama’s army and allowed them to serve as archers. Most of the followers of Shah Shuja were
dispersed and allowed them to settle in Ramree. Kyauk Ni Maw. Thandwe (Shwe Kyaung byin) and
Thinganet village in present Sittwe Township. Since they belonged to the former Archer groups of Shah
Shuja army they were called Kaman in the Arab language. When time advanced they were later called as
So much Muslim influence as alleged by Muslim writers and
European and Foreign scholars.
17. Some Muslim writers alleged that since most of the Rakhine Kings were the possessors of Muslim
titles, they were definitely the Muslim rulers and they also issued coins bearing with Persian and Arabic
inscription endorsed with Muslim titles which were supposed to be the evidences of the Muslim influence
in Rakine.
18. It is entirely wrong and false statements made by Muslim writers and Europeans.
19. Mrauk-U which remained the capital of Rakhine for 355 years was founded by King Mong Saw Mon
alias Narameithla in 1430 AD (RE 792).This capital city was housed by 48 kinds during nearly three and
half centuries of glory and power. Kings Thamada (1780-1785) of Mrauk-U dynasty was the last ruler.
20. Among the 10 out of 12 kings of Mrauk-U first period built pagodas. Two kings who did not built
pagodas were king Ba Saw Nyo, son of Mong Khari and king Gazapati, son of Mong Raza 5th and 9th king
of that period who reigned Mrauk-U 2 years each. Again out of nine kings who ruled the 2nd period of
Mrauk-U, except Mong Sanai who ruled only for 20 days, built pagodas. During that 2nd period of Mrauk-
U. 12 Bengal provinces were under the control of Rakhine kings and relation between Rakhine kings and
Mogul kings were friendly in those days.
21. Historically speaking 16th and 17th centuries were the most prosperous tmes of Mrauk-U dynasty.
22. In early days of 16th century, Mong Ba Gri was compelled to 12 Bengal Provinces because there need
to suppress the revolt against Rakhine king by some Muslim elements. However, Humayun the 2nd Mogul
king, son of the 1st Mogul ruler Babur cordially welcome Mong Ba Gri and he offered his daughter
Pensital and honored the Rakhine King Mong Ba Gri with Muslim title Zapun Shah (Some said Zaw
Bauk Shah). Moreover they made a border agreement between Rakhine and Mogul. In this way Mong Ba
Gri’s Successors Mong Phaloung, Mong Raza Gri and Mong Kha Mong were also similarly honored by
successive Mogul kings with respective Muslim titles as Sicanda Shah, Selimn Shah and Hussein Shah.
23. Mogul kings honored those titles to the Buddhist Rakhine king as a token of friendship but not as a
religious influences as wrought by the said Muslim writers and European Scholars.
24. All the rest of the kings belonging to Mrauk-U. Third Period were Buddhist kings, but only 22nd king
Narapadigri, 24th king Sanda Thudamma Raza, Ogabala, 25th king and 41st king Nara Abbaya Raza built
Pagodas. The rest of the kings belonging to third periods were weaker kings and moreover it was a
declining days of Rakhine.
Rakhine under Burmese rule

25.Rakhine lost her sovereignty in the year AD 1785. During the Burmese rule Rakhine State was divided
into to parts and each part was ruled by an each Burmese Governor. During the 4 Governors rule, people
hesitate to pay high taxes and some dissatisfied people tried to revolt against the rulers. About 9 times of
revolts were noticed and in that such unsettled period, many people of Rakhine managed to escape from
their native land and most of the people intended to settle in British India especially in East Bengal and
Cittagong Hill tracts, In this circumstances British authority constructed some new towns namely
Awagyun and Cox’s Bazaar and let the Rakhine evacuees to settle in this new places. After 40 years of
Burmese Rule., First Anglo Burmese war broke out. Burmese lost the war after two years of battle. In
accordance with the Rantapo treaty, Rakhine and Tanin Thayi were annexed by British in 1826 AD. A
new town of Sittwe was constructed in 1827 AD and became a new Head Quarter of Rakhine Division.
26. Many Rakhine, who took refuge in India, began to return to their homeland immediately after the
annexation. Most of them began to settle in Sttwe, Kyaukpyu and Thandwe and some people managed to
settle in their original native places. The population of Rakhine state by that time was only hundred

Rakhine under British rule

Infiltration of Bengali Muslims

27. The main objective of the British Capitalists were to exploit their utmost the resources of Rakhine
land. Commercial trading of agricultural products were also their aim. Due to the scarcity of agricultural
labourers, British trading companies tried to recruit the general labourers from Chitagong during the
ploughing and harvesting seasons.
28. After the opening of Suez Canal in 1869 AD, rice trading was very much popular because of attractive
prices. In these circumstances, British companies tried to expand the paddy growing agriculture as much
as possible, they recruited more seasonal laborers from Chittagong and an open door policy was existed.
At first, most of the seasonal laborers returned to their country, after the closing seasons. But later on
many of the seasonal laborers failed to return to Chittagong and they started settlement in Rakhine
especially in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung and Sittwe Townships.
29. In the later part of 19th century (1874 AD), British Rulers chartered about 42 land grants to the virgin
lands of Rakhine, out of which 15 were granted in Maungdaw Township and 9 in Buthidaung Township.
One of the condition out lined in the charter was, the holders of these land grants should be persons who
lived outside the chartered area. That was also one of the reasons why Bengali Muslim population became
stronger in these areas.
30. British authority tried to enact new labor laws but it effected not much because British companies
began to use the tender system in recruiting seasonal laborers indirectly thought the brokers. By that way
the infiltration of Bengali Muslimnever stooped. About 15000 of Bengali Muslim migrated yearly in to
Rakhine land were observed. For easy transportation of those Bengali laborers British Authority allowed t
open some British Navigation emptiness companies in 1880. The two famous Navigation companies were
British India stem Navigation Company and Asiatic Steam Navigation Company. In order to expedite the
carrying of the Chittaonian laborers, those navigation companies were subsidized by the British
authorities so as to carry with cheap rate to the said laborers. British Authorities also opened a railroad
between Buthidaung and Maungdaw that means in order to get easy communication between Naaf and
Maya rivers.
31. If we analyze the incoming and returning of the Bengali population during 1980 and 1984. We can
observe the following dates-
year(a) No. of Bengali in coming to No. of Settlers (c)
Rakhine (b)
1. 1880-81 40000 18000
2. 1883-84 83000 43000
3. 1927 40000 35000
32. The Bengali Muslim settlers started their livelihood in Rakhine as petty brokers. Crew members of
small launchers, canoe peddlers, and agriculture laborers. Small agriculturist etc.
33. Due to the ‘open door’ policy of British Colonialists, the population of Sittwe District increasing
rapidly year by in between 1832 to 1911. The following are the statistics of Sittwe District population: -
Year (a) Populations

34. Among the population of Sittwe District, the population density of Maungdaw townships was the
highest. Average increasing rate of township werew 21% and density of Maungdaw was 130 per square
mile. It was so happened because Maugdaw Township was lying quite close to the Chittagong District
where majority people living their Mohammedam population.
35. The following are the statistics shown by religion in the years of 1872, 1901 and 1911.

Religion 1872 1901 1911

Hindu 2655 14455 14454

Mohammedan 28255 154837 178647
Rakhine Buddhist 171612 239649 209432
Hill dwellers 38577 35482 34020

36. The rapid increasing of Mohammedan population was happened because of the open door policy of
British India, where Rakhine was included under their rule.
37. In 1935, although Burma was separated from India, she still remained in the British Empire and
infiltration of Bengali Muslims were still going strong. Many Bengali Muslim were absorbed in the
Government services from peon to the Head of office. We could find many Bengali Muslims in non-
government jobs and also found in many other well income trading and industrials organization too.
38. When Japanese advanced to Myanmar in 1942, most of the Indians, who settled in our country, started
to evacuate to their country of origin India by two routes. One was Pyay-Taungoke route and the other
was via Mon Ywa-Kalewa route. The estimated amount of evacuees were about 4 hundred thousands.
39. According to 1942 census, the populations of Bengali Muslims were 124452. When we add the
Muslims evacuees from Burma proper, it accumulated to a considerable amount of the original Muslim
population in that area. As a result, Muslim Population became strong hold in Buthidaung and Maungdow
40. In this tense situation, British administrations were deteriorated day by day. In such condition, the
communal riots broke out between unsatisfied Rakhine and Kala (Bengali Muslims). Aggressive Muslims
started to flame and distracted the many villages belonging to Rakhine in Buthidaung and Maungdaw
Township. Many Rakhine villages were taken over by Muslim populations and they settled there during
the 2nd world war. In 1941 there were left the 2nd world war.
41. After all, Muslim population became majority in Buthidaung and Maungdaw Township after the 2nd
World war. In this circumstances Muslims started to demand separate Muslim State and simultaneously,
underground movements of “Mujahids”began in 1947.
42. At the same time, armed Mujahid insurgents started to flame and destroyed rest of the Rakhine
villages. The Rakhines were drove out from their native villages and they took over those villages where
they tried to substitute with Bengali Muslims in place of Rakhines. That was the unlawful way of action
done by Mujahid insurgents in those areas.
43. As a result Rakhine population became minority and only a handful of Rakhine villages can be see in
Buthidaung and Maungdaw area.
44. During the 120years of British rule (i.e. between 1827 and 1947) British adopted the divide and rule
policy as well as open door policy and also encouraged the Chittagongnians to enter freely into the
Rakhine land especially in Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships. As a result the population increased to
100% in 20 years. That means the population recorded on 1921 census was 60480 where as in 1941
census, the population came up to 124452.
{Of course, these are the bad legacy of British Colonialism.}
Rakhine Division after independence

45. In 1954, AFPFL government suppressed the Mujahids insurgency and Mujahids were compelled to
surrender in the same year. Their leader Kasim was escaped to East Pakistan and later he was captured
and imprisoned by the East Pakistan authority.
46. As Muslim problems in Rakhine were gradually cropped up the became grave the serious Rakhine
nationals formed a new political organization in the name of “Arakan National Unity Organization”
(ANUO) and stood in the election against AFPFL. In this situation in order to won in the
parliamentary elections some unfaithful AFPFL organizers, organized the Muslim people by some
illegal means. They tried to encourage the Bengali Muslim illegal entry from East Pakistan and
even supported them to become a citizen of Myanmar. In this way Muslim population became
accumulated also. As mentioned above, the Bengali Muslim population in 1941 was 124452 became
187792 in 1956. That means the total increase of those populations in 15 years we noticed was 50%.
47. Since infiltration of Bengali Muslim came from bad to worse and situation became grave and serious
ANUO members made a resolution in 1959 conference to deter the illegal immigrants effective as
immediate as possible.
48. At this time political situation in Myanmar became tense and major political league AFPFL split up
into factions as “orginal AFPFL” and clean AFPFL, 17 parliamentary members of ANUO and Muslim
parliamentary members of Buthidaung and Maungdaw sided to clean AFPFL faction in parliament and
new clean AFPFL government was declared.
49. U Nu and clean AFPFL leaders accepted the “Rohingya” as one of the indigenous races of Rakhine
and they were even allowed to broadcast their voice in BBS programmed in mix language. In 1960, the
Muslim community of Buthidaung and Maungdaw began to organize a political front called “Rohinger
political front”. Heir mandates were the right of free worship, the right of free traveling through out,
Rakhine and Myanmar, the right of free settlement in Rakhine and Myanmar and to stop the suppression
and torturous activities upon them.
50 In such moment Muslim writers like Ba Tha wrote about the existence of Rohingers with make-shift
stories. Ba Tha defined the world Rohingya as one of the indigenous races of Rakhine. They were the
descendents of shipwrecked people of Persians, Moors and Arabs who settle around about AD 788 which
was said to be the founding date of Wethali as recorded by R.B.Smart, the author of Akyab District
Gazetteer (vol.A) published in 1921. Those shipwrecked people intermixed with natives became the
origin of Rohinger was his make-shirt story. He also called the combined descendents of the followers of
Jalludin Muhammed Shah in King Mong Saw Mon period, followers of Shah Shuja in Sandathudamma
Raza period and descendents of early Muslim settlers in Buthidaung and Maungdaw as Rohingyas. He
also alleged the Mrauk-U kings who possessed Muslim titles as Muslim Rulers in Rakhine (already
explained about this matter). In fact almost all of the 48 kings of Mrauk-U were Rakhine Buddhissts as
explained above. So also, the reasons of issuing coins inscribed with Persians and Arabic language was
also explained already.
51. We have many magnificent monuments and pagodas as the massive Shitethaung, the colossal
Htukkant Thein, richly decorated central pillar of Anndaw Thein. Auspicious Leymyathna pagoda,
colored plaque Laungbwan-brauk pagoda, conical structures of victory pagodas like Ratana Manaung,
Maungala Manaung, Sekkya Manaung and Loka Manaung and countless other are the evidenced of
Mrauk-U rich heritage. If Mrauk-U was ruled by Muslim kings as alleged by Ba Tha, the Muslim writer,
we cannot hardly be witnessed those kinds of Buddhist structures today because in India, when Muslim
conquest was occurred in Buddhist and Hindu land of India, Muslim conquerors drastically took action
against them and tried to wipeout the Buddhism and Hinduism by means of destroying the Buddhist
structures as well as Hindu structures and they daringly massacred the Buddhist and Hindu monks and at
the same time Buddhist and Hindu believers were forced to convert into Mohammedan religion was the
usual practice of the Muslim conquerors. (Even today Talibans of Afghanistan destroyed almost all of the
Buddhist heritages of Buddha Images and structures in Afghanistan is the good example of their

52. If Mrauk-U was ruled by Muslim rulers, the same fate would be happened undoubtedly. But even
today the heritages of Buddhist monuments are still intact in Mrauk-U. Therefore, we can surly say that
Mrauk-U was never ruled by Muslim Rulers and it also shows that Ba Tha’s writings are merely false and
make-shift stories which only lead to arouse the political instigation’s to Muslim communities.
53. Afterwards, illegal movements of Muslim organization were appeared under the name of Rohingya
Solidarity Organization (R.S.O), Arakan Islamic Front (AR.I.F), Rohinger Patriotic Front (R.P.F),
Rohingya Liberation Organizations (R.L.C) and Ithedal Mazahadin of Arakan (I.M.A).
Rakhine Division during Revolutionary Council period

54. During the Revolutionary Council period, government authorities had made a necessary plan to take
action against the illegal immigrants. Moreover one of the important steps taken by Revolutionary
Council was that Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships became a special District of frontier areas. The
following operations were carried out by immigration department personals in RAkhine Divisions. They
Kyeekan operation
Shwekyee operation and
Sa Bai operation
Rakhine state during the period of successive peoples’ councils.
55. Under the guidance of Commander of Western Command. Rakhine State Socialist programmed Party
and Rakhine State Peoples’ Council, a major operation was carried out by a strong force of Immigration
personals in Sittwe Township and Maundaw Frontier District. The main objective was to check up in
detail of illegal immigrantss and took necessary action according to the Immigration laws. The operation
was nemed as “King Dragon operation” That operation was carried out in full swing in February 1978,
particularly in Sittwe, Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships. Unlike the former operation. Detail
checking were carried out in ward-by-ward and village-by-village basis. Similar Muslim dwellers were
very much afraid to face the checking, many of the Muslims, in order to avoid the immigration personals
and their checking, started to flee to the neighboring country not from the said township but many guilty
conscious Muslims also from other township like, Rathedaung, Pauktaw. Mrauk-U and Minbya. The
following are the records that evade the immigration checking and fled to the Bangladesh.
S.N. Townships Escaped Muslim populations No. of households
1. Buthidaung 35546 6294
2. Maungdaw 85705 12522
3. Sittwe
Pauktaw 156630 2595
Total 277931 21411
56. In honor to express the good will between two neighboring countries Myanmar and Bangladesh,
Revolutionary Government of Myanmar accepted the repatriation programme of Bengali Muslim
refugees by means of a special operation project “Hintha” The following are the details of refugees
forwarded by Bangladesh authorities to Myanmer Government:
Type of proposed returnees No. of household Proposed figure to be repatriated
(a) Holders of identity cards and
dependents 21351 129480
(b) Holder of certain kind of
documentary evidence and 3091 15772
(c) without documentary evidence
and dependents 4617 18718
Total 29059 163950
58. But in accordance with the Hintha project, the number of Households and actual repatriated
figures were 31508 and 186986. The difference we observed between the two lists mentioned above
were (+) 2449 Household and (+) 23036 persons.
59. After the completion of Hintha project. The population of Muslims we noticed are as follows.
In 1977-78 the Bengali Muslim population were 222860, where as in 1981-82 populations of Bengali
Muslims became 243867 and increased Bengali population we observed within 4 years were 21007 which
clearly shows that there were still infiltration of illegal immigrants in Maungdaw Township.
60. We have come across in Myanmar History that existing Pyu race during the Tharekhittara period
disappeared or faded out under the growing population of Bamar and other races starting from Bagan
period and onwards. In the same way, early Muslim settlers before and during Mrauk-U periods extinct
today under the Bengali Muslim who infiltrated from the adjacent country Bangladesh starting from
British colonial days up to the present day.
61. Therefore, it is totally unjustified to consider the idea of their demand as Muslim state because those
Muslims who lived in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Sittwe and in other township can only be considered as

U Shwe Zan

(1) Junior History of India by Banerji
(2) ajrmufO;D vrf;nGe-f &cdik jf ynfe,fjynfol@aumifpjD yKpkonf//
(3) jynfe,fjzpfpOfordik ;f - &cdik jf ynfe,fjynfol@aumifpjD yKpkonf// yxrwG-J ordik ;f u¾
(4) jynfe,fjzpfpOfordik ;f - &cdik jf ynfe,fjynfol@aumifpjD yKpkonf// pwkww W -GJ vlra_ &;u¾
(5) Burma gazetteer by Mr. R. B. Smart Akyab District, Vol A
(6) Burma gazetteer by S. Grantham Akyab District Vol. B-No. 1
(7) Burma gazetteer by W.B Tydd Sandoway District, Vol. A
(8) An Introduction to the political economy of Burma by J. S. Funivall
(9) &cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f edik if jH cm;om;b*Fgvv D rl sKd ;rsm; pdik ;f jyif;v$rf;rd;k r_ tEW&m,frw S m;qD;
umuG,af &;ESiyfh wfoufI wifjycsu/f /
(10) &cdik w f idk ;f -vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;.wifjycsuf
(11) Roewangyas in Arakan by Ba Tha, Article in "The Guardian", May 1960
(12) Phamphlets of (a) Rohingya Patriotic Front
(b) Rohingya Solidarity Organization
(13) jrefrmedik if eH ,fpyfa'orsm;Y jzpfay:avh&dSonfh ta&;tcif;rsm;udk rdrEd iS fhwzufeidk if H rsm;rS
a'oqdik &f mtm%mydik t
f csi;f csi;f nSd@EKdS if;ajz&Si;f =ujcif;udpP// (jynfxJa&;0ef=uD;Xme-1975)
(14) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ta&;ESifh ywfoufI awmfveS af &;aumifp. D
tjrifEiS cfh ,
H cl su-f jrefrmhq&dk ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOfygwD
(15) The Indian Constitution- Asurvey- by S. K. Lahiri & B. N. Banergee
(16) The British Common Wealth- the Development of its Laws & Constitution Pakistan- by Alan Gled
(17) World Constitutions- full view at a glance- By S. L. Laeley
(18) 1947 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if H zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'//
(19) 1948 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if o H m;tjzpf (a&G;cs,af &;) tufOya'//
(20) 1949 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if o H m;jzpfr_ tufOya'//
(21) 1949 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if t H wGi;f aexdik o
f rl sm; rSwyf w
Hk ifa&;Oya'//
(22) The Registration of oreigners Act.
(23) awmfveS af &;aumifpD ausnmcsurf sm;ESifh trdef@rsm;//
(24) ygvrD efqidk &f m rSww f rf;rsm;//
(25) History of Burma- by Lieutanant General Sir Arthur P.Phayre (1883)
(26) ar"ynmarmfueG ;f vuFm- ar"ynmtrwf/ a0omvDacwf
(27) a&S;acwf&cdik o f rdik ;f udk avhvmqef;ppfcsuf 1998/ OD;a&$Z/H OD;armifausmf
(29) &cdik 'f *Fg;/ 1979/ OD;pHomatmif//
(30) "n0wDacwf&mZ0ifordik ;f ESifh tcsKd @aomokawoDwdk@ tawG;tjrif OD;atmifomOD;//
(31) The golden Mrauk-U, An ancient capital of Rakhine- U Shwe Zan
(32) ajrmufO;D acwf'*Fg; odk@r[kwf '*Fg;uajymaom ajrmufO;D acwfordik ;f - OD;a&$ZH
(ajrmufO;D acwfordik ;f udk qef;ppfavhvmcsurf S aumufEw _ cf su/f / at'D 2000)
(33) "n0wDacwfonf '¾m&DyjHk yifr[kwyf g- aqmif;yg;- OD;armifausm-f 1996//
(34) a0omvDacwf ya[Vdypk m> ESifh tajzaqmif;yg;- OD;a&$Z-H 1996//
(35) tmeENpajEN/ &Sp&f mpk&cdik af 0omvDrif;- OD;pHomatmif
(36) Some Jurifications about Wethali, a single Rakhine Dynasty existing between Fourth and Ninth
Century by U Shwe Zan
(37) "n0wDacwf/ &cdik af cwfO;D (ouU&mZf 2001)/ OD;a&$Z/H /
(38) acwfoak woDrsm;u "n0wDEiS fh a0omvDacwfrsm;udk a&;om;wifjy&mwGif toH;k jyK
ae=uaom ouU&mZfrsm; (ouU&mZf 2000)- OD;a&$ZH
(39) The Arakani governors and their coins by Vasant Chowdhury (Calcutta)
(40) jrefrmhp,
G pf u
Hk sr;f twGt J rSwf (9)
(41) Some interesting coins of Anauk Barung and Sitagaung mong by Aung Zan- &cdik rf *~Zif;- 22
(42) "Review of the most ancient Rakhine" 1966 by U Shwe Nyo Tin (ICS Retd.)
------- ------- -------- --------
The Development of a Muslim Enclave


Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma


By Dr. Aye Chan

I. Introduction
Who are the Rohingyas? Burma gained independence from Great Britain in 1948 and this issue is
a problem that Burma has had to grapple with since that time. The people who call themselves Rohingyas
are the Muslims of Mayu Frontier area, present-day Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships of Arakan
(Rakhine) State, an isolated province in the western part of the country across Naaf River as boundary
from Bangladesh. Arakan had been an independent kingdom before it was conquered by the Burmese in
1784. Rohingya historians have written many treatises in which they claim for themselves an indigenous
status that is traceable within Arakan State for more than a thousand years. Although it is not accepted as
a fact in academia, a few volumes purporting to be history but mainly composed of fictitious stories,
myths and legends have been published formerly in Burma and later in the 1 The present paper was
written for distribution and discussion at a seminar in Japan. During the seminar, there was a debate
between the author and Professor Kei Nemoto concerning the existence of the Rohingya people in
Rakhine (Arakan). Nemoto, in a paper written in Japanese, agreed with the Rohingya historians that the
Rohingyas have lived in Rakhine since the eigth century A. D. The author contests the vailidity of these
claims. The present paper was also read at the 70th Conference of Southeast Asian historians of Japan,
held at the University of Kobe, on 4 to 5 February 2003. United States, Japan and Bangladesh. These, in
turn, have filtered into the international media through international organizations, including reports to the
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Ba Tha 1960: 33-36; Razzaq and Haque 1995: 15).2
In light of this, it is important to reexamine the ethnicity of the ‘Rohingyas’ and to trace their
history back to the earliest presence of their ancestors in Arakan. And history tells us that we do not have
to go back very far. In the early 1950s that a few Bengali Muslim intellectuals of the northwestern part of
Arakan began to use the term “Rohingya” to call themselves. They were indeed the direct descendants of
immigrants from the Chittagong District of East Bengal (present-day Bangladesh), who had migrated into
Arakan after the province was ceded to British India under the terms of the Treaty of Yandabo, an event
that concluded the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826). Most of these migrants settled down in the
Mayu Frontier Area, near what is now Burma’s border with modern Bangladesh. Actually, they were
called “Chittagonians” in the British colonial records.
The Muslims in the Arakan State can be divided into four different groups, namely the Chittagonian
Bengalis in the Mayu Frontier; the descendents of the Muslim Comm- unity of Arakan in the Mrauk-U
period (1430-1784), presently living in the Mrauk-U and Kyauktaw townships; the decendents of Muslim
mercenaries in Ramree Island known to the Arakanese as Kaman; and the Muslims from the Myedu area
of Central Burma, left behind by the Burmese invaders in Sandoway District after the conquest of
Arakan in 1784.

II. Mass Migration in the Colonial Period (1826-1948)

As stated above, the term “Rohingya” came into use in the 1950s by the educated Bengali residents
from the Mayu Frontier Area and cannot be found in any historical source in any language before then.
The creators of that term might have been from the
second or third generations of the Bengali immigrants from the Chittagong District in modern
Bangladesh; however, this does not mean that there was no Muslim community in Arakan before the state
was absorbed into British India.
When King Min Saw Mon, the founder of Mrauk-U Dynasty (1430-1784) regained the throne with
the military assistance of the Sultan of Bengal, after twenty-four years of exile in Bengal, his Bengali
retinues were allowed to settle down in the outskirts of Mrauk-U, where they built the well-known
Santikan mosque. These were the earliest Muslim settlers and their community in Arakan did not seem to
be large in number. In the middle of the seventeenth century the Muslim community grew because of the
assignment of Bengali slaves in variety of the workforces in the country. The Portuguese and Arakanese
raids of Benga (Bengal) for captives and loot became a conventional practice of the kingdom since the
early sixteenth century. The Moghal historian Shiahabuddin Talish noted that only the Portuguese pirates
sold their captives and that the Arakanese employed all of their prisoners in agriculture and other kinds of
services (Talish 1907:422). Furthermore there seem to have been a small group of Muslim gentry at the
court. Some of them might have served the king as Bengali, Persian and Arabic scribes. Because the
Mrauk-U kings, though of being Buddhist, adopted some Islamic fashions such as the maintaing of silver
coins that bore their Muslim titles in Persian and occasionally appearing in Muslim costumes in the style
of the Sultan of Bengal. Accordingly there were Muslim servants at the court helping the king perform
these Islamic conventions (Charney 1999: 146). Arthur Phayre, the first deputy commissioner of Arakan,
after the British annexation, reported about the indigenous races of Akyab District and the Muslim
descendents from the Arakanese days as:
The inhabitants are, In the Plains – 1. Ro-khoing-tha (Arakanese)-2. Ko-la (Indian) – 3. Dôm(Low
Caste Hindu).
IntheHills – 1. Khyoung-tha – 2.Kumé or Kwémwé – 3. Khyang – 4. Doing–nuk, Mroong, and other
tribes… While the Arakanese held these possessions in Bengal, they appear to have sent numbers of the
inhabitants into Arakan as slaves, whence arose the present Ko-la population of the country (Phayre 1836:
680 – 681).
During the four decades of Burmese rule (1784-1824), because of ruthless oppression, many
Arakanese fled to British Bengal. According to a record of British East India Company, there were about
thirty-five thousand Arakanese who had fled to Chittagong District in British India to seek protection in
1799 (Asiatic Annual Register 1799: 61; Charney 1999: 265). The following report by Francis Buchanan
provides a vivid picture of the atrocities committed by the Burmese invaders in Arakan:
Puran says that, in one day soon after the conquest of Arakanthe Burmans put 40,000 men to
Death: that wherever they found a pretty Woman, they took her after killing the husband; and the young
Girls they took without any consideration of their parents, and thus deprived these poor people of the
property, by which in Eastern India the aged most commonly support their infirmities. Puran seems to be
terribly afraid, that the Government of Bengal will be forced to give up to the Burmans all the refugees
from Arakan (Buchanan 1992: 82).3
A considerable portion of Arakanese population was deported by Burmese conquerors to Central
Burma. When the British occupied Arakan, the country was a scarcely populated area. Formerly high-
yield paddy fields of the fertile Kaladan and Lemro River Valleys germinated nothing but wild plants for
manyyears (Charney 1999: 279). Thus, the British policy was to encourage the Bengali inhabitants from
the adjacent areas tomigrate into fertile valleys in Arakan as agriculturalists. As the British East India
Company extended the administration of Bengal to Arakan, there was no international boundary between
the two countries and no restriction was imposed on the emigration. A superintendent, later an assistant
commissioner, directly responsible to the Commissioner of Bengal, was sent in 1828 for the
administration of Arakan Division, which was divided into three districts respectively: Akyab, Kyaukpyu,
and Sandoway with an assistant commissioner in each district (Furnivall 1957:29).
The migrations were mostly motivated by the search of professional opportunity. During the
Burmese occupation there was a breakdown of the indigenous labor force both in size and structure.
Arthur Phayre reported that in the 1830s the wages in Arakan compared with those of Bengal were very
high. Therefore many hundreds, indeed thousands of coolies came from the Chittagong District by land
and by sea, to seek labor and high wages (Phayre 1836:696). R.B. Smart, the deputy assistant
commissioner of Akyab, wrote about the ‘flood’ of immigrants from Chittagong District as follows:
Since 1879, immigration has taken place on a much larger scale, and the descendants of the slaves
are resident for the most part in the Kyauktaw and Myohaung (Mrauk-U) townships. Maungdaw
Township has been overrun by Chittagonian immigrants. Buthidaung is not far behind and new arrivals
will be found in almost every part of the district (Smart 1957: 89).
At first most of them came to Arakan as seasonal agricultural laborers and went home after the
harvest was done. R. B. Smart estimated the number at about twenty-five thousand during the crop-
reaping season alone. He added that about the same number came to assist in plowing operations, to work
at the mills and in the carrying trades. A total of fifty thousand immigrants coming annually were
probably not far from the mark (Smart 1957: 99).
Moreover, hunger for land was the prime motive for the migration of most of the Chittagonians.
The British judicial records tell us of an increase in the first decade of the twentieth century in lawsuits of
litigation for the possession of land. The Akyab District Magistrate reported in 1913 that in Buthidaung
Subdivision, the Chittagonian immigrants stand to native Arakanese in the proportion of two to one, but
six sevenths of the litigation for land in the court was initiated by the Chittagonians (Smart 1957: 163).
Another colonial record delivers about a striking account of thesettlements of the Bengali immigrants
from Chittagong District as:
“Though we are in Arakan, we passed many villages occupied by Muslim settlers or descendents
of the settlers, and many of them Chittagonians” (Walker 1891(I): 15).
The colonial administration of India regarded the Bengalis as amenable subjects while finding
the indigenous Arakanese too defiant, rising in rebellion twice in 1830s. The British policy was also
favorable for the settlement of Bengali agricultural
communities in Arakan. A colonial record says:
Bengalis are a frugal race, who can pay without difficulty a tax that would press very heavily on
the Arakanese….(They are) not addicted like the Arakanese to gambling, and opium smoking, and their
competition is gradually ousting theArakanese ( Report of the Settlement Operation in the Akyab District
1887-1888: 21).
The flow of Chittagonian labor provided the main impetus to the economic development in
Arakan within a few decades along with the opening of regular commercial shipping lines between
Chittagong and Akyab. The arable land expanded to four and a half times between 1830 and 1852 and
Akyab became one of the major rice exporting cities in the world.
Indeed, during a century of colonial rule, the Chittagonian immigrants became the numerically
dominant ethnic group in the Mayu Frontier. The following census assessment shows the increase of
population of the various ethnic/religious groups inhabiting Akyab District according to the census
reports of 1871, 1901 and 1911. There was an increase of 155 percent in the population in the district.
According to the reports, even in an interior township Kyauktaw, the Chittagonian population increased
from 13,987 in 1891 to 19, 360 in 1911, or about seventy-seven percent in twenty years. At the same time
the increase of the Arakanese population including the absorption of the hill tribes and the returning
refugees from Bengal was only
22.03 percent.
The Assessment of the Census Reports for 1871, 1901, and 1911
Races 1871 1901 1911
Mahomedan 58,255 154,887 178,647
Burmese 4,632 35,751 92,185
Arakanese 171,612 230,649 209,432
Shan 334 80 59
Hill Tribes 38,577 35,489 34,020
Others 606 1,355 1,146
Total 276,671 481,666 529,943

It should be noted that all the Chittagonians and all the Muslims are categorized as Mohamedan in the
census reports.There was an increase of 206.67 percent in Mahomedan population in the Akyab District
and it was clear that only a few numbers of the transient agricultural laborers went home after the plowing
and harvesting seasons and most of them remained in Arakan, making their homes (Smart 1957:83).4 The
heyday of the migration was in the second half of the nineteenth century after opening of the Suez Canal,
for the British colonialists needed more labor to produce rice which was in growing demand in the
international market. In the 1921 Census, many Muslims in Arakan were listed as Indians (Bennison
1931: 213).

III. Communal Violence

Moshe Yegar suggests that during the colonial period the anti-Indian riots broke out in Burma
because of the resentment against unhindered Indian settlements particularly in Arakan, Tenasserim and
Lower Burma (Yegar 1992:29-31). But those riots that took place in Rangoon and other major cities in
1926 and 1938 never had had any effects on the peoples of Arakan. A peaceful coexistence was possible
for the two different religious/ethnic groups in the Mayu Frontier till the beginning of the World War II.
At the beginning of colonial era the establishment of bureaucratic administration by the British repealed
the traditional patron-client relationship in the Arakanese villages. The elected village headman had little
influence on the elected village council. As John F. Cady wrote, the government policy of forbidding the
village headman to take part in the activities related to the nationalist movements weakened the position
of the headman as the leader of village community, and as well as his connection with the Buddhist
monastery because most of the Buddhist monks were vigorously active in the movements (Cady 1958:
172-273). On the other hand British administration to a certain extent gave the Muslim village
communities religious and cultural autonomy. Maung Nyo, a kyunok(headman of the village tract) of
Maungdaw Township recorded4 See Appendix I. According to the 1872 Census Muslims had already
formed 26.1 per cent of the population of Akyab, the capital city of Arakan Division. Also see Appendix
II. According to the 1881 Census 68,809 people of the population of Arakan Division that numbered
276,877 were born in Bengal. How the new comers from the Chittagong District set up their village
communities in the frontier area. They occupied the villages deserted by the Arakanese during the
Burmese rule and established purely Muslim village communities. The village committee authorized by
the Village Amendment Act of 1924 paved the way for the Imam (moulovi) and the trusteeship
committee members of the village mosque to be elected to the village council. They were also allowed to
act as the village magistrates and shariah was somewhat in effect in the Muslim villages (Charter
1938:34-38). At least the Islamic court of village had the jurisdiction over familial problems such as
marriage, inheritance and divorce. There was no internal sense of unrighteousness and presence of
nonbelievers in their community, and accordingly they believe no internecine struggle was for the time
being necessary.
However, the ethnic violence between Arakanese Buddhists and those Muslim Chittagonians
brought a great deal of bloodshed to Arakan during the World War II and after 1948, in the opening
decade of independent Burma. Some people of the Mayu Frontier in their early seventies and eighties
have still not forgotten the atrocities they suffered in 1942 and 1943 during the short period of anarchy
between the British evacuation and the Japanese occupation of the area. In this vacuum there was an
outburst of the tension of ethnic and religious cleavage that had been simmering for a century. One of the
underlying causes of the communal violence was the Zamindary System brought by the British from
Bengal. By this system the British administrators
granted the Bengali landowners thousands of acres of arable land on ninety-year-leases. The Arakanese
peasants who fled the Burmese rule and came home after British annexation were deprived of the land
that they formerly owned through inheritance. Nor did the Bengali zamindars (landowners) want the
Arakanese as tenants on their land. Thousands of Bengali peasants from Chittagong District were brought
to cultivate the soil (Report of the Settlement Operations in the Akyab District 1887-1888: 2, 21).
Most of the Bengali immigrants were influenced by the Farai-di movement in Bengal that
propagated the ideology of the Wahhabis of Arabia, which advocated settling ikhwan or brethren in
agricultural communities near to the places of water resources. The peasants, according to the teaching,
besides cultivating the land should be ready for waging a holy war upon the call by their lords (Rahman
1979: 200-204). In the Maungdaw Township alone, there were, in the 1910s, fifteen Bengali Zamindars
who brought thousands of Chittagonian tenants and established Agricultural Muslim communities,
building mosques with Islamic schools affiliated to them. However, all these villages occupied by the
Bengalis continued to be called by Arakanese names in the British records (Grantham and Lat 1956: 41-
43, 48-51). For the convenience of Chittagonians seasonal laborers the Arakan Flotilla Company
constructed a railway between Buthidaung and Maungdaw in 1914. Their plan was to connect Chittagong
by railway with Buthidaung, from where the Arakan Flotilla steamers were ferrying to Akyab and other
towns in central and southern Arakan.
In the period of the independence movement in Burma in 1920s and 1930s the Muslims from the
Mayu Frontier were more concerned with the progress of Muslim League in India, although some
prominent Burmese Muslims such as M.A. Rashid and U Razak played an important role in the
leadership of the Burmese nationalist movement. In 1931, the Simon Commission was appointed by the
British Parliament to enquire the opinion of Burmese people for the constitutional reforms and on the
matter of whether Burma should be separated from Indian Empire. The spokeman of the Muslim League
advocated for fair share of government jobs, ten percent representation in all public bodies, and especially
in Arakan the equal treatment for Muslims seeking agricultural and business loans (Cady 1958: 294).
In education, the Chittagonians were left behind the Arakanese throughout the colonial period.
According to the census of 1901 only 4.5 percent of the Bengali Muslims were found to be literate while
the percentage for the Arakanese was 25.5. Smart reported that it was due to the ignorance of the
advantages of the education among the Chittagonian agriculturists. Especially Buthidaung and Maungdaw
were reported to be most backward townships because the large Muslim population in that area mostly
agriculturalists showed little interest in education. In 1894 there were nine Urdur schools with 375
students in the whole district. The British provincial administration appointed a deputy inspector for
Muslim schools and in 1902 the number of schools rose to seventy-two and the students increased to
1,474 (Smart 1957: 207-209). Consequently, more Arakanese and Hindu Indians were involved in the
ancillary services of the colonial administration. Towards the middle of twentieth century a new educated
and politically conscious younger generation had superseded the older, inactive ones. Before the
beginning of the Second World War a political party, Jami-a-tul Ulema-e Islam was founded under the
guidance of the Islamic scholars. Islam became the ideological basis of the party (Khin Gyi Pyaw 1960:
Regarding the beginning of the ethnic violence in Arakan, Moshe Yegar wrote that when the
British administration was withdrawn to India in 1942 the Arakanese hoodlums began to attack the
Muslim villages in southern Arakan and the Muslims fled to the north where they took vengeance on the
Arakanese in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships (Yegar 1972:67). However, an Arakanese record
When the British administration collapsed by the Japanese occupation, the village headman of
Rak-chaung village in Myebon Township and his two younger brothers were killed by the kula (Muslim)
villagers. Although the headman was an Arakanese, some of the villagers were kulas. The two Arakanese
young men, Thein Gyaw Aung and Kyaw Ya, organized a group and attacked the kula villages and some
inhabitants were killed (Rakhine State People’s Council 1986:36).
It is certain that hundreds of Muslim inhabitants of Southern Arakan fled northward, and that
there were some cases of robbing the Indian refugees on the Padaung-Taungup pass over the Arakan
Yoma mountain ranges after the retreat of the British from the Pegu Division and southern Arakan. But
the news of killing, robbery and rape was exaggerated when it reached Burma India border (Ba Maw
1968: 78). The British left all these areas to the mercy of both Burmese and Arakanese dacoits. However,
N.R. Chakravati, an Indian scholar, gives a brief account of the flights of Indian refugees from the war
zone in the Irrawady valley across the Arakan Yoma.
Most of the estimated 900,000 Indians living in Burma attempted to walk over to India…100,000
died at the time… Practically all Indians except those who were not physically fit or were utterly helpless,
began to move from place to place in search of safety and protection until they could reach India
(Chakravarti 1971: 170).
The estimated number of Chakravarti includes all the Indian refugees from the whole Burma
proper excluding Arakan. The number of Chittagonian refugees put by Yegar was close to twentytwo
thousand (Yegar 1972: 98). However, the leaders of ANC (Arakan National Congress), formed in 1939
and that later becoming the Arakan branch of Anti-Fascist Organization (AFO) formed a de-facto
government, before the Japanese troops and Burma Independence Army (BIA) reached there. The ANC
announced that anybody or any organization looting or killing the refugees would be brought before the
justice and would be severely punished (New Burma Daily 1942: May 28). The Japanese air force
attacked Akyab on 23 March 1942 and the British moved their administrative headquarter to India on
March 30. The administration by martial law began in Akyab District on 13 April 1942 and with this
racial tension burst to the surface, giving way to the public disorder (Owen 1946: 26).
For all the bloody communal violence experienced by the Arakanese Buddhists in the Western
frontier, I feel strongly that it is reasonable to blame the British colonial administration for arming the
Chittagonians in the Mayu Frontier as the Volunteer Force. The V Force, as it is called by the British
Army, was formed in 1942 soon after the Japanese operations threatened the British position in India. Its
principal role was to undertake guerrilla operations against Japanese, to collect information of the
enemy’s movements and to act as interpreters. But the British Army Liaison Officer, Anthony Irwin
wrote that the participation of the local V Forces in the skirmishes with the Japanese in Arakan was
discredited by the British commanders (Irwin 1946: 7-8, 16).
The volunteers, instead of fighting the Japanese, destroyed Buddhist monasteries and Pagodas and
burnt down the houses in the Arakanese villages. They first killed U Kyaw Khine, the deputy
commissioner of Akyab District, left behind by the British government to maintain law and order in the
frontier area; they then massacred thousands of Arakanese civilians in the towns and villages. A record of
the Secretary of British governor of Burma in exile dated 4 February 1943 reads:
I have been told harrowing tales of cruelty and suffering inflicted on the Arakanese villages in the
Ratheedaung area. Most of the villages on the West bank of the Mayu River have been burnt and
destroyed by the Chittagonian V forces…. The enemy never came to these villages. They had the
misfortune of being in the way of our advancing patrols. Hundreds of villagers are said to be hiding in the
hills… It will be the Arakanese who will be ousted from their ancestral land and if they cannot be won
over in time, then there can be no hope of their salvation (British Library, London, India Office Records
R/8/9GS. 4243).
After the Japanese occupation of Akyab (Sittwe), Bo Yan Aung, the member of the Thirty
Comrades and commander of a BIA column, set up the administrative body in Akyab District and
attempted to cease the violence in the frontier area. Bo Yan Aung
discussed the matter with both Arakanese and Muslim leaders. He sent his two lieutenants, Bo Yan
Naung and Bo Myo Nyunt to Maungdaw to negotiate with the radical Muslim leaders. They tried to
persuade the Muslims to join in anti-imperialist and nationalist movement. But both of them were killed
in Maungdaw and Bo Yan Aung was called back to Rangoon by the BIA headquarters (Rakhine State
People’s Council 1986: 40-42).
For most of the Chittagonians it was a religious issue that would necessarily lead to the creation of
a Dah-rul-Islam, or at least to being united with their brethren in the west. It also aimed at the extirpation
of the Arakanese or being forced them to migrate to the south where there were overwhelming majority of
Arakanese Buddhists. The events during the war contributed the Chittagonians’ fervent sense of
alienation from the heterogeneous community of the Arakan. Anthony Irwin called the whole area a “No
Man’s Land” during the three years of Japanese occupation (Irwin 1946:27). Irwin explained how the
ethnic violence divided the Arakan State between Arakanese and Chittagonians:
As the area then occupied by us was almost entirely Mussulman Country … (from) that we drew
most of our “Scouts” and Agents. The Arakan before the war had been occupied over its entire lenghth by
both Mussulman and Maugh (Arakanese). Then in 1941 the two sects set to and fought. The result of this
war was roughly that the Maugh took over the southern half of the country and the Mussulman the North.
Whilst it lasted it was a pretty bloody affairs…My present gun boy a Mussulman who lived near to
Buthidaung, claims to have killed two hundred Maughs (Arakanese) (Irwin 1946: 21).
In the words of the historian, Clive J. Christie, the “ethnic cleansing in British controlled areas,
particularly around the town of Maungdaw,” was occurring till the arrival of Japanese troops to the
eastern bank of Naaf River (Christie 1996: 165). The British forces began to take offensive in the warfare
against the Japanese in northern Arakan in December 1944. The Arakanese troops of AFO maintained
law and order in the areas from which Japanese forces withdrew. Of course there were some prominent
Arakanese guerrilla leaders who cooperated with the Japanese during the war. British Battalion 65
occupied Akyab, the capital city of Arakan on 12 December 1944. As soon as Akyab was captured the
British Army began arresting the Arakanese guerrilla leaders. U Ni, a leader of AFO in Akyab was
accused of one hundred and fifty-two criminal offenses and sentenced to forty-two years in prison.
Another leader, U Inga was condemned to death by hanging five times, as well as forty-two-year
imprisonment. Consequently many guerrilla fighters escaped into hideouts in the forests (Myanmaralin
Daily 25 September 1945). On the contrary, Anthony Irwin praised the Chittagonian V Forces as
It is these minorities that have most helped us in throughout the three years of constant fighting and
occupation and it is these minorities who are most likely to be forgotten in the rush of Government. They
must not be. It is the duty of all of us, for whom they fought, to see this (Irwin 1946: 86).
During the early post-war years both Arakanese and Bengali Muslims in the Mayu Frontier looked
at each other with distrust. As the British Labor Government promised independence for Burma, some
Muslims were haunted by the specter of their future living under the infidel rule in the place where the
baneful Arakanese are also living. In 1946 a delegation was sent by the Jami-atul Ulema-e Islam to
Karachi to discuss with the leaders of the Muslim League the possibility of incorporation of Buthidaung,
Maungdaw and Ratheedaung townships into Pakistan, but the British ignored their proposal to detach the
frontier area to award it to Pakistan. The failure of their attempts ended in an armed revolt, with some
Muslims, declaring a holy war on the new republic. The rebels called themselves “Mujahid.” A guerrilla
army of 2700 fighters was organized (Khin Gyi Pyaw 1960: 99; The Nation Daily 1953: April16).
In fact the Arakanese were well on their way to rebellion. Under the leadership of two prominent
and politically active Buddhist monks, U Pinnyathiha and U Seinda, a guerrilla force of four hundred to
five hundred men was raised and assisted the Japanese in occupying the northern Arakan. U Pinnyathiha
even announced that the Japanese government had agreed to his proposal for a separate Arakanese unit of
Burma Independence Army. Later his force was known as the Arakan Defense Force,
under the command of Kra Hla Aung, the protégé of U Pinnyathiha. Later two monks became leaders of
Arakan Branch of AFO (Anti-Fascist Organization), turning their guns on the Japanese. At the middle of
1944 they were supported by the British with certain amount of arms to fight the Japanese. Brigadier
Richard Gordon Prescott, Deputy Director of Civil Affairs reported to the governor:
As result of arming certain members of AFO under the leadership of U Pinnyathiha and Kra Hla Aung,
the AFO (in Arakan) are endeavoring to set up a parallel government to that of the British Administration
and in fact repeating their modus operandi at the time of Japanese invasion of Arakan (British Library,
London, India Office Record M/2500).
In the meantime the AFO changed its name to AFPFL (Anti-Fascist and People’s Freedom
League) with U Aung San, the ultimate hero of the Burmese independence movement, as its leader. When
the AFPFL accepted the proposal of the governor of Burma to join the Executive Council, U Pinnyathiha
remained as the AFPFL leader in Arakan while U Seinda was actively preparing a revolt. U Sein Da’s
group was acting as a local government, controlling a number of villages in the Myebon township of
Kyaukpyu District and Minbya township of Akyab District. The fact of the matter was that U Seinda was
persuaded by the radical communists of Thakhin Soe’s faction of the Communist Party of Burma to
choose the way to independence by violence (British Library, London, India Office Records M/4/2500).
When the Aung San-Attlee Agreement was signed, U Seinda denounced it publicly. An All
Arakan Conference was held in Myebon on 1 April 1947 and about ten thousand people from all parties
in Arakan attended. U Aung San was openly assailed to his face as an opportunist by some people
attending the conference, using rebellious slogans (British Library, London, India Office Records
M/4/PRO: WO 203/5262). U Seinda with the communists behind him moved forward to the rebellion.
Actually, Thakhin Soe’s Red Flag Communists took advantage of the misunderstanding between U
Seinda and AFPFL. It was in fact an ideological struggle in the AFPFL, the national united front of
Burma that was under the leadership of the charismatic leader U Aung San. On the other side some
Arakanese intellectuals led by U Hla Tun Pru, a Barrister-at-Law, held a meeting in Rangoon and
demanded the formation of “Arakanistan” for the Arakanese people (British Library, London, India
Office Records, M/4/2503). All these movements of the Arakanese might have alarmed Muslims from the
Mayu Frontier. In the wake of independence most of the educated Muslims felt an overwhelming sense of
collective identity based on Islam as their religion and the cultural and ethnic difference of their
community from the Burmese and Arakanese Buddhists. At the same time the Arakanese became more
and more concerned with their racial security and ethnic survival in view of the increasingly predominant
Muslim population in their frontier.
The ethnic conflict in the rural areas of the Mayu frontier revived soon after Burma celebrated
independence on 4 January 1948. Rising in the guise of Jihad, many Muslim clerics (Moulovis) playing a
leading role, in the countryside and remote areas gave way to banditary, arson and rapes. Moshe Yeagar
wrote that one of the major reasons of Mujahid rebellion was that the Muslims who fled Japanese
occupation were not allowed to resettle in their villages (Yegar 1972:98). In fact, there were more than
two hundred Arakanese villages in Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships before the war began. In the
post-war years only sixty villages were favorable for the Arakanese resettlement. Out of these sixty, forty-
four villages were raided by the Mujahids in the first couple of years of independence. Thousands of
Arakanese villagers sought refuge in the towns and many of their villages were occupied by the
Chittagonian Bengalis (Rakhine State People’s Council 1986:58-60).
The Mujahid uprising began two years before the independence was declared. In March 1946 the
Muslim Liberation Organization (MLO) was formed with Zaffar Kawal, a native of Chittagong District,
as the leader. A conference was held in May 1948 in Garabyin Village north to Maungdaw and the name
of the organization was changed to “Mujahid Party.” Some Chittagonian Bengalis from nearby villages
brought the weapons they had collected during the wartime to the mosques in Fakir Bazaar Village and
Shahbi Bazaar Village (Department of Defense Service Archives, Rangoon, DR 491 (56)). Jaffar Kawal
became the commander in chief and his lieutenant was Abdul Husein, formerly a corporal from the
Akyab District police force (Department of Defense Service Archives, Rangoon, DR 1016). The Mujahid
Party sent a letter written in Urdur and dated 9 June 1948 to the government of Union of Burma through
the sub-divisional officer of Maungdaw Township. Their demands are as follows (Department of Defence
Service Archives, Rangoon: CD 1016/10/11):
The area between the West Bank of Kaladan River and the east bank of Naaf River must be recognized as
the National Home of the Muslims in Burma.
(2) The Muslims in Arakan must be accepted as the nationalities of Burma.
(3) The Mujahid Party must be granted a legal status as a political organization.
(4) The Urdur Language must be acknowledged as the national language of the Muslims in Arakan and be
taught in the schools in the Muslim areas.
(5) The refugees from the Kyauktaw and Myohaung (Mrauk-U) Townships must be resettled in their
villages at the expense of the state.
(6) The Muslims under detention by the Emergency Security Act must be unconditionally released.
(7) A general amnesty must be granted for the members of the Mujahid Party.
Calling themselves “the Muslims of Arakan” and “the Urdur” as their national language indicated
their inclination towards the sense of collective identity that the Muslims of Indian subcontinent showed
before the partition of India into two independent states. When the demands were ignored the Mujahids
destroyed all the Arakanese villages in the northern part of Maungdaw Township. On 19 July 1948 they
attacked Ngapruchaung and near by Villages in Maungdaw Township and some
villagers and Buddhist monks were kidnapped for ransoms (Department of Defense Service Archives,
Rangoon: CD 1016/10/11). On 15 and 16 June 1951 All Arakan Muslim Conference was held in
Alethangyaw Village, and “The Charter of the Constitutional Demands of the Arakani Muslims” was
published. It calls for “the balance of power between the Muslims and the Maghs (Arakanese), two major
races of Arakan.” The demand of the charter reads:
North Arakan should be immediately formed a free Muslim State as equal constituent Member of
the Union of Burma like the Shan State, the Karenni State, the Chin Hills, and the Kachin Zone with its
own Militia, Police and Security Forces under the General Command of the Union (Department of the
Defense Service Archives, Rangoon: DR 1016/10/13).
Here it is again noticeable that in the charter these peoples are mentioned as the Muslims of
Arakan. The word “Rohingya” was first pronounced by the Mr Abdul Gaffar, an MP from Buthidaung, in
his article “The Sudeten Muslims,” published in the Guardian Daily on 20 August 1951.
However, the new democracy in the independent Burma induced some Muslim leaders to remain
loyal to the state. The free and fair elections were held and four Muslims were elected to the legislature
from Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships. Meanwhile the Mujahid insurgency threw the frontier area
into turmoil for a decade. During his campaign for the 1960 elections, Burmese Prime Minister U Nu who
succeeded U Aung San after the independence hero was assassinated, promised the statehood for
Arakanese and Mon peoples. When he came to the office after a landslide victory the plans for the
formation of the Arakan and Mon states were affected. Naturally the Muslim members of parliament from
Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships denounced the plan and called for the establishment of a
Rohingya State.
General Ne Win took power in a coup d’etat in 1962, and almost all the Rohingya movement
went underground. The first step of Ne Win’s Burmese Way to Socialism was the nationalization of the
private enterprises in 1964. The plan was clearly aimed at the transfer of private assets owned by the
Indian and Chinese entrepreneurs into state ownership in the form of the public corporations. Most of the
Indian and Pakistani businesspeople, living in the major cities of Burma, left Burma. In the two years
following the decision to nationalize the retail trade, some 100,000 Indians and some twelve thousand
Pakistanis left Burma for their homeland. The flow of Indians returning to India as a result of these
policies began in 1964 (Donison 1970: 199-200). But the Muslim agriculturists from Northern Arakan,
most of them, holding the national registration cards issued by the Department of National Registration in
the post-war decade, were not concerned with the event and remained in the frontier areas till the
Citizenship Law of 1982 was enforced in 1987.
In 1973, Ne Win’s Revolutionary Council sought public opinion for drafting anew constitution.
The Muslims from the Mayu Frontier submitted a proposal to the Constitution Commission for the
creation of separate Muslim State or at least a division for them (Kyaw Zan Tha 1995:6). Their proposal
was again turned down. When elections were held under the 1974 Constitution the Bengali Muslims from
the Mayu Frontier Area were denied the right to elect their representatives to the “Pyithu Hlut-taw”
(People’s Congress). After the end of the Independence War in Bangladesh some arms and ammunitions
flowed into the hands of the young Muslim leaders from Mayu Frontier. On 15 July 1972 a congress of
all Rohingya parties was held at the Bangladeshi border to call for the “Rohingya National Liberation”
(Mya Win 1992: 3).
Burma’s successive military regimes persisted in the same policy of denying Burmese citizenship
to most Bengalis, especially in the frontier area. They stubbornly grasped the 1982 Citizenship Law that
allowed only the ethnic groups who had lived in Burma before the First Anglo-Burmese War began in
1824 as the citizens of the country. By this law those Muslims had been treated as aliens in the land they
have inhabited for more than a century. According to the 1983 census report all Muslims in Arakan
constituted 24.3 percent and they all were categorized as Bangladeshi, while the Arakanese Buddhists
formed 67.8 percent of the population of the Arakan (Rakhine) State (Immigration and Manpower
Department 1987:I-14).
In the abortive 1988 Democracy Uprising, those Muslims again became active, hoisting the
Rohingya banner. Subsequently when the military junta allowed the registration of the political parties
they asked for their parties to be recognized under the name “Rohingya.” Their demand was turned down
and some of them changed tactics and formed a party, the National Democratic Party for Human rights
(NDPHR) that won in four constituencies in 1990 elections as eleven candidates of the Arakan League for
Democracy (ALD) were elected to the legislature. However, the Elections Commission abolished both the
ALD and the NDPHR in 1991. Some of the party members went underground and into exile. Recently,
the main objectives of the movement of some groups have been to gain the recognition of their ethnic
entity in the Union of Burma and to obtain the equal status enjoyed by other ethnic groups. But some
elements have adopted the radical idea of founding a separate Muslim state. The following are the
Rohingya organizations currently active on the Burma-Bangladesh border (Mya Win 1992: 3):
1. RSO (Rohingya Solidarity Organization)
2. ARIF (Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front)
3. RPF (Rohingya Patriotic Front)
4. RLO (Rohingya Liberation Organization)
5. IMA (Itihadul Mozahadin of Arakan)

IV. Conclusion
After Burma gained independence, a concentration of nearly ninety percent of the area’s
population, the distinguishing characteristics of their own culture and the Islamic faith formed an ethnic
and religious minority group in the western fringe of the republic. For successive generations their
ethnicity and Islam have been practically not distinguishable. At the beginning they adopted the policy of
irredentism in favor of joining East Pakistan with the slogan, “Pakistan Jindabad,” (Victory to Pakistan).
This policy faded away when they could not gain support from the government of Pakistan. Later they
began to call for the establishment of an autonomous region instead. Pakistan’s attitude toward the
Muslims in Arakan was different from the Islamabad’s policy toward Kashmiris. During the
Independence War in Bangladesh most of the Muslims in Arakan supported West Pakistan. After
Bangladesh gained independence Dhaka followed the policy of disowning those Chittagonians.
Consequently they had to insist firmly on their identity as Rohingyas. Their leaders began to complain
that the term “Chittagonian Bengali” had arbitrarily been applied to them. But the majority of the ethnic
group, being illiterate agriculturalists in the rural areas, still prefers their identity as Bengali Muslims.
Although they have showed the collective political interest for more than five decades since
Burma gained independence, their political and cultural rights have not so far been recognized and
guaranteed. On the contrary the demand for the recognition of their rights sounds a direct challenge to the
right of autonomy and the myth of survival for the Arakanese majority in their homeland. A symbiotic
coexistence has so far been inconceivable because of the political climate of mistrust and fear between the
two races and the policy of the military junta. The Muslims from the other parts of Arakan kept
themselves aloof from the Rohingya cause as well. Thus the cause of Rohingyas finds a little support
outside their own community, and their claims of an earlier historical tie to Burma are insupportable.

Dr. Aye Chan

Appendix I

British Burma Census of 1872

(Akyab Town)
Group Male Female Total
Hindu 1,884 28 1,911
Mohomendan 3,516 1,502 5,018
Buddhist 5,892 5,627 11,519
Christian 216 109 325
Others 387 70 457
Grand Total 11,895 7,335 19,230

(Department of Revenue, Agriculture and Commerce 1875, 42)

Appendix II
The Statement Showing the Distribution of People According to
their Birth Places British Burma Census of 1881
(Arakan Division)
Birth Place Male Female Total
Akyab Dist. 144,746 132,131 276,877
Bassein 721 518 1,239
Hanthawaddy 178 157 335
Henzada 230 232 471
Kyauk Pyu 79,487 79,180 158,667
Mergui 3 2 5
Moulmein town 24 23 47
North Arakan 7,138 6,853 13,991
Prome 805 628 1,433
Rangoon Town 112 75 187
Sandoway 27,410 27,363 54,773
Shway Gyin 1 4 5
Tavoy 17 1 18
Tharawaddy 4 9 13
Thayetmyo 704 599 1,303
Thone Gwa 6 5 11
Toungoo 9 3 12
Assam 8 8
Bengal 49,374 19,435 68,809
Bombay 5 3 8
Central 2 1 3
Diu 27 27
Goa 5 5
Madras 1,823 31 1,854
Nepal 49 10 59
N-Western Provices 246 14 260
Oudh 2 2
Punjab 63 6 69
Afganistan 4 4
Arabia 3 3

(1881-British Burma Census. Appendix LXXVIII)

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Records of Arakan State) A type-written Manuscript for circulation. Akyab (Sittwe).
(14) Rahman, Fazlur.1979. Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(15) Razzaq, Abdur & Haque, Mahfuzul. 1995. A Tale of Refugees: Rohingyas in Bangladesh. Dhaka:
Center for Human Rights.
(16) Yeagar, Moshe.1972. The Muslims of Burma: A Study of Minority Group. Wiesbaden.
&cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f odk@0ifa&mufvm=uaom
b*FgvrD q
l vifrsm;ESiyfh wfoufonfh


ed'ge;f 1?
"&d[ k if*sm"qdo k nfh pum;vH;k udk 'kw, d urBmppf}uD;rwdik rf u D vH;k 0r=um;zl;=uyg? =um;zl;
&efvnf; ta=umif;r&SdeKd ifyg? tb,fa=umifq h dkaomf jrefrmedKifi(H odk@r[kw-f
twdtusajym &vsiS f ,cif&cdik w f idk ;f / ,ck&cdik jf ynfe,fwiG f rSw D if;aexdik =f uaom
vlrsKd ;pkrsm;txJwiG f "&dk[if*sm"[laom vlrsKd ;r&SI d jzpfygonf? xdk@a=umifh r&Sad omvlrsKd ;udk
t"dy`g,zf iG qfh cdk suf rsm;udv k nf; tjiif;yGm;&efrvdyk g?
2? Tae&mwGif tvsO;f oifI h pma&;ol.ud, k af wG@tawG@t=uHKw&yfudk wifjyvdyk gonf?
pma&;olonf 'kw k ,d urBmppf=uD;jyD;qH;k jyD;aemuf 1953 ckEpS w f iG f ppfawGc&dik u
f dk yxrqH;k
t=udrf oef;acgipf m&if;aumuf,&l ef wm0ef,&l onfh oef;acgi;f pm&if; t&m&Sjd zpfygonf?
xdpk Ofu ppfawGc&dik 0f efrmS OD;OD;ausmZf H (aemifwiG f BPI OD;ausmZf [ H k emrnfausm=f um;ol jzpf
ygonf? c&dik t f &m&Srd mS OD;pHa&$jzpfygonf? useG af wmfEiS t fh wl useG af wmf.vufaxmufEpS Of ;D
jzpfaom OD;OD;cifarmifEiS fh OD;OD;ausmaf Zmwdk@onf c&dik af jrp&if;&H;k wGif &H;k zGiI fh
oef;acgipf m&if; aumuf,al &; atmifjrifrt _ wGuf c&dik 0f ef OD;OD;ausmZf EH iS fh
c&dik af jrpm&if;t&m&Sd OD;pHa&$wdk@. teD;uyfvrf;n$erf u _ cdk ,
H v l #uf tppt&m&mudk
wufnv D ufnD aqmif&u G cf yJh gonf?
3? xdpk Oftcg &H;k zGicfh sed f ae@widk ;f vdvk rdk mS ppfawG&Sd rlqvifuv k m;rsm;onf &H;k odk@p&k ;Hk a&muf&dS
vm=ujyD; vlO;D a&oef;acgipf m&if; aumuf,&l mwGif 4if;wdk@udk vlrsKd ;ae&mY "&cdik rf q l vif"
[lI4if;/ "&d[ k if*sm" [lI4if;/ xnf@oiG ;f ay;yg&ef awmif;qdv k m=uygonf? wm0ef&dS
oef;acgif pm&if;t&m&Sw d OD;taeESifh Census Code wGif Tpum;rsm;oH;k &ef ryg&I Sd
vufcI H r&a=umif; &Si;f jyaomfvnf;r&bJ ae@pOfvv dk ydk if &H;k odk@vma&muf taESmuft,Suf
ay;ae=uygonf? jrefrmedik if w H iG f oef;acgi;f pm&if;udk (1931) ckEpS u f aemufqHk;
aumufc&H mwGiv f nf; rlqvif ukvm;rsm;ESifh ygwo f ufI tcuftcJrsm;&Sad =umif;
avhvmod&&Sd m useG af wmft h aeESifh tusKd ; ta=umif; tjzpftysurf sm;udk
oef;acgipf m&if;rif;}uD;xHodk@ tpD&ifcw H ifjycJyh gonf? oef;acgif pm&if;rif;=uD;u
oef;acgipf m&if;aumufcrH _ atmifjrifa&;udk a&S;&_I tqdyk gupd EP iS yfh wfoufjyD;
4if;wdk@ajymqdo k nfth wdik ;f vufcx H nfo h iG ;f xm;&eftjyif xdo k dk@xnfo h iG ;f xm;jcif;udk
oD;jcm; rSwo f m;xm;&ef n$e=f um;vmojzifh 4if;n$e=f um;csut f wdik ;f vdu k ef mI
aqmif&u G cf yJh gonf?
4? Tae&mrSm ppfawGjrdK@e,fwiG f awG@&&Sd aomtawG@t=uHKwpfcu k dk wifjyvdyk gonf?
ppfawG taemufzuf yifv,furf;em;wGif Sultan Mahmood ydik f (oef@&iS ;f
tpd;k &vufxufwiG f use;f rma&;0ef}uD;jzpfco Jh )l tke;f jcHwjcH&ySd gonf? xdak e&mwGif
rlqvifuv k m;rsm; tpdik t f cJEiS fh aeae=uonfomru wzufeidk if rH b S kwrf sm;/
pufavSrsm;jzifh tvG,w f ul 0ifxu G o f mG ;vm edik af omae&mjzpfovdk 4if;ae&modk@
rnfonft h pd;k &0efxrf;r# 0ifa&mufppfaq;edik &f ef rpGr;f aomae&m jzpfygonf? rdrw d @kd vnf;
0ifa&mufeKd ifcjJh cif;r&Syd g?
5? (1953) ckEpS /f ppfawGc&dik f oef;acgipf m&if;udk ausmufawmfjrdK@e,frt S y
usejf rdK@e,frsm;wGif oef;acgipf m&if; aumuf,&l rnfjh zpfonft h av#muf
bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@odk@vnf; oGm;cJ&h ygonf? TjrdK@e,frsm;wGiaf wG@&aom
tawG@t=uHKrSm wzufeKd ifib H *FgvrD sKd ;EG,f (&cdik f pum;[lI rajymwwforl sm;)wdk@.
vSyk &f mS ;rlrsm;rSm "*s *sarwl tlvrm"[l
vrm aom bmoma&; toif;uOD;aqmifI
AvDrsm;udt k ajcjyKum trsKd ;rsKd ;vSyk &f mS ;aeonfuadk wG@&ygonf oef;acgif
pm&if;aumuf,&l mwGif tultnDay;&ef[k ta=umif;jyI Enumerator 0efxrf;wOD;udk
ukvm;av;(2)OD;rS(4)OD;txdwI GJ xnfah y;&ef/ xdk *sarwl tlavrm toif;u pdik ;f jyif;ae
=ujcif;udk awG@&ygonf? ta=umif;aomfum; oef;acgipf m&if;yHpk &H Sd vlrsKd ;ae&mwGif
"&cdik rf q l vif"odk@r[kwf "&d[ k if*sm"[lI xnfo h iG ;f az:jyap&ef twGuyf if jzpfygonf?
6// bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmwGif tawG@t=uHKaemufw&yfrmS um; blo;D awmifwiG f
usaemf wnf;cdak omae&mrSm useG af wmf.todtusrG ;f jzpfol vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;t&m&Sd
tdrrf mS wnf;cdk cJo h nf// 4if;xHro S &d onfrmS wzufeidk if rH rS q l vifrsm;udk bl;oD;awmif/
armif;awmodk@ 'va[m vufco H iG ;f ,lae=uonfomru ukvm;ol=uD;wOD;.
axmufccH suyf gv#iyf if jrefrm edik if o H m;tvG,w f uljzpfomG ;um
rJay;edik cf iG yfh if&v Sd ma=umif; qdo k nfu=dk um;&&m useG af wmf taejzifh
vGepf mG pdwrf aumif;jzpfomG ;ojzifh useG af wmfu bmjzpfvdk@ 'Dvv dk yk =f u&ovJ[k ar; &m
4if;u "rif;i,fygao;w,fumG / rif;bmrSrodygb;l " qdv k mojzifh useG af wmfvnf; quf
rajymawmhbJ pdwrf aumif;pGmESiyfh if jidraf evdu k yf gawmhonf// bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awm.
jrifuiG ;f um; ydI k pdwrf aumif;p&myifjzpfygonf// &cdik [ f I l rawG@&oavmuf jzpfaejyDjzpfjyD;/
&cdik pf um;/ jrefrmpum;yif rajymwwf=uaom rkwq f w d zf m;zm;ESifh
b*Fgvu D v k m;rsm;udo k m ae&mwdik ;f rSm awG@ae&ygaoma=umifh jzpfygonf// (TuJo h d@k aom
b*Fgvu D v k m;rsKd ;udk ordik ;f ynm&Sit f csKd @u ESpaf ygi;f (8000-1000) avmufuyif
&cdik wf iG af &muf&aSd eolrsm;[k qdak ejcif; rSm vGepf mG yif tH=h obG,&f myif jzpfygonf//
7? oef;acgipf m&if;aumuf,o l nfu
h mv (5)v ukeq f ;Hk I oef;acgipf m&if;
&efuek &f ;Hk csKyfodk@jyef a&mufcsed rf mS oef;acgipf m&if;rif;=uD; OD;ausmcf idk (f IC.S., Retd:.)u
txufazmfjyyg tjzpf tysuEf iS yfh wfoufI pHpk rf;ppfaq;r_w&yf jyKvky&f efEiS t fh pD&ifc&H ef
wm0efqufvufay;csuf t& ppfawGjrdK@odk@jyefomG ;I pHpk rf;ppfaq;r_rsm;udk
jyKvkycf jJh yD;aemuf tpD&ifcpH mwapmifudk a&;om;wifjycJyh gonf?
8? (1954)ckEpS t f pwGif useG af wmfonf jrefrmedik if 0H efxrf;t}uD;wef; (B.C.S.,Sr.Br.) t&m&Sd
tjzpf a&G;cs,cf &H I ppfuidk ;f wdik ;f odk@ tvkyo f if&ef ydk@vw $ cf o
Jh jzifh useG af wmf.
tpD&ifcpH mESifh ywfoufjyD; rodc&Jh awmhyg? Parliament odk@ tpD&ifcH wifjycJ&h onf[I l om
rdwaf qG oef;acgif pm&if; t&m&Srd sm;u ajymjycsut f &od&ygawmhonf?

&cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f odk@ 0ifa&mufvm=uaom

b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;ESiyfh wfoufI jyefajymif;avhvmwifjycsu?f
9? rlqvifrsm;.tqdk "&d[ k if*sm"[laomta=umif;udk a&;om;wifjyolrsm;onf British
Gazetteer Voll:ll and Burma Gazetteer Akyab District Vol(A) by R.B Smart . pmom; udk
&nfneG ;f ud;k um;I pwifa&;om;=uonfudk awG@&ygonf? 1960 ckEpS f arvxkwf The
Guardian Burma's National Magazine wGif jrefrmedi k if o
H m; rlqvifpma&;olwOD;u "Roewengyas
in Arakan" acgi;f pOfjzifh aqmif;yg;wapmif a&;om;&mwGiv f nf; "about 788 A.D Mahataing
Chandra ascended the throne of Wethali founded a new city on the state of the old Ramawady and died
after a reign of twenty two years. During this reign several merchant ships were wrecked on Ramree
Island and the crews, said to have been Muslin called Arabs or Moors, were sent to Arakan proper that is,
Wethali and settled in villages."
10? 4if;pma&;olu qufvufa&;om;onfrmS "They intermarried and intermixed with the
indigenous races who claimed their religion and become Muslims." They built Mosques and started
missionary works. Islam became powerful in Arakan since then".
11? ppfawG Ggazetteer udak &;om;ol R.B Smart rSm tkycf sKyfa&;orm;wOD; jzpfovdk 4if;.
aemifawmfq&m=uD; Lieut-General Sir Arthur P.Phayre rSm ppfAv dk t f yk cf sKyfa&;orm; wOD;
jzpfygonf? a0omvDacwfudk xlaxmifaom t[mwdik ;f pjEN. pwifouF&mZfEiS fh
eef;oufudk at'D(788) [kzefw;D owfrw S cf o
Jh rl mS ,if;yk*K~ v d =f uD;yifjzpfygonf? (Phayre .
aumif;rla=umifh ,ae@widk f &cdik &f mZ0if c&pfouU&mZf owfrw S cf surf mS
12? TuJo h dk@jzpfay:vm&onft h a=umif;udk aemufqufw(GJ u)wGi&f yl g? pifppf
a0omvDacwf udk pwifcaJh omtcsed rf mS (8)&mpkr[kwb f J (4) &mpkom jzpfygonf? Phayre
taejzifh &cdik f &mZ0ifudk a&;om;azmfjyonf(h 1883) ck tcsed t f cgu a0omvDacwfukd
Z,m;(3)ckjzifh azmfjy xm;onfh tmeENpjENausmufpmudk od&ySd rHk &ao;yg?
13? useG yfk w f dk@avhvmcsut f &/ &cdik &f mZ0ifyg a0omvDrif;qufEiS fh ausmufpmyg a0omvD
rif;qufwdk@rmS wjcm;pDr[kwb f J twlwyl ifjzpfa=umif; odvm&&m/
a0omvDausmufavSum; udk pwifwnfaxmifco Jh rl mS r[mwdik ;f pjEN(ac:)'Gi;f pjENjzpfjyD;
pwifcsed rf mS (4)&mpkjzpfygonf?
14? R.B Smart ajymvdo k nfo h abmrSm/ tqdyk goabFmysuI f a&mufvmonft h csed rf mS
a0omvDudk pwifwnfaxmifonfh tcsed t f jzpf ajymqkv d jdk cif;jzpf&m Todk@omqdyk gv#if
(4)&m pkuyif jzpfygrnf?
15// wrefawmf rk[ d rRm'fonf c&pfouU&mZf (571) ckEpS /f {jyDv (20) &uf/ tma&Asjynf
ruUmjrdK@Y zGm;jrifco Jh nf[k jrefrmhp, G pf ukH sr;f twG(J 9)/ pmrsuEf mS (132)wGizf wf&&_ &m
a0omvD pwifcsed x f uf (2)&mpkcef@ aemufusaeao;onfukd awG@&onft h wGuf
wrefawmf r[mrRm'f rarG;rD ESpaf ygi;f (200)cefhuyif &ckid o f dk@ rlqvifbmom
=udKwifa&mufEiS jfh yD; oabmrsK;d jzpfaeygonf// ,kww Wd ef. rwef.ukd
pm&_ow l dk@csicfh sed =f unfjh cif;tm;jzifh xkpd ma&;olrmS qifjcif rJjh yD; rlqvifeidl if jH zpfvo dk nfh
qENapmvsu&f o Sd nfukd od&eSd ikd yf gonf//
16// TuJo h kd rh [kwrf [wfvSkH ah qmfra_ =umifh R.S.O, A.R.I.F, R.P.F, R.L.O, I.M.A ponfh
w&m;r0iftoif;rsm; ay:ayguv f mcJjh yD;ESpaf ygi;f (2500)ausmu f yif Ak'bmomukd
txGwt f jrwfxm;I ,k=H unfu;kd uG,v f mcJ=h uaom &ckid jf ynf/ trsK;d oDvESpXf geukd
apmifx h rd ;f &kad ocJh aom &ckid v f rl sK;d ESifh &ckid jf ynfe,fonf tpGe;f a&mufbmoma&;
t,lo;D wcsKd @wdk@ opPmrJph mG ordik ;f trSeu f adk jymif;jyefveS I f a&;om;r_a=umifh
edik if o
H m;r[kwo f rl sm;ESifh {nfeh idk if o
H m;rsm;u yl;aygi;f &efjzpfvmjyD;
[efa&;jyvm=uonftxd jzpfvmonfuadk wG@&ygonf? Tjy\em onf bl;oD;awmif/
armif;awm/ ppfawG ponfh &cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f Yom &yfaernfum;r[kwyf g?
&cdik &f ;dk rudak usmI
f &Sr;f jynfe,f/ ucsijf ynfe,f/ u&ifjynfe,f/ u,m;jynfe,f/
rGejf ynfe,fomru w&kwjf ynf,el efe,fpyf/ ,d;k ',m;e,fpyftxd xd;k azmufI
a&mufae=u ayjyD? Ak'b < mom/ &cdik tf rsKd ;orD;rsm;ESifh b*Fvu
D v k m;rsm; intermarriage
jyKrlrsm; ,ae@txd r&So d avmuf[k qdek idk af omfvnf; A[kow k enf;yg;aom
tcsKd @&rS ;f trsKd ;orD;rsm;/ ucsit
f rsKd ; orD;rsm;/ u&iftrsKd ;orD;rsm;u
b*FgvrD q l vifuv k m;rsm;udk &cdik v
f rl sKd ;txifjzifv
h ufcH aygi;f zufae=uum rlqvifO;D a&udk
vsijf refpmG jyef@ymG ;v#uf&aSd e=ua=umif;udk odvm&I txl; yif pd;k &drzf G,&f mjzpfygawmhonf?
TZmwfvrf;jzpfay:vmyHu k dk wifjy&rnfqydk gv#if &cdik o
f rdik ;f tpuyif pwifro S mjzpfygvrd hf
rnf? xdk@a}umifh pm&So
l rl sm; oabmayguv f , G af tmif tydik ;f (5)ydik ;f cGI
J tusO;f wifjyvdyk g

tydik ;f (11)
ajrmufO;D rwdik rf ED iS fh ajrmufO;D acwf &cdik jf ynf
17? ,ae@&cdik jf ynfe,fonf jrefrmedik if . H taemufzuf&Sd &cdik &f ;dk rawmifwef;ESifh b*Fvm;
yifv,fatmft=um; urf;ajrmifa'ojzpfygonf? &cdik jf ynfe,fajrmufyidk ;f rSm &cdik &f ;kd rawmif
wef;rS b*Fvm;yifv,fatmftwGi;f odk@ pD;qif;aomjrpfrsm;&So d nft
h euf ewfjrpf(eyfzaf &Ag)
onf wzufeidk if jH zpfaom tdE, Nd edik if .
H b*Fvm;jynfe,f/ ,cktcg b*Fvm;a'h(&S)f edik if EH iS hf
&cdik jf ynfe,fwdk@. e,ferdwrf sO;f a=umif;tjzpf wnf&aSd eygonf?
18? ygarmuQ-vem,*srD if tqdt k & a&S;vGeaf vjyD;aom tcsed u f mvrsm;u
tde, Nd ekid if o
H nf awmiftmz&duwku d =f uD;/ tpdwt f ykid ;f wpfcjk zpfa=umif;/
aemifEpS af ygi;f &maxmifrsm;pGm=um aomtcg xkw d ukd =f uD;rS
useG ;f =uD;rsm;cGxJ uG af yguyf Gg;vm&mwGif tdE, Nd ekid if oH nf useG ;f =uD;wpf ckjzpfum arsmvmcJjh yD;
,ckjzpfay:onfh tm&Swu kd Ef iS fh aygi;f pnf;vmcJjh cif;jzpfa=umif;/ tm&S wdu k Ef iS fh
w=udru f tquftpyfr&Scd aJh =umif;ESifh tm&Swu kd . f ajrjyifrsm;ESiafh wmifwef;=uD;rsm;
jcm;xm;wnf&aSd ea=umif; a&;om;az:jyxm;ygonf?
19? tdE, Nd ekid if &H Sd opfyif/ wd&pd m>ef tp&So d nfwkd@rmS vnf; r'g*g;pum;useG ;f Y &So d nfrsm;ESihf
wlnaD =umif;/ vlrsL;d trsm;pkrmS vnf; ta&St h v,fyidk ;f a'orS xk;d azguf
0ifa&mufvm=uaom at&d,ef/ tif'akd t&d,efrsLd ;EG,pf w k kd@rS
qif;oufayguzf mG ;vm=ua=umif;ukd qufvufa&; om;azmfjyxm;ygon?
20? odk@jzpfygv#uEf iS fh tdE, Nd EG,zf mG ;-b*FvrD q l vifrsm;u 4if;wkd@onf &ckid jf ynfe,fo@kd
OD;pGm a&muf&Sd tajcpku d af exkid cf aJh v[ef/ &ckid v f rl sL;d rsm;u aemufraS &muf&v Sd mjyD;
4if;wdk@EiS fh aexkid =f ua=umif;ESifh 4if;wkd@onf yg&mS ;-tm&yfE, G zf mG ; - r[mar'ifbmom0if-
d if*sm qko d rl sm; jzpf=uygonf[k a=uG;a=umfajymqk=d uonfukd =um;odae&ygonf?
21? a&S;ya0o%Duyif &ckid v f rl sLd ;wdk@onf ukd,x fh ;D / uk,d efh ef;ESifh umv&Sn}f umpGm
aexdik cf Jh aomvlrsL;d rsm; jzpfygonf? yxr"n0wDukd bDp(D 3287) ckEpS w f iG 4f if;/
'kw, d "n0wDjrdK@ ukd bDpD (1469) ckwiG 4f if;/ wwd,"n0wDukd
pENo&l , d rif;vufxufwiG 4f if;/ rif;aejynf tjzpf wnf&cSd yJh gonf? Trif;.eef;ouf
(26)ESpf bDpD (517)ckwiG f (Vikram Sambat Calender date ) tvkd Ak'&< iS af wmfjrwfb&k m;onf
&ckid jf ynfokd@ =uGa&mufvmcJo h nfrt S p Ak'o < moemxGe;f um;cJo h nfukd
taxmuftxm;rsm;rS od&eSd idk yf gonf?
22? urBmb h mom=uD;rsm;jzpfaom Ak'b < mom/ c&pf,efbmomESifh r[mar'if ponfh bm
om=uD;ok;H ckwiG f Ak'b < momonf c&pfawmfray:aygurf D bDpD (6) &mpkrmS pwifcyJh gonf?
r[mar'ifbmomonf c&pfawmfay:aygujf yD;aemuf at'D (6) &mpk 1 rSm
ta&St h v,fyikd ;f a'owGif pwifcaJh =umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf? tdE, Nd elid if w
H iG f
r[mar'ifbmom0if rlqvifrsm; onf qif;('f)a'ookd@ at'D(7)&mpkwiG f
pwifx;kd azmuf0ifa&mufcjJh yD; [dELN bmom0if rsm;ESifh Ak'b < mom0ifrsm;tm;
t"rRrq l vifrsm;tjzpf ajymif;vJcaJh =umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
23? &cdik jf ynfe,fwiG f ol&, d rif;qufrS pjENm;rif;qufux dk al xmifjyD; rif;aejynfukd
"n0wDrS a0omvDodk@ at'D-327-2 jyKjyif (364) wGif ajymif;a&$ch yJh gonf?
a0omvDrif;rsm;vufxuf wGif ukeo f ,G rf wl ;dk wufco hJ nft h wdik ;f a&$'*Fg;/ aiG'*Fg;ponfw@kd
cwfEySd cf aJh =umif; awG@&ygonf? Ak'b < momonfvnf; xGe;f um;jyef@yGm;vma=umif;udk apwD/
ykx;dk / ausmif;uef/ bk&m;rsm; aqmufvyk v f 'Sl ge;f =uonfh
taxmuftxm;rsm;awG@&eSd idk yf gonf? 3
24? a0omvDupdk wifwnfaxmifonfh at'D(4)&mpkrS at'D(7)&mpkuek t f xd
pnfyif0ajymcJh onfjzpf&m ta&S@tv,fyidk ;f a'orS tm&yfEiS yfh g;&Sm;ukeo f nfrsm;
oabFmjzifh ul;oef;oGm; vmr_rsm;&Scd yJh gonf? b*Fvm;yifv,fatmfonf
vSidk ;f avjyif;xefwwfonfuwa=umif;/ yif v,f'g;jyrsm;
wdu k cf udk rf &_ o
Sd nfuwa}umif;wdk@a=umifh oabFmysuaf vSwdk@rS toufraobJ
&cdik u f rf;ajcodk@ a&muf&vSd m=uaom r[mar'ifbmom0if oabFmom;rsm;udk at'D
(788)4 ckwiG f a0omvD&cdik b f &k ifrsm;u oem;=uifempdwjf zifh aus;&Gmrsm;wGif
ae&mcsay;xm;um aexdik af pcJah =umif;udk A.P Phayre ESifh R.B Smart wdk@uqdyk gonf?
TudprP sm;rSm;,Gi;f ae a=umif; ed'ge;f ydik ;f wGif azmfjycJjh yD; jzpfygonf?

1// rd[
k rR'o f cifonf c&pf(571) ckEpS /f {jyDv(20)&uf/ wevFmae@wiG f tma&Asjynf/ ruUmjrdK@Y rGm;jrifco Jh nf// (jrefrmhp, G pf u Hk sr;f / twG(J 9)/ pm
2? Virkam Sambart Calender Dates tvdt k & AD 364 jzpfygonf? Dr.Sinncar tvdt k & AD 370 jzpfygonf?
3? a0omvDw;l azmfru l dk OD;aqmifco Jh l a&S;a[mif;okawoeXmerS OD;nS eG f@[efu a0omvDonf at'D-4 &mpkrS 9 &mpk twGi;f xGe;f um;cJah }umif;
axmufccH yJh gonf?
4? at'D-788 qdo k nfrmS Sr.Arthur P.Phayre . History of Burma pmtkyt f qdt
k & a0omvDacwf pwifcsed jf zpfa}umif;
t,ltqtrSm;udk vdu k ef mcJjh cif;a}umifh jzpfygonf? Todk@jzpfvmonfrmS vnf; vd;k awmftZPseESifh &mvrm,kwdk@u a&S;ouU&mZf 8645 udk 2
}uGi;f xm;I jzd, k jl yD; t[mouU&mZfpwifcsed u f dk Phayre u4if;tcsed rf mS bDpjD yD;qH;k I at'D (1 ) uponf[I l pENmol&, d ouU&mZf at'D-146
[k,v l mum wwd,"n0wD ukeq f ;Hk csed rf mS at'D-788 jzpfvmjyD; a0omvDudk t[mwdik ;f pjENrif;pwifcsed [ f I
rSm,Gi;f pGmazmfjycJjh cif;a}umifjh zpfygonf? pifppf pENo&l , d eef;wufEpS rf mS at'D-146 r[kwb f J bDp-D 542omjzpfygonf? ESpaf ygi;f (688)
uGm[aeygonf? a0omvDupdk wifcsed rf mS (8) &mpkr[kwb f (J 4) &mpk omjzpfygonf? tpPvefbmomudu k ;dk uG,rf pl wifcsed rf mS (6) &mpkomjzpfay&m
tqdyk g R. B Smart .ta&;tom; t& qdyk gvSsif r[mrR'rf ay:cif ESpaf ygi;f (200)cef@uyif &cdik o f dk@ tpPvmrfbmom
}udwk ifa&mufvmonfo h abmjzpfaeay&m xdo k dk@jzpfaejcif;onf vH;k 0,kwrWd wefa}umif;rSm &Si;f aeygonf? Ttcsuu f dk rnfuo Jh dk@rS
vufceH idk zf ,
G rf &Syd g?

25? tu,fIom &cdik jf ynfe,fodk@ pwifa&muf&v Sd mol tm&yfyg&mS ;EG,zf mG ; edik if jH cm;om;
rsm;rSm xdo k abFmysu/f avSysuw f dk@rS toufraobJ urf;udak &mufvm=uolrsm;
jzpf=uonf[k ,lqrnfqv dk Ssiv f nf; ta&twGut f m;jzifh rsm;vSonfr[kwyf g?
ordik ;f a}umif;udk avhvmcsut f & od&onfrmS (8)&mpktcsed o f nf a0omvDtiftm;csed @J csed f
jzpfygonf? at'D(776)wGif a0omvDudk ysLwdk@uw=udr/f at'D(794)wGif &Sr;f ( Sung)
wdk@uw=udrf 0ifa&muf wdu k cf u dk zf suq f ;D =uojzifh &cdik b
f &k ifrsm;onf 1 pr`0ufo@kd
a&$ah jymif;I rif;aejynfawmfjyK vkycf yJh gonf? xdk@aemuf at'D (818) wGif av;jrdK@[k
ay:xGe;f cJyh gonf?
26? TacwfwiG f &cdik jf ynfY Ak'b < momxGe;f um;jyefyh mG ;ouJo h dk@ tdE,
Nd edik if w
H iG v
f nf;
Ak'b < m omxGe;f um;jyef@ymG ;vSsu&f ySd gonf? at'D (9) &mpktv,fyidk ;f wGiv f nf; yg&mS ;ESihf
cgupPwef wdk@rS rlqvifppfAv dk cf sKyfrsm;u tmz*efepPwefrS
pwif0ifa&mufwu dk cf u
dk v
f m=uojzifh Ak'b < m ombk&ifrsm;ESifh [dELN bk&ifrsm;onf
wjznf;jznf; tdE, Nd jynfwiG ;f odk@ qkwcf mG vmcJ=h uygonf? txl;tm;jzifh rlqvifb&k if
rmrGwq f o dk vl ufxufwiG f *s[ D 'f(ac: ) bmoma&;ppfyq GJ ifEu GJ m Ak'b < momESifh
[dELN rsm;tm; rlqvifbmom0ifrsm;tjzpf twif;oGwo f iG ;f cJah =umif; awG@&&Sd yg onf?
27? &ckid jf ynfe,fEiS q fh ufpyfvsu&f aSd om b*Fvm;jynfe,fwiG f ygvrif;qufrsm;a=umifh Ak'<
bmomrSm at'D (11) &mpkwikd f pnfyifxeG ;f um;v#u&f cSd yJh gonf? b*Fvm;jynfe,fwiG f Ak'<
bmomonf ESpaf ygi;f (400)ausm=f um wnf&cSd jJh yD; ygvrif;qufaemufwufvmonfh
apwem rif;quf [dELN acwfwiG f [dELN bk&ifrsm;u=uD;pkd;vmcJ=h uonfrmS
rlqvifrsm;0ifa&mufvm onfh at'D (12) &mpkwikd af tmifjzpfygonf?
28? &ckid jf ynfonf at'D (11)&mpkwiG f ekid if t H wGi;f rjidrrf oufrr_ sm; ay:ayguu f m eef;vkr_
rsm;jzpfymG ;r_a=umifh eef;&k;d rif;onf 2 yk*jH ynfwiG f oGm;a&mufcv kd c_H yJh gonf// at'D (1103) ck
wGif yk*tH avmif;pnforl if; tultnDjzifh &ckid ef ef;&k;d / vusrF if; eef;rif;onf eef;&vmjyefyg
onf// &ckid b f &k ifeef;pkdujf rDK@rsm;rSm at'D(11)&mpkwiG f y&de/f (1163) ckEpS w f iG f ae&Ì&mwGif
awmifiw l dk@ jzpfco Jh nfukd awG@&&Sd ygonf//
1 ? plVpjENEiS pfh ENma'0Dwdk@.om; apma&$v;l ac:{rifiwHo
k nf eef;pdu
k &f mjrd K@ pr`0ufodk@ajymif;a&$ch yJh gonf?
2? rif;&Jb,/ rdb&k m;aygun
f rdk ESifh om;vusmF rif;eefwdk@ use;f ppfom;rif;vufxufwiG f cdv
k c_H jJh cif;jzpfyg onf?
29// at'D (11) &mpkwiG f Ak'b < momxGe;f vsu S f&aSd om tdE, Nd edik if w
H iG f b*Fvm;jynfe,f/
jrefrmedik if H yk*w H kd@EiS o fh m ul;vl;qufqH xdawG@wu kd cf ukd rf r_ sm; &So d nfukd awG@&ygonf//
r[m ar'ifbmomuk;d uG,o f l rlqvifrsm;ESifh xdawG@r&_ o Sd nfrmS oabFysu/f avSysuw f @dk rS
aomif wifa&muf&v Sd m=uaom oabFmom;rsm;ESifh ukeu f ;l a&mif;0,f,if;
a&muf&aSd exkid =f uaom ukeo f nfponfh tenf;i,frsaS omOD;a&avmufom
&ckid jf ynfwiG &f =Sd ua=umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf//
30// tdE, Nd Ekid if w
H iG f r[mar'ifu;kd uG,o f l rlqvrefrsm;onf at'D (8)
&mpktpOD;ykid ;f rSpwif um [dELN ESifh Ak'b < mombk&ifrsm; tkypf ;kd onfh jynfe,frsm;ok@d
xk;d azmuf0ifa&muf wku d cf ukd f v$r;f rk;d vmcJ&h m taemufyikd ;f a'orsm;rSonf
ta&Syh ikd ;f a'ojzpfaom b*Fvm;jynfe,fokd@ at'D (12)
&mpkwiG cf sO;f uyf0ifa&mufvmcJo h nf// okd@jzifh &ckid b f &k ifrsm;ESifh rlqvifb&k ifrsm;
xdawG@r&_ v Sd monfukd awG@&ygonf//
31// at'D(1250)ckEpS Yf avmif;=uufjrdK@awmfwiG f &ckid b f &k if tavmrmjzLupwifI pk;d pHchJ
ygonf// avmif;=uufjrdK@awmfwiG f &ckidf t f iftm;jyefvnfO;D armhvmcJjh yef&m txl;ojzifh
rif;xD; vufxuf(at'D-1283-1389)wGif tzufzufrS wk;d wufcyJh gonf//
Trif;vufxufrmS rif;q&m omoemykid q f &mawmf tosiS jf rwfo&D d "rR&mZm*k&k
uk,d af wmfwikd f =uyfrwfvsu S f ysupf ;D ,k;d ,Gi;f aeaom Ak'*< g,mr[maAm"dapwDawmfufdk
aumZmouU&mZf (675)ck/ jymokv d qef;(10)&uf/ aom=umae@rS tpjyKI (660)jynfh
wefaqmifrek ;f vqef;(8)&uf we*FaEGokd@ wkidf af tmif(3)ESpcf efh a&S;rlrysuf
jyKjyifawmfrcl o Jh nf// apwDawmfrrG ;f rHjyKjyifaom ouU&mZf onf bk&ifrif;xD;eef;wufI
(12) ESpaf jrmufaom ESpaf ywnf;// rSww f rf;ausmufpmukv d nf; Ak'*< g,mwGif
a&;xk;d xm;avonf//
bk&ifrif;xD;aumif;rlawmfjzpfaom wd\bk&m;qif;wkawmfukd avmif;=uufjrdK@a[mif;
wpf ae&mwGif wnfxm;uk;d uG,x f m;onfukfd ,aehwikd zf ;l awG@jrifEikd yf gonf//
&ckid b f &k ifwkd@. =oZm tm%monf ppfwaumif;/ b*Fg (12)jrdK@ tygt0if
jyefEh w SHh nf&cSd yJh gonf// at'D (1404)wGif eef;wufonfh rif;xD;.jrpfawmf
rif;apmrGev f ufxufwiG f &ckid Ef ikd if aH &; &lyaf xG;vmum ykeu f eforl sm;u
tif;0bk&iftultnD&,lwu kd cf u
kd o f jzifh rif;apmrGeo f nf b*Fvm;e,f&Sd *g0ge,fo@dk
wdr;f a&SmifomG ;&avonf//
32// jrefrmEkid if w H iG f tif;0bk&ifu &ckid b f &k ifukd 0ifa&mufwu kd cf ukd o
f uJhokd@ tdE, Nd Ekid if w
H iG f
vnf; rif;apmrGecf v kd alH epOf b*Fvm;jynfe,fukd plvweftb D &m[ifu 0ifa&mufwu kd cf u dk f
cJ&h m rif;apmrGeu f ulnw D u kd cf ukd af y;cJo h jzifh b*Fvm;bk&ifu aus;Zl;wifjyD;
rif;apmrGet f m; &ckid b f &k iftjzpf jyefvnf&&S&d ef ulncD yJh gonf// rif;apmrGeo f nf
avmif;=uufjrdK@awmfwiG f (2) ESpcf efeh ef;pHjyD;aemuf at'D (1430) ajrmufO;D jrdK@awmfufdk
ajymif;a&$w h nfaxmifI &ckid b f &k ifrsm; pk;D pHaexkid of mG ;=uonfudk awG@&&Sd ygonf//
33? &ckid w f kd@wiG f ajrmufO;D acwfonf at'D(1785)txd ESpaf ygi;f (350)ausmrf #
=umcJyh gonf? Tacwfonf &ckid w f kd@ txGÉt f xdyaf &mufc=Jh uaom acwfumvjzpfygonf?
txl;tm;jzifh rif;&mZm=uD;(1593-1612)vufxufwiG f &ckid ef ,ferdwo f nf
taemufajrmufbuf 'gumESifh b*Fvm;jrpf0useG ;f ay: urf;ajca'orS ta&Sah wmifzuf
armfvjrdKifurf;&k;d wrf;txd us,jf yef@ cJyh gonf? ppfa&;wGit f iftm;=uD;rm;cJo h nft h wkid ;f
ajcvsiw f yf/ qifwyf/ tajrSmufwyf/ ppfavS wyf ponfwdk Eh iS fh ay:wl*/D ,k;d ',m; / *syef/
rGe/f jrefrm/ b*Fvm;ESifh r*kpd pfom;rsm;ukd iSm;&rf; tok;jH yKcJo h nfudk awG &h ygonf?
34? TajrmufO;D acwfwiG f rlqvifrsm;ESifh xdawG@rr_ mS vnf; rsm;jym;vmygonf?
ajrmufO;D jrdK@ wnf rif;apmrGef b*Fvm;&S*d g0g e,fodk w h rd ;f a&Smifaexkid cf o Jh uJo h kd h
at'D(1660)jynfEh pS w f iG f r*kb d *Fvm;e,f bk&ifco H #m;o#L*sm
&ckid jf ynfokd@vma&mufcv kd r_H r_ sm; &Scd o Jh nfuakd wG@&ygonf? rlqvifrsm;jzpf}uonfh r*kw d @dk .
tdE, Nd jynfwiG f tm%mjyef@ESH@vmrSrk mS vnf; at'D-1666 ckEpS af vmufwiG f
tjrifrh m;qk;H jzpfvmum ta&Szh ufq;kH b*Fvm;jynfe,fwidk af tmif a&muf&cSd Jh ygonf?
xkEd pS w f iG f &ckid wf kd v
h uf0,f&Sd ppfwaumif;jrdK@ukd r*kw d dk@ord ;f yku d &f ,lomG ;cJjh cif;onf
rlqvifrsm; &ckid jf ynfEiS fh teD;qkH;xdawG@ a&muf&jSd cif;jzpfygonf?
35? ajrmufO;D acwfwiG f &cdik b f &k iftcsKd @onf rlqviftrnfrsm;udyk g &,leef;pHco Jh nfukd
awG@& ygonf? Todk@&,lvyk u f idk cf jJh cif;rSm xdak cwfxt kd cgu awmifirl if;wdk@u
rGet f rnfx;Hk pHrsm; vufcv H yk uf idk cf o Jh nfeh nf;wl b*Fvm;jynfe,f&Sd ppfwaumif;ESihf
bknm;=uD;wdik ;f (b*F 12 jrdK@) wdk@yg &cdik w f dk@tyk pf dk;xm;cJ&h m vufatmufcrH q l vifrsm;
od&aSd v;pm;ap&efEiS fh 4if;wdk@tm;vnf; auseyfEpS o f rd afh p&ef &cdik b
f &k ifrsm;u
rlqviftrnfrsm;udyk g oH;k pGeJ ef;pHcjJh cif;om jzpfygonf?
Tonfudk wcsKd @aom rlqvifpma&;q&mwdk@u &cdik jf ynfudk 4if;wdk@rlqvifrsm;u
tkypf ;dk vm oa,mif a&;om;}uonfudk awG@&ygonf? rlqvifrsm;om 4if;wdk@a&;om;
ouJo h dk@ tkypf ;dk cJh vsiS f 4if;wdk@. tdE, Nd jynfwiG jf yKvkycf o Jh nfh vky&f yfrsm;jzpfaom
bmoma&;taqmufO;D rsm;udk zsuq f ;D jcif;/ 4if;wdk@ar'ifbmomxJodk@
twif;t"Row G o f iG ;f jcif;rsm;udk awG@&rnfjzpfygonf? ,ckru l m; &cdik jf ynfwiG f
ajrmufO;D acwfbmoma&; zGH@jzdK;wdk;wufrrl sm;. tarGtESprf sm;udk ,ckwidk af wG@&&Sd jcif;um;
&ckid jf ynfudk rlqvifrsm; tkypf ;dk cJjh cif;r&Sad }umif; oufaocHvsu S &f ySd g onf? ( a&$eef;ocif
e&rdwv f &S mZm trnfEpS zf ufa&;xd;k I (782)ckEpS w f iG f wpf=udr/f (795)wGiw f pf=udr/f
aygi;f ESp=f udrf '*Fg;xkwaf 0cJah =umif; awG@&onf?)
(=um;rSm '*Fg;yHx
k nf&h ef----)
jrdK@wnfb&k m;wqltjzpf aumZm(792)wGif wnfaqmufu;dk uG,cf aJh om
av;rsuEf mS bk&m; udk zl;arsmS &f jcif;tm;jzifh rif;apmrGe.
f Ak'b
< mom,H=k unfu;dk uG,rf _
rnfr#euf&i_d ;f onfudk vnf; odomedik yf gonf?
(av;rsuEf mS bk&m;yHx
k nf&h ef-------)
36? ajrmufO;D acwfordki;f udk qef;ppfavhvm=unfyh gv#if (txufuqdkco Jh nfth wdik ;f )
ajrmufO;D acwf a&$a&mifvr$ ;f aomtcsed t f cg (16 ESifh 17 &mpkacwf) tdE, Nd r*dw
k dk@
wefc;dk tm %m=uD;xGm;csed Ef iS f@ acwfjydKifjzpfa=umif; avhvmawG@&&Sd ygonf?
37? r*drk if;om;o#m;o#L*sm &cdik jf ynfodk@ 0ifa&mufcv dk c_H aJh om c&pfouU&mZf (1661)od@k r
a&mufrD a&Syh idk ;f Y/ &ckid Ef iS t
fh *dw
k dk@ qufqaH &;taetxm;udk jyef=unfv h #if a'vDjrdK@ Y c&pf
ouU&mZf (1494) rS (1500) txd/ xD;eef;pdu k cf aJh om bmbm (Babur) onf/ r*dek idk if u H kd
a&SOh ;D pGmwnfaxmifI/ xdrk if;vGejf yD;aemuf om;awmf=uD; &_rmvGef (Humayun)onf
crnf;awmf. t&du k t f &mudk (1530) rS (1556) txd qufcpH ;dk pHcaJh =umif/h &ckid jf ynfY
(1531) rS (1553) ck txd pd;k pHcaJh om &ckid b f &k ifrif;=uD;ESifh rif;jydKifjzpfa=umif;awG@&onf?
38? rif;Am=uD;eef;wufjyD;I (1532) ck/ ed0k ifbmvqef;pcsed o f dk@ a&mufaomtcg a0omvD
acwfO;D uyif &cdik yf idk ef ufe,fajrjzpfaom 'uUmESirfh &l 'Sd gb'f (Mushidabad) jrdK@rsm;odk@ wpp0if
um tydik pf ;D &ef=udK;pm;aeaom t[mar'ifuv k m;vlrsKd ;rsm;tm; ESrd ef if;&rnfh
tajctaeay: ayguv f mjcif;a=umifh rif;Am=uD;onftvH;k t&if;ESifh csw D ufc&Jh onf?
tcuftcJr&Sb d J atmif jrifpmG ESrd ef if;edik cf yJh gonf? ,if;tcsed f r*db k &k if&r_ m,Geo
f nf
rl&'Sd gb'f(Mushidabad) jrdK@. ajrmufyidk ;f rdik (f 80) cef@umG a0;aom *g0gjynfi,fudk
vufatmufct H jzpfjzifh odr;f ydu k u f m ,if;rSmyif&aSd eygonf? ,if;uJo h dk@aomtajctaerSm
*g0gjynfuo dk rd ;f ydu
k rf nfqydk gv#if tvG,f wuljzpfeidk af o;onf[k rif;Am=uD;od.?
odk@aomfvnf; rif;Am=uD;onf ud, k yf idk ef ,fajr wn_d@ wxGmudrk #vnf;
rusL;ausmrf apmfum;apvdo k uJo h dk@/ ol@yidk ef ufe,fajrwn_d@wxGmudrk #vnf;
rusL;ausmrf apmfum;tyf/ rdrt d iftm;=uD;onf[I l tiftm;enf;aomwzufom;udk
rw&m; rzdEySd t f yf/ &efp&Snw f wfonf[k rdef@awmfrjl yD;v#if
D ufwu dk cf u
dk cf Jhjcif;rjyKcJyh g?
(e,l;a'vDjrd k@&Sd r*db
k &k if&rl m,Ge.
f tky*f yl Hk )

39? xdrk #omr[kwf rif;Am=uD;onf r*db k &k if&rl m,GeEf iS fh wdik ;f jynfe,ferdwf tydik ;f tjcm;udk
owfrw S uf m r[mrdwzf GJ@cyJh gonf? Zabmufo#m; (Zabauk Shah) [laombGJ@onf r*db k &k if
u rif;Am=uD;um; r[mrdwt f jzpfjzifh qufuyfaombGJ@jzpfI yefpD (Pebsi) onf rif;bm=uD;
ESifh vufqufaom &lrm,Ge. f orD;awmfjzpf.? yefpw D ,f (Pensital) [lIvnf;ac:.? &cdik f
&mZ0ifY “yJyJow D m” rif;oR;D [kwiG . f ? rif;Am}uD;eef;wufI (2) ESpaf jrmuf c&pfouU&mZf
(1533) ckrpS I rif;&mZm}uD;.om;awmf rif;carmif;ewf&mG vm;onfh (1622) ckxd ESpaf ygi;f
(90)wdik af tmiftqufrjywfb/J &cdik Ef iS rfh *drk [mrdwjf zpfc=Jh uygonf? ,if;a=umifh
rif;zavmif; tm; pDuif'go#m; ( Siecunda Shah)/ rif;&mZm=uD;tm; aqmfvrd o f #m; (Selimn
Shah )/ rif;c armif;tm; [lpe d o f #m; (Hussein Shah) / [laombGJ@udk r*dw k dk@ r[mrdwt f aeESihf
ay;quf=u a=umif; awG@&onf?
(ppfwaumif;rif;'*Fg;ESifh rif;bifocF,m '*Fg;yH)k
40? c&pfouU&mZf (13)&mpktpydik ;f avmufuyif r[mar'ifuv k m;vlrsKd ;wdk@onf **Fgjrpf.
ta&Sbh ufjzpfaom &cdik ef ,fajr(b*Fge,f)xJodk@ trSwrf xifprd 0fh ifae=uygonf?
d "k rR&m Zm(1622-1638) vufxufodk@ a&mufaomtcg pdr0fh ifusL;ausmo f w
l @kd .
tiftm;rSm rsm;pGm awmifw h if;vmcJjh yD;jzpfojzifh tuGuaf umif;vmonfEiS w fh jydKifeuf
b*Fgwe,fv;Hk uko d rd ;f ydkuf &ef }udK;pm;vm=uawmhonf? usL;ausmo f w l dk@.aemuf0,f
r*db k &k if o#m;*s[ef &Sad eonf? xdk@a}umifh oD&o d "k rR&mZmESifh o#m;*s[efwdk@.
qufqrH t _ ajctaerSm wif;rmvmjyD;v#if ppfrufjzpfymG ;edik af om tajctaeodk@yif
qdu k af &mufcyJh gonf? ,if;a=umifv h nf; oD&o d "k rR &mZmY crnf;awmf/ bd;k awmf/
ab;awmfwdk@ vufxufrmS uJo h dk@ ukvm;bGJ@urdk awG@&jcif;jzpfyg onf? &cdik f
r*drk [mrdwb f 0onf Ttcsed rf pS I tqH;k owfcaJh =umif;awG@&ygonf?
41? Tonfwkd@rmS um; &ckid b f &k ifuvk m;bGJ@ukd ok;H pGv J mjcif;. ta=umif;tcsut f vuf
Zpfjrpfyifjzpfayonf? ukvm;bGJ@ukd &ckid b f JG@trnfjzifw h I
GJ '*g;F cwfEySd &f mwGif
a&;xd;k xm;aom bk&ifrif;zavmif;/ rif;&mZm}uD;ESifh rif;carmif; wkd@rSm &cdik o f rkid ;f wGif
tvGex f if&mS ;I/ oD&d ok"rR&mZmrif;vufxufa&mufaomtcgwiG f '*Fg;cyfEySd &f mY
&cdik bf GJ@EiS fh &cdik pf mwpfzuf yg&eS ;f em*&Dpm wpfzufukd ok;H pGcJ yfEySd af o;aomfvnf;
ukvm;bGJ@ryg&aSd wmhyg? oD&o d "k rR&mZmrif; rSpI aemufyikd ;f rif;rsm;rSm
ukvm;bGJ@rsm;vnf;r&Sad wmhovkd '*Fg;cwfEySd &f mwGiv f nf; ukvm; pmukd vk;0H rawG
&h awmhyg?
rif;zavmif;/rif;&mZm}uD;/ oD&o
d "k rR&mZm '*Fg;rsm;ykH
42? ajrmufO;D 'kw, d acwf rif;zavmif;vufxufupI &ckid yf idk f b*Fg(12)cGiYf
ppfwaumif;jrdK@ pm;omrubJ/ b*Fg(12)cGiu f kd tkycf sLyfonfh taemufb&k ifrsm;vnf;
cef@xm;a=umif;awG@vm &onf? taemufb&k ifrsm;&H;k pku d &f mae&mrSm rla&S'gbwfjzpfonf?
taemufb&k iftrnf pmwrf;xk;d I &ckid pf mwpfbuf/ yg&eS ;f ESifh tma&AD (Arabic) wbuf
a&;xk;d I aiG'*Fg;rsm;xkwf vkyaf =umif;awG@&onf? xdt k xJwiG f uGsEykf w
f kd@awG@xm;aom
plVpjEN'*Fg;[k ,lqxm;cJ=h uaom plVr[m&mZm'*Fg;ESifh rif;xD;'*Fg;[k,q l xm;cJah om
OD;&D;awmf r[meENb, pma&;xk;d yg '*Fg;rSmvnf; ajrmufO;D 'kw, d acwf rif;&mZm}uD;
vufxuf taemufbk&ifrsm;xkwaf 0aom '*Fg;jzpfaea}umif; tdE, Nd elkdiif H umvuUwm;jrdK@
(Calcutta) rS(Mr.Vasant Chowdhury) . (The Arakani Governers and Their Coins) acgi;f pOfyg
pmwrf;t& odvm&onf? Tonf rSm uGsEykf w f kd@ ,cifuvufcx H m;cJjh cif;ukd
acszsuv f ukd jf cif;yifjzpfygonf? taemufb&k if rsm;xkwaf 0aom '*Fg;pm&if;ukd pmrsuEf mS
(59)wGi&f y_ g?
43? &cdik jf ynftwGi;f okd@ rlqvifrsm;jzpfaom r*krd sm; xd;k azgu0f ifa&mufjcif; rjyKElid &f mY
tcsuw f pfcsurf mS b*Fvm;jynfe,ftwGi;f t*Fvyd w f kd@ 0ifa&mufcjJh cif; jzpfygonf?
t*Fvyd f rsm;tm; r*kb d k&ifwkd@u b*Fvm;jynfe,fraS rmif;xkwv f u dk jf yD;onfah emuf at'D
(1690) ckEpS f wGif t*Fvyd w f dk@u umvuUwm;jrdK@ukd 0,f,cl jJh yD;aemuf cHwyfjrdK@tjzpf
wnfaqmufum tckid t f rm aevmcJyh gonf? at'D(1756)ckEpS w f iG f r*kw d kd@u
umvuUwm;cHwyfjrdK@ukd odr;f ,l jyD;aemuf zrf;qD;&rdaom t*Fvyd v f rl sK;d wkd@tm;
usO;f usyaf o;i,faom tcef;wGif csOaf ESmifcJh aoma=umifh aoqH;k ukecf o Jh nfjh zpf&yf (Black
Hotel Tragedy) ukd ta=umif;jyKvsuf b*Fvm; ukd t*Fvy d wf kd@u odr;f yku d cf yJh gonf? ,if;
odr;f yku d v f u kd jf cif;a=umifh r*krd sm;ESifh qufq&H ef ta=umif;enf;yg;cJjh yD;
t*Fvyd rf sm;ESiq fh ufq&H ef jzpfvmonf?
44? at'D (1760) ckEpS w f iG f &ckid w
f kd@u t*Fvyd yf ikd b f *Fvm;a'otwGi;f okd@ 0ifa&mufI
uGsef rsm;ukd zrf;qD;aeygonf[k ta=umif;jyum &ckid u f kd t*Fvyd u f vma&muf
wdu k cf u kd &f ef pDpOfco Jh nftxd t*Fvyd -f &ckid q f ufqaH &;rSm wif;rmaecJyh gonf?
(ajrmufO;D acwfaemufyikd ;f umvrsm;Y &ckid jf ynfe,fwiG f eef;vkr/_ ykefuefr/_ jynfyrSxyd g;r_/
rjidro f ufrr_ sm;ukd t}udr}f udrf tzefzef awG@=uHK&onfukd awG@&v Sd m&ygonf?
xko d kd@jzpfaeonfh tcsed rf mS jrefrmtrR&yl& wyfwkd@onf ppfra=ujimbJ
&cdik jf ynfokd@csw D ufvmum (45)&uf =umwku d yf t
GJ jyD; ajrmufO;D jrdK@awmf usq;k cH o Jh nfwiG f
&cdik b f &k ifb&k ifacwfrmS ed*;kH csKyfcyJh gawmhonf?
45// &cdik b f &k ifrsm;acwf &ckid jf ynfwiG f vlO;D a&pm&if;rnfodk@&o Sd nfukd rod&ojzifh
Ekid if jH cm;om; rlqvifO;D a& rnfr#&aSd =umif; raz:jyEkid af omfvnf; renf;tyg;om&Sad =umif;
a&S;a[mif;AvD ta&twGuu f az:jyv#u&f ySd gonf// txufwiG af zmfjycJo h nft h wkid ;f
&ckid jf ynftwGi;f &So d nfh rlqvifrsm;rSm &ckid u f rf;&k;d wef;a'owGif aomifwifum
tajcpku d af exkid =f uaom oabFysu/f avysuw f kd@rS oabFmom;rsm;ESifh tquftEG,rf sm;/
&ckid b f &k if rif;aejynfawmftwGi;f rS rif;r_ xrf;rsm;tjzpfvnf;aumif; aexkid =f uolrsm;ESiS hf
&ckid b f &k ifrsm; ppfatmifEikd &f mrS zrf;qD;ac: aqmifvm=uonfh ppfokH@yef;rsm; uGserf sm;tjzpf
ac:aqmifvmolrsm;om jzpfonfukd awG@&&Sd ygonf// &ckid rf sm;onf ppfwaumif;a'oESihf
**Fgjrpfurf;a'ojzpfaom b*Fvm;jynfe,fukd pk;d rk;d tkycf sKyfxm;Ekid cf I Jh xkad 'o&Sd
rlqvifO;D a&ukd xnfw h u G jf cif;jzifh &ckid jf ynfwiG f rlqvif OD;a&onf oabmomjzpfa=umif;
awG@&ESd ikd yf gonf// at'D(17)&mpk tapmykid ;f wGif &ckid yf ifr a&wyf=uD;ukd
ppfwaumif;a'owGif xm;&So d nf[al om taxmuftxm;rsm;u Ttcsuf ukd
az:nGe;f v#u&f ySd gonf//
46// &cdik jf ynfukd jrefrmbk&ifonf at'D (1785) ckEpS rf S at'D (1825) ckEpS t f xd
ESpaf ygi;f (40) =um a'oav;ckcjGJ yD; jrdK@0efrif;rsm;ceft h yfum tkycf sKyfco Jh jzifh Tumvukd
av;jrdK@0efacwf[k ac:wGicf yJh gonf// jrefrmbk&iftyk cf sKyfpOfumvtwGi;f usq;kH oGm;onfh
&ckid x
f ;D eef;ukd jyefvnf &,lvI kd &ckid v
f rl sK;d rsm;u x=uGyefuefjcif;rsm;&So d uJo h kd@
jrdK@0efrif;. tcGet f aumuf=uD;rm;r_/ vlrsm;r=umc% awmif;cJjh cif;rsm;&cJo h jzifh
yefuefx=uGjcif;(9)=udrfcef@ &Scd yJh gonf// Tykeu f ef x=uGrr_ sm;ukd ESrd ef if;cJjh cif;wdk@a=umifh
&ckid v
f rl sK;d rsm; tvk;H t&if;jzifh wzufEikd if o H kd@ ckvd o
_H mG ;cJh =uygonf// okd@jzpfygI
av;jrdK@0efacwfwiG f &ckdijf ynftwGi;f vlO;D a&avsmeh nf;oGm;onfuakd wG@ &S&d ygonf//
(ajrmufO;D jrd k@&Sd &cdik b
f &k ifeef;awmf&ma[mif; jrif;uGi;f wck)
2.Comparative Statement between Rahine Scholars and Sir Arthur Phayre Showing Ancient
Dynasties and different Periodisations
(A) (B)
SN Dynasties Christian Rakhine Span Rulers Christian Rakhine Span Rulers
Eras Eras Eras Eras
1. Dhannywady BC 3287- BC 2666-BC 1842 54
Marayu-Dannya 824
Kanrazagri - BC 824 – 824 23
Danaya AD(0)
Ralamaryu - AD (1 ) – AD 146 5
Danaya 146
Sandathuria - -AD 346 3651 110 AD 146 – 642 25
Danaya AD 788
2. Wethali AD 364 – 429 25 AD 788 150-
AD 793
AD 793 – 155 - 156 1 -
AD 794
Sambwak AD 794 – 156 - 180 24 1 -AD 1018 -380 230 12
AD 818
3. Pyinsa AD 818 – 180 - 465 285 AD 1018 – 380 – 465 85 15
AD 1103 AD 1103
4. Parain AD 1103 – 465 - 504 39 AD 1103 – 465 – 529 64 8
AD 1142 AD 1167
5. Khraik AD 1142 – 504 - 513 9 AD 1167 – 529 – 542 13 4
AD 1151 AD 1180
6. Second Sambwak AD 1151 – 513 - 523 10
AD 1161
7. Nareinsara AD 1161 – 523 - 612 89
AD 1250
8. Second Pyinsa AD 1180 – 542 – 599 57 16
AD 1237
9. Laungrat AD 1250 612 AD 1237 – 599 – 766 167 17
AD 1404
AD 1430 -792 180 61 AD 1404 – 766 – 792 26 1
AD 1430
10. Mrauk-U AD 1430 – 792 - 1146 354 48 AD 1430 – 792 - 1146 354 48
AD 1784 AD 1784
5071 245 4450 218
taemufb*gF (12)wGif ppfwaumif;pm;[lI rif;zavmif;vufxufrwkid rf D txd&cdS ahJ omf
vnf; rif;zavmif; vufxufrpS I taemufb&k if[I l jzpfvmonf//
ppfwaumif;pm;onf taemufb&k if.vufatmufcjH zpfonf// taemufb&k if.
&k;H pku
d o
f nfah e&mrSm 'g;um;ESifh rk;d &SD;'gbufwdk@jzpfonf// rif;zavmif;rS
pENo"k rR&mZmvufxuftxd taemufb&k if&cSd o Jh nf// yxrqkH;aom taemufb&k ifrmS
rif;zavmif;.om;awmf rif;apmvSjzpfjyD; aemufq;kH aom taemufb&k ifrmS
pENo"k rR&mZm. nDtpfu0kd rf;uGaJ wmfpyfol rif;&JocF,gjzpfonf//
&cdik t
f aemufb&k ifrsm; xkwaf 0cJah om '*Fg;ESifh ouU&mZf
pOf taemufb&k if '*Fg;ygtrnf awmfqufyHk xkwv f yk o
f nfh rSwcf suf
acgi;f buf yef;buf ESpf
1// rif;apmvS oD&od &D d 953 rif;zavmif;.o aumZm 953 yxrqH;k aom
taemufb&k if rif;w&m;=uD; m;awmf at'D 1591 tatmufb&k if
owd;k taemuf
2// rif;ndk tDpvefo#m 959 rif;zavmif;. aumZm 957
e&"dywdowd;k om;awmf at'D 1597
3// oD[ywd plvwef 960ck&m"dywd
rif;&mZm=uD;.OD; aumZm 960 usyjf ynf'h *Fg; OD;&D;awmf
[Dvufvo f #m OD;&D;awmfav; at'D 1598 eENb,'*Fg;[k
r[moD[ok& ,Qi, f ql cJah om '*Fg;
plvwef plVr[m&m*sm ig;rl;om;
[Dvufvo f #m '*Fg;plVpajEN'*Fg;[k
,Qi, f ql cJah om'*Fg;
4// csmu&mbma oD&o d &D d 973 rif;&mZm=uD;.o aumZm 973 rif;&mZm=uD;.om;
' plvrefo#m qifjzL&Siof wd;k m; at'D 1611 rif;ref=uD; '*Fg;jzpfeidk /f /
qlvref rif;ref=uD;udk ay:wl*w D dk@u
t,fvref*sm [k
5// taemufb&k if ppfwaumif;pl ppfwaumif;rif; oD&o d "k rR&mZm aumZm 1000 ppfwaumif;wGix f wk v f yk f
rif;&J vwef 1038 ESifh at'D 1638 onf//
AD nDtpfuw dk 0rf;uGJ
6// olyek rf if;&J ylZmzgo#mppfwaumif; at'D 1638 r*dyk idk ef uftwGi;f xkwv
f yk f
f if onf//
7// oD&ad Z,saemf ppfwaumif;& 100 rod at'D 1638 e&ywdrif;=uD;
&xm mZm ppfwaumif; eef;ouftwGi;f
oD&ad Z,saemf&
8// rif;&Jo[
D ol eDZrfo#m rif;&Jo[
D ol rod at'D 1645 bk&ifowd;k rif;w&m;ouf
9// rif;&ocFy0g ppfwaumif; rif;&JocFy0g pENo"k rR&mZm. at'D 1652 aemufq;kH aom
ylbm&pfo#m nDtpfu0dk rf;uGJa ppfwaumif;taemufb&k if
wmfpyf ,Qirf if;Ag=uD;'*Fg;

tykid ;f (2)

t*Fvyd v
f ufatmuf&ckid jf ynf
18 &mpkaESmif;ykid ;f
47// t*Fvyd rf sm;onf tdE, Nd edik if wH iG f (17) &mpktapmykid ;f rSpwifI
ukeuf ;kl oef;a&mif;0,fa&; vkyu f ikd o
f nfh ta&St h Ed ,
Nd ukr%
` jD zifx h ;kd azgu0f ifa&mufum
c&pfouU&mZf (1765) ckEpS w f iG f r*ktd ifyg,mykid f bk&if&mS ;tmvrfxrH S b*Fvm;/ bD[mESihf
atm&pPjynfe,fwkd@ukd tkycf sKyfciG fh &&So d nfwiG f tdE, Nd wEkid if v
H ;kH ukd pk;d rk;d oGm;ygawmhonf//
Tokd@p;kd rk;d jyD;aemuf jrefrmbk&ifu &ckid u f kd ppfra=ujimbJ
0ifa&mufwu kd cf u
kd o
f rd ;f yku
d v f ukd af oma=umifh t*Fvyd Ef iS fh jrefrmwkd@rmS
xdywf u kd &f ifqikd &f rnfh tajctaeay:ayguv f mawmhonf//

19 &mpktpykid ;f
48// jrefrmESit fh *Fvyd w f kd@onf e,fajrcsi;f xdawG@ae&ojzifh r=umc% tjiif;yGm;rlrsm;/
tcsi;f yGm;r_rsm; jzpfcyJh gonf// jrefrmbk&iftm;yefuefcaJh om &ckid afh wmfveS af &;orm;rsm;ukd
t*Fvyd f wkd@u ckv d kH@ciG afh y;cJu
h m yif;0gwiG jf rdK@wnfI xm;cJyh gonf// jrefrmbufu
t*Fvyd w f kd@tm; yef uefo(l 3)OD;tm; zrf;qD;v$aJ jymif;&ef awmif;qkdco Jh nfukd t*Fvyd w f @kd u
vkud af v#mh vkyaf qmif ay;cJyh gonf// aemufyikd ;f t*Fvyd -f jrefrmwkd@. qufqaH &;rSm
wif;rmvmcJyh gonf// Todk@&aSd e pOf ta&St h Ed ,
Nd ukr%
R ED iS fh opfxw
k vf yk rf u_ pd rP sm;wGif
jrefrmbufrS zrf;qD;ta&;,lrr_ sm; a=umifh at'D (1824) wGif t*Fvyd w f dk@u jrefrmukd
ppfa=ujimwku d cf ukd rf r_ sm;jyKvkyvf mcJoh nf// (2)ESp=f um ppfyjGJ zpfymG ;jyD;aemuf at'D (1826)
ck/ azazmf0g&v D (24) &ufaehwiG f &EWypkd pfjidr;f csr;f a&;pmcsKyf csKyfqckd u
Jh m jrefrmEkid if .
&ckid jf ynfEiS w
fh eoF&u D rf;ajrmifa'owkd@ukd t*Fvyd w f kd@ tm;ay;tyfc&Jh ygonf// t*Fvyd w f @dk u
xkad 'orsm;ukd tdE, Nd . tpdwt f ykid ;f tjzpf oGwo f iG ;f um tkycf sKyfjcif;jyKcJo
h nfudk
t*Fvyd v f ufatmuftEd , Nd A[ktd pk;d &tkycf sKyfra_ tmufokd@a&muf&jSd cif;

19 &mpktv,fyikd ;f
49? at'D (1858) ck/ ekd0ifbm (1) &ufaehwiG f tdE, Nd ekid if u
H t
kd a&Sth Ed , Nd ukr%
` .D tkycf sKyfr_
atmufrS t*Fvyd t f pk;d &.tkycf sKyfra_ tmufokd@ v$aJ jymif;&,la=umif;
t*Fvyd tf pk;d &ua=ujim cJyh gonf? okd@jzpfI tdE, Nd ekid if .
H tpdwt f ydik ;f wpfct k jzpf
oGwof iG ;f owfrw S jf cif;cH&onfh &ckid f jynfEiS fh weoFm&Durf;ajrmifa'owdk@onfvnf;
t*Fvyd tf pk;d &tkycf sKyfrv _ ufatmufokd@ a&muf&cSd yJh gonf? tdE, Nd ekid if .
d pk;d &&k;H pku
d &f mjrdK@rSm xdpk Ofujrefrmekid if EH iS fh uyfv#u&f Sd aom b*Fvm;jynfe,f&dS
umvuUwm;jrdK@ jzpfonfuakd wG &h ygonf?

ppfawGjrdK@uw kd nfaxmifjcif;
50? t*Fvyd w f kd@onf &ckid jf ynfuo kd rd ;f ykud jf yD;onfah emuf c&pfouU&mZf(1827) ckEpS w f iG f ppf
awGjrdK@ukd wnfaxmifumtkycf sKyfcyJh gonf? ppfab;'%fa=umifh ppfwaumif;/
b*Fvm;ponf wkd@ukd ajy;0ifcv kd cH_ =Jh uaom &ckid rf sm;onf ppfawGjrdK@uJhodk@
wnfaxmifpjrdK@rsm;okd@4if;/ rdrw d kd@ ae&if;a'orsm;okd@4if;/ jyefvnf0ifa&mufvmcJ=h uygonf?
(1831) ckEpS v f Ol ;D a&pm&if;rsm;t& ppfawG/ oHwEGJ iS fh ausmufjzLc&kid w f kd@wiG f vlO;D a&rSm
wode;f ausmcf ef@om&Scd yJh gonf?
pl;tufw;l ajrmif; azguv f yk jf cif;ESifit hf wl t*Fvyd rf sm;onf &ckid jf ynftwGi;f okd@
b*Fgvu D vk m;rsm;ukd ac:,lrp_ wifjcif;
51? t*Fvyd rf sm;onf pD;yGm;a&;tjrwfxw k af &;twGuf jrefrmekid if oH kd@0if&mufvmonf
jzpf&m &Sod nfah jrrsm;wGif pku d yf sK;d xkwv f yk &f ef wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;.vkyt f m;jzifh
tm;&wif;wdrjf cif;r&Sd awmhojzifh tdE, Nd ekid if rH v
S ,form;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;uk&d ,lz@kd
pDpOfaqmif&u G v f mygonf?(1869) ckEpS w f iG f pl;tufw;l ajrmif;azguv f yk vf u dk o
f nftwl
urBmq h efrsm; aumif;rGev f mo jzifh t*Fvyd rf sm;onf &ckid jf ynftwGi;f okd@
ppfwaumif;b*Fvm;wkd@rS b*Fv-D rlqvifrsm;ukd enf;trsK;d rsKd ;jzifh
ac:,lvyk u f ikd jf cif;jyKcJyh gonf?
19 &mpkaESmif;ykid ;f
52? t*Fvyd rf sm;onf(1874)ckEpS w f iG f tdE, Nd ekid if oH m;ukvm;rsm;tm; v,form;rsm;
tjzpf ac:,lae&mcsxm;&ef pDpOfcyJh gonf? Ttaxmuftxm;rsm;t& xdpk Ofu
ajrvGwaf jr &kid ;f rsm;ukd *&efay;&mY pnf;urf;csuw f &yfrmS *&ef&&So d o l nf
*&efajra'o.jyifywGif aexdik f oljzpfap&rnf[al om tcsujf zpfygonf?
*&ef(24)ckxw k af y;cJ&h mY armifawmjrdK@e,fwiG f *&ef(15)ckEiS fh bl;oD;awmifjrdK@e,fwiG f
*&ef(9)ck jzpfa=umif;awG@&&Sd ygonf?okd@jzpfIvnf; 4if;jrdK@ e,frsm;wGif b*FvrD q l vifrsm;
tpkid t f cJEiS t fh ajcpku d f aexdik ef idk if cf jJh cif;jzpfygonf?
tvkyo f rm;tufOya'w&yfjyXmef;jcif;
53? edik if jH cm;om;ukvm;rsm;onf v,form;rsm;tjzpfaexkid =f uovkd
v,f,mtvkyo f rm; rsm;tjzpf vma&mufvyk u f ikd jf yD; ajcpdu
k af exdik =f uoluaexdik /f
tdE, Nd ekid if o
H kd@vyk if ef;&moD ukeq f ;Hk csed wf iG f jyefou l jyef=ua=umif;awG@&&Sd ojzifh
t*Fvyd rf sm;onf (1876) ckEpS w f iG f tvkyf orm;tufOya'w&yfukd jyXge;f vmcJjh yefygonf?
TtufOya't& tdE, Nd ekid if o
H m;tvkyf orm;rsm;uk&d ,ljcif;xuf
jyifyuefx&ku d wf mwkd@rSwqifh &,ljcif;u vG,u f o l jzifh v,f,m ydik &f iS Ef iS fh
t*Fvyd v f ufa0cHt&if;&Siw f kd@u vG,u f al omenf;ukt d ok;jH yK=uojzifh xkt d vkyf
orm;tufOya'rSm t"dy`g,rf &Sjd zpfcyJh gonf?

b*Fvu D v k m;rsm;ukd o,f,&l eft*Fvyd w f kd u

h oabFmukr% ` rD sm;zGivfh pS jf cif
54? xkt d vkyo f rm;tufOya'jyXge;f onfh (1876)ckEpS w f iG f tufOya't&r[kwb f J
tvGwf oabm jrefrmekid if t H wGi;f okd@0ifa&mufvmol
ekid if jH cm;om;ukvm;OD;a&rSm(15000)ausmcf ef&h Sd a=umif;ESi/fh aemufyidk ;f ESprf sm;wGiv f nf;
0ifa&mufvmolEpS pf Of(15000)ausmcf ef@&o Sd nf[k qkyd g onf? (British India Steam Navigation
Company) ac: t*Fvy d yf idk f oabFmukr% ` u D tdE, Nd ekid if rH S jrefrmekid if o
H kd@tqkyd g
tdE, Nd edik if oH m;ukvm;tvkyo f rm;rsm;ukd wOD;wnf;o,f
ykd@vyk u f ikd vf #u&f &Sd mrS(1880)ckEpS w f iG f wnfaxmifaom(Asiatic Steam Navigation Company)
ac: t&if;&Sio f abFmukr% ` u D 0ifa&mufvyk u f kdiv f mojzifh oabFmcrsm;av#mh
csjcif;jyKv#uf tjydKiftqdik v f yk u
f ikd v
f m=ua=umif; t*Fvyd w f kd@taeESifh tvkyo f rm;rsm;rsm;
&&Sjd yD; jrefjrefqefqef pkduyf sK;d xkwv f yk af &mif;csvo dk nfjzpfaoma=umifh
oabFmukr% ` rD sm;tm; axmufyaHh =u;ay;onfh tpDtpOfut kd ok;H jyKvmcJah =uif; awG
&h &Sd ygonf?
b*Fgvu D v k m;rsm; &cdik o f kd@a&muf&v Sd monfh OD;a&
55? (1880-81) ckEpS w f iG f elid if jH cm;om; tvkyo f rm;(40000)ausmf jrefrmedik if t H wGi;f 0if
a&mufvmcJo h nfh aemufEpS u f ek q f kH;onft h cg (18000)om tdE, Nd elid if oH kd@ jyef=ua=umif;/
(1883-84) ckEpS w f iG f 0ifa&mufvmol tvkyo f rm;OD;a& (83000)txd&cSd jJh yD; (43000)rSm
jrefrmelid if w H iG af exdik cf =Jh ua=umif; az:jyxm;ygonf? t*Fvyd w f dk@u
ukvm;tvkyo f rm;OD;a& rsm;pGm0ifa&mufae=uojzifh oabFmukr% ` rD sm;tm;ay;aeonfh
axmufyaHh =u;ukd &yfqkdi;f vdu k af omfvnf; jrefrmekid if t H wGi;f txl;tm;jzifh
&cdik jf ynfbufokd@ 0ifa&mufvm=uaom b*FgvrD q l vifO;D a&rSm t&Sed rf av#mo h mG ;bJ
wk;d wufvmcJyh gonf? (1927) ckEpS w f iG f 0ifa&muf vmoluv k m;tvkyo f rm;OD;a&rSm
(40000)&Scd o Jh nft h euf (25000)ausmrf mS tdE, Nd elid if oH dk@ jyefomG ;jcif;rjyKawmha=umif;ESihf
4if;wkd@onf yGpJ m;ti,fpm;rsm;/ avSoabFmom;rsm;/ v,fvyk o f /l v,fuv l pD onfjzifh
vkyu f ikd af e=ua=umif; awG &h &Sd ygonf?
ppfysK;d a&;ESiv fh yk if ef;twGuf wESpf (2) }udrf b*Fvu D v k m;rsm;ukd ac:,ljcif;
56? t*Fvyd t f pk;d &. pku d yf sK;d a&;ESiq fh ufpyfv#u&f aSd omvkyif ef;rsm; wk;d csJ@a&;
ay:vpDrsm;wGif vdt k yfcsut f & b*Fvm;jynfe,frS elid if jH cm;om;rlqvifrsm;
vma&muf=u&mY &moDtvku d f ulvv D yk of rl sm;rSm pyg;pku d yf sK;d csed wf iG w f csed /f
pyg;&dwo f rd ;f csed wf iG w f csed f trsm;tjym;ESppf Of vma&mufavh&=Sd ujyD;/ tcsKd@onf
&ckid jf ynfwiG f ajcpku d af exdik v f #uf &SEd iS jfh yD;aom b*FgvD rlqvifrsm;ESifh
tquftoG,&f ,lum b*Fvm;okd@ rjyefawmhbJ
qufvufaexdik =f uygonf?Todk@0ifvmolrsm;rSm &cdik jf ynftwGi;f
vGwv f yfpmG oGm;vmElid cf iG &fh aSd =umif;ESifh vma&muf&m Yvnf; p&dwu f ek u f sre_ nf;jcif;/
tcsed rf =ubJa&mufeikd jf cif;/ vG,u f rl &_ jSd cif;/ ponfwkd@a=umifh b*FvrD q l viftrsm;tjym;
vma&mufjcif;jzpfa=umif; az: jyxm;ygonf?
bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmukd qufo, G &f ef &xm;vrf;azguv f yk jf cif;
57? t*Fvyd w f kd@onf 4if;wdk@vt
kd yfaomtvkyo f rm;rsm;ukd aps;aygaygEiS vfh t
kd yfovk&d &S&d ef
armfawmfoabFmrsm;ukd pDpOfajy;qGaJ y;cJyh gonf? ,if;oabFmrsm;rSmvnf; t*Fvefeidl if rH S
xkwv f yk af &mif;csaom armfawmfbabFmrsm;jzpf=uonf? 4if;tjyif rD;&xm;vrf;azmufvyk f
&efprD cH aJh om ar,kjrpfay:&Sd bl;oD;awmifEiS efh wfjrpf(eyf-zfa&Ag) ay:&Sdarmif;awmukd quf
oG,o f nfh a&aEG;aiG@o;kH &xm;i,fajy;qGcJ aJh =umif; az: jyxm;onfukdvnf; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
b*FvrD q l vifrsm;. p&ku d t f usifh
58? Tppfwaumif;om; b*FvrD q l vifrsm;ESiyfh wfoufaom pdw0f ifpm;zG,jf zpfonfh
p&kud f tusiu fh vkd nf; rSww f rf;wifxm;ygonf? aumif;aomp&ku d t f usiw fh kd@rmS
4if;wkd@onf aiGukd acGswmok;H pGw J wfyEkH iS fh tvkyu f rkd ysi;f r&d}udK;pm;
tm;xkwv f yk u
f ikd wf wfyw kH kd@jzpfonf? raumif;aomtusipfh &ku d rf mS olwyg;tm;
w&m;&k;H rsm;wGif tr_tcif;vkyv f rkd _ tm;oefjcif; jzpfa=umif;ESifh aiGa=u;&&Srd nfqv kd #if
r[kwrf rSev f rd v f nfxu G q f o kd nfh oufaorsm; zefw;D jyD; trSq l ifjcif;/
ponfwkd@uv kd yk wf wfavh&aSd }umif;ESifh t*Fvyd w f &m;ol=uD;rsm;u rSerf Seu f efuef
w&m;pD&ifeikd &f ef tcuftcJ&o Sd nft h a=umif;wkd@uv kd nf; rSww f rf;wifxm;cJh ygonf?
ESpaf ygi;f (80)
(80) twGi;f ppfawGc&kid w f iG f
wk;d yGm;vmaom b*FvrD [mar'ifbmom0ifO;D a&
59? b*Fvm;jynfe,fbufrS r[mar'ifbmom0ifb*Fgvv D rl sK;d wkd@ &cdik jf ynftwGi;f ok@d
wHcg; r&Sd 'g;r&Sd 0ifa&mufvm=uyku H kd vlO;D a& tajcjypm&if;rsm;t& atmufygtwdik ;f
jzpfonfukd awG@&&Sd ygonf?
ppfawGc&kid f vlO;D a&pm&if;
ckEpS f vlO;D a&
1832 109645
1842 130034
1852 201677
1862 227231
1872 276617
1881 359706
1891 416305
1901 481666
1911 529943
armifawmjrdK@e,f. vlO;D a&odyo f nf;q
60? (1901)ckEpS rf pS I wk;d wufvmaomvlO;D a&ukjd rdK@e,ftvku d f =unfv h #if
armifawmjrdK@e,f wGif (21µ)wk;d wufa=umif;ESifh armifawmjrdK@e,f.
vlO;D a&odyo
f nf;qrSm pwk&ef; wrkid v f #if vlO;D a&(130)&Sad =umif; azmfjyxm;ygonf?
armifawmjrdK@e,frmS ppfwaumif;e,fajrESifh uyf v#u&f aSd oma=umifh ppfwaumif;om;
r[mar'ifbmomuk;d uG,o f t
l rsm;pkaexkid =f ujcif; jzpfygonf?
d u
f jGJ ym;aom armif;awmjrdK@e,f vlO;D a&
bmom 1871 1901 1911
[dELN 2655 14455 14454
r[mar'if 58255 154887 17864
&cdik -f Ak'b
< mom 171612 239649 209432
awmifay:om;rsm; 38577 35489 34020
r[mar'ifbmomud;k uG,o f b l *FvOD ;D a&rSm tpOfwpdu k w f ;dk wufco Jh nfudk awG@&ygonf//
jrefrmElid if o H nf jAdwo d #vufatmufcH jynfe,fwckjzpf zpjf cif;
63? ukvm;rsm;twm;tqD;r&Sd 0ifa&mufvmelid jf cif;rSm jrefrmElid if o H nf tdE, Nd elid if .
H jynf
e,fwckjzpfaeojzifjh zpf&m/ tdE, Nd rS jrefrmelid if cH x GJ uG &f efukd aqmif&u G cf =Jh uygonf? (1931)
ckEpS f t*Fvyd t f pk;d &ESifh ndES i_d ;f aqG;aEG;oabmwlncD sut f & (1932)ck/ el0d ifbmvwGif
jrefrmelid if YH a&G;aumufyjGJ yKvkyjf yD;/ jrefrmelid if YH a&G;aumufwifajrSujf cif;cH&ol Oya'jyK
aumifp0D if (31) OD;u cGx J u G af &;ukad xmufccH jJh yD; (14) OD;u uef@uu G cf yJh gonf? ok@d jzpfI
J u G af &;u telid &f &Scd yJh gonf?
1935 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmelid if o
H nf tdE, Nd elid if rH S cGx J u G cf jJh cif;
64// jrefrmelid if u H kd oD;jcm;jynfe,ftjzpf tkycf sKyf&ef(1935)ckEpS w f iG f tufOya'jyXge;f ay;cJyh g
onf?jrefrmedik if o H nf tdE, Nd elid if rH cS xGJ u G ef ild cf aJh omfvnf; jAdwo d #vufatmufcH Elid if t H jzpf
qufvufwnf&aSd eojzifh tdE, Nd elid if o H m;rsm;rSmae&m&v#uyf if&ySd gonf?

wzufeild if rH S ukvm;rsm;0if&mufqJ
65? okd@jzpfonftwkid ;f ukvm;rsm;0ifa&mufrr_ mS vnf; &Sjd rJyifjzpfygonf? jrefrmelid if &H dS
vkyif ef;wkid ;f rSmvkyd if 4if;wkd@ vkyu f ikd v
f #u&f . Sd ? tpk;d &Xgersm;wGif &k;H rif;aprSonf
Xmet=uD; tuJtxd ae&mrsm;wGi&f o Sd uJoh kd@ jyifyvkyif ef;rsm;wGiv f nf; vufvyk v f ufpm;
ulvrD oS nf vkyif ef;&Si=f uD;txd jzpfv#u&f =Sd uygonf?
66? TtpD&ifcpH m.wifjycsut f & jrefrmESit fh Ed ,
Nd xdEk pS ef ild if t H pd;k &wkd@u vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyf
a&;twGuf aqG;aEG;}ujyD;/ “apm b*sF ykid ”f oabmwlncD suw f &yfukd xkwjf yefEild cf yhJ gonf?
vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;bkwt f zGJ@ zGJ@pnf;jcif;
20 &mpktv,fyikd ;f
67? (1941)ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmelid if wH iG f (7) ESpwf qufwnf; aexdik o f rl sm;tm; tcGix fh ;l cH
vl0ifr&_ oltjzpf vufrw S rf sm;xkwaf y;jcif;ukd vkyu f ikd ef ild cf pJh Of
'kw, d urBmph pfjzpfvmonfwiG f tdE, Nd elid if o
H m;rsm; 0ifa&mufru _ u kd ef@owf&ef
vkyu f ikd af eaomvkyif ef;rsm; &yfqikd ;f oGm;cJyh g onf?
68? (1942)ckEpS f jrefrmelid if w H iG ;f okd@ *syefppfwyfrsm; 0ifvmonft h cg tdE, Nd elid if o
H m;
tajrmuftrsm;onf tdE, Nd jynfokd@xu G af jy;=uygonf? uke;f a=umif;oGm;olrsm;rSm
jynfjrdK@rS wqifh &ckid &f ;kd rukjd zwfausmo f mG ;olrsm;&Sod vkd rk&H mG -uav;0bufrS
oGm;olrsm;&Scd =Jh uygonf?xdo k kd x
h u G af jy;oGm;oltaygi;f rSm (400000) cef@ &Sad =umif;
bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@wiG f a&muf&v Sd maom r[mar'if
r[mar'ib f mom0ifrsm;.
tpkid t f cJEiS u fh vk m;/ &ckdit
f xdu&k%;f
69? tdE, Nd elid if . H b*Fvm;jynfe,f(,cktcg b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if )H ESifh teD;qk;H jzpfonfh
&ckid jf ynf e,fbuf&Sd bl;oD;awmifjrdK@e,fwdk@wiG f r[mar'ifbmomuk;d uG,af om
b*Fgvv D rl sL;d rsm; tpkid t f cJEiS rfh nfr#&aSd eoenf; qkv d #if (1942)ckEpS f oef;acgipf m&if;t&
(124452) OD;&Sad =umif; azmfjyxm;ygonf? Tokd@&jSd yD; vlrsm;ESi&fh ckid &f ;kd r
ukjd zwfausmv f maom tdE, Nd ppfajy;rsm;ESifh aygi;f qkrH d=uaomtcg
txl;rsm;jym;vmonfuwpfa=umif;/ t*Fvyd rf sm;qkwcf GgomG ;onfEiS fh
tkycf sKyfa&;ysujf ym;aeonfuwpfa=umif;wdk@a=umifh rcHr&yfeild jf zpfaeaom
&ckid vf rl sK;d tcsKd@wkd@ ESiufh vk m;wkd@ wku d cf u kd o
f wfjzwf=u&mrS pwifjyD; ukvm;-
&ckid tf xdu&k%;f wpfcak y:ayguf vmcJo h nf? ukvm;trsm;pk&aSd om
bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,ftwGi;f wGif &ckid &f mG rsm; rD;&_H@zsuq f D;jcif;cH&jyD;
vlrsm;ygowfjzwfc&H a=umif; od&&Sd ygonf?

'kw, d urBmph pfrwkid rf SD bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;wGif &Sad eaom

&ckid af us;&Gmrsm;
70? 'kw, d urBmph pf=uD;rjzpfru SD mvu bl;oD;awmifEiS fh armif;awmjrdK@e,ftwGi;f &Sd
wnf&cSd Jh aom &cdik af us;&Gmtrsm;tjym;onf b*Fvv D rl sK;d rlqvifrsm; tajcpkud af exdik jf yD;/
0g;jrdKoGm; ojzifyh sujf ym;=uonft h xJ aemufxyfuv k m;/ &cdik f t"du&k%;f jzpf=uonft h cg
use&f Sd ao;aom &ckid &f mG rsm;yg zsuq f ;D cHc&Jh ygojzifh xkad 'ow0ku d w
f iG f b*Fvm;rlqvifrsm;
vGr;f rd;k edil af omtaexm;okd@ a&muf&cSd yJh gonf? (1941)ckEpS u f armifawmjrdK@e,fwiG f
&ckid af us;&Gm(129)&Gm &Scd &Jh m ppfab;'%fEiS fh ukvm; &cdik t f "du&k%;f a=umifh
&ckid vf rl sK;d aus;&Gm (68)&Gmom use&f aSd =umif; awG &h &Sd ygonf?
1943 ckEpS f =o*kwv f wGif jrefrmelid if u
H kd *syefu vGwv f yfa&;ay;a=umif
71? *syefrsm;onf (1942)ckEpS f rk;d rusraD v;vtwGi;f jrefrmelid if u H kd odr;f ,ljyD;aemuf
(1943) ckEpS /f =o*kwv f wGif jrefrmelid if u H kd *syefuvGwv f yfa&;ay;a=umif;a=ujimcJyh gonf?
'kad rowif; wpfcw k iG af z:jycsuYf a'guw f mAarmf. *syeftpd;k &onf vkyif ef;&yfrsm;
atmifjrifpmG aqmif &GuEf ild cf &Jh mwGif jAdwo d #vufatmufcH tdE, Nd vlrsK;d rsm;wkd@
jy\emukv d nf; ukid w f ,G af jz&Si;f elid cf Jh a=umif;yg&o Sd nfuakd wG@&&Sd m ukvm;rsm;jy\emrSm
jrefrmElid if w H iG f rnfrsta&;}uD;ae a=umif; az:nGe;f onfh oabmjzpfygonf?
1945 ck ZEN0g&v D wGif ppfawGjrdK@ukd t*Fvyd w f kd u
h jyefvnford ;f ,ljcif;
72? (1942)ckEpS f 'DZifbmvwGif tdE, Nd elid if wH iG &f aSd eaom jAdwo d #ppfom;rsm;u &ckid jf ynf
e,fokd@ 0ifa&muf&ef}udK;pm;cJah omfvnf; *syefrsm;. wdu k cf udk rf aSk =umifh jyefvnfqw k cf gG c=hJ u
&ygonf? (1944)ckEpS f aEGumvwGif jAdwo d #ppfwyfrsm;onf 'kw, d t}udrf 0ifa&mufwu dk f
d jf yef&m *syefrsm;u wzef4if;wkd@tm; jzwfawmufxm;cJEh ild af omfvnf; jAdw d o d #r[m
rdww f yfrsm; av,Ofrsm;u tm;omrSal =umifh 4if;wkd@
wyfrsm;ujyefvnfwu kd cf u
kd Ef ild af =umif; ESifh {jyDvtxd wku d yf rGJ sm;wGif
*syefppfom;(5000)cef@ usq;kH cJah =umif;/ xkd@aemuf (1945)ckEpS f ZEM0g&v D wGif
ppfawGupkd wifwufa&mufjyD; &ckid jf ynfe,ftwGi;f rS *syefrsm;ukd wku d x f w k Ef ild f cJyh gonf?
'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f b*FgvrD q l vifrsm; tjcpdu k af exkid rf r_ sm; jzpfcsiw f ikd ;f jzpfaecJjh cif;
73? jAdwo d #rsm;onf &cdik jf ynfEiS efh ,fcsi;f pyfv#u&f adS om b*Fvm;jynfe,fukd ajcuky, f I l
wku d cf &Jh m b*FvrD q l vifrsm;ukt d ok;H jyK&onfhtwkid ;f 4if;wkd@tm; tcGit fh a&;ay;cJ&h ygonf?
&cdik jf ynftwGi;f jAdwo d #ppfwyfrsm;ESifh *syefwyfrsm;onf (1943) ckEpS f 'DZifbmv
wku d yf rGJ pS I (1945)ck ppfawGukd wufa&muford ;f cJo h nftxd wku d yf JGrsm;jzpfc=Jh uojzifh
twnfwus tkycf sKyfa&;r&Sb d J jzpfaeI b*FgvrD q l vifrsm; tajcpku d af exdik rf r_ sm;rSm
jzpfcsiw f ikd ;f jzpfaecJyh g onf?

'kw, d urBmppf=uD; jyD;qk;oG H;oGm;csed w

f iG f ppfajy;'kuo Q nfrsm;tm; bl;oD;awmifEiS fh
armif;awmwGif jyefvnfae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;?
74? 'kw, d urBmph pf=uD; jyD;qk;H oGm;jyD;aemuf t*Fvyd rf sm;onf ppfajy;'kuo Q nfrsm;[k
fd m tdE, Nd elid if oH m;rsm;ukd jrefrmelid if o
H kd@ jyefvnf0ifa&mufciG jfh yKjcif;ESit
fh wl
&ckid jf ynfe,ftwGi;f wGif b*FvrD q l vifrsm;ukd ae&mcsxm;ay;ovkd
&ckid vf rl sK;d tcsKd@uv kd nf; bl;oD;awmifEiS fh armif;awmjrdK@e,ftwGi;f wGif
jyefvnfae&mcsxm;ay;cJyh gonf?
elid if jH cm;a&;0ef=uD;Xge vufatmufwiG f vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;Xgeukd
jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;jcif ;jcif;
75? tdE, Nd elid if o H m;rsm; twm;tqD;r&Sjd cif;/ jrefrmedik if t H wGi;f odk@ 0ifa&mufvmrnfh
tEW&m,fudk [ef@wm;umuG,&f eftwGuf 'kw, d urBmppf=uD;tjyD; (1945)ckEpS w f iG f
edik if jH cm; a&;0ef=uD;vufatmufY vl0ifr=l uD;=uyfa&;Xmeudk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;cJyh gonf?
xdk@aemuf (1647)ckEpS f ZGev f (14)&ufae@wiG f vl0ifr=l uD;=uyfa&; (vwfwavm
jyXmef;csurf sm;) tuf Oya'udk jyXmef;aqmif&u G cf yJh gonf?
1947 ckEpS f vl0ifr=l uD;=uyfa&; vwfwavm Oya'jyXmef;jcif;
76? 1947 vl0ifr=l uD;=uyfa&; vwfwavmjyXmef;csurf sm; tufOya't&
jynfwiG ;f 0ifa&muf aexdik cf iG v fh ufrw S -f odk@wnf;r[kwf enf;vrf;wusciG jfh yKxm;aom
edik if uH ;l vufrw S rf ygbJ rnfonfh edik if jH cm;om;rS jrefrmedik if o H dk@r0if&? jrefrmedik if w H iG ;f od@k
0ifa&mufvadk om edik if jH cm; om;wdik ;f onf enf;vrf;wusxw k af y;xm;aom ADZm
odk@r[kwf cGijfh yKvufrw S f &&S&d ygrnf? ADZm odk@r[kwf cGijfh yKvufrw S t f rsKd ;tpm;(9)rsKd ;cefh
&Sod nft h euf &moDtvdu k f 0ifciG fh vufrw S rf sKd ;rSm &cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f odk@
0ifa&mufonfb h *FvvD rl sKd ; tajrmuftrsm;u toH;k jyK=ujyD; rsm;aomtm;jzifh
jrefrmedik if t H wGi;f tajcpdu k af exdik &f ef romrmaomenf;rsm; toH;k jyKaexdik =f ua=umif;
od&&Sd ygonf?
rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f ol ukvm;qd;k tzGJ@ ay:ayguv f mjcif;
77? &cdik jf ynftwGi;f &Sd e,fpyfa'orsm;jzpfonfh bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,fw@kd wiG f
acwftqufqufu 0ifa&mufaexdik =f ua=umif; b*FgvrD q l vifvrl sKd ;wdk@onf tpdik t f cJEiS hf
&Sad e&m 4if;wdk@wiG f yif&if;a'o rlqvifeidk if u H dk tm;ud;k w}uD;jzifh &cdik jf ynfwiG f rlqvif
e,fajroD;jcm; owfrw S af y;&ef[al om 1947 ckEpS w f iG f vufeufqu GJ idk u f m
rl*sm[pfaomif; use;f ol ukvm;qdk;tzGJ@ ay:ayguv f mcJo h nf?
ukvm;qd;k rsm; bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awm&S awm&Sd &ckdiaf us;&Gmrsm;udrk ;D &_H@zsuq f ;D I edik if jH cm;om;
b*FgvrD q l vifuv k m;rsm;udk ac:,lIae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;
78? aomif;use;f olr*l sm[pftzGJ@onf usO;f ajrmif;aomvlrsKd ;a&;tjrifuq dk uGJ idk jf yD;
&cdik v f rl sKd ; rsm;aexdik af om &Gmrsm;udrk ;D &_zH suq f ;D um ekid if jH cm;om; b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;udk
ac:,lI ae&m csxm;ay;cJo h jzifh bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;wGif &cdidk v f rl sKd ;wd@k .
aus;&Gmrsm; tenf;i,fom use&f aSd wmhonft h ajctaeodk h a&muf&Sd ch o Jh nfudk awG
&h ygonf?
b*FgvrD q l vifrsm; edik if aH wmftay:wGif opPmrJjh cif;
79? b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;onf jrefrmedik . f e,fajray:wGif aexdik &f onfah us;Zl;udk raxmuf
xm;bJ edik if aH wmftay:opPmrJph mG vufeuftm;ud;k jzifah qmif&u G cf jJh cif;jzpf&m 4if;wd@k tm;
edik if o H m;tjzpf vufct H odtrSwjf yKzdk@rmS tEW&m,f=uD;a=umif;ay:vGiv f Ssuf &Syd gonf?
4if;wdk@ onf bmoma&;tpGt J vrf;=uD;jyD; usO;f ajrmif;aomvlrsKd ;a&;tjrif &S}d uolrsm;
jzpfonfh tavsmS uf 4if;wdk@. yif&if;edik if t H ay:rSmom opPmcHjcif;/
oHa,mZOf=uD;rm;jcif;rsm;om &Sad e =uonfrmS ,Hrk mS ;zG,&f mr&Syd ga=umif; od&eSd idk yf gonf?
t*Fvyd t f pd;k & &cdik u f dktyk pf ;dk pOfumvY mvY bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;wGif
r[mar'ifbmom0if b*Fgvv D rl sdsKd ; wd;k wufjrifrh m;vmjcif;?
80? t*Fvyd t f pd;k &onf &cdik jf ynfudk (1827)ckEpS rf S (1948) ckEpS t f xd
ESpaf ygi;f (120)ausm=f um tkypf ;dk cJyh gonf? ,if;umvtwGi;f 4if;wdk@ tusKd ;pD;yGm;udo k m
=unfjh yD; b*FgvrD q l vifrsm; 0ifa&mufru _ dk tm;ay;cJyh gonf? odk@jzpfIvnf; edik if jH cm;om;
b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;onf &cdik jf ynf&Sd bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;wGif
trsm;tjym;tajcpdu k af exdik u f m tcdik f trm jzpfvSsu&f adS eygonf? vlO;D a&pm&if;qdv k siS f
armif;awmjrdK@e,fwiG f (1921)ckEpS u f r[m ar'ifbmom0if b*Fgvv D rl sKd ;(60430)&Scd &hJ m
1941 ckEpS w f iG (f 124452) txdw;dk wuf rsm;jym; vmcJyh gonf?
81? 1941 ckEpS rf S 1945 ckEpS t f xd ppfjzpfaeaom umvjzpfonfh tm;avSsmpf mG w&m;Oya'
pd;k rd;k a&;twGuf xda&mufpmG raqmif&u G ef idk o
f nfEiS t
fh wl
tajcpdu k af exdik v f Ssu&f jSd yD;jzpfaom b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;udtk ajcjyKum
aemufxyf0ifa&mufvm=uonfh edik if jH cm;om; b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;
rnfrSsrsm;jym;vmonfudk aemufyidk ;f aumuf,cl aJh om vlO;D a&pm&if;rsm;u oufao
cHvSsu&f aSd eygonf?

k edk 0D g' jAdwo
d sS tarGq;dk
82? Tonfwdk rh mS jAdwo d suS v
dk edk 0D g'wGif tarGq;dk =uD;jzpfaom w&m;vufvw
G f 0ifa&muf
vmae=uaom b*FgvrD q l vifrsm; udpyP ifjzpfa=umif; xif&mS ;aeygonf?

tydik ;f (3)
z/ q/ y/ v acwf &cdik w f idk ;f
83? &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f Y zqyvESifh ,SOjf ydKifta&G;cH&ol &cdik t
f rsKd ;om; trwf 17 OD;&Scd &hJ m
4if;wdk@u vGwv f yfaom &cdik yf gvrD eftyk pf k [lIpkpnf;um jynfaxmifpt k wGi;f wGif
&cdik jf ynf e,f&&Sad &;udk a=uG;a=umfaqmif&u G cf Jhygonf?
84? b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;onf rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f olrsm;udv k nf;aumif;/ tm%m&
zqyv tzGJ@onf tm%mqufvuf wnf&aSd &;udo k m=unfjh yD; tcGifha&;ay;
pnf;&k;H vkyu f idk jf cif;rsm; udv k nf; tcGiafh umif;,lum &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f odk@ 4if;wdk@
0ifa&mufcjJh cif;rsm;onf avsmeh nf; oGm;onfr&Sb d J wd;k IomvmcJyh gonf?
85? 1954 ckEpS f rSww f rf;t&od&&Sd onfrmS vlO;D a&tqrwefrsm;jym;onfh ta&hyS gupd w P ef
edik if wH iG f 0wfa&;/ pm;a&;/ aea&; =uyfwnf;ojzifh jrefrmedik if t H wGi;f odk@
w&m;r0ifc;dk 0ifvm =ua=umif; &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f . e,fpyfa'owGif
vlO;D a&rSmwd;k wufrsm;jym;aeonf[k az:jy xm;ygonf?
86? ppfawGrmS yif 'DZifbm/ ZEM0g&/D azaz:0g&/D rwfv wdk@onf qefpyg;vkyu f idk o
f nfh tcsed f
jzpfojzifh edik if jH cm;om; ulvt D ajrmuftrsm; 0ifa&mufvmaom tcsed jf zpfa=umif;/
Ttcsed f wGif vlwOD;pDtwGuf ygrpfxw k af y;jcif;rsKd ;r[kwaf wmhbJ wpfapmifjzifv h l 30
twGuf xkwf ay;um trnfrsm;yif rygawmhonfh tajctaersKd ;jzifh
0ifa&mufvmcJ=h ua}umif;/ xdk@tjyif ygupPweftpd;k &u ta&;,lojzifh ppfwaumif;wGif
cd;k qdk;ayaw wdu k cf u dk wf wfaom vlru dk f rsm;onf ppfawGay:odk@ xGuaf jy;a&muf&v Sd m=ujyD;
azmufxiG ;f cd;k rlrsm;udyk if usL;vGe=f uonf udk awG &h &Sd a=umif; azmfjyxm;ygonf?
87? Tonfu=dk unfjh cif;tm;jzifh 1954 ckEpS w f idk af tmif wzufeidk if rH S
b*FvrD q l vifrsm;onf tvG,w f ulyif 0ifa&mufvyk u f idk =f ujyD;
yif&if;edik if o H dk@jyefomG ;olu jyefomG ;=uouJo h dk@ &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f wGiyf if tajcpdu k af exdik zf @kd
vkyo f w l dk@u tcuftcJr&Sv d yk uf idk ef idk =f ua=umif; awG &h &Sd ygonf?
88? ,if;taxmuftxm;rSww f rf;wGif vl0ifr=l uD;=uyfa&;Xmeudk 1941 ckEpS u f pwifI
wnfaxmifc&Jh um ppftwGi;f uvkyif ef;rsm;wdrjf rKyfcjJh yD; t*Fvyd jf yef0ifvmonfh 1946 ckEpS f
urSvyk if ef;rsm; jyefvnfvyk u f idk ef idk jf cif;ESifh vGwv f yfa&;&onft h csed wf iG f
wdik ;f &if;om;0efxrf; rsm;udk tcsed w f o dk ifwef;ay;I wm0efay;cJ&h ojzifh
csw G , f iG ;f r_rsm;&Syd ga=umif;/ vl0r_}uD;=uyf a&;Xmeudk axmifah phatmif
aqmif&u G v f yk u f idk ef idk zf dk@twGuf wd;k csJ@zGJ@pnf;vdkaomfvnf; tajc tae&yf&yfa=umifh wd;k csJ
rh vkyu f idk ef idk af =umif; azmfjyxm;onfuadk wG &h ygonf?
89? vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;Xme. tm;enf;csurf sm;&So d nft h jyif wdik ;f &if;om;ajrydik &f iS /f
qefpuf ydik &f iS Ef iS fh vkyif ef;&Siw f dk@uvnf; vkycf aps;aygaygEiS &fh onfh b*FvrD q l vifrsm;udk
vufct H m; ay;jcif;vnf;yg0ifa=umif;/ tm%m&edik if aH &;ygw=D uD;jzpfonfh zqyv uvnf;
jydKifqidk w f uf vmonfh &cdik ef idk if aH &;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk wefjyefwu dk cf udk ef idk &f eftwGuf
b*FvrD q l vifrsm;udk jrefrmedik if o H m;tjzpfvufcu H m
pnf;&k;H aqmif&u G cf jJh cif;rsm;jyKvkycf yJh ga=umif;/ rSww f rf;rsm; t& xdpk Ofu
ygvrD eftrwfjzpfol rpPwm plvweftmrwf qdo k tl m; ygvrD eftwGi;f 0ef&mxl; udyk if
ay;tyfcaJh =umif;awG@&&Sd ygonf?
90? rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f olrsm; qd;k ,kwyf u Hk adk zmfjy&mY 4if;wdk@onf txl;tm;jzifh bl;oD;
awmifEiS afh rmif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;wGif aexdik =f uonfh &cdik w f idk ;f &if;om;udo k mru jrefrmedik if H
om; ukvm;rsm;udyk g wdu k cf u dk af rmif;xkwjf yD; wzufeidk if rH S b*FvrD q l vifrsm;udk
ae&mcsxm; yga=umif; wdik ;f &if;om;&cdik rf sm;ESifh jrefrmukvm;rsm;rSm ppfawG ponfh
awmifbufyidk ;f odk@ xGuaf jy;vm=u&a=umif; a&S;tcg ol}uD;ydik f &Gmaygi;f 200 avmuf&&dS m
&cdik w
f idk ;f &if;om; 60000 ausmaf vmufrmS ,cktcg awmifyidk ;f wGio f m
tenf;i,f&aSd wmha=umif;ESifh bl;oD; awmifjrdK@e,fqv dk siS f 95 &mckid Ef e_ ;f rSm
r[mar'ifbmom ud;k uG,o f rl sm;jzpfaea=umif; azmfjy xm;ygonf?
91? jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if t H pd;k &taeESifh (1950-51)ckEpS rf S pwifI aomif;use;f olrsm;udk
wduk cf u dk v f mcJ&h m 1954 ckEpS w f iG f jydKvJapcJah =umif; jrefrmekid if t H pd;k &. rSeu f efaom
&yfwnfcsuEf iS fh rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f olrsm;. rrSeu f efaomvky&f yfrsm;a=umifh 4if;wd@k .
acgi;f aqmifqo dk ul ukvm; umpif;tm; ta&S@ygupPweftpd;k &u zrf;pD;jyD;
ppfwaumif;jrdK@axmif wGif tusO;f csxm;a=umif; awG &h &Sd ygonf?
92? &ckid jf ynfe,fwiG f tm%m& z-q-y-v tzGJ@udk ,SOjf ydKifta&G;cHc&Jh aom
&cdik t
f rsKd ;om; rsm;u &cdik w f idk ;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nDnw G af &;tzGJ@ &-w-n udzk GJ@pnf;um
a&G;aumufyu GJ dk 0if a&mufcyJh gonf? z-q-y-v tzGJ@onf rdrw d dk@
tm%m&&Sw d nfjrJa&;twGuf a&G;aumuf yGw J iG f tedik &f &ef[al om
tusKd ;wckwnf;udo k m=unfjh yD; b*FgvrD q l viftm; wd;k wufrsm;jym; vma&ef
tcGit fh a&;ay; pnf;vH;k aqmif&u G cf yJh gonf?
93? &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f edkiif oH m;/ edik if jH cm;om;[lI cGjJ cm;r&atmif a&maxG;,Suw f if jzpfae
aom b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;onf bl;oD;awmifEiS afh rmif;awma'ow0du k wf iG f tm%m& z-
q-y-v tpd;k &. tumtuG,u f , dk u
l m wbufeidk if rH S edik if jH cm;om;rlqvifrsm;udk
tcGit fh a&; &ovdk ed'ge;f ydik ;f wGiaf zmfjycJo h nft h wdik ;f cd;k oGi;f 0ifa&mufapcJyh gonf?
armifawmjrdK@e,f vlO;D a&pm&if;ud=k unfv h siS f (1941)ckEpS /f t*Fvyd v f ufxufu
b*FvrD q l vifO;D a&(124452) &Scd &Jh m rS vGwv f yfa&;&cJjh yD;aemuf (1956)ckEpS w f iG f
b*FgvrD q l vifO;D a&rSm(187792)txd wd;k wuf rsm;jym;vmonfudk awG &h ygonf?
wenf;qd&k vsiS f rlv&So d nfh b*FgvD rlqvifO;D a&. (50µ) txd wq,fih g;ESpt f wGi;f
wd;k wufrsm;jym;vmonfudk awG &h ygonf?
94? z-q-y-v tpd;k &vufxufu wbufeidk if rH &S moDtvdu k tf vkyo f rm;rsm;udk
tpkvu dk f tjyHKvdu k f ygrpfjzifh 0ifciG jfh yKcJjh cif;udk 1958 ckEpS u f tdraf pmift h pd;k &vufxufwiG f
&yfpv J u dk yf g onf? vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&; tpD&ifcpH mwckwiG f 1958 ckEpS u f
aemufq;Hk 0ifa&mufvmcJah om &moDvu dk t f vkyo f rm; (63)OD;wdk@tm; 4if;wdk@ yif&if;edik if o H @kd
jyefvnfydk@aqmifa&;udpw P iG f edik if uH ;l vufrw S tf wGuf t=uyftwnf;jzpfaeI
aESmifah ES;&a=umif;azmfjyxm;ygonf? Tonfu=dk unfjh cif;tm;jzifh &moDtvdu k f
ESppf Of0ifa&mufavh&aSfd om b*FgvrD q l vif tvkyf orm;rsm;onf yif&if;edik if o H dk@rjyefbJ
aewwf=uonfqadk omtcsuEf iS fh ,ckuo Jh dk@vufvyk f vufpm; tvkyo f rm;rsm;udyk if
,if;edik if u H jyefvnfvufc&H ef 0efav;wwfavh&o Sd nf[al om tcsuw f dk@rmS
odomxif&mS ;yga=umifh awG@&ySd ga=umif;awG@&&Sd ygonf?
95? &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f odk@ b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;. xd;k azmuf0ifa&mufrr_ mS pd;k &drzf , G &f myif
jzpfvm ojzifh (1995) ck rwfvtwGi;f usi;f yonfh &cdik w f idk ;f &if;om;nD;nGwaf &;tzG@J .
yOPrt=udrf a&mufnv D mcHrS “ppfawG/ bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awmjrdK@e,f&Sd
wdik ;f &if;om;trnfcH rlqvif tcsKd @. vufatmufct H ultnDay;r_wdk@a=umifh
ta&Syh gupPwef trsKd ;om;tajrmuftrsm; &cdik w f idk ;f twGi;f odk@
0ifa&mufaejcif;udx k ad &mufpmG wm;jrpfay;&ef[al om qH;k jzwfcsuw f &yf
udck srw S af y;cJyh gonf?
96? tm%m&&Sad &;wckwnf;uk=d unfhjyD; t=udwt f e,frq J , G pf nf;&k;H =uaom z-q-y-v
ESpjf crf;cGrJ S elid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf elid if o H m;jzpfEiS jfh yD;ol rlqvifrsm;.tcGit fh a&;
awmif;qkrd r_ sm;ukd cyfv, G v f , G yf if vufc=H uonfuakd wG@&ygonf? wdik ;f &if;om;trnfcH
b*FvrD q l vifrsm;u 4if;wkd@onf &k[ d if*sm rsm;jzpf=uonf[al om tok;H tE_e;f
tac:ta0: ukad z:xkwo f ;kH pG=J uv#uf jrefrmheild if aH &;acgi;f aqmmifrsm;u
vufco H nftxdjzpfapcJyh gonf? (1960) ckEpS f aemufyikd ;f y-x-p tpk;d &vufxufwiG f
wkid ;f &if;om;bmomtpDtpOfY &k[ d if *smbmomtoHviG cfh su[ f I
l yif xkwaf y;cJah =umif;
rSwrf b d ;l ygonf?
97? (1947)ckEpS w f iG f b*FvrD q l vifrsm;u rl*sm[pfvufeufuikd af omif;use;f r_ pwifcjhJ yD;
aemuf (1954)ckEpS w f iG f ,if; rl*sm[pf aomif;use;f r_rmS
tpk;d &.ta&;,laqmif&u G rf a_ =umihf csKyfjidr;f aysmufu, G cf yJh gonf? b*FvrD q l vifrsm;onf
(1960)ckEpS f a&G;aumufyw GJ iG f 4if;wkd@ tcGit fh a&;&jyefojzifh &k[ d if*smrsK;d cspw f yfO;D (Rohinger
Patriotic Front) [laomtzGJ@tpnf; trnfjzifh &cdi kw f ikd ;f &Sd rlqvifrsm;.
vGwv f yfpmG uk;d uG,cf iG /fh vGwv f yfpmG oGm;vmaexdik cf iG /fh zdEySd cf sKyfcs,rf j_ zifh
ESyd pf ufnOS ;f yrf;r_rsm;ukd umuG,&f efponfh &nf&n G cf surf sm;&Sad =umif;jzifh zGJ@ pnf;um
&k[d if*sm v_y&f mS ;r_pwifcaJh =umif; awG &h &Sd ygonf?
98? ed'ge;f ykid ;f wGiaf zmfjycJah om &k[ d if*smtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS xkwaf 0aom pmwrf;rsm;t&
&ckid f a'ookd@ pwifa&muf&=Sd uaom r[mar'ifbmom0ifrsm;rSm yg&mS ;/ tm&yfEild if w H @dk rS
oabFm jzifh c&D;oGm;vm,if; b*Fvm;yifv,fatmftwGi;f oabFmepfjrKyf&mrS
&ckid uf rf;ajcodk@ a&muf&v Sd maom oabFmom;rsm;jzpf=uygonf? 4if;wkd@onf
a'ocHwikd ;f &if;om; trsK;d orD; rsm;ESifh tdraf xmifjyKum tajcpku d af exdik =f u&mrS
ayguzf mG ;vmolwdk@ jzpfyga=umif;/ 4if;wkd@ukd (Rohant) &k[ d ef[k ac:wGiaf =umif;ESifh
,if;pum;vk;H (Rohon)rSm tm&yfpum;vk;H rS qufpyf ay:vmonf[k qk=d uyga=umif;/ 4if;
d efrsm;ESifh b*FgvrD q l vifrsm; tdraf xmifjyK=uum &k[ d ef*sm qko d rl sm;
ayguyf mG ;vmonf[k wifjyajymqkd=uyga=umif;?
99? jrefrmElid if o H m; rlqvifpma&;q&mwOD;url a&S;a&S;tcgu rlqvifrsm;onf
&ckid jf ynfodk@ yxrOD;pGm yifv,furf;ajczufrS pwif0ifa&mufc=Jh ujyD; aeufyikd ;f wGif
uke;f ykid ;f awmif=um; vrf;rsm;rS0ifa&mufc=Jh ua=umif;/ 0ifa&mufvm=uol rlqvifrsm;onf
tm&yfEiS fh ukvm; vlrsK;d ppfom;rsK;d EG,pf rk sm; jzpf=ua=umif;/ 4if;wkd@ txJwiG u f ek o
f nfrsm;/
bmoma&;qkid &f m yk*K~ v d rf sm;/ ppfom;rsm;ESifh ppfajy;'kuo Q nfrsm;yg0if=ua=umif;/ xkpd Ofu
&ckid vf rl sK;d bk&ifrsm;u vufcjH yD;tajcpku d f aexkid cf iG jfh yKcJah =umif;/ &ckid jf ynf&Sd
rlqvifrsm;onf tm&yfrsK;d EG,rf S qif;oufvmolrsm;jzpf=ujyD; 4if;wkd@tm;
“&k;d 0efnmS vlrsK;d ”[k ac:a0:orkwaf =umif;/ ,if; pum;vk;H .t"dy`g,rf mS oem;nSmwm/
oufnmS cH&ol tcGit fh a&;ay;cH&ol[I l jzpfyga}umif;/ (1666)ckEpS f &ckid -f r*kd
ppfyt GJ jyD;umvY &ckid jf ynfajrmufyikd ;f a'orsm;wGif yxefppfom;rsm;u
b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;ESifh tdraf xmifjyKum tajcpku d af exkid v f mcJ&h mrS ayguzf mG ;qif;ouf
vmol rsm;ukd “&k;d 0efnmS ” vlrsK;d rsm;[k ac:a0:orkwaf =umif;/ 4if;wkd@onf aemufyidk ;f wGif
wjznf; jznf; ESpu f mv=umanmif;vmonfEiS t fh r# tm&yfE, G zf mG ;wdk@EiS v
fh nf;
a&maxG;vm=ujyD; xdk tm&yfE, G zf mG ;rsm; aysmufu, G o f mG ;onf[k a&;om;xm;ygonf?
(TudprP mS ,kwrWd wefonft
h a}umif;ukd ed'ge;f ykid ;f wGif az:jycJjh yD;jzpfygonf?)
100? &cdik v f rl sK;d tcsKd@. tqkrd mS “&k[ d if*sm” onf jrefrmvkd “
&Gma[mif;om;”[kac:a=umif;/ &k[ d if*sm-rlqvifbmom0if vlrsK;d rsm;rSm
ZmwdrsK;d &k;d tm;jzifh Elid if jH cm;om;rsm;omjzpfa=umif; &cdik v f rl sK;d &Sib
f &k ifrsm;vufxufu
ukeuf ;l oef;a&mif;0,f,if; a&muf&v Sd m=uaom tm&yf ESifh yxefuek o f nfrsm;.
tquftEG,jf zpf=ua=umif;/ tqkyd g trsK;d orD;/ trsKo d m;wkd@EiS fh &cdik b
f &k if rif;apmrGeu
f dk
tultnDay;&ef a&mufvm=uaom 0gvcD efacgi;f aqmifaom a*:&D yxefppfom;rsm;ESihf
a&mESmxdr;f jrm;vufxyfI &cdik b f &k if eef;wGi;f cpm;=uaom tEG,yf mG ; rsm;jzpf=ua=umif;/
4if;wkd@onf tm&yf/ yg&mS ; ESifh tl&'l a&mpyfaom pum;rsm;ajymqd=k u a=umif;
&ckid pf um;ESifh b*FvpD um;ukv d nf; ajymqkd=uygonf[k a&;om;xm;a=umif;awG@&dS
101? &cdik t f rsm;pkurl &d[ k if*sm[laom oH;k pGaJ c:a0:r_udk vufco H nfh oabmr&Syd ga=umif;/
ordik ;f a&;&m taxmuftxm;rsm;t& &cdik jf ynfe,fodk@ a&muf&v Sd m=uaom r[mar'if
bmom0ifrsm;rSm ul;oef;a&mif;0,frj_ yK&if; a&muf&v Sd m=uonfh tm&SEiS yfh g&mS ;tEG,rf sm;
ppfwu dk cf u dk &f if;a&muf&v Sd m=uonfh yxef;tquftEG,rf sm;ESifh &cdik b f &k ifrsm;u
ppfwu dk &f if; ppfoHk@yef;tjzpf zrf;qD;&rdow l dk@ESifh &cdik bf &k ifrsm;udk ay:wl*v D rl sKd ;rsm;
qufoonfh aus;useG f jzpfol b*FvrD q l vifwdk@omjzpfa=umif; ta=umif;w&yf&yfa=umifh
tajcpdu k af exdik =f uonfh r[mar'ifbmom0ifwdk@onf wdik ;f &if;om;rsKd ;EG,pf w k iG f
yg0if=uolrsm;r[kw=f ubJ edik if jH cm;rS a&muf&v Sd m=uum &cdik b f &k ifrsm;u
ajrmufO;D jrdK@e,fEiS fh ausmufawmfjrdK@e,fwdk@wiG f ae&mcs xm;ay;cJah =umif; ,ckacwfwikd f
4if;wdk@aexdik af om &Gmrsm;udk a'ocHwdk@u “&cdik af us;&Gm” [lI ac:a0:oH;k pG=J ua=umif;/
jAdwo d #e,fcsJ@vufxufwiG f 0ifa&mufaexdik =f uaom b*FvD rlqvifaus;&Gmudk
“taemuf ukvm;&Gm” [lI owfowfrw S rf wS f ac:a0:orkw=f ua=umif;/
a&S;&cdik b f &k ifrsm;vufxufu tajcpdu k af exdik cf =Jh uaom r[mar'ifbmom0ifw@kd onf
&cdik f vlrsKd ;ESiu fh ;dk uG,af ombmom/ omoema&;wGio f m uGjJ ym;jcm;em;jyD;
pum;tajymtqd/k t vkyt f udik /f qufqrH _ ponfwdk@wiG f &cdik v f rl sKd ;rsm;ESiw fh n l yD ga=umif;/
oHwcGJ &dik Ef iS fh ausmufjzL c&dik o f dk@a&muf&t Sd ajccsaexdik =f uaom urefrsm;/
tm&yfuek o f nfrsm;/ b*Fvv D rl sKd ; aus;useG rf sm;onf &Gmwnfaqmufyu Hk tp
&cdik v f rl sKd ;rsm;ESifh uGjJ ym;jcm;em;jcif;r&Sb d J wlnyD g a=umif;/ touf=uD;oltcsKd o h nf
&cdik v f rl sKd ;rsm;uJo h dk h aq;rSirf sm;xd;k onfuadk wG@&yga=umif;/ trsKd ;orD;rsm;rSmvnf;
tdrw f iG ;f yke;f avhr&Sad =umif;/ ajrmufO;D jrdK@e,fEiS hf ausmufawmfjrdK@e,f&Sd
“&cdik u f v k m;&Gm”rsm;wGiv f nf; &Gmwnfaqmufy/Hk tdrw f nfaqmufyrHk sm; wln=D uonfukd
awG@&ygonf[k a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf?
102? &d[ k if*smESiyfh wfoufI a&;om;azmfjycsurf sm;ud=k unfv h #if &cdik b f &k ifrsm;vufxufu
a&muf&t Sd ajcpdu k af exdik cf =Jh uaom r[mar'ifbmom0ifrsm;jzpf=uonfh yg&mS ;ESit fh m&yf
vlrsKd ; oabFmukeo f nfrsm;/ yxef;vlrsKd ;ppfom;EG,pf rk sm;ESifh b*FvrD q l vifvrl sKd ; ppfo@kH yef;
ESiafh us;useG t f qufrsm;jzpfa=umif;/ jAdwo d #e,fcsJ@vufxuf
0ifa&muftajcpdu k af exdik cf Jh =uaom b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;ESifh
aemufyidk ;f 0ifa&mufvmolrsm;rSm txift&Sm;uGjJ ym;aeyg a=umif;udk awG@&&Sd ygonf?
103? &d[ k if*smv_y&f mS ;r_udk zefw;D jyKvkyaf eolrsm;u &cdik jf ynfwiG f
r[mar'ifbmom0ifrsm;u wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;jzpf=uonfh &cdik /f csi;f ponfw@kd xuf
OD;pGma&muf&aSd eoa,mif vkyf =uHa&;om;jcif;rsKd ; a&S;&cdik b f &k ifrsm;vufxufu
a&muf&t Sd ajcpdu
k af exdik cf o Jh rl sm;ESifh 4if;wdk@ b*FvrD q l vifrsm;udk a&maxG;jyD;
&d[ k if*smrsm;jzpf=uygonf[al om a&;om;jcif;rsKd ;jzifh tpPvmrfeidk if rH sm;ESifh
edik if wH umZmwfcaHk y:wGif tcGio fh ifwh idk ;f a&;om;ajymqdrk r_ sm; jyKvkyf v#u&f o Sd nfukd
awG &h ygonf?
104? txufyga&;om;csurf sm;t& xdu k o Jh dk@ac:qdek idk o
f rl sm;rSm jAdwo d #e,fcsJ@acwf
rwdik rf u D &cdik jf ynftwGi;f odk@ ta}umif;trsKd ;rsKd ;a=umihf a&muf&v Sd mjyD;
tajcpdu k af exdik cf =Jh uaom r[mar'ifbmomud;k uG,o f l ukvm;rsm;omjzpfygonf?
(1872)ckEpS f pm&if;rsm;t& 4if;wdk@ vlO;D a&rSm ppfawGc&dik w f iG f (58255)OD;om jzpfygonf?
4if; r[mar'ifbmom0ifO;D a&udk tajccHjyD; wESpv f #if (2µ) vlO;D a& wd;k wufonf[k
xm;I wGucf suyf gv#if (1983)ckEpS f txd ESpaf ygi;f (100)ausmw f iG f &Srd nfv h Ol ;D a&rSm
(58255š229327) jzpfygonf? ,ckjzpfaeonfrmS ppfawGtygt0if(9)jrdK@e,fwiG f
b*FvrD q l vifO;D a&onf (529369)OD;odk@ a&muf&u Sd m wd;k wufrsm;jym;v#ujf zpfaeygonf?
&So d ifo h nfh vlO;D a& (1)ode;f (8)aomif;ausmf xuf ydrk adk e aomvlO;D a& (3)ode;f ausmrf mS
jAdwo d #e,fcs@aJ cwfu 0ifa&mufvmolrsm;ESifh aemufyidk ;f w&m; r0if
cd;k 0ifvm=uolrsm;jzpfa=umif; a&;om;csuu f dk awG &h &Sd ygonf?
105? &cdik jf ynfwiG f bd;k / bGm;/ bD/ bif vufxufrpS I tpOfwpdu k Ef pS &f n
S vf rsm; tajcpdu k f
aexdik v f mcJrh a_ =umifh jrefrmedik if o H m;jzpfvm=uonfh &d[ k if*smac:onfjzpfap/
ukvm;ac:onf jzpfap/ xdo k rl sm;onf yif&if;edkiif &H =Sd uonfh edik if jH cm;om;tEG,rf sm;rS
qif;oufvmolrsm;jzpf =uojzifh 4if;wdk@onf jrefrmwdik ;f &if;om;r[kw=f uonfukd
txl;oufaoxlp&mrvdk a=umif;awG &h ygonf?
106? Todk@ r_rrSeaf jymqdv k yk =f uHa&;om;r_wdk@a=umif4h if;/ jrefrmedik if EH iS fh ygupPwefEpS ef ikd if H
wdk . h qufqaH &;onf aumif;rGeaf jyvnfr&_ jSd yD; jrefrmedik if . H &nf&, G cf surf sm;onf
rSeu f efojzif4h if;/ &d[ k if*smv_y&f mS ;r_rmS tpPvmrfeikd if rH sm;avmuESifh edik if w H umZmwfcw kH iG f
axmufct H m;ay;r_ r&So d avmufjzpfum a&aowGiaf rsmaeonfh tajctaetqifh
avmufom &So d nfuadk wG@&yg onf?
tydik ;f (4)
awmfveS af &;aumifpaD cwf
107? &cdik w
f idk ;f twGi;f &Sdaom b*FvrD q l vifrsm;ESifh aemufxyfw&m;r0ifc;dk 0ifvmolrsm;
a&m axG;um b*FvrD q l vifvrl sKd ;OD;a&rSm wd;k Iomvmaeonfudk awG@&&Sd ygawmhonf?
108? Tjzpf&yfukd ukid w f ,
G af jz&Si;f &ef&nf&, G I f (1966)ckEpS /f atmufwb kd mvrSpI
'DZifbm vtxd tv,fyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmcsKyfwikd ;f rSL;. uGyu f rJ j_ zifh b*FvrD q l vifrsm;ukd
ppfaq;pm&if; aumuf,jl cif;/ rSwyf w kH ifjcif;rsm;jyKvky&f ef ppfaq;a&;rsm;jyKvkycf yJh gonf?
(u) ;D uef;ppfqifa&;”t& ppfawG/ ajryk/H ausmufawmf/ ykÀm;uGse;f / oHwEGJ iS fh
awmifuw k f jrdK@e,frsm;twGi;f pdr0fh ifa&muf&v Sd maom b*FvrD q l vif (1307)OD;wk@d tm;
ppfaq;pm&if; aumuf,jl yD; armif;awmjrdK@e,f twGi;f okd@jyefvnf ykd@ay;cJyh gonf?
(c) “a&$us;D ppfqifa&;”t& armif;awmc&kid cf t GJ wGi;f &Sd =udraf csmif;jrdK@e,fc/GJ armif;awmjrdK@
e,fcEGJ iS fh tv,foaH usmjf rdK@e,fcrGJ sm;&Sd aus;&Gmtkypf k (23)ckwiG f
b*Fvm;rlqvif(53674)OD; wkd@ukd ppfaq;pm&if; aumuf,cl yJh gonf//
109? Tokd@ppfqifa&;rsm;jyKvkycf o Jh jzifh ppfqifa&;umvtwGi;f rw&m;ck;d 0ifvmr_rsm;
&yfwef@omG ;cJo h vk&d cSd aJh omfvnf; aemufyikd ;f wGif b*gv F rD q l vifrsm;
ck;d 0ifvmr_rsm;&Sjd rJwikd ;f &Sd aeojzifh (1969)ckEpS f azaz:0g&v D wGif
tv,fyikd ;f ppfXmecsKyfwikd ;f rSL;. uGyu f rJ j_ zifyh if rGejf rwf ppfqifa&;ukd jyKvkycf &Jh jyefonf//
Tppfqifa&;t& ppfawGc&kid Ef iS fh ausmufjzLc&kid t f wGi;f Ekid if jH cm;om; b*FvrD q l vifrsm;
rw&m;ck;df 0ifvmr_upkd pD pfjcif;/ rSwyf w kH ifjcif;ESifh vlO;D a&p&if; rsm; aumuf,rl u _ kd
jyKvkycf o Jh nfukdf awG@&ygonf//
110? (1971)ckEpS w f iG f ta&Syh gupPwefEiS fh taemufygupPwefwkd@ yÉdujQ zpfymG ;r_a=umifh
ta&Sh ygupPwefrS ppfajy;'kuo Q nf waomif;ausmcf efo h nf bl;oD;awmifEiS fh
armif;awmjrdK@rsm;okd@ 0ifa&mufcv kd c_H =Jh uonf// ,if;udpu P kd aqmif&u G &f eftwGuf
A[kv d jkH cKa&;ESifh tkycf sKyfra_ umfr wDu aumfrwDw&yfzGJ@pnf;um 0ifa&mufvmaom
ppfajy;'kuo Q nfrsm;tm; rSwyf w kH ifI rSwyf w kH ifu'fjym;rsm; xkwaf y;jcif; ,if;wkd@
,laqmifvmaom Ekid if jH cm;aiGrsm;ukd pm&if;jyKpkI acwWxed ;f odr;f xm;jcif;/
,if;'kuo Q nfrsm;tm; rdrw d kdf@ae&if;a'ookd@ jyefvnfxu G cf mG a&; twGuf
vkt d yfonfrsm;ukd !SEd i_d ;f aqmif&u G af y;jcif; ponfw@kd ukd awG@&ygonf//
111? 'kw, d urBmppf=uD;jzpfonfrpS I ajyif;vJjyifqifrt _ rsK;d rsKd;jzifh wnfjidrrf r_ &Scd aJh om
jrefrm Ekid if . H tkycf sKyfa&;pepfa=umifh 0efxrf;tzGJ@prG ;f aqmifrmS jrifrh m;jcif;r&So d nfudk
awG@&&Sd ygonf// odk@jzpfygIvnf; vl0if=uD;=uyfa&;Xmeonf w&m;r0ifc;kd 0ifvmol
Ekid if jH cm;om;rsm;tm; wm;qD; ta&;,l&mwGif rEkid rf eif;jzpfaeojzifh (1974)ckEpS f
azaz:0g&v D rSpI ppfbufqikd &f m wkd@. OD;aqmifrj_ zifh ppfqifa&;w&yfukd jyKvkycf yJh gonf//
112? Tppfqifa&;ukd “pyg,pf pfqifa&;” [lItrnfay;um &ckid w f ikd ;f twGi;f &Sd b*FvrD q
vifwckwnf;uko d m OD;wnfjcif;r[kwb f J csi;f 0daoowkid ;f / ucsijf ynfe,fEiS fh &Sr;f jynfe,f
rsm;okd@ w&m;r0ifc;kd 0ifvmol Ekid if jH cm;om; tm;vk;H ukd ppfaq;zrf;qD;ta&;,l&ef
aqmif&u G f jcif;jzpfojzifh rlqvifrsm;u 4if;wkd@tm; Ekid if aH &;zdEySd yf gonf [laom
pGypf cGJ surf sm;ukd ajymqkd&ef tcGit fh vrf;enf;aprnf jzpfygonf//
113? ppfqifa&;wkd@rnfonf uefowfxm;aom tcsed t f wGi;f vkyif ef;rsm;ukd jyD;pD;atmif
aqmif&u G &f onfjzpf&m aqmif&u G vf yk u
f ikd of wl kd@onf trdef@tm%mukd tok;H jyK=ujyD; ukid f
wG,af qmif&u G &f mY cyf=urf=urf; vkyw f wfavh&ySd gonf// &ckid w f ikd ;f twGi;f &Sd
w&m;r0ifa&muf vmol b*FvrD q l vifrsm;onf Tppfqifa&;udk a=umufvef@onfu
wa=umif; rdrw d kd@ rlvaexkid cf =Jh uaom b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ikd if &H Sd t&yfa'orsm;okd@ tcsKd @
jyefvnfxu G af jy;oGm;=u onfukd awG@&ygonf//
114? pyg,pf pfqifa&;t& ppfaq;ta&;,lrr_ sm; tajctaerSm (1974)ckEpS f
'DZifbmvtxd &ckid w f ikd ;f twGi;f okd@ w&m;r0ifc;kd 0ifvmol b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ikd if o H m;(977)OD;/
Ekid if jH cm;rSwyf w kH if tufOya'usL;vGeaf zmufzsuo f (l 663)OD;ESifh Ekid if jH cm;om;[k
oHo,&So d (l 18254)OD;ukd ppf aq;awG@&&Sd ojzifh ta&;,lrj_ yKvkycf yJh gonf//
115? Tokd@ &ckid jf ynfe,ftwGi;f ppfqqifa&;t&Sed t f [kejf zifh zrf;qD;ta&;,lru _ dk
a=umuf&$H xdwv f ef=h uaom b*FvrD q l vifwcsKd@onf rdom;pktvku d f tk;d tdrrf sm;ukd
pGef@vw G jf yD; b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ikd if b H ufokd@ xGuaf jy;oGm;=uygonf//
xkd@okd@xu G af jy;OD;a&rSm(1975)ckEpS f pkpH rf; ppfaq;a&;tzGJ@. tpD&ifcpH mt&
armif;awmjrdK@e,fr(S 1415)OD;/ bl;oD;awmifjrdK@e,fr(S 550) OD;ESifh
&aohawmifjrdK@e,fr(S 935)OD;/ pkpak ygi;f (2900)jzpfa=umif;ESifh (1974)ckEpS f 'DZifbmvrS pI
4if;wkd@. qENtav#muf b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ikd if b H ufokd@ ajymif;a&$o h mG ;a=umif; ppfaq;a&; tpD
&ifcpH mwGif az:jyxm;onfukd awG@&ygonf//
116? tpD&ifcpH mwGiaf jymif;a&$o h mG ;olrsm;onf rlqvifbmom0ifb*FgvD trsK;d tEG,rf sm;
jzpfjyD;/ uk, d yf ikd v
f ,f,mvkyu f ikd pf m;aomuforl sm;/ v,f,mtiSm;vkyu f ikd o
f rl sm;/ aps;onf
rsm;/ usbef;vkyu f ikd pf m;olrsm;/ tajctaerJrh sm; ponfjzifh tv$maygi;f pkyH g0ifjyD; atmuf
azmfjyyg ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh ajymif;a&$o h mG ;=ujcif;jzpfa=umif; azmfjyxm;ygonf?
(u) jrefrmelid if t H wGi;f Y w&m;Oya'rsm;ukd usL;vGejf yD; ta&;,lc&H rnfupkd ;dk ojzifh
xGuaf jy; wdr;f a&Smifjcif;/
(c) tpk;d &ESipfh yg;pmcsKyfcsKyfqjkd yD; xGu&f v Sd maompyg;ukd wzufEild if o H kd@ ck;d xkwaf &mif;cs
vdu k o f jzifw h m0efrausjzpfum a&Smifwrd ;f xGucf GgomG ;jcif;/
(*) aus;&Gmom;rlqvif tcsi;f csi;f wOD;.v,f,m/ uGs/J EGm;rsm;ukd wOD;urw&m;&,lvdk
ojzifh vHa_ qmfrr_ sm;/ r[kwrf rSeo f wif;rsm; vGirfh r_ sm;a=umifh xGuaf jy;oGm;jcif;/
(C) taemufygupd w P efwiG f tvkyt f ukid af ygrsm;I tvkyo f rm;trsm;tjym;vkt d yfojzifh
4if;wkd@ aqGrsKd;om;csi;f rsm;u pmtm;jzif4h if;/ vl=uHKrSwqif4h if;/ a&;om;rSm=um;ojzifh
b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if rH S wqifo h mG ;&eftwGuf xGuaf jy;oGm;jcif;/
(i) b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if o H kd@ a&muf&v Sd molrsm;tm;vk;H u,fq,fa&;ypPn;f rsm;
a0iSa=umif;ESifh pcef;rsm;zGiv fh pS af pmifah &Smufxm;a=umif;
owif;rsm;jzpfay:ojzifx h u G af jy;oGm;jcif;/
(p) py`g,f txl;pDppfa&;tzGJ@0ifrsm;ESiafh wG@&jSd yD; 4if;wkd@ rw&m;usL;ausmaf exkid rf j_ zpf&yf
rSerf sm; ay:aygut f a&;,lc&H rnfp;kd I tajctaerJo h rl sm; xGuaf jy;oGm;jcif; ponf
wkd jh zpf=uygonf?
107? b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if zH ufokd@ xGuaf jy;vmolrsm;ESiyfh wfoufjyD; b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if /H
elid if jH cm; a&;0ef}uD;XmerS 'uUm;jrdK@&Sd jrefrmoH&;kH ,m,Dwmefct H m; ac:,lawG@qv kH #uf
jrefrmelid if rH S rlqviftrsK;d tEG,w f kd@onf b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if zH ufokd@/
tvk;H t&if;ESi0fh ifa&mufv#u&f aSd =umif;/ ppfw f aumif;wGif (1500)ESifh *suq f kd;jrdK@wiG f
(405)OD;&Sad ev#u/f ae@pOf (300) rS (500) OD;txd e,fpyfjzwfausm&f ef pkid ;f jyif;aeojzifh
pk;d &drrf uif;&Sad e&a=umif; bFvm;a'h&eSf ild if t H aejzifh jrefrme,fjcm;wGif
at;csr;f onft h ajctaeukd vkv d m;ojzifh ESpef idk if jH y\em ray:aygu&f av atmif
jrefrmtm%mykid rf sm;. tultnDukd &,lay;apvkad }umif; rlqvifrsm;qufvuf
0ifa&mufaernfqykd gu b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ikd if t H wGujf y\emrsm;ESifh
&ifqikd &f rnfjzpfonft h jyif tcsKd @tiftm;pkrsm;. v_H@aqmfrr_ sm;a=umifh
Elid if aH &;jy\emjzpfay:vmum b*Fvm;a'hEild if H taejzifh
rvkyv f akd omwefjyefta&;,lrw _ dk@ukd rvkyrf jzpfonft h ajctaeESifh &ifqikd &f rnfh
tvm;tvmukd pk;d &draf =umif;jzifh ajym=um;a=umif; az:jyxm;onfukd awG &h &Sd ygonf?
118? TudpEP iS yfh wfoufI &efuek jf rdK@ b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if H oHtrwf=uD;uvnf; elid if jH cm;a&;
0ef}uF;D Xme/ 'kw, d 0ef}uD;tm; vm&mufawG@qv kH #uf jrefrmelid if zH ufrS
rlqviftawmfrsm;rsm;/ b*Fvm;a'heild if zH ufokd@ 0ifa&mufv#u&f &Sd m ppfwaumif;wGif
(100)ausmcf ef@EiS fh ppfwaumif; awmifwef;a'owGif (400) rS (500) cef@uakd wG@&&Sd a=umif;/
4if;wdk@rmS qif;&J'u k aQ &mufaeI ckv d &_H mrJjh zpfaea=umif;/ ESpef ild if t
H =um; csp=f unfpmG
aexkid &f efEiS jfh y\em&Syd gu ESpOf ;D ESpzf uf nSEd i_d ;f ajz&Si;f &ef ESpef ild if o H rRw=uD;rsm;
qk;H jzwfxm;=ujyD;jzpf&m Tudpw P iG vf nf; ajz&Si;f elid f vdrrfh nf[, k =kH unfa=umif;/
vltajrmuftjrm; b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if t H wGi;f okd@ 0ifa&mufjcif;jzifh
b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ild if t H pk;d &twGuf jy\emrsm;ay:ayguef ild o f nft h jyif/ tcsKd@tiftm;pkrsm;u
Tudpu P kd [k;d av;wausmjf zpfatmif v_H@aqmftcGiafh umif;,lrnfh tvm;tvmrsm;ukd
ajym=um;ygonf? b*Fvm;a'h&eSf idk if H oHtrwf=uD;u atmufyikd ;f tqifw h iG f ueOD;aqG;aEG;I
vktd yfygu txuftqifw h iG f aqmif&u G ef ild yf ga=umif;ESifh aemufxyfvrl sm; pdr0fh ifr
vmelid af tmif [ef@wm;ay;yg&efEiS fh 0ifa&mufvmcJjh yD;olrsm;tm; jyefvnfae&mcsxm;
ay;&ef ajym=um;a=umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
119? b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ild if H owif;pmrsm;wGif a*sm&f j_d rdK@odk@ jrefrmrlqvifrsm; ckv d v _H mjcif;/
jrefrm edil if w H iG t f jrJaexkid af om jrefrmelid if o H m; b*FvrD q l vifrsm;tm; jrefrmelid if rH S
ESixf w k qf J ponfh owif;acgi;f pOfrsm;jzifh a&;om;az:jyxm;onfuakd wG@&Sd &ygonf?
xGuaf jy;vmol vlO;D a&ESiyfh wfoufI b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if /H aumhpb f Zm;a'oudk
jzwfoef;v#uf a*sm&f j_d rdK@odk@ jrefrmrlqvifuav;/ vl}uD; (400)cef@ a&muf&v Sd ma=umif;
jzif4h if;/ jrefrmelid if rH S ajy;0ifvm olrsm;rSm(1200) &Srd nfjzpfa}umif;ESifh aumhpb f Zm;wGif
0ifa&mufcv kd v _H #uf tk;d tdrrf jJh zpfum vrf;ray:wGif av#mufomG ;v#u&f aSd =umif;
,if;0ifa&mufcv kd v _H molrsm;twGuf bmwfcgvjD rdK@ wGif 'kuo Q nfpcef;ESpcf zk iG v fh pS u f m
d o _H (l 1000) cefh vufcx H m;onf[4k if;/ az:jyxm;onf ukd awG &h &Sd ygonf?
120? ,if;owif;pmrsm;wGif jrefrmrlqvifrsm;xGuaf jy;vm=uonft h a=umif;rSm Ak'b < m
om0if &ckid v f rl sK;d rsm;u nSi;f yrf;ESyd pf ufjcif;/ rlqvifrsm;ykid f td;k tdrv f ,fajrypPn;f rsm;ukd
t"rRord ;f ,lonfukd jrefrmtpk;d &u vufyu kd =f unfah ejcif;/ jrefrmtpk;d &taeESiv fh nf; rlq
vifrsm;ykid f ypPn;f rsm;ukd jynfoyl ikd jf yKvkyjf cif; ponfwdk@a=umifjh zpfonf[k az:
jyyg&ySd gonf?
121? ta=umif;trsK;d rsKd;a=umifh jrefrmelid if zH ufrS b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if zH ufokd@
xGuaf jy;ckv d H=_ uaom rlqvifbmom0if/ b*FvrD sK;d EG,pf w k kd@ukd bef;jyjyD; Tokd@cv kd vH_ m
=ujcif;rsm;onf rlqvifbmomukd ESyd u f yG jf cif;jzpfonfh oabmrsK;d a&muf&aSd p&ef r[kwf
rrSef owif;jzef@v#uf rlqvifeild if rH sm;rS aiGa}u;/ vufeuftultnD&,l&ef aqmif&u G of l
rsm;rSm &efuek w f uUov kd f ausmif;xGuf rlqvifi,frsm; jzpf=uonfukd awG &h ygonf?
122? &ckid w f ikd ;f twGi;f vufeufuikd w f u kd cf aJh om rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f olrsm;tzGJ@onf
(1954)ckEpS w f iG f jydKuGo J mG ;jyD;aemuf (1961 )ckEpS w f iG f tjyD;owfcsKyfjidr;f oGm;cJyh gonf?
(1962)ckEpS f awmfveS af &;tpk;d &wufvmjyD;aemuf rlqvifausmif;om;vli,fwkd@onf
jrefrmjynf taemufzuf&Sd &ckid jf ynftm; ESpjf crf;cGu J m rlqvifEild if H wnfaxmif&ef
&nf&, G cf sujf zifh (1964)ckEpS rf pS I v_y&f mS ;vm=uum (1971)ckEpS w f iG f &k[ d if*smrsK;d cspw f yfO;D
trnfjzifah qmif &Gucf yJh gonf? ,if;wyfO;D acgi;f aqmif *szm[mbpfqo kd ol nf awmfveS f
a&;tpk;d &wufpu &efuek w f uUov kd &f [
kd if*sm ausmif;om;wyfzGJ@acgi;f aqmif wpfO;D jzpf
onf[k qkyd ga=umif;/ tjcm;rlqvifvil ,facgi;f aqmifwkd@rmS &efuek w f uUov kd af usmif;xGuf
a'guw f mwifarmif/ rk[ d mruftvD (ac: ) armifoed ;f atmif/ bDurG ;f bGJ &h ESifh Ek&t f pd v
P ef/
&efuek w f uUov kd rf S bDat bDt,fvb f GJ@&olwkd@ jzpfa=umif;awG@&&Sd ygonf?
124? elid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_taeESifh &k[
d if*sm[laom tok;H tE_e;f ukd (1971)ckEpS rf S pwifonf
ukd awG@&yga=umif;/ b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if o H nf jrefrmelid if EH iS fh csp=f unfpmG qufqv H o kd jzif4h if;/
b*Fvm;a'h&ESf ild if . H jynfwiG ;f a&;t&4if;/ (1974)ckEpS w f iG f &k[d if*smrsK;d cspw
f yfO;D tzG@J tm;
b*Fvm;a'h&Sf tpk;d &xHwiG f vufeufcsapcJo h jzifh tqkyd g &k[ d if*smrsK;d cspw
f yfO;D tzG. J
v_y&f mS ;r_ csKyfjidr;f oGm;a=umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
tcef; (5)
jynfol ah umifprD sm;acwf
124? e,fpyfa'owGif b*FvrD q l vifrsm; ck;d 0ifrt _ EN&,fukd jrefjrefxufxuf
ukid wf ,G rf vkyf ukid ef ild vf #if tcsed =f umvmonfEiS t fh r# =uD;xGm;vmv#u&f o Sd nfukd
b*FvrD q l vifbmom0if trsm;qk;H &So d nfh armif;awmjrdK@e,f
vlO;D a&uk=d unf&h v _ #io f &d eSd ild yf gonf? e,fcsJ@jAdwdo#acwf tpOD;ykid ;f (1921)ckEpS u f
armif;awmjrdK@e,fwiG f b*FvrD q l vifbmom0ifO;D a&rSm (68035) om&Scd &Jh mrS
e,fcsJ@jAdwo d #acwftqk;H ykid ;f (1941)ckEpS w f iG f (124452)OD;txd ESpq f cefh wk;d yGm;
vmcJyh ga=umif; vGwv f yfa&;&jyD;aemuf elid if aH &;acwfwiG f (1958)ckEpS f
b*FgvrD q l vifO;D a&rSm armif;awmjrdK@e,fwiG (f 187792)OD;jzpfc&Jh mrS
awmfveS af &;tpd;k &acwf. (1971)ckEpS w f iG f (205777)OD; jzpfvmyga=uif;/ zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk
tajccHOya'opfjyXmef;jyD;aemuf jynfol@ aumifprD sm;acwfwiG f (1975-76) ckEpS Yf
(212070) OD;jzpfonfukd awG &h &Sd ygonf?
125? az:jyygarmif;awmjrdK@e,f&Sd b*FvrD q l vifbmom0ifO;D a& ude;f *%ef;rsm;ukd
ok;H oyf =unf&h v _ #if jAdwo d #acwfEiS v fh wG vf yfa&;&jyD;aemuf elid if aH &;tpk;d &acwfrsm;u
wk;d wufvm aomvlO;D a&rSm rsm;jym;cJah omfvnf; awmfveS af &;tpd;k &acwftykid ;f wGif
e,ferdwpf nf;rsO;f rsm;ukd owfrw S ef ild cf jJh yD; (1966)ckEpS rf pS I ppfqifa&;rsm;jzifh elid if w
H iG ;f ok@d
ck;d 0ifvmol elid if jH cm; om;rsm;tm; zrf;qD;az:xkwt f a&;,lco Jh nfrsm;a=umif/h
armifawmjrdK@e,f vlO;D a&wk;d yGm; r_Ee_ ;f rSm avsmeh nf;oGm;onfuadk wG@&Sd &yga}umif;/
okd@aomfvnf; ESppf Of&jSd yD; rlqvifO;D a&xuf wd;k aeonfukd (1977-78)ckEpS f
vlO;D a&pm&if;t& armifawmjrdK@e,fwiG f b*FvrD q l vif (222860) jzpfaeonfu
jyqkv d #u&f ySd ga=umif;/ tvm;wlyif b*FvrD q l vifO;D a&rsm;aom jrdK@ e,frsm;rSm
bl;oD;awmif/ ppfawGEiS fh &aohawmif jrdK@e,frsm;jzpfjyD; usejf rdK@e,frsm;twGi;f ok@d vnf;
pdr0fh ifjyef@ESHh 0ifa&mufaexdik v f #u&f aSd =umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
126? e,ferdwcf si;f qufpyfv#u&f o Sd nfh wzufeild if rH S elid if jH cm;om;rsm;
w&m;r0ifprd 0fh ifr&_ aSd e onfu4kd if;/ elid if aH wmf.pD;yGm;a&;pepfEiS fh vlra_ &;udprP sm;wGif
elid if jH cm;om;rsm; 0ifa&muf aESmif, h u S af eonfu4kd if;/ Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;ukd
azguzf suu f sL;vGeaf eaom elid if jH cm;om;rsm; &Sad eojzif4h if;/ e,fpyfa'orsm;&Sd
aus;&Gmrsm;wGif tdraf xmifpEk iS fh vlO;D a&pm&if;rsm; ppfaq; &efvt kd yfv#uf &So d jzif4h if;/
az:jyygvyk if ef;&yfrsm;ukd aqmif&u G v f yk u f ikd &f eftwGuf taemuf ykid ;f wkid ;f ppfXmecsKyf/
&ckid jf ynfe,f a'oygwaD umfrwD/ &ckid jf ynfe,f jynfol@aumifpw D kd@. vrf;nGerf j_ zifh
e*Fg;rif;pDrcH suu f dk csrw
S uf m ppfaq;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;ukd aqmif&u G cf yJh gonf?
127? &ckid jf ynfe,fwiG f e*Fg;rif;pDrcH sut f & ppfqifa&;vkyif ef;rsm;ukd aqmif&u G &f mwGif
atmufygvyk if ef;pOfrsm;ukd csrw S cf yJh gonf?
(u) &yfuu G f / aus;&Gmtkypf k jynfol@aumifp0D if rJqENe,fajrtvku d f taqmuftOD;wpfck
csi;f ukd ajrykaH &;qGrJ w S wf rf;wifjcif;//
(c ) vlO;D a& tm;vk;H ukd pm&if;aumuf,jl cif;//
(*) ukid af qmifxm;onfh rSwyf w kH ifvufrw S rf sm;ukd pDppfjcif;?
(C) elid if o H m; (okd rh [kw)f elid if jH cm;om; [lIcGjJ cm;pDppfjcif;?
(i) elid if jH cm;om;[k oHo,jzpfz, G &f o Sd nfrsm;ukd az:xkwpf m&if;jyKpkjcif;?
(p) vl0ifr}_ uD;=uyfa&;Oya'ESifh elid if jH cm;om;rSwyf w Hk ifa&; Oya'rsm;ukad zguzf suu f sL;vGeo f l
elid if jH cm;om;rsm;tm; az:xkwt f a&;,ljcif;?
128? e*Fg;rif;pDrcH suf yxrtqifu h kd ppfawGjrd k eh ,fwiG f (11-2-78) aehrpS I
vl0ifr}_ uD;=uyf a&;ESifh jynfol@tiftm;OD;pD;Xme0efxrf; (200)OD;jzifh jrdK@ay:&Sd &yfuu G rf sm;/
jrdK@e,f twGi;f &Sd aus;&Gmrsm;ukd ydwq f kd@I &kwcf sn;f ppfaq;r_rsm; jyKvkyfcyJh gonf?
ppfaq;a&;tzJG@rsm;u ppfaq;&ef&o Sd nfrsm;ukd uGuu f rJ X_ mecsKyfziG v fh pS x
f m;onfah e&mok@d
ac:,lvmjyD; wOD;csi;f ppfaq;r_rsm;ukd (12-2-78)ae@rS (18-2-78)aehtxd
jyKvkycf yJh gonf? ppfaq;cJo h nfh vlO;D a&rSm (36824)OD;jzpfygonf? ,if;odk@
ppfaq;r_rsm;jyKvkyjf yFD;aemuf Oya'azguzf suf usL;vGeo f rl sm;tm;ta&;,l&ef
zGiv fh pS xf m;onft h xl;w&m;&k;H (5)&k;H rS b*FgvrD q l vif (1316) OD;tm;
vl0ifr}_ uD;}uyfa&;Oya't&4if;/ (1025) OD;tm; elid if jH cm;om;rSwyf w kH ifa&;ESifh
trsK;d om;rSwyf w kH ifa&; tufOya'rsm;t&ppfaq;ta&;,lcaJh =umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
129? e*Fg;rif;pDrcH suf 'kw, d tqifu h kd bl;oD;awmifjrdK@e,fEiS afh rmi;fawmjrdK@e,frsm; twGi;f
0efxrf;tiftm; (400)jzifh ppfaq;r_rsm;ukd w&Gm0ifw&GmxGuf (17- 3-78) aehrS (5-6-
78) aehtxd aqmif&u G cf yJh gonf? bl;oD;awmifjrdK@e,ftwGi;f ppfaq;cJo h nfh &yfuu G /f
aus;&Gm tkypf ak ygi;f (83)ck/ ajrykaH &;qGjJ yD; rJqENe,fajraygi;f (754)ck/
rSwyf w kH ifjyD;taqmuftOD;aygi;f (18435)ck/ ppfaq;jyD; tdraf xmifpak ygi;f (17913)pkEiS hf
ppfaq;jyD;vlO;D a&aygi;f rSm (108431) OD;jzpfygonf? Oya'csK;d azguu f sL;vGeo f l (643)
OD;wkd@tm; w&m;pGq J t
kd a&;,lcyJh gonf? Tokd@ ppfaq;r_rsm;jyKvkyo f nfudk a}umuf&o hHG jzifh
xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;olaygi;f (35596) OD;jzpfjyD; pGeyfh pfomG ;aom tdraf ygi;f rSm
(6294)aqmifjzpfa=umif;awG@&&Sd ygonf?
130? tvm;wlyif armif;awmjrdK@e,ftwGi;f ppfaq;r_jyKvky&f mY&yfuu G /f
aus;&Gmtkypf ak ygi;f (99)/ ajrykaH &;qGJjyD; rJEeN ,faygi;f (1050)/ rSwyf w kH ifjyD;
taqmuftOD;aygi;f (21639) ppfaq; jyD; tdrfaxmifpak ygi;f (19418)/ppfaq;jyD;
vlO;D a&aygi;f (125893) OD;jzpfygonf? Oya'csK;d azguf usL;vGeo f jzifh
w&m;pGq J tkd a&;,lc&H olaygi;f (458) OD;&Scd yJh gonf? ppfaq;ta&;,lrr_ sm;ukd
&ifqikd &f efr0Hb h aJ =umuf&o GHh jzifh xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;olaygi;f rSm(85705) OD;jzpfjyD;
tk;d tdrf rsm; pGef@ypfonfh ta&twGurf mS (12522)jzpfa=umif; awG@&&Sd ygonf?
131? e*Fg;rif;pDrcH suyf g vkyif ef;pOfrsm;&Sd &yfuu G /f aus;&Gmtkypf /k jynfol@aumifp0D if rJqEN
e,fajrtvku d f taqmuftOD;wckcsi;f udk ajrykHa&;qGrJ w S wf rf;wifjcif;/ vlO;D a&tm;vk;H ukd
pm&if;aumuf,jl cif;wkd@rmS vGwv f yfa&;&uwnf;uyif=unf&h _ jyKpkxm;&S&d rnfh pm&if;rSwf
wrf;rsm;jzpfygonf? 4if;wdk@ukd ESppf Ofajymif;vJrr_ sm;&So d nfEiS t fh nD jyifqifae&rnfh pm&if;
rSww f rf;rsm;jzpfygonf? ,if;pm&if;rSww f rf;ukdtajcjyKI owif;ykd@vmonfh
ajymif;vJrr_ sm;udk jyifqifumowif;ykd@&ef ysuu f uG rf u
_ kd ppfaq;az:xkwjf yD;
ta&;,lomG ;&efjzpfygonf?
132? okd@aomfvnf; vGwv f yfa&;&uwnf;u jzpfay:cJo h nfth ajctaersm;t&
vnf;aumif;/ Xmeqkid &f mtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. tm;enf;csurf sm;a=umifv h nf;aumif;/
az:jyygvyk if ef;rsm;ukd ESpf pOfrvkyef ild cf o Jh jzifh “tyfEiS jfh yD;&rnfwkd@ukd aqmufEiS x fh iG ;f &rnf”
uJoh kd@ ppfqifa&;w&yf qifEGJ vku d af oma=umifh &ckid jf ynfe,f&Sd b*FvrD q l vifrsm;onf
tm;uk;d tm;xm;jzpf&if;jzpfaom wzuf&Sd b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if zH ufokd@ a=umuftm;vef@tm;
xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smifc=Jh uygonf? tk;d tdrrf sm;ukpd eG f@jyD; tvk;H t&if;ESifh
xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smif=ujcif;a=umifh elid if aH &; *,Su&f u kd cf wf r_jzpfc&Jh ygonf?
133? e*Fg;rif;pDrcH suf ppfqifa&;. *,uf&u kd cf wfra_ =umifph pfaq;jyKvkycf o Jh nfh
ppfawGjrdK@e,f/ bl;oD;awmifjrdK@e,fEiS fh armif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;&Sd b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;omru
&ckid jf ynfe,f&Sd tjcm;jrdK@e,frsm;jzpfaom &aohawmifjrdK@e,f/ ayguaf wmjrdK@e,f/
ausmufawmfjrdK@e,f/ ajrmufO;D jrdK@e,fEiS fh rif;jym;jrdK@e,frsm;&Sd b*FgvrD lqvifrsm;onf
tk;d tdrrf sm;ukd pGef@ypfjyD; b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if zH ufokd@ xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;=uygonf?
jrdK@e,faygi;f (8)jrdK@e,frS tk;d tdrf rsm;pGeyfh pfxu G af jy; wdr;f a&SmifomG ;=uolaygi;f rSm
tdraf xmifpOk ;D a& (2595) jzpfjyD; vlO;D a& (156630) jzpfa=umif; pm&if;Z,m;rsm;t&
134? jrefrmelid if EH iS fh b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if w H kd@t=um; &Sjd yD;jzpfaom csp=f unf&if;ES;D r_ukd rysujf ym;
ap&eftwGuf ESpef ild if aH cgi;f aqmif=uD;wkd@u ay:ayguv f monfh elid if aH &;jy\emukd ESpef ikd if H
ndES i_d ;f ajz&Si;f =u&ef oabmwlc=Jh uonf? b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if o H kd@ xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;=u
olrsm;ukd jyefvnfvufcaH &;ESiyfh wfoufI oabmwlncD suw f pf&yfu(dk 9-8-78)aehwiG f
b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ild if H 'uUm;jrdK@Y vufrw S af &;xk;d cJyh gonf? jyefvnfvufcaH &;udpu P kd ajyjypf
acsmarma&;twGuf ESpef idk if u H , kd pf m;vS,t f zGJ@rsm;onf (16-8-78)ae@wiG f armifawmjrdK@
e,fY4if;/ (6-9-78)ae@wiG f aumpfbZm;jrdK@Y4if;/ ESpef idk if jH ynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;rsm; acgi;f aqmif
aom uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGJ@rsm;onf (7-10-78)aehwiG f awmifjAdKvuf0J vufcaH &;pcef;Y4if;
awG@qakH qG;aEG;r_rsm;jyKvkycf yJh gonf?
135// ESpef ild if o H abmwlncD sut f & jrefrmelid if H tpk;d &taejzifb h *Fvm;a'h&eSfd ild if H ,m,D
pcef; rsm;wGiv f uf&Sd ckv
d v
_H #u&f o Sd nfh jrefrmelid if w H iG f w&m;0ifaexkid cf iG &fh jSd yD; jrefrmelid if H
trsK;d om;oufaocHu'fjym; wifjyelid o f rl sm;ESi4fh if;wkd@. tdraf xmifp0k ifrsm;tm; tapm
qk;H jyefvnfvufc&H ef jzpfygonf?
136? xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;olrsm;tm; jyefvnfvufcaH &;ESifh ae&mcsxm;a&;twGuf
tpD pOfwpf&yfuakd &;qGjJ yD; “[oFmpDrcH su”f trnfwyfum (31-7-78)ae@wiG f
xkwjf yefcyJh gonf? ,if;pDrcH sut f & jyefvnfvufcaH &;pcef; (10) ck zGifhvpS jf yD; pcef;wckv#if
(3) &ufw}udr/f tdraf xmifp0k if (30) cef/h vlO;D a& (200 )cef@ vufco H mG ;&ef
owfrw S cf yJh gonf? ,if;owf rSwcf surf sm;ESit fh nD pcef;wckjzpfaom awmifjAdK
vuf0v J ufcaH &;pcef;wGif (31-8-78) ae@ u pwifvufccH &Jh m tdraf xmifpk (9) pk/ vlO;D a&
(58) a,mufxd vufccH yJh gonf? (1978) ckEpS f pwifbmvwGif tdraf xmifpk (20) /
vlO;D a& (107) / (1978) ckEpS f atmufwb kd mvwGif tdraf xmifpk (163)/ vlO;D a& (950)
ponfjzifh jyefvnfvufcaH &; pcef;toD;oD;wGif a&muf&Sd vufccH &Jh onfukd awG
&h &Sd ygonf?
137? xGuaf jy;wde;f a&SmifomG ;=uolrsm; jyefvnfvufcaH &; ajyvnfacsmarG@apa&;twGuf
ESpef idk if jH ynfxaJ &;0ef=uD;rsm; acgi;f aqmifaomud, k pf m;vS,t f zGJ@rsm; aqG;aEG;nSEd i_d ;f cJo h nfh
(1978)ck atmufwb dk mvwGif b*Fvm;a'h&t Sf pd;k &xHrS w&m;0ifay;ydk@vmaom xGuaf jy;
wdr;f a&Smiforl sm; pm&if;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf?
tdraf xmifpk vlO;D a&
(u) jrefrmedik if t
H rsKd ;om;rSwyf w
Hk ifu'fjym; udik af qmifxm; olrsm;ESifh 21351 129400
,if;tay:rSaD c:olrsm; (at)pm&if;
(c) pm&Gupf mwrf;taxmuftxm;rjyedik o f rl sm; 3091 15772
,if;tay:rSaD c:olrsm; (u) pm&if;
(*) pm&Gupf mwrf;taxmuftxm;rjyedik o f rl sm; ,if;tay:rSo
D rl sm; 4617 18718
(pD) pm&if;

138? xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smiforl sm;tm; jyefvnfvufcaH &;twGuf csrw S of nfh

“[oFmpDrcH su”f t& (1978) ckEpS /f }o*kwv f (31) &ufae@rpS I (1979) ckEpS f / 'DZifbmv
(29) &ufaehtxd jyefvnfvufco H al ygi;f rSm tdraf xmifpk (31508) jzpfjyD;/ vlO;D a&rSm
(186986) OD;jzpfygonf? ,if;pDrcH sut f wGuf ukeu f sp&dwaf iGrmS jrefrmtpd;k &u
usy(f 8029770) jzpfjyD;/ ukvor~'u k Q onfrsm;qdik &f mr[mrif;}uD;&Hk;rS axmufyaHh iG a':vm
(855000) jrefrmaiGtm;jzifh usyf (57) ode;f ausmjf zpfonfuadk wG &h &Sd ygonf?
139? c;dk 0ifvmoleidk if jH cm;om;rsm;udk ppfaq;rSwyf w Hk ifjcif; ponfv h yk if ef;rSm
omref vkyu f idk af eusvyk if ef;wckjzpfaomfvnf; at;aq;wnfjidrpf mG vkyu f idk &f rnft h pm;
Xmeqdik &f m rsm;.tm;enf;csurf sm;a=umifh tylwjyif;&kw&f w k o f o J J aqmif&u G v f u
dk &f ojzifh
wzufeidk if o H dk@ xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;olrsm;onf td;k tdrpf eG f@um &maxmifcsI D
jzpfomG ;cJyh gonf? Todk@ vlO;D a&trsm;tjym; xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;cJo h jzifh
edik if aH &;*&uf&u dk cf wfonftxd jy\ emjzpfvmonfudk
ajyvnfomG ;ap&eftwGuv f nf;aumif;/ ESpef idk if t H =um; csp=f unf&if;eD;pGm
qufqaH eonfurdk ysujf ym;ap&eftwGu4f if;/ jrefrmedik if t H pd;k t&u
xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ; olrsm;udk tvdu k af vsmqH;k vdu k af vsmjyD; jyefvnfvufccH o Jh jzifh
ajyjypfacsmarmpGm jyD;ajrmufcJh onfudk awG@&&Sd ygonf?
140? Todk@ jrefrmedik if EH iS fh b*Fvm;a'h&ESf pS ef idk if t H =um; csp=f unfa&; rysuaf qmif&u G ef ikd cf hJ
ojzifv h nf; use&f aSd eao;aom uke;f ydik ;f qdik &f m jrefrm-b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ,fjcm;
e,ferd w d rf sO;f a=umif;udk atmifjrifpmG oabmwl owfrw S ef idk cf yJh gonf? xdk@tjyif
ESpef idk if eH ,fpyf pDpOf aqmif&u G rf _ yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;ESifh e,fpyfqidk &f mrsO;f Oya'
oabmwlpmcsKyfudk 'DZifbm (19) &ufaehwiG f csKyfqedk idk cf yJh gonf? jrefrm-
b*Fvm;a'h&eSf ,fpyfa&;&mrsm;ESifh pyfvsO;f I udkiw f ,G af qmif&u G ef idk &f ef
vkyx f ;Hk vkyef nf;nGe=f um;v$mw&yfuv dk nf; jrefrmtpd;k &u (1981) ckEpS f azaz:0g&D (7)
&ufae w h iG x
f w k jf yefa=ujimcJo h nfudk awG@&&Sd ygonf?
141? jrefrmedik if t H wGi;f odk@ w&m;r0ifc;dk 0ifvm=uaom b*FvrD q l vifrsm;udk xdr;f csKyfeikd &f ef
twGuf tajctaeay;ovdk vky&f rnfv h yk if ef;rsm;jzpfaom e,fjcm;e,ferd w d rf sO;f rsm; wdwd
ususowfrw S jf cif;/ e,fpyfe,fajrqdik &f m pnf;rsO;f Oya'rsm;jyKvkyjf cif; ponfwdk@ukd aqmif
&Gux f m;&Sed idk cf aJh omfvnf; w&m;r0ifc;dk 0ifrr_ sm;rSm &Sjd rJ&o Sd nfudk armif;awmjrdK@e,f vlO;D a&
pm&if;u jyov#u&f ySd gonf? armifawmjrdK@e,fwiG f (1977-78) ckEpS w f iG f
b*FgvrD q l vifO;D a& (222860) OD;&Scd &Jh mrS (1981-82)ckEpS w f iG f b*FgvrD q l vifO;D a&rSm
(243867) OD;txd wd;k wuf vmonfuadk wG@&ygonf? Todk@ jzpfaeonfh
t"duta=umif;&if;w&yfrmS b*Fvm;a'h&eSf idk if H wGif pwk&ef;wrdik v f #if vlO;D a&
(1500)cef&h aSd ejyDjzpfI 4if;edik if u H vufcx H m;&ef rwwfpeG ;f edik jf zpfaeonfuwa=umif;/
4if;edik if w H iG f iwfrw G af cgi;f yg;r_/ qif;&JarG;awr_/ obm0&moDOwk ab;tEW&m,f
xlajymr_&aSd eonfuwa=umif;/ jrefrmedik if zH ufodk@ pdr0fh ifva&mufae=urnf omjzpfonf?
142? yx0Dtaetxm;ESiv fh Ol ;D a&tajctaeuGmjcm;r_ut dk a=umi;fjyKI
jrefrmekid if t H wGi;f odk@ tdref ;D em;csi;f edik if rH sm;jzpfaom b*Fvm;a'h&eSf idk if EH iS fh w&keidk if w H @kd rS
edik if jH cm;om;rsm; w&m;r0if cd;k 0ifvmr_jy\emonf a&&Snt f wGuf
&ifav;zG,&f mjzpfygonf? e,fpyfa'owGif jAdwo d # e,fcs@J acwfuwnf;u
tajcpdu k af exdik v f maom edik if jH cm;om;rsm;onf jrefrmedik if H vGwv f yf a&;&,laecsed f
4if;wdk@tm; tcGit fh a&;ay;onfh edik if o H m;jzpfr_ tufOya'rsm;a=umifh jrefrm
edik if oH m;jzpf&m aemufxyfw&m;r0ifc;dk 0ifvm=uolrsm;rSm 4if;wdk@EiS fh vlrsKd ;wl/
bmompum; wl/ ud;k uG,o f nfb h momwl/ "avhx;Hk wrf;wl jzpf=uolrsm;jzpfjyD; 4if;wd@k EiS hf
a&maxG;,Suf aexdik =f uojzifh edik if o H m;rsm;jzpfonf/ edik if jH cm;om;jzpfonfudk cGjJ cm;pDppf&ef
tcuftcJawG@& ygonf? odk@jzpfygI w&m;r0ifc;dk 0ifvmol edik if jH cm;om;rsm;udk ppfaq;
azmfxw k af y;&ef ta&; ,l&mY xdxad &mufa&mufjzpfap&eftwGu4f if;/ ajymif;vJvmaom
acwftajctaersm;ESifh vdu k af vsmnDaxG&aSd om Oya'&S&d efvydk t f yfjcif;wdk@a=umifh
wnfqeJ idk if o H m;jzpfrt _ ufOya' rsm;udk tpm;xd;k &ef pDpOfaqmif&u G jf zpfvmygonf//
143? jAdwo d #e,fcsJ@vufrS jrefrmedik if v H wG af &;&,lonft h csed w f iG f jAdwo d #tpd;k &u
wm0ef,l vufcx H m;aom wdik ;f &if;om;r[kwf edik if jH cm;om;rsm;tm; jrefrmedik if t H pd;k &
qufvufI wm0ef,v l ufco H nfjzpfaoma=umifh (1947)ckEpS f zGJ@pnf;yHOk ya'wGif yk'rf (11)
tjzpf jrefrm edik if o H m;jzpfr_ t&nf;tcsi;f udk xnfo h iG ;f jyXmef;cJ&h ygonf?
Todk@jyXmef;&vifu h pm; yk'rf (12) wGif edik if o H m;jzpfjcif;oabmESipfh yfvsi;f I
avsmu f efoifjh rwfonf[k xifjrifaomw&m; Oy a'rsm;udk ygvrD efujyKjyifeikd af om
tm%monf ,kwaf vsmjh cif;r&So d nft h jyif yk'rf (11)wGif ryg0ifao;aomvltrsKd ;tpm;udk
edik if oH m;tjzpfjzifv h ufc&H efaomf4if;/ jyKvkyjf yXmef;edik o f nf[k xnfo h iG ;f azmfjyxm;ygonf?
wenf;tm;jzifh qd&k v#if yk'rf (11)udk tjrJO;D xdyx f m;ae& rnf[q k dkonfh
oabmjzpfonfudk awG@&&Sd ygonf?
144? &cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f odk@ (8)&mpkEpS u f 0ifa&mufvmaom
r[mar'ifbmom0ifrsm;onf vnf; aemufyidk ;f jAdwo d #e,fcsJ@pepfacwfwiG f
tvH;k t&if;ESifh 0ifa&mufvm=uaom b*FgvD rlqvifrsm;u 0g;rsKd oGm;cJjh yDjzpfygonf?
jrefrmedik if w H iG f oa&acwW&mu&Scd aJh om ysLvlrsKd ;wdk@ uG,af ysmufomG ;cJo h uJoh dk@
&cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f &cdik b f &k ifrsm;vufxufu&Scd aJh om r[m ar'ifbmom0ifrsm;
uG,af ysmufomG ;um qufwu dk Of ;D a& trsm;tjym;0ifa&mufae=uonfh
b*FgvrD q l vifrsm;om jzpfvmygawmhonf? 4if;wdk@onf
jrefrmvlrsKd ;rsKd ;EG,pf [ k kq&dk efrmS vnf; wdik ;f &if;om;rsKd ;pkrsm; uJo h dk@r[kwb f J
tm&Stv,fyidk ;f a'orS qif;oufvmaom yg&iS /f tm&yfrsKd ;EG,pf }k uD;wdk rh S
ygvmolrsm;omjzpfonfrmS xif&mS ;yga=umif;avhvmawG@&&Sd ygonf?
145? jrefrmedik if o H m; tufOya'opfwdk@(1982) ckEpS w f iG f jyXmef;jyD; qufvuftaumif
txnfaz:aqmif&u G &f efjzpfaomfvnf; }udKwifjyifqifaqmif&u G xf m;r_rsm; r&So d nfu
wa=umif;/ Xmeqdik &f mrsm;taejzifh tm;enf;csurf sm;&Sad eonfuwa=umif;/
xdtk a=umif;wdk@ a=umifh jrefjrefqefqefEiS fh Oya'.&nf&, G cf sujf ynfah jrmufatmif
raqmif&u G ef idk cf oJh nfudk awG@&ygonf?
146? a&maxG;,Suw f ifjzpfaeonfh &cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd edik if jH cm;om; b*FvrD q l vifrsm;
udpu P dk (1982)ckEpS f jrefrmedik if o H m;Oya't& &Si;f vif;aqmif&u G ef idk &f ef tcGitfh vrf;aumif;
w&yf&&Scd aJh omfvnf; jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if t H wGi;f
pD;yGm;a&;rajyrvnfjzpfcjJh cif;rsm;a=umifh (1988)ckEpS w f iG f qlyvl y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;
ay:ayguv f mum tpd;k &tajymif;tvJjzpfc&Jh ygonf? odk@ jzpfygI ekid if jH cm;om;
b*FvrD q l vifrsm;udprP mS jy\emw&yftaeESifh qufvufwnf&aSd e ygawmhonf?
(rSwcf su?f ? 1988 ckEpS t f xd avhvmcsujf zpfygonf?)

aEG;a0zefcsuEf iS fh oH;k oyfwifjycsuf
1// r[mar'ifbmom0if- yg&iS /f rd;k / tm&yfponfv h rl sKd ;wdk@onf &cdik jf ynfodk@ ukeu f ;l oef;
a&mif;0,fvm&if; oabFmysu&f mrS toufrao u,fwifc&Jh olrsm;udk &cdik b f &k ifrsm;u
a0omvDacwftpydik ;f AD 788 wGif ae&mcsxm;ay;onfupI rlqvifrsm; &cdik jf ynfo@kd
pwifa&muf&v Sd mjyD; e,fcv H rl sm;ESifh a&m,Sut
f rd af xmifrsm;usvmum rlqvifrsm;
yGm;rsm; vma=umif; qdkxm;onfrh mS ,kwrWd wefa=umif;udk ed'ge;f ydik ;f wGif
wifjycJjh yD;jzpfygonf// pifppf a0omvDpwifcsed rf mS AD 788 r[kwyf gbJ
(4)&mpkacwfomjzpfay&m xdt k csed rf cgrmS wref awmfr[ dk rR'rf mS rGm;jrif&efEpS af ygi;f
(200)cef@vadk o;ojzifh ,kwrWd wefonfrmS xif&mS ;vm ygonf// tu,fI 4if; AD 788
odk@r[kwf a0omvDrapmydik ;f u qdyk gvSsif c&pfouU&mZf (4)&mpkyidk ;f uomjzpfay&m
xdtk csed t
f cguyif oabFmysuI f u,fwifae&mcsxm;olrsm; rSecf Jh ygv#if xdo k rl sm;rSm
r[mar;'ifu;dk uG,o f rl sm; rjzpfeidk af o;onfrmS xif&mS ;aeayonf//
2// a0omvDacwfro S nf av;jrdK@acwfEiS fh ajrmufO;D acwftqH;k wdik x f d tkypf ;dk aom &cdik b f &k if
rsm;rSm Ak'b< mombk&ifrsm;omjzpfa=umif;udk &cdik o f rdik ;f taxmuftxm;wGif
txift&Sm; &Sad eygonf//
3// av;jrdK@acwf=uD;. avmif;=uufacwftqH;k ydik ;f wGif bk&ifrif;apmrGef ac: e&rdwv f u S
ukvm;bk&if (0gvpfcef)udk ulncD o Jh jzifh tjyeftvSeo f abmtjzpf &cdik x f ;D eef;udk
jyefvnf& ,l&mwGif tultnDay;cJo h nfrmS trSeyf ifjzpfygonf// TulnrD u _ dk
aus;Zl;wef@jyefaom taejzifh "pef'cD ef" AvDudk aqmufvyk cf iG jfh yKcJo h nfvnf;
trSeyf ifjzpfygonf// odk@aomf rif;apmrGeaf c: e&rdwv f rS mS ukvm;bGJ@ucdk , H jl cif;r&Scd yhJ g//
aumZm(792) wGif ajrmufO;D jrdK@opf udw k nfI ajrmufO;D acwfopfudk pwifonft h csed w f iG f
bk&ifrmS &ifuh suv f mjyD;jzpfjyD; Ak'b < m omud, k =Hk unfu;dk uG,rf E_ iS fh bmomomo emjyKjcif;
vkyif ef;rSm ydrk edk uf&i_d ;f vmonfudk jrdK@wnf bk&m;wqltjzpf wnfxm;ud;k uG,cf aJh om
av;rsuEf mS ykx;dk awmf=uD;u oufaojyv#u&f Sd aeygonf// xdk@tjyif rlqvifpma&;q&m
rsm; a&;om;=uouJo h dk@ ukvm;pmjzifh '*Fg;xkwv f yk f jcif;r&Sb
d J &cdik pf mESpzf uftjynfjh zifh
ouU&mZf(792)wGif w=udr/f ouU&mZf(785)wGiw f =udrf '*Fg;xkwv f yk cf o Jh nfudk awG@&yg
onf// ("gwyf -Hk pmrsuEf mS 57 wGi&f y_ g//)
4// c&mZfouU&mZf(1661) ckEpS f pENo"k rR&mZmvufxufwiG f r*db k &k ifeef;vkrr_ S &_;H edrI hf
b*F vm;bk&ifcH &Sm;&SL;*smESirfh o d m;pktjyif 4if;.ud, k &f efawmfwyfom;rSm;ESit fh wl
ajrmufO;D odk@ vma&mufcv dk c_H iG afh wmif;cJo h nfudk &cdik b f &k if pENo"k rR&mZmu
=unfjzLpGmvufccH o Jh nfudk awG@&ygonf// ESpfrsm;r=umcifrmS yif &Sm;&SL;*smu &cdik b f &k if
pENo"k rR&mZmudk ykeu f ef&ef =udK;yrf;vmojzifh ykeu f efjcif;udEk ySd uf yG jf yD;
&Sm;&SL;*smESitfh aygi;f ygwdk@udk uGyrf suv f u
dk &f onf txd tjzpftysurf sm;&Scd o Jh nfukd
awG@&ygonf// odk@aomf &Sm;&SL;*sm.wyfom;tcsKd @udk &cdik f bk&if.ud, k &f efawmfwyfwiG f
av;orm;rsm;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifapcJyh gonf// xdak v;o rm;rsm;udk
"Kaman"[ktm&yfpum;t& ac:qdy k gonf// aemifwiG f "uref"[kac:wGif vm avonf//
&Sm;&SL;*smaemufvu dk t f csKd @udk &rf;jAJ/ ausmufeaD rmf/ oHwEGJ iS fh ppfawG o*Feuf&mG rsm;wGif
ae&mcsxm;ay;cJo h nfrsm;vnf; &Scd o Jh nf//
5// TonfuvGI J rlqvifbmomuifrsm;ESifh tjcm;qufpyfrr_ &Scd yJh g// aemufawG&h aom
rlqvifrsm;rSm ppfEidk I f zrf;,lcaJh om oHk@yrf;rsm;ESiw fh jcm;uGset f jzpf ay:wl*rD sm;u zrf;qD;
a&mif;pm;um &cdik b f &k ifrsm;0,f,x l m;aom ynmonftcsKd o h m&Syd gonf?
6? &cdik Ef idk if aH wmfujdk refrmbk&ifarmif0idk ;f u odr;f ,lI(4)+rdK0h efpepfjzifh tESp(f 40)tkycf sKyfchJ
aom tcsed u f mvwGif &cdik jf ynfojl ynfom;trsm;tjym;onf wzufEidk if t H *Fvyd yf ikd f
tdE, Nd Edik if b H *Fvm;e,fodk@ xGuaf jy;cdv k r_H r_ sm;&Scd oJh nfudk awG@&onf?
7? t*Fvyd -f jrefrm yxrppfyt GJ +yD; &EBypdk mcsKyft& t*Fvyd rf sm;&cdik u f o dk rd ;f ,lptcsed df
(1825)rSm &cdik w f idk ;f .vlO;D a&onf (1 )ode;f om &Sad =umif;awG@&onf?
8? t*Fvyd rf sm;onf &cdik u f o dk rdf ;f ,lpuyif v,f,mvkyif ef;rsm;udw k ;dk csv
Jh yk u f idk v
f mygonf?
txl;ojzifh pl;tufw;l ajrmif;azmufvyk +f yD;pD;aomtcg urBmq h efaps;uGuf aumif;rGev f m
ojzifh v,f,mvkyif ef;udyk I dk vkyu f idk v f m&m v,f,mvkyo f m;rsm; trsm;tjym;vdt k yfvm
onfh tavSsmuf tdE, Nd b*Fvm;jynfe,frS b*Fgvu D v k m;rsm;udk wHcg;r&S"d g;r&Sd
&moDtvdu k f oGi;f vm=uonf// 4if;v,fvyk o f m;rsm;twGuf oabFmukr% ` rD sm;wnf
axmifI4if;/ bl;oD; awmifEiS afh rmif;awm &xm;vrf;wckazmufvyk I f 4if;/ aqmif&u G cf hJ
ygao;onf// tdE, Nd ESifh jrefrmudk cGx J w k v f u dk af om tcsed af emufyidk ;f wGiv f nf;
xl;rjcm;em;yg// t*Fvyd rf sm;u b*FvD ukvm;rsm;udk oGi;f csio f avmufoiG ;f aejcif;rSm
r&yfpyJ g// Tonfwdk@a=umifh bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awm/ &aohawmif/ ppfawGjrdK@e,frsm;
onf b*Fgvu D v k m;wdk@. tpdik t f cJae&m jzpfvm apzdk@twGuf t*Fvyd w f dk@uvnf;tm;
ay;cJo h nfudk awG@&onf// Tonfwdk@rmS t*Fvyd u f v dk edk D orm;wdk@. tarGqdk;w&yfyif
9// 'kw, d urBmppf=uD;jyD;qHk;jyD;aemuf &cdik Ef iS u fh vk m;rsm;udk oufqidk &f mjrdK@e,frsm;wGif
ae&m jyefvnfcsxm;ay;aomtcg armif;awmjrdK@e,fwiG f ,Qipf pfrjzpfrSD &cdik af us;&Gmrsm;
(200)ausmf &So d nft h euf (68)&Gmavmufom use&f aSd wmhonfuadk wG@&onf// b*FgvrD q l
vif ukvm;vlO;D a&rSmvnf; 'kwu d rBm=uD;rwdik rf SD tcsed t f cgxuf rsm;pGmwd;k yGm;v#uf
d nfuadk wG@&onf//
10// jrefrmedik if v H w G v f yfa&;&aomtcg z-q-y-v tzGJ@=uD;onf t"duedik if aH &;tzG@J
tpnf; jzpfvmonfEiS t fh wl &cdik w f idk ;f wGif &-w-n tzGJ@tpnf;w&yf ay:ayguv f m
ygonf// taxG axG tauseyfrr_ sm;&Sv d mI &cdik jf ynfe,fawmif;qdo k nfh taetxm;jzpf
vmonf// xdt k csed f tcgwiG f ukvm;qd;k rsm;. rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f ol tzGJ@vnf; ay:ayguf
vmjyD; bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;wGif use&f aSd eaom &cdik &f mG rsm;udk rD;&_d@zsufq;D
vm=uonf// ,if;uJo h dk@ aom tcsed t f cgrsKd ;wGif z-q-y-v wdk@u ppfawG/ &aohawmif/
bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awm wdk@Y b*Fgvu D v k m;rsm;udk wzufeidk if rH S trsm;tjym;oGi;f
,lae=uonfomru edik if o H m;rsm; jzpfatmiftjyif rJay;edik cf iG &fh atmifvnf; zefw;D ay;=u
onfudk awG@&ygonf// &d[ k if*sm[l aom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;vnf; ay:ayguv f mjyD; rlqvif
edik if x
H al xmif&ef pdik ;f jyif;a=uG;a=umfvm =uonftxd jzpfvmygawmhonf//
11// awmfveS af &;tpd;k &wufvmjyD; aemufyidk ;f rSmrl ukvm;rsm;udk rw&m;oGi;f ,lr_ &yfwef@
oGm;avonf// rl*sm[pfaomif;use;f r_rmS vnf; ed*;Hk csKyfcaJh vonf// odk@aomf "&d[ k if*sm"
awm cdt k zGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf trnftrsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh ay:ayguv f monfudk awG@&onf//
12// awmfveS af &;tpd;k &vufxufEiS fh jrefrmhqdk&, S vf pfvrf;pOfygwv D ufxufrpS I bl;oD;
awmif/ armif;awmudk e,fjcm;ao c&dik t f jzpf owfrw S cf jJh yD; b*Fgvu D kvm;rsm; t0if
txGuf udk =uyfrwfco Jh nfomru vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;ESiyfh wfoufaom ppfqifa&;rsm;
jyKvkycf o Jh nf udk awG@&ygonf// (1977)ckEpS w f iG f e*g;rif;pDrcH suu f dk taumiftxnf az:&m
wGif ppfawG/ &aohawmif/ bl;oD;awmif/ armif;awmjrdK@e,frsm;rS ukvm;tajrmuftjrm;
wdk@onf wzuf b*Fvm;a'h&eSf idk if o H dk@ xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&SmifomG ;=uonfudk awG@&ygonf//
wzufeidk if w H iG f 'kuo Q nfpcef;rsm;zGJ@I vufcx H m;onfuv dk nf;awG@&ygonf//
13// jrefrmedik if EH iS b fh *Fvm;a'h&Sf ESpef idk if cH sp=f unfru _ dk ta=umif;jyKI xdx k uG af jy;oGm;=u
aom b*FgvrD q l vifuv k m;rsm;udk [oFmpDrcH sujf zifh jyefvnfvufccH o Jh nfudk awG@&yg
onf// jyef0if vmaom b*Fgvu D v k m;rsm;rSm &cdik jf ynfe,frx S u G of mG ;onft h a&twGuf
xuf rsm;vmonf udk awG@&ygonf//
14// TuJo h dk@jzpfvmonfh ta=umif;&if;tcsuw f csurf mS t"dutm;jzifh csrw S xf m;onfh
Oya'rsm;. aysmu h u G [ f muGurf sm;a=umifv h nf; trSeyf ifjzpfygonf// xdk@a=umifh zGJ@pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'topfa&;qG&J mwGif TuJo h dk@aom vl0ifvx l u G u f pd uP 4dk if;/ a&muf&ESd iS jhf yD;jzpf
aom wzufeidk if o H m;rsm; odk@r[kwf {nfeh idk if o H m;rsm;udk Oya't&rnfuo Jh dk@ xde;f csKyfoifh
onfh edik if o H m;jyKr_tufOya'rsm;udv k nf; cdik rf matmifjyKvkyo f ifyh gonf// {nfeh idk if o H m;rsm;
rJay;ydik cf iG Efh iS fh ywfoufI rnfuo Jh dk@uef@owfaqmif&u G o f ifo h nfuv dk nf; txl;tav;
xm;I 0dik ;f 0ef;pOf;pm;&ef tcsed w f efjyD[k ,lqrdyga=umif;//
usr;f um;pm&if;
(1) Junior History of India by Banerji
(2) ajrmufO;D vrf;nGe-f &cdik jf ynfe,fjynfol@aumifpjD yKpkonf//
(3) jynfe,fjzpfpOfordik ;f - &cdik jf ynfe,fjynfol@aumifpjD yKpkonf// yxrwG-J ordik ;f u¾
(4) jynfe,fjzpfpOfordik ;f - &cdik jf ynfe,fjynfol@aumifpjD yKpkonf// pwkww W -GJ vlra_ &;u¾
(5) Burma gazetteer by Mr. R. B. Smart Akyab District, Vol A
(6) Burma gazetteer by S. Grantham Akyab District Vol. B-No. 1
(7) Burma gazetteer by W.B Tydd Sandoway District, Vol. A
(8) An Introduction to the political economy of Burma by J. S. Funivall
(9) cdik jf ynfe,ftwGi;f edik if jH cm;om;b*Fgvv D rl sKd ;rsm; pdik ;f jyif;v$rf;rd;k r_ tEW&m,frS
wm;qD;umuG,af &;ESiyfh wfoufI wifjycsu/f /
(10) &cdik w f idk ;f -vl0ifr=_ uD;=uyfa&;.wifjycsuf
(11) Roewangyas in Arakan by Ba Tha, Article in "The Guardian", May 1960
(12) Phamphlets of (a) Rohingya Patriotic Front
(b) Rohingya Solidarity Organization
(13) jrefrmedik if eH ,fpyfa'orsm;Y jzpfay:avh&o Sd nfh ta&;tcif;rsm;udk
rdrEd iS w
fh zufeidk if rH sm;rS a'oqdik &f mtm%mydik t
f csi;f csi;f nSd@EKSd if;ajz&Si;f =ujcif;udp/P /
(jynfxaJ &;0ef=uD;Xme-1975)
(14) wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;ta&;ESifh ywfoufI awmfveS af &;aumifp. D
tjrifEiS cfh ,
H cl su-f jrefrmhq&dk ,
S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD
(15) The Indian Constitution- Asurvey- by S. K. Lahiri & B. N. Banergee
(16) The British Common Wealth- The Development of its Laws & Constitution Pakistan- by Alan Gled
(17) World Constitutions- full view at a glance- By S. L. Laeley
(18) 1947 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if H zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'//
(19) 1948 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if o H m;tjzpf (a&G;cs,af &;) tufOya'//
(20) 1949 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if o H m;jzpfr_ tufOya'//
(21) 1949 jynfaxmifpjk refrmedik if t H wGi;f aexdik o f rl sm; rSwyf w
Hk ifa&;Oya'//
(22) The Registration of Foreigners Act.
(23) awmfveS af &;aumifpD ausnmcsurf sm;ESifh trdef@rsm;//
(24) ygvrD efqidk &f m rSwwf rf;rsm;//
(25) History of Burma- by Lieutanant General Sir Arthur P.Phayre (1883)
(26) ar"ynmarmfueG ;f vuFm- ar"ynmtrwf/ a0omvDacwf
(27) a&S;acwf&cdik o f rdik ;f udk avhvmqef;ppfcsuf 1998/ OD;a&$Z/H OD;armifausmf
(29) &cdik 'f *Fg;/ 1979/ OD;pHomatmif//
(30) "n0wDacwf&mZ0ifordik ;f ESifh tcsKd @aomokawoDwdk@ tawG;tjrif OD;atmifomOD;//
(31) The golden Mrauk-U, An ancient capital of Rakhine- U Shwe Zan
(32) ajrmufO;D acwf'*Fg; odk@r[kwf '*Fg;uajymaom ajrmufO;D acwfordik ;f - OD;a&$ZH
(ajrmufO;D acwfordik ;f udk qef;ppfavhvmcsurf S aumufEw _ cf su/f / at'D 2000)
(33) "n0wDacwfonf '¾m&DyjHk yifr[kwyf g- aqmif;yg;- OD;armifausm-f 1996//
(34) a0omvDacwf ya[Vdypk m> ESifh tajzaqmif;yg;- OD;a&$Z-H 1996//
(35) tmeENpajEN/ &Sp&f mpk&cdik af 0omvDrif;- OD;pHomatmif
(36) Some Jurifications about Wethali, a single Rakhine Dynasty existing between Fourth and Ninth
Century by U Shwe Zan
(37) "n0wDacwf/ &cdik af cwfO;D (ouU&mZf 2001)/ OD;a&$Z/H /
(38) acwfoak woDrsm;u "n0wDEiS fh a0omvDacwfrsm;udk a&;om;wifjy&mwGif
toH;k jyKae=uaom ouU&mZfrsm; (ouU&mZf 2000)- OD;a&$ZH
(39) The Arakani governors and their coins by Vasant Chowdhury (Calcutta)
(40) jrefrmhp,
G pf u
Hk sr;f twGt J rSwf (9)
(41) Some interesting coins of Anauk Barung and Sitagaung mong by Aung Zan- &cdik rf *~Zif;- 22
(42) "Review of the most ancient Rakhine" 1966 by U Shwe Nyo Tin (ICS Retd.)
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