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Database:-database is collection of related information which is available for many users for different purposes.

The contents of database are obtained by combing data from all the different sources in an organization. DBMS :- it is a system software which is used to manage all operation on the database such as definition, manipulation and maintenance etc.

Benefits of database approach:-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Redundancy and duplication can be reducing. Consistency can be avoided. Data shared by various users. Security distinction can be applied. Integrity can be maintained.

Disadvantages of database management system:-

6. Costing- cost of DBMS is very high and person who works is DBA their salary is handsome. 2. Sound software requirements:- to works on DBMS we have need to very sound hardware requirements, we need better processor, higher memory spaced RAM etc.

Question 1. Explain three architecture of database. Answer (A) external or view level architecture of Database system is the level closet to the user. This level is concerned with the way in which data observed by individually. Most of the user of database is not concerned with all information contained in the database. Instead, they need only part of database relevant to them. (B) Conceptual level of DBMS abstraction is describes the different type of data actually stored in the database. This level is also indicates relationships between data items. At this level, a database is describes logically rather than physically in the terms of data structure. User of this level is not concerned with how these physical structures of database will be implemented at the physical level. (C) Internal view:- it is the lowest level of DBMS abstraction.

Question. 8. What is attribute? Explain different type of attributes.

Answer -> the various kinds of data that describe an entity known as its attributes. ->> there are three type of attribute :-

Composite attributes: - it can be divided into some sub parts, which represent more basic attributes with independent meaning of their own. For instance: - address attribute of employee entity can be sub divided into locality, city and pin code etc.

Single-valued attributes: - single-valued attribute have a single value for a particular entity. For instance: - age is single valued attribute of an employee entity. Multi-valued attributes: - multi-valued attributes may have upper and lower limits on the number of values for individual entity. For instance: - color attribute of car may have between 1 to 7 values, If we assume that car can have at most 7 color. Derived and stored attributes: - some time two or more attributes are related to one another. For example: - age and date_of_birth attributes of employee entity are related to each other because to calculate the age of employee entity we have to determine the current_date and birth_date.Here, age attribute is called derived and birth_date is called stored attribute.