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S.no Contents Pg.No


Chapter 1. Introduction



Chapter 2. Research and Methodology



Chapter 3. Data Analysis And Interpretation












Suggestion and Recommendations



Questionnaires and Bibliography



Not understanding your consumers motivations needs and preferences can hurt. The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target consumers needs and wants. The field of consumer behavior studies how individuals or groups of individuals select, buy, use and dispose of goods or services. Understanding consumer behavior and knowing consumers is not simple. Consumers may say one thing and do another. They may not be in touch with their deeper motivations. They may respond to influences that change their minds at the last minute. But studying consumers provides clues for developing new products, product features, prices and altering marketing strategies accordingly. Let us try and understand the buyer behavior process.

Problem Recognition: Perceiving a Need Information Search: Seeking Value Alternative Evaluation: Assessing Value Purchase Decision: Buying Value Post purchase Behavior: Value in Consumption

Problem Recognition The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. The need can be triggered by internal or external stimuli. Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need. By gathering information from a number of consumers, marketers can identify the most frequent stimuli that spark an interest in a product category. They can then develop marketing strategies that trigger consumer interest.

Information Search An aroused consumer will be inclined to search for more information. Consumer information sources fall into four groups Personal Sources: Family, Friends, Neighbors, Acquaintances Commercial Sources : Advertising, Salespersons, Dealers, Packaging, Displays Public Sources : Mass Media, Consumer-Rating Organisations Experiential Sources : Handling, Examining, Using the Product

Knowing about the sources will help the companies in preparing effective communications for the target market.

Alternative Evaluation How does the consumer evaluate competitive brands and make a final value judgment? There is no single process used by all consumers or by one consumer in all buying situations. But some basic concepts will help us in understanding consumer evaluation processes. First, the consumer is trying to satisfy a need. Second, the consumer is looking for certain benefits from the product solution. Third, the consumer sees each product as a bundle of attributes with varying abilities for delivering the benefits sought to satisfy this need.

Purchase Decision In the evaluation stage, the consumer forms preferences among the brands in the choice set. The Consumer may also form an intention to buy the most preferred brand. However, two factors can Intervene between the purchase intention and purchase decision. The first factor is the attitudes of others and the second factor is unanticipated situational factors such as loss of income, some other urgent purchase etc. In executing a purchase intention, the consumer may make up to five purchase sub-decisions, Brand decision Vendor decision Quantity decision Timing decision Payment-method decision Post-Purchase Behavior After purchasing the product, the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. The marketers job thus, does not end when the product is brought. Marketers must Monitor post-purchase satisfaction, post-purchase actions and post-purchase product uses.

AN EXAMPLE OF A PURCHASE BEHAVIOR BY A CONSUMER IS GIVEN BELOW Problem Recognition The need was recognized when my old mobile phone stopped working. I was using Nokia 5200 and suddenly it stopped working and when given for repair, I was informed that the mobile can not be repaired. The process of getting my mobile repaired took some 10 days i.e. for almost 10 days I was without a mobile phone. The need was felt when it was my birthday and I was not able to be in touch with my friends and family. Since I use my mobile even to surf my mails and internet I was not even able to do that. All this caused a lot of in convince and finally I had to go for a new mobile phone.

Information Search For me my mobile phone is a high involvement product. Since am a student with limited disposable income I purchase a mobile once in a wile. I dont change my mobile set unless and until it stops working and therefore at the time of making a decision to buy a new mobile I went through all the various mobile phones available in my budget and of my preferred brand. i always look for various offers and even compared rates at various stores and mobile dealers.

Alternative Evaluation In identifying the various alternatives I went through various mobiles available of my preferred brand. I even discussed with my family members and friends about which mobile do they recommend. I met various dealers and stores to know the latest Nokia launches and various offers available with all these dealers. No check out the rates and features I even visited various web sites where I compared all the features and prices of various brands available in my budget. Since I am a Nokia loyalist so I never preferred changing my mobile brand. although the other brand offers were really tempting but they were still not able to influence me to change my brand. The only issue was which mobile model I should go for. There were various mobiles available and were almost similar apart from some features difference and design. Finally I decided to go for Nokia 3120 which was economical, had a good design, was Nokia latest launch and was satisfying almost all my needs i.e. it was a 3G phone so apt for internet surfing and with all the latest features.

Purchase Decision Finally the action taken by me was purchasing Nokia 3120. The mobile store had am offer of getting a hand free on every purchase but somehow that model was not available with them. i waited for few days and then I finally bought the mobile from e store. Although that hands free offer was not available but that was urgency since I was not able to avoid the need of having a mobile.

Post Purchase Behaviour Am using the mobile since past 2 months and till now am quite content with my decision. Its working pretty well and is apt for me.

What is consumer Buying Behaviour? Buying Behaviour is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products. Firms need to understand:

why consumers make the purchases that they make? what factors influence consumer purchases? the changing factors in our society.

Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. A firm needs to analyze buying behavior for:

Buyers reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firms success. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies.

Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions). Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process. Not all decision processes lead to a purchase. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages, determined by the degree of complexity are discussed next. The 6 stages are: 1. Problem Recognition(awareness of need)--difference between the desired state and the actual condition. Deficit in assortment of products. Hunger--Food. Hunger stimulates your need to eat. Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information--did not know you were

deficient? I.E., see a commercial for a new pair of shoes, stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes. 2. Information search-o o

Internal search, memory. External search if you need more information. Friends and relatives (word of mouth). Marketer dominated sources; comparison shopping; public sources etc.

A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives, the evoked set. Hungry, want to go out and eat, evoked set is
o o o o

chinese food indian food burger king klondike kates etc

3. Evaluation of Alternatives--need to establish criteria for evaluation, features the buyer wants or does not want. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search. May decide that you want to eat something spicy, Indian gets highest rank etc.

If not satisfied with your choice, then return to the search phase. Can you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Information from different sources may be treated differently. Marketers try to influence by "framing" alternatives. 4. Purchase decision--Choose buying alternative, includes product, package, store, method of purchase etc. 5. Purchase--May differ from decision, time lapse between 4 & 5, product availability. 6. Post-Purchase Evaluation--outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction. Cognitive Dissonance, have you made the right decision. This can be reduced by warranties, after sales communication After eating an indian meal, may think that really you wanted a chinese meal instead. etc.

Types of Consumer Buying Behavior Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by:

Level of Involvement in purchase decision. Importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation.

Buyers, level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others.

High involvement purchases--Honda Motorbike, high priced goods, products visible to others, and the higher the risk the higher the involvement. Types of risk:

Personal risk Social risk Economic risk

The four type of consumer buying behaviour are:

Routine Response/Programmed Behaviour--buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items; need very little search and decision effort; purchased almost automatically. Examples include soft drinks, snack foods, milk etc.

Limited Decision Making--buying product occasionally. When you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, perhaps. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Examples include Clothes--know product class but not the brand.

Extensive Decision Making/Complex high involvement, unfamiliar, expensive and/or infrequently bought products. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk. Examples include cars, homes, computers, education. Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding.

Information from the companies MM; friends and relatives, store personnel etc. Go through all six stages of the buying process.

Impulse buying, no conscious planning.

The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behaviour. Product can shift from one For category to the next.

example: Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for

someone that does not go out often at all), but limited decision making for someone else. The reason for the dinner, whether it is an anniversary celebration, Valentines Day dinner, or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision making.

Categories that Effect the Consumer Buying Decision Process A consumer, making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: 1. Personal 2. Psychological 3. Social The marketer must be aware of these factors in order to develop an appropriate MM for its target market. Personal Its unique to a particular person. Demographic Factors such as Sex, Race, Age etc. Who in the family is responsible for the decision making? Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people.

Psychological factors Psychological factors include:

Motives: A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Actions are effected by a set of motives, not just one. If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. MASLOW hierarchy of needs!!
o o o

Physiological Safety Love and Belonging


o o

Esteem Self Actualization

Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases.

Perception: What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. IE we chose what info we pay attention to, organize it and interpret it. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch. Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. More likely if it is linked to an event, satisfies current needs, intensity of input changes (sharp price drop). Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received information, inconsistent with beliefs. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another), have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. A current example...MCI and AT&T...do you ever get confused? Selective Retention-Remember inputs that support beliefs, forgets those that don't. Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17,000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned. Exposed to 1,500 advertisement per day. Can't be expected to be aware of all these inputs, and certainly will not retain many. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar, on knowledge that is stored in the memory.

Ability and Knowledge: Need to understand individuals capacity to learn. Learning, changes in a person's behaviour caused by information and experience. Therefore to change consumers' behaviour about your product, need to give them new information re: product...free sample etc. When making buying decisions, buyers must Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. process information.

Inexperience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality more than those who have knowledge of a product. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive six-pack, because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality. Learning is the process through which a relatively permanent change in behavior results from the consequences of past behavior.


Attitudes: Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activity-maybe tangible or intangible, living or non- living.....Drive perceptions Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people. Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm's marketing strategy. Honda "You meet the nicest people on a Honda", dispel the unsavory image of a motorbike rider, late 1950s. Changing market of the 1990s, baby boomers aging, Hondas market returning to hard core. To change this they have a new slogan "Come ride with us". Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumers, personality and lifestyle. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their attitudes. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes. IE brand loyalty. There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy).

Personality: All the internal traits and behaviours that make a person unique, uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience. Examples include:
o o o o o o o o o o o o

Workaholics Compulsiveness Self confidence Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Authoritarianism Introversion Extroversion Aggressiveness Competitiveness.


Traits affect the way people behave. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behaviour, this may be due to unreliable measures. In Nike ads for example, Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self concept.

Lifestyles: Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy, natural lifestyle. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. EXAMPLE: healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle. Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until 1920's. Now an assault by the American Academy of Dermatology.

Social Factors Consumer wants, learning, motives etc. are influenced by opinion leaders, person's family, reference groups, social class and culture.

Opinion leaders-Spokes-people etc. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders...they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products. Michael Jordon (Nike, McDonalds, Gatorade etc.) Can be risky...Michael Jackson...OJ Simpson...Chevy Chase

Roles and Family Influences-Role and things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group. People have many roles. Husband, father, employer/ee. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information.

Family is the most basic group a person belongs to. Marketers must understand:
o o o

that many family decisions are made by the family unit consumer behaviour starts in the family unit family roles and preferences are the model for children's future family (can reject/alter/etc)

family buying decisions are a mixture of family interactions and individual decision making

family acts an interpreter of social and cultural values for the individual.

The Family life cycle: families go through stages. Each stage creates different consumer demands:
o o o o o o

bachelor stage... newly married, young, no children...me full nest I, youngest child under 6 full nest II, youngest child 6 or over full nest III, older married couples with dependent children empty nest I, older married couples with no children living with them, head in labour force

o o o o

empty nest II, older married couples, no children living at home, head retired solitary survivor, in labour force solitary survivor, retired Modernized life cycle includes divorced and no children.

Because 2 income families are becoming more common, the decision maker within the family unit is changing also, family has less time for children, and therefore tends to let them influence purchase decisions in order to alleviate some of the guilt. (Children influence about $130 billion of goods in a year) Children also have more money to spend themselves.

Reference Groups-Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values, attitudes or behaviours of the group members.









Any group that has a positive or negative influence on a persons attitude and behavior. Affinity marketing is focused on the desires of consumers that belong to reference groups. Marketers get the groups to approve the product and communicate that approval to its members. Credit Cards etc. Aspiration to belong groups (want to belong to) Disassociate groups (do not want

to)Honda, tries to disassociate from the "biker" group.

The degree to which a reference group will affect a purchase decision depends on an individuals susceptibility to reference group influence and the strength of his/her involvement with the group.

Social Class-An open group of individuals who have similar social rank. Jamaica is not a classless society. Class criteria: occupation, education, income, wealth, race, ethnic groups and possessions. Social class influences many aspects of our lives. IE upper middle class prefer luxury cars Mercedes.
o o

Upper -upper-upper class, .3%, inherited wealth, aristocratic names. Lower-upper class, 1.2%, newer social elite, from current professionals and corporate elite

o o o o o

Upper-middle class, 12.5%, college graduates, managers and professionals Lower middle class, 32%, average pay white collar workers and blue collar friends Working class, 38%, average pay blue collar workers Upper-lower class, 9%, working Lower-lower class, 7%,

Social class determines to some extent, the types, quality, quantity of products that a person buys or uses. Lower class people tend to stay close to home when shopping; do not engage in much prepurchase information gathering. Stores project definite class images.

Family, reference groups and social classes are all social influences on consumer behaviour. All operate within a larger culture.

Culture and Sub-culture-Culture refers to the set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are accepted by a homogenous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. Culture also determines what is acceptable with product advertising. Culture determines what people wear, eat, reside and travel. Cultural values in the US are good health, education, individualism and freedom. Different society, different levels of needs, different cultural values. Culture can be divided into subcultures:
o o

geographic regions human characteristics such as age and ethnic background.

Culture affects what people buy, how they buy and when they buy. Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior offers consumers greater satisfaction (Utility). We must assume that the company has adopted the Marketing Concept and are consumer oriented.

The study of how and why people purchase goods and services is termed consumer buying behaviour . The term covers the decision-making processes from those that precede the purchase of goods or services to the final experience of using the product or service. Models of consumer buying behaviour draw together the various influences on, and the process of, the buying decision. They attempt to understand the proverbial 'blackbox' of what happens within the consumer between his or her exposure to marketing stimuli and the actual decision to purchase.










Source: Keegan et al. (1992, p. 193) The essence of the model is that it suggests consumers will respond in particular ways to different stimuli after they have 'processed' those stimuli in their minds. In more detail, the model suggests that factors external to the consumer will act as a stimulus for behaviour, but that the consumer's personal characteristics and decision-making process will interact with the stimulus before a particular behavioural response is generated. It is called the 'black box' model because we still know so little about how the human mind works. We cannot see what goes on in the mind and we don't really know much about what goes on in there, so it's like a black box. As far as consumer behaviour goes, we know enough to be able to identify major internal influences and the major steps in the decision-making process which consumers use, but we don't really know how consumers transform all these data, together with the stimuli, to generate particular responses. Turn now to the following reading to begin looking at your text's introduction to buyer behavior. MOBILE INDUSTRY: With rapid consumerism sweeping the country, India has emerged as the second largest mobile handset market, poised for explosive growth by 2007. The major drivers for growth have been the demand and also the existence of companies providing the most technologically advanced handsets at justifiable prices. The technological developments have been the driving factor for the increasing demand graph. The mobile handset market in India is estimated to be worth Rs.8.05billion (US $2billion) as of

2004/05 and will surge by 62% with approximately 100-million subscribers nationwide by 2007. It is also learnt that the Indian mobile subscribers are willing to pay for upgrades, value-based services, and advanced models that provide better services. There has been a growth in the mobile handset market in India and the demand is increasing with the increasing tele-density. The market is overloaded with the number of mobile handset providers due to which the customer is able to bargain for a reasonable price for the mobile. The various players are Nokia, Samsung, Motorola, Sony Ericsson, Alcatel, Panasonic, Siemens, BenQ, Mitsubishi ,Philips ,NEC ,Sagem ,LG ,Sharp, Sendo, Innostream, Pantech, VK Mobile, Palm, O2, i-mate, Qtek, BlackBerry, Haier, Bird, Eten, HP and XCute. Dominated largely by Nokia with a total market share of 60%, followed by Samsung (14%) and Motorola (7%) respectively, Indian mobile handset market is currently catering to 45 million subscribers (June 2005). Recent records show that Indian GSM cellular user base has grown from 43 million, as estimated in May, to 45 million in June 2008, representing a growth of 3.50% in the month under review, witnessing large and propitious foreign investors flooding the market eyeing for large chunks. In addition, recent changes imbibed in the government policies that price mobile handsets at a lower end with flexible custom-duty for new entrants are startling the market with multiple models largely aimed to higher and middle-income groups. Industry sources, though, view the market to be at its nascent stage, many large EMS (Electronic Manufacturing Services) companies are seriously considering setting up their handset facilities in India.

MAJOR PLAYERS: Nokia A world leader in mobile communications, Nokia has established itself as the leading preferred brand in many markets. Backed by its experience, innovation, user-friendliness and secure solutions,Nokia is the world's leading supplier of mobile phones, fixed, mobile and IP networks. Nokia offers aline of versatile business phones incorporating mobile voice, mobile messaging, email solutions andbusiness-critical applications and all the latest applications to meet the needs of different usergroups.


Samsung Samsung manufactures leading models in all segments of the mobile handset market. The company's aim is to launch a slew of mobile phones with unique features that satisfy different customer and market segments. Samsung's key insight is that apart from technology and functionality, a critical factor for generating customer preference would be 'glamour' and 'innovation'. Innovation is just one of the things that have kept Samsung at the top of the mobile market. The conglomerate has made great strides in customer satisfaction through a strong local presence via a dual partner distribution strategy. It has an all-pervasive supply chain that delivers greater value to over 5,000 sales points and retailers.

Motorola Motorola offers market-changing icons of personal technology - transforming the device formerly known as the cell phone into a universal remote control for life. A leader in multi-mode, multi-band communications products and technologies, Mobile Devices designs, manufactures, sells and services wireless subscriber and server equipment for cellular systems, portable energy storage products and systems, servers and software solutions and related software and accessory products.

Sony Ericsson Their mission is to establish Sony Ericsson as the most attractive and innovative global brand in the mobile handset industry. Their latest technological applications make them stand at the forefront of innovation.

SAMSUNG & ITS COMPETITORS Samsung Electronics is poised to play a major role in the convergence of Mobile and IT devices and possibly supplant Nokia as the worlds top Mobile Device vendor by volume and revenue, while pursuing Apple for the top Mobile position in profit. Its basic challenge is to unite all the capabilities at its disposal and make the whole greater than the sum of the parts. Its reach -out challenge will be to extend its performance and influence into the ecosystem software, services and solutions.

Samsung became the leading provider of Android-powered devices in 3Q10, and is to bring out a strong Android Tablet portfolio in 2011. Amid conjecture that Androids major potential weakness

is increasing version-fragmentation, Samsung has the potential as the major provider of Android to develop a coherent and managed Android environment and use this to compete with other vendors and to bring on board Apps developers. Google will have every interest to work closely with Samsung as its main Android ambassador. The Major Competitors of Samsung Mobiles are the following: NOKIA MOTOROLA SPICE MICROMAX APPLE IBALL SONY ERICSSO


KEY SUCCESS Technology strategy 3G Application software Total



EDGE Nokia

4 5 5 19

5 5 4 18

Motorola Both Nokia NOKIA




Sales Operating income

60.2% 70.4%

66.2% 65.7%




Market Research on Consumer Behavior:

PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of the study is to find the Consumer Buying Behavior of Mobile Handsets

SCOPE OF STUDY There are more than 28 Brands of Mobile phones available ion the market. Within each brand there are various models, each with different attributes and functions. This research will open the doors of the consumer buying behavior of a mobile handset.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE To find the Consumer Buying Behavior of Mobile Handsets

RESEARCH DESIGN This is a Descriptive Market Research. This research will explore the consumers behavior towards buying a mobile handset.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is the systematic investigation into existing or new knowledge. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research)

are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, etc. Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions. But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far Industry scenario sketch (utilizing secondary information)

Extensive interviews held with primary sources Formulation and administration of a questionnaire Formulation of the recommended strategy on the basis of the a primary and secondary sources As possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, empirical and critical.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To assess the level of brand awareness, usage and loyalty for Nokia & Samsung Mobile phones in Delhi. To define the segment of Delhiites who use Nokia or Samsung mobile phones and identify their purchasing and media habits; To determine consumers' perception and attitude towards "Nokia" & Samsung mobile phones in the local market; To examine the diffusion and penetration of promotional strategies, such as advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, publicity and sponsorship, of Nokia & Samsung mobile on the local market, and assessing their effectiveness on consumers. Provide strategic recommendations based on findings that can help to improve over "Nokia" & Samsung mobile phones

RESEARCH DESIGN This project is more of a quantitative study than a quantitative study. Since this project aims at study of satisfaction of consumer achieved by Delhi metro, the best way to do it is to check out firsthand the efficiency and effectiveness by personally going to the metro stations and market .The qualitative analysis of this project is mainly based on first hand observation of the market, the way it functions and by having unstructured conversations . Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems. Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem. Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence.

Qualitative research Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. Quantitative research Systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. Asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze utilizing statistical methods.

Data Collection Techniques: Primary sources are created at the time of an event, or very soon after something have happened. These sources are often rare or one-of-a-kind. Photographs Maps Interviews Newspapers Magazines

Second-hand, published accounts are called secondary sources. They are called secondary sources because they are created after primary sources and they often use or talk about primary sources. Biographies Published stories Movies of historical events

In this project both primary as well as secondary source is used for collection of information.

Sample Design: Sampling unit: Sampling unit is one of the unit into which an aggregate is divided for the purpose of sampling each unit being regarded as individuals and indivisible when the selection is made. For eg. : Middle aged people, teenagers, etc. Sampling size: 50 Sampling area: For this project I have taken DWARKA . Sampling techniques:

Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. Systematic sampling After the required sample size has been calculated, every nth record is selected from a list of population members. Convenience sampling As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. This no probability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, Judgment sampling is a common no probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. Quota sampling is the no probability equivalent of stratified sampling. Like stratified sampling, the researcher first identifies the stratums and their proportions as they are represented in the population. In this project convenience sampling method has been used. The population considered for the purpose of the survey was people residing in Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR). Sample Size: The sample size taken into consideration includes simple of around 50 related people in various different location. The sample size has been decided in accordance with the instructions given by the Delhi Metro

Sampling Technique Used: Since the information required was not of a very technical nature and also looking at the scope of the project and the extent of the target segment, the sampling technique employed was Convenience Sampling. INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 1. Open Format Questions: Open format questions are those questions that give your audience an opportunity to e express Their Opinions

2. Closed Format Questions: Closed format questions are questions that include multiple Choice answers. Multiple choice Questions fall under the category of closed format questions

3. Leading Questions Leading questions are questions that force your audience for a particular type of answer. In a leading question, all the answers would be equally likely.

5. Dichotomous Questions Dichotomous questions are simple questions that ask respondents to just answer yes or no. One major drawback of a dichotomous question is that it cannot analyze any of the answers between yes and no.




1. Do you have any mobile phone? PARTICULARS Yes No NUMBER 50 0 %AGE 100% 0%

INTERPRETATION: From the above diagram. It can be interpreted that all 50 respondent i.e. 100% people have mobile phones. This shows that mobile phone has become necessity in this era.


2. How many mobile phones do you have?

Particulars 1 2 3 3+

Percentage 26 74 0 0

INTERPRETATION: Out of 50 respondents 74% says that they had 1 connection while 26% were having 2 connections this shows most of the people are having single cell phones or 2. This is because it is difficult tohandle more than 2 mobile phones.


3. Which mobile are you using? Particulars Nokia Samsung Other No. of respondents 54 32 14

INTERPRETATION: Out of 50 respondents 54% were using NOKIA while 32% respondents were using SAMSUNG and 14% were using other. This shows Nokia is having a greater market coverages compared to Samsung and others.


4. Are you satisfied with the services?



INTERPRETATION: Out of 50 respondents 82% respondents were satisfied with the services of their particular mobile while only 18% were not satisfied. Thus it can be concluded that mobile phones are really satisfying its users.


5. Which facility attracts you most? Particulars Price Style Battery back up Memory Other Nokia 29 14 36 24 17 Samsung 12 15 7 16 15 Other 9 21 7 10 18 Percentage 24 12 30 20 14

Availment of facilities
Price Style Battery Back Up Memory Other

14% 24%

20% 12%


INTERPRETATION When we talk of availment of facilities in mobile phones, the customers are more into features, durability, style, memory, etc. Through the above chart we can analyze that more of the people demand for Battery Backup of the mobile phones i.e. 30%. Next comes price because maximum portion of country are from middle class so they also take into account the Price i.e. 24%, Style accounts 12%, Memory covers 20% and rest other factors are accounting around 14%.

6. Which advertisement media puts more impact on your buying decision? PARTICULARS T.V. MAGAZINES NEWSPAPERS INTERNET OTHERS PERCENTAGE 56 8 20 10 6


6% 10%

20% 56%

INTERPRETATION: The above pie charts representing the impact of advertisement on buying of decision of customers in the overall market. Through the above diagram we can see that Television attracts 56% of population. Rest magazines are accounting 8%, newspapers 20%, internet 10%, and others are 6%. We can conclude that Television is the covering the maximum coverage in terms of advertisement and its impact on the customers.

7. From how long you are using this particular service mobile?

Durability in terms of years


8% 20% 22%


PARTICULARS 1 year 2 years 3 years More than 3 years

PERCENTAGE 20 50 22 8

INTERPRETATION: Through the above diagram we can analyze that maximum of the population in survey are using their mobile phones since two years that accounts 50% in the chart & rest 1 year accounts i.e. 20% and the 3 years covers 22%. Though there is only 8% which covers more than 3 years in using their mobile phones through the survey.


8. Would you like to change your current mobile in future?



INTERPRETATION: By this diagram we can see that 64% of the populations in survey are not willing to change their current since their demands are fulfilled & well satisfied with their current cell phones so they dont find any concrete ground to change the current cell phone. Rest 36% of the population wants to change their cell phones to explore the new facilities in terms of apps, games etc.


9. Which Operating System on Mobile you find easy to operate?



RESPONDENTS Android \ Java Symbian OS Bada IOS 29 10 6 2 3 58 20 12 4 6


Java 4%

Symbion OS



6% 12%



INTERPRETATION: The above diagram is being well analyzed and its output came out after surveying of respondents including various age groups and it is found that Android is the most preferable operating system which accounts around 58% and JAVA, Symbion OS, Bada, IOS accounts around 20%, 12%, 4%, & 6% respectively. Rest of the apps are less used or we can say preferred by the population.


10. What are your preferred brands in purchasing a mobile handset? PARTICULARS NO. OF PERCENTAGE

RESPONDENTS Nokia Samsung LG Motorola Spice Karbonn Micromax 19 13 4 8 2 1 3 38 26 8 16 4 2 6

Nokia Samsung LG 4% Motorola 2% 6% 38% Spice Karbonn Micromax

16% 8% 26%

INTERPRETATION: The most preferred brand chosen by the population of the survey conducted. here it is viewed that Nokia has covered maximum coverage in the market with percentage coverage of 38%, on second position with 26% of market coverage rest of the less coverage with the accounting of LG 8%, Motorola16%,Spice4%,Karbonn2%, and Micromax 6%.


Few years back mobile phones were not common among the consumer. But with the mobile revolution, now we can find almost every consumer with mobile phone. Most of the consumer prefers NOKIA than SAMSUNG and least prefer other. Most preferred mobile company amongst the consumer is NOKIA and the moderately preferred company is SAMSUNG. Mostly the consumers are satisfied with the services provided by the different mobile companies. Maximum numbers of respondents were attracted towards the price, battery and applications and the least like the style and memory. T.V. and newspapers are the best media advertisements that put more impact on the consumer buying decisions. Maximum numbers of consumer are loyal to their particular service providers and they were using their mobile since 1 to2 years.



In attempt to make this project authentic and reliable, every possible aspect of the topic was kept in mind. Nevertheless, despite of fact constraints whereat play during the formulation of this project. The findings of the study will be based on opinion of the respondents, which may be based. The study is confined to Delhi NCR Region only. People were hesitant to disclose the true facts Lack of time and finance may prevent from carrying out in depth study. The chance of biased response cant be eliminated though all necessary steps were taken to avoid the same The main source of data for the study was primary data with the help of s e l f a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . H e n c e , t h e c h a n c e s o f u n b i a s e d information are less.



Year 2012 seems to have started with a change of order of sorts among the top mobile companies in the world and India. NOKIA gives more luxury per mobile than others. The distinctive styling, Well- equipped body give it an up market. However, a week sound quality and an unimpressive video experience are serious drawbacks. The SAMSUNG has to Sets the performance bench mark. With increased outlook of the brand, it combines a strong design, superb battery, with low prices. However, the NOKIA earns more share than SAMSUNG in terms of Marketing & Profitability, but there is an inclination of consumer behavior & preference towards Samsung, due to its low price and more application and battery backup.



It has low sound & video quality that could make it unexciting and therefore there is lack of design of most of models and many look identical. High price is also a drawback for it. Its price should be in reach of a middle men. And style should be increased. It has low memory and low battery backup as compared to NOKIA which is the major drawback of SAMSUNG mobiles. As per its price, its style, design and battery backup should be enhanced.


Comparative Analysis Of The Marketing Strategies & Consumer Behavior Towards NOKIA & SAMSUNG Mobile Phones Personal DetailsName AgeGenderMarital StatusProfession1. Do you have any mobile? Yes 2. How many mobile do you have? 1 2 3 3+ No

3. Which mobile are you using? Nokia Motorola

4. Are you satisfied with the services? Yes No


5. Which facility attracts you most? Price Style Battery Back Memory Others

6. Which advertisement media puts more impact on your buying decision? T.V Newspapers Magazines Intenet Others

7. From how long you are using this particular mobile? 1 year 2 years 3 years More than 3 years


8. Would you like to change your current mobile in future? Yes No If yes then why _____________________

9. Which Operating System on Mobile you find easy to operate? Android Java Symbian OS Bada IOS

10. What are your preferred brands in purchasing a mobile handset? NOKIA SAMSUNG LG MOTOROLA SPICE KARBONN MICROMAX


BOOKS: Marketing Research G. C. Beri Research Methodology C.R Kothari Principles of Marketing Philip Kotler

WEB RESOURCES: www.nokia.co.in www.samsung.co.in http://en.wikipedia.org http://trak.in/tags/business/2012/02/17/how-samsung-stormed-nokia-fort-india/ http://thisismyindia.com/