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# MECH 321 - Solid Mechanics II Week 10, Lecture 3 Material Failure Theories

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Failure for ductile material is typically by yielding, while brittle material fails by fracture. Under uniaxial state of stress (pure tension say) failure is relatively easy to predict. However, under biaxial or triaxial stress, failure criterion become more difficult to establish. There are several theories of material failure, primarily because no single theory can be applied to a material for all conditions. The mode of failure depends on load and temperature, rate of loading, chemical environment, material shape, forming process, etc.

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
In all cases, the first thing that is needed is a calculation of the normal and shear stress at the points of interest. These points are typically where the stresses are expected to be largest. The principal stresses at these critical locations are then determined.

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials Yielding of a ductile material occurs along the planes of contact between the crystals (slipping). This slipping is caused by shear stress (note - the shear stress is maximum at 45 from an applied tensile or compressive load). We can see this by considering an element within a member experiencing pure tension and a stress equal to the yield stress.

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials The maximum-shear-stress theory for plane stress can be expressed for any two in-plane principal stresses. Draw the Mohrs circle and find the maximum shear stress (note that it is at 45 from the applied tensile load). See also the element below.

max =

Y
2

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials Henri Tresca (1868) defined a yield criteria based on the maximum-shear-stress theory which is known as the Tresca yield criterion. Regardless of the type of loading, the resulting absolute maximum shear stress must be less than or equal to the yield stress devided by 2.

abs =
max

Y
2

1. 2.

In the case of plane stress (out of plane stress = 0) there are two cases. When the principal stresses have the same sign. When the principal stresses have opposite signes.

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials If the principal stresses are both negative or both positive, then failure occurs at

abs =
max

1
2

If the principal stresses are of opposite signs, then failure occurs at...

abs =
max

1 2
2

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials
Stated mathematically this becomes

1 = Y

## 1 , 2 have same signs 2 = Y 1 2 = Y } 1 , 2 have opposite signs

Or, graphically The principal stresses that will cause failure are plotted on the boundary or outside the shaded area Same sign: upper right and lower left quadrant. Opposite sign: upper left and lower right.

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials The energy per unit volume of material (that is deformed due to an applied load) is called the strain-energy density.
1 u = 2

Each principal stress contributes a portion of the total strainenergy density. Applying Hookes Law yields an equation of two parts. One part represents the energy needed to cause a volume change with no change of shape. The other part represents the energy needed to distort the original shape.

1 2 2 2 u= 1 + 2 +3 2v( 1 2 + 1 3 + 3 2 ) 2E
September 9, 2012

]
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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials Because experimental evidence clearly shows that failure never occurs when a material is experiencing only volume change (and no distortion of shape), a failure criterion based only on the distortion energy was defined. This is called the maximum-distortion-energy theory (or von Mises stress). In the case of triaxial stress

1 + ( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 ( 3 1 )2 ud = 6E

]
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September 9, 2012

Theories of Failure
In the case of plane stress 3 = 0, the maximum-distortionenergy equation reduces to

## 1 + 2 2 ud = 1 1 2 + 2 3E In the case of uniaxial tensile stress, 1 = Y, and 2 = 3 = 0, so 1 + 2 (ud )Y = Y 3E

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials Because the maximum-distortion-energy theory requires that ud = (ud)Y, then for both biaxial and uniaxial stress cases
2 2 12 1 2 + 2 = Y

This is the equation of an ellipse that defines failure as stresses that plot on the boundary or outside the shaded area.

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Ductile Materials Comparing the two theories (Tresca and von Mises) it can be shown (see textbook) that there is close agreement in most cases, except for that of pure shear, where the von Mises criterion is more accurate (by about 15%).

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
Brittle Materials Maximum-normal stress theory states that a brittle material will fail when the maximum principal stress is equal to the ultimate normal stress. =
1 ult

2 = ult

September 9, 2012

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Theories of Failure
For brittle materials having different strength in tension and compression, the Mohrs failure criterion is more accurate. Three tests are required to obtain the failure envelope. The left most circle represents compression test results 1 = 2 = 0, 3 = (ult)c The right most circle represents tensile test results, 1 = (ult)t, 2 = 3 = 0 The middle circle represents pure torsion test results, reaching the ult.

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Theories of Failure
For plane-stress cases, if 1 or 2 equal or are greater than (ult)t or (ult)c, the failure envelope can be plotted as shown below.

Note that both failure criteria for brittle materials are untrustworthy in practice.
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September 9, 2012

Example 10.14
The solid shaft has a radius of 0.5 cm and is made of steel having a yield stress of = 360 MPa. Determine if the loadings cause the shaft to fail according to the maximum-shear-stress theory and the maximum-distortion-energy theory.

Solution:
Since maximum shear stress caused by the torque, we have 15 P x = = = 19.10 kN/cm2 = 195 MPa A (0.5)

Tc 3.25(0.5) = = 16.55 kN/cm2 = 165.5 MPa J (0.5)4 2 Principal stresses can also be obtained using the stress-transformation equations,

xy =

1, 2 =

## 2 + xy 2 2 1 = 95.6 MPa and 2 = 286.6 MPa

x + y

x + y

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Example 10.14
Since the principal stresses have opposite signs, the absolute maximum shear stress will occur in the plane,

## 95.6 ( 286.6) 360 382.2 > 360

Thus, shear failure of the material will occur according to this theory. Using maximum-distortion-energy theory,

1 2 Y

[95.6

(
2

2 1

2 2 1 2 + 2 Y 2

## Using this theory, failure will not occur.

September 9, 2012

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Next Time

Shaft Design

September 9, 2012

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