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Bab

Chapter

Pengenalan kepada Sains


BAB

Introduction to Science
CHAPTER

Konsep

PENTING!

ISTILAH Luas Area Daya graviti Gravitational force Hipotesis Hypothesis Panjang Length Jisim Mass Fenomena semula jadi Natural phenomena Isi padu Volume Berat Weight

WORD The

BIG Picture!

Area Luas Gravitational force Daya graviti Hypothesis Hipotesis Length Panjang Mass Jisim Natural phenomena Fenomena semula jadi Volume Isi padu Weight Berat

UP!

Soalan Tahun-tahun Lepas PMR


Tahun 2005 2006 Kertas 1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 S1 Kertas 2 Bhg. A Bhg. B

PMR Past-year Questions


Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Paper 1 Q1 Q1 Q1, Q2 Q1 Q1 Paper 2 Sec. A Sec. B

2007 S1, S2 S1, S2 2008 2009

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Objektif Pembelajaran

Learning Objective

1.1 Memahami sains adalah sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian

1.1 Understanding that science is part of everyday life

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

1.1 PERBINCANGAN

BAB

Aktiviti

Sains dan fenomena semula jadi

Kontekstual

1.1

CHAPTER

DISCUSSION
Activity

Science and natural phenomena

Contextual

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Tandakan () dalam petak yang disediakan bagi fenomena semula jadi.

Mark () in the boxes provided the natural phenomena.

1

Objektif Pembelajaran
1.2 Mengetahui langkah-langkah keselamatan dan radas dalam makmal sains

Learning Objective

1.2 PERBINCANGAN
Kelalang kon Tabung didih Tabung uji Silinder penyukat Kelalang volumetri 1 2

Aktiviti

1.2 Knowing the safety percautions and apparatus in a science laboratory Kontekstual

Radas makmal dan kegunaannya

1.2

DISCUSSION
Activity
Conical flask Boiling tube Test tube Measuring cylinder Volumetric flask

Laboratory apparatus and their uses

Contextual

Namakan radas makmal dalam jadual di bawah. Buret Bikar Pipet Kasa dawai Kaki retort 3 Balang gas Rod kaca Takung kaca Mangkuk pijar Mangkuk penyejat 4 Tungku kaki tiga Kelalang dasar bulat Corong turas Corong tisel Penunu Bunsen 5

Name the laboratory apparatus in the table below. Burette Beaker Pipette Wire gauze Retort stand 3 Gas jar Glass rod Glass trough Crucible Evaporating dish 4 Tripod stand Round-bottomed flask Filter funnel Thistle funnel Bunsen burner 5

MINDRobics

MINDRobics

Tabung uji

Tabung didih

Bikar

Kelalang kon

Kelalang volumetri

Test tube

Boiling tube

Beaker

Conical flask

Volumetric flask

10

10

Silinder penyukat

Pipet

Buret

Kelalang dasar bulat

Corong tisel

Measuring cylinder

Pipette

Burette

Round-bottomed flask

Thistle funnel

1.1 HP Menerangkan kepentingan sains dalam kehidupan harian Menyenaraikan perkara di sekeliling anda yang berkaitan dengan sains

1.2 HP Menggunakan radas saintifik yang umum dalam makmal

1.1 LO Explain the importance of science in everyday life Make a list of things around you that are related to science

1.2 LO Use some common scientific apparatus in the laboratory

1.1
1.1

Understanding that science is part of everyday life


1.2

1.2
DISCUSSION
Activity

Knowing the safety precautions and apparatus in a science laboratory


support apparatus such as beakers when heating them (Tripod stand) (g) measure temperature (Thermometer) (h) transfer liquid into a container (Filter funnel) (i) hold a test tube when it is being heated. (Test tube holder) (j) pick up solid chemicals (Spatula) (f)

DISCUSSION
Activity

1 What are the occurrences in nature involving living things and non-living things called? (Natural phenomena) 2 Give three examples of natural phenomena. (Lightning, melting of ice, owers blossoming) 3 Name the eld of knowledge that relates to the world around us. (Science) 4 State three branches of science. (Physic, chemistry and biology) 5 State three careers related to science. (Doctor, science teacher, biochemist)

1 Name the apparatus that is used to (a) hold small amounts of liquid (Test tube) (b) measure a xed volume of liquid (Pipette) (c) evaporate liquid (Evaporating dish) (d) measure the volume of a liquid (not accurate) (Measuring cylinder) (e) measure accurately the volume of a liquid (Pipette or burette)

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11

12

13

14

15

11

12

13

14

15

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

Corong turas

Balang gas

Mangkuk penyejat

Mangkuk pijar

Takung kaca

Filter funnel

Gas jar

Evaporating dish

Crucible

Glass trough

CHAPTER

BAB

16

17

18

19

20

16

17

18

19

20

Kaki retort

Kasa dawai

Tungku kaki tiga

Penunu Bunsen

Rod kaca

Retort stand

Wire gauze

Tripod stand

Bunsen burner

Glass rod

Objektif Pembelajaran

1.3 Memahami langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik

Learning Objective

1.3 PERBINCANGAN

Aktiviti

1.3 Understanding the steps in scientific investigation

Langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik


KBSB

Masteri

1.3

DISCUSSION
Activity

Steps in a scientific investigation

Mastery

Susun mengikut urutan yang betul bagi langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik. Merancang penyiasatan Membuat hipotesis Menjalankan eksperimen Hipotesis Menganalisis data Mengumpul data Membuat kesimpulan Mentafsirkan data

Membuat urutan

Arrange in the correct sequence the steps in a scientific investigation. Plan the investigation Make hypothesis Conduct experiment Hypothesis Analyse data Collect data Make conclusions Interpret data Science theory Make report Identify problem Control variables

TSTS
Arranging

Teori sains Membuat laporan Mengenal pasti masalah Mengawal pemboleh ubah

MINDRobics

MINDRobics

Mengenal pasti masalah

Membuat hipotesis

Merancang penyiasatan

Mengawal pemboleh ubah

Identify problem

Make hypothesis

Plan the investigation

Control variables

Jika hipotesis ditolak

Menjalankan eksperimen untuk menguji hipotesis Mengumpul data Menganalisis data

If hypothesis is wrong

Conduct experiment to test hypothesis Collect data Analyse data

Membuat laporan

Jika hipotesis diterima, teori sains dibina

Mentafsirkan data Membuat kesimpulan Make report If hypothesis is right, science theory is built

Interpret data Make conclusions

1.3 HP Menyatakan langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik

1.3 LO State the steps in a scientific investigation

3
5 An experiment is carried out to study the relationship between time and temperature. The results obtained are recorded in the table below. State the types of variables shown by the time and the temperature. Time 10 20 Temperature 35 45

1.3
1.3

Understanding the steps in scientic investigation

DISCUSSION
Activity

1 What can be formed if a hypothesis is accepted after going through experiments? (Theory) 2 What can be done if the hypothesis formed is rejected? (A new hypothesis has to be formed) 3 State two types of variables that are required to be related during the formation of a hypothesis. (Manipulated variable and responding variable) 4 State three types of variables. (Manipulated variable, responding variable and xed/constant/controlled variable)

1.4 1.5

DISCUSSION
Activity

Experiment PEKA

GUIDED

Time: (Variable that is manipulated) Temperature : (Variable that responds)

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1.4 PERBINCANGAN
BAHAGIAN

Aktiviti

Membuat hipotesis dan mengawal pemboleh ubah

Masteri

1.4
SECTION

DISCUSSION
Activity A

Making hypothesis and controlling variables

Mastery

A
benang bandul

Pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan dan yang bergerak balas dapat ditentukan daripada jadual atau graf bagi suatu penyiasatan saintifik.
BAB

Variable that is manipulated and that responds can be determined from the table or the graph of a scientific investigation.
CHAPTER

string pendulum

Tentukan pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan dan yang bergerak balas dalam ruang yang disediakan di bawah. Kemudian, hubung kaitkan pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan dengan pemboleh ubah yang bergerak balas untuk membentuk satu hipotesis.

Determined the variable that is manipulated and that responds in the space provided below. Then, relate the variable that is manipulated and that responds to form a hypothesis. (a) Variable that is manipulated (change) (b) Variable that
Time taken for 10 complete oscillations/s

responds

(a)

Pemboleh ubah yang

dimanipulasikan (berubah) 10 20 30 40 50

(b)

Pemboleh ubah yang


Masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap/s

bergerak balas

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Panjang bandul/cm Masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap/s

Length of pendulum/cm 10 20 30 40 50 Time taken for 10 complete oscillations/s Pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan Variable that responds (result/observation) Variable that is manipulated

Pemboleh ubah yang bergerak balas (keputusan/pemerhatian) INFERENS

Panjang bandul/cm

Length of the pendulum/cm

HIPOTESIS

mempengaruhi Panjang bandul masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap. Petunjuk: pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan mempengaruhi pemboleh ubah bergerak balas panjang/pendek panjang/pendek Semakin bandul, semakin

INFERENCE

affects The length of the pendulum the time taken for 10 complete oscillations. Hint: manipulated variable affects the responding variable longer/shorter The the length of pendulum, the the time taken for 10 complete oscillations. Hint: relate the manipulated variable with the responding variable longer/shorter

HYPOTHESIS

masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap. Petunujuk: mengaitkan pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan dengan pemboleh ubah yang bergerak balas
BAHAGIAN

2006 Bhg. B, S8(c)

SECTION

2006 Sec. B, Q8(c)

Satu penyiasatan dijalankan untuk mengkaji panjang tapak tangan bagi tiga orang budak lelaki pada umur yang berlainan. Keputusan penyiasatan ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah.
Panjang tapak tangan/cm

An investigation is carried out to study the length of palms of three boys of different ages. The results of the investigation are shown in the table below. Age of boys/year 1 6 13 Length of the palms/cm 6 10 16
10 8 6 4 2 0 Length of palms/cm 16 14 12

Umur budak lelaki/tahun 1 6

Panjang tapak tangan/cm 6 10

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

13 16 (a) Berdasarkan keputusan dalam jadual di atas, lukis satu carta bar untuk menunjukkan panjang tapak tangan bagi budak lelaki yang berlainan. (b) Nyatakan pemboleh ubah yang (i) dimanipulasikan: Umur budak lelaki (ii) bergerak balas:
Panjang tapak tangan

(a) Based on the results in the table above, draw a bar chart to show the length of palms of different boys. (b) State the variable that (i) is manipulated: Age of boy (ii) responds:
1 6 13 Umur budak lelaki/tahun

Length of the palms


1 6 13 Age of boys/year

1.4 HP Menyatakan langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik

1.4 LO State the steps in a scientific investigation

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1.5

Eksperimen PEKA

TERBIMBING

Mereka bentuk dan menjalankan eksperimen

Inkuiri-penemuan

1.5

Experiment PEKA

GUIDED

Designing and carrying out an experiment

Inquiry-discovery

Anda diberikan bahan dan radas serta maklumat seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di bawah. Anda dikehendaki mereka bentuk dan menjalankan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji bagaimana panjang suatu bandul ringkas mempengaruhi tempoh ayunannya.

You are given materials, apparatus and information as shown in the diagram below. Design and carry out an experiment to study how the length of a simple pendulum affects its period of oscillation.

CHAPTER

BAB

string A retort stand pendulum one complete oscillation (movement from A to B and then back again to A) B

benang kaki retort bandul

satu ayunan lengkap (pergerakan dari A ke B dan kemudian kembali semula ke A)

TUJUAN PERNYATAAN MASALAH HIPOTESIS PEMBOLEH UBAH BAHAN RADAS PROSEDUR

Mengkaji bagaimana panjang suatu bandul ringkas mempengaruhi tempoh ayunannya Bagaimanakah panjang suatu bandul ringkas mempengaruhi tempoh ayunannya? Semakin pendek bandul ringkas, semakin pendek tempoh untuk 10 ayunan bandul ringkas.
E1C11

AIM PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS VARIABLE

To study how the length of a simple pendulum affects its period of oscillation How does the length of a simple pendulum affect its period of oscillation? The shorter the length of the pendulum, the shorter the time taken for 10 oscillations.
E1C11

Bilangan ayunan (a) yang dimalarkan: E1C10 (b) yang dimanipulasikan: Panjang bandul ringkas (c) yang bergerak balas: Tempoh untuk 10 ayunan bandul ringkas/Tempoh ayunan Bandul, benang Kaki retort dan pengapit, pembaris meter, jam randik Sediakan satu bandul ringkas dengan benang sepanjang 10 cm. Tarik bandul pada suatu kedudukan, kemudian lepaskan. Catatkan masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap dalam jadual. Ulangi eksperimen dengan menggunakan panjang bandul ringkas yang berbeza-beza seperti dalam jadual. 5 Lukis graf yang menunjukkan masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap melawan masa pada ruang yang disediakan. 1 2 3 4 1 Satu bandul ringkas dengan benang sepanjang 10 cm disediakan. 2 Bandul ditarik pada suatu kedudukan kemudian dilepaskan. 3 Masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap dicatat dalam jadual. 4 Eksperimen diulang dengan menggunakan panjang bandul ringkas yang berbezabeza seperti dalam jadual. 5 Graf masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap lawan panjang bandul dilukis.

(a) that is kept constant: Number of oscillation (b) that is manipulated: Length of the simple pendulum (c) that responds: Time for 10 oscillations/Periods of oscillation Pendulum, string Retort stand and clamp, metre rule, stopwatch

E1C10

MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE

CARA KERJA

Prepare a simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread. Pull the pendulum to one side, then release. Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillations in a table. Repeat the experiment using a simple pendulum of different lengths as shown in the table. 5 Draw a graph showing the time taken versus length of pendulum for 10 complete oscillations. 1 2 3 4 1 A simple pendulum with a 10 cm long thread was prepared. 2 The pendulum was pulled to one side, then it was released. 3 The time taken for 10 complete oscillations was recorded in a table. 4 The experiment was repeated using a simple pendulum of different lengths as shown in the table. 5 A graph showing the time taken for 10 complete oscillations versus the length of pendulum was drawn.

STEPS

1.5 HP Menyatakan langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik Menjalankan penyiasatan saintifik

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Contoh 2, hlm. 12; Essential Science PMR, Experiment 1.1, hlm. 8

1.5 LO State the steps in a scientific investigation Carry out a scientific investigation

Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Example 2, p. 12; Essential Science PMR, Experiment 1.1, p. 8

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KEPUTUSAN
E1 C 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 S

Eksperimen 1 2 3 4 5

Panjang bandul ringkas/cm 10 20 30 40 50

Masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap/s 8.8 13.2 16.5 18.4


CHAPTER
3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 S

RESULTS
E1 C

Experiment 1 2 3 4 5

Length of simple pendulum/cm 10 20 30 40 50

Time taken for 10 complete oscillations/s 8.8 13.2 16.5 18.4 20.0
E1C3 E1C6 E2C14

20 Masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap/s

15

4 Nyatakan hubungan antara panjang bandul dengan masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap. panjang/pendek Semakin bandul semakin panjang/pendek masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap. E1C7

Time taken for 10 complete oscillations/s

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BAB

20.0
E1C3 E1C6 E2C14

(Jawapan pelajar) ANALISIS


E2 C

(Students answers) ANALYSIS


E2 C

1
14 15 16 S

1 Nyatakan perbezaan dalam masa bagi bandul panjang dan bandul pendek untuk melakukan 10 ayunan lengkap. panjang/pendek Bandul yang lebih mengambil masa yang lebih panjang/pendek E1C8 E2C15 untuk melakukan 10 ayunan lengkap. 2 Apakah inferens yang dapat dibuat bagi eksperimen ini? Panjang bandul mempengaruhi masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap.
KBSB
Membuat inferens

1 State the difference in the time taken for a long pendulum and a short pendulum to make 10 complete oscillations. longer/shorter longer/shorter A pendulum takes a time to E1C8 E2C15 make 10 complete oscillations. 2 What inference can be made for this experiment? The length of the pendulum affects the time taken for 10 complete oscillations.
TSTS
Making inference

14 15 16 S

E1C4

E1C4

3 Berdasarkan keputusan dalam jadual, plotkan graf masa bagi 10 ayunan lengkap melawan panjang bandul.
20

3 Based on the results in the table, plot a graph of the time taken to make 10 complete oscillations against the length of the pendulum. 4 State the relationship between the length of the pendulum and the time taken for 10 complete oscillations. longer/shorter The the length of the pendulum, the longer/shorter the time taken for 10 complete oscillations.
E1C7 5

15

10

5 Ramalkan masa yang diambil bagi satu 60 cm panjang bandul untuk melakukan 10 ayunan lengkap. 22 s (lebih daripada 20 s)
E1C5

10

KPS
10 20 30 40 50
Meramalkan

5 Predict the time taken for a 60 cm long pendulum to make 10 complete oscillations. 22 s (more than 20 s)
10 20 30 40 50 E1C5

Panjang bandul/cm E1C6 E2C15

Length of the pendulum/cm E1C6 E2C15

SPS
Predicting

KESIMPULAN

1 Hipotesis adalah

diterima

E2C16

CONCLUSION

1 The hypothesis is

accepted

E2C16

2 Masa yang diambil untuk bandul ringkas membuat satu ayunan lengkap dengan panjang bandul.

meningkat
E2C16

2 The time taken for the simple pendulum to make one complete oscillation increases E2C16 with the length of the pendulum.

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Objektif Pembelajaran

Learning Objective

1.4 Mengetahui kuantiti fizik dan unitnya

1.4 Knowing physical quantities and their units

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

1.6 PERBINCANGAN
Saat A Kuantiti fizik Panjang Jisim Suhu Arus elektrik Masa Meter K

Aktiviti

Kuantiti fizik dan unit SI

Masteri

1.6

DISCUSSION
Activity

Physical quantities and the SI units

Mastery

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberi, lengkapkan jadual di bawah dengan unit SI dan simbol unit.
Kilogram m Unit SI Meter Kilogram Kelvin Ampere Saat Kelvin kg Ampere s
BAB

Based on the given information, complete the table below with suitable SI units and its symbol.
Second A Physical quantity Length Mass Temperature Electric current Time Metre K Kilogram m SI unit Metre Kilogram Kelvin Ampere Second Kelvin kg Symbol m kg K A s Ampere s
CHAPTER

Simbol unit m kg K A s

1.7

BERFIKIR

Aktiviti

Kuantiti fizik dalam bentuk imbuhan dan bentuk piawai

Masteri

1.7

THINKING
Activity

Physical quantities in the prefix and standard forms

Mastery

1 Tulis nilai imbuhan bagi imbuhan dalam Jadual (a). Kemudian, tukar nilai kuantiti fizik yang diberi kepada bentuk piawai dalam Jadual (b).
1 mm 1 cm 1m 1 km 1 Mm 1 kg = = = = = = 1 000 m 10 mm 100 cm 1 000 m 1 000 000 m 1 000 g

1 Write the prefix value of prefixes in Table (a). Then, change the value of the physical quantity given to the standard form in Table (b).
1 mm 1 cm 1m 1 km 1 Mm 1 kg = = = = = = 1 000 m 10 mm 100 cm 1 000 m 1 000 000 m 1 000 g

MINDRobics

MINDRobics

Imbuhan mega kilo desi senti mili mikro

Nilai imbuhan 1 000 000 1 000 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001

Nilai kuantiti fizik 6 500 m 0.09 m 800 000 m 0.000005 m 0.007 m

Bentuk piawai 6.5 103 m 9 102 m 8 105 m 5 106 m 7 103 m

Prefix mega kilo deci centi milli micro

Prefix value 1 000 000 1 000 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001

Value of physical quantity 6 500 m 0.09 m 800 000 m 0.000005 m 0.007 m

Standard form 6.5 103 m 9 102 m 8 105 m 5 106 m 7 103 m

Jadual (a) 2 Tukar nilai kuantiti fizik di bawah kepada nilai imbuhan. 0.2 (a) 200 g = kg (d) 0.02 m = 5 (b) 0.005 A = mA (e) 760 m = 4 (c) 4 000 000 g = Mg (f) 0.008 m =
1.6 HP Menyatakan kuantiti fizik: panjang, jisim, masa, suhu dan arus elektrik Menyatakan unit SI dan simbol yang berkaitan dengan kuantiti fizik ini

Jadual (b)

Table (a) 2 Change the values of the physical quantities below to the prefix forms. 0.2 (a) 200 g = kg (d) 0.02 m = (b) 0.005 A = 5 4 mA Mg (e) 760 m = (c) 4 000 000 g = (f) 0.008 m =

Table (b)

2 0.76 8

cm km mm

2 0.76 8

cm km mm

1.7 HP Menyatakan simbol dan nilai imbuhan bagi unit panjang dan jisim: mili-, senti-, dan kilo Mengenal pasti dan menggunakan imbuhan yang sesuai dalam pengukuran panjang dan jisim

1.6 LO State physical quantities: length, mass, time, temperature and electric current State the SI units and the corresponding symbols for these physical quantities

1.7 LO State the symbols and values of prefixes for units of length and mass: milli-, centi-, and kilo Identify and use appropriate prefixes in the measurement of length and mass

1.4
1.6

Knowing physical quantities and their units


(d) temperature (Kelvin, K) (e) electric current (Ampere, A)

DISCUSSION
Activity

1 State the SI unit and the symbol of (a) mass (Kilogram, kg) (b) length (Metre, m) (c) time (Second, s) 2 Give the symbol of the prex of (a) mega (M) (b) kilo (k) (c) centi (c)

3 State the prex value of (a) kilo (1 000) (b) mega (1 000 000) (c) deci (0.1) (d) milli (0.001) 4 Give the standard form of 1 000 km (1 x 103 km) 5 Give in the prex form of 5 000 g (5 kg)

1.7

THINKING
Activity

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Objektif Pembelajaran

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

1.8
TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS
BAB

Eksperimen

1.5 Memahami konsep jisim

Learning Objective

1.5 Understanding the concept of mass

INKUIRI

Jisim dan berat

Inkuiri-penemuan

1.8
AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS
CHAPTER

Experiment

INQUIRY

Mass and weight

Inquiry-discovery

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Menyukat jisim dan berat bagi pelbagai objek Bongkah kayu, buku, botol plastik, kotak pensel, ladung Neraca tuas, neraca spring

To measure the mass and weight of various objects Wooden block, book, plastic bottle, pencil box, pendulum bob Lever balance, spring balance

1
Rajah (a) Neraca tuas Rajah (b) Neraca spring

Diagram (a) Lever balance

Diagram (b) Spring balance

PROSEDUR

MINDRobics

1 Periksa sebuah neraca tuas dan neraca spring seperti dalam Rajah (a) dan Rajah (b). 2 Tentukan jisim objek yang disenaraikan dalam jadual dengan menggunakan neraca tuas. Catat jisim tersebut dalam jadual yang diberi. 3 Ulangi proses di atas untuk mencari berat setiap objek dengan menggunakan neraca spring. Catat berat tersebut dalam jadual yang diberi. 4 Bandingkan nilai jisim dan berat setiap objek yang anda ukur.

PROCEDURE

1 Examine a lever balance and a spring balance as in Diagram (a) and Diagram (b) respectively. 2 Find out the mass of the objects listed in the table using a lever balance. Record the mass in the table given. 3 Repeat the process to find out the weight for all the objects using a spring balance. Record the weight in the table given. 4 Compare the values of the mass and weight of the objects you have measured.
Object
Wooden block Book Plastic bottle Pencil box Pendulum bob

MINDRobics

KEPUTUSAN

Objek Bongkah kayu Buku Botol plastik Kotak pensel Ladung

Jisim objek/g

Berat objek/N

RESULTS

Mass of object/g

Weight of object/N

(Jawapan pelajar)
1.8 HP Menentukan berat objek Menerangkan konsep berat Menerangkan konsep jisim Menentukan jisim objek Menerangkan perbezaan antara jisim dan berat Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, 1.5 Konsep jisim, hlm. 15; Essential Science PMR, 1.5 Concept of mass, hlm. 10 1.8 LO

(Students answers)

Determine the weight of an object Explain the concept of weight Explain the concept of mass Determine the mass of an object Explain the difference between mass and weight

Refer to Essential Science Form 1, 1.5 Concept of mass, p. 15; Essential Science PMR, 1.5 Concept of mass, p.10

1.5
1.8
Experiment

Understanding the concept of mass

1.9 1.10

DISCUSSION
Activity Activity

&6

Which is affected by the gravitational force, the mass or the weight? (The weight)

INQUIRY

1 State two devices that can be used to measure the mass of an object. (Lever balance and electronic balance/triple beam balance) 2 State two devices that can be used to measure the weight of an object. (Spring balance and compression balance) 3 State a type of balance of mass that gives the most accurate reading. (Electronic balance) 4 What is the measuring unit for mass? (Kilogram) 5 What is the measuring unit for weight? (Newton)

DISCUSSION

7 State the SI unit for weight. (Newton, N) 8 An object has a mass of 5 kg on the Moon. Predict the mass of the object on Jupiter. Give reason for your answer. (5 kg. The mass of the object is not affected by the gravitational force/The mass of the object is constant) 9 Explain why the weight of an object differs from place to place? (The weight of an object depends on the gravitational attraction force at a given place)

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ANALISIS

1 Nyatakan maksud, unit sukatan dan simbol bagi jisim dan berat suatu objek. Maksud Unit sukatan dan simbol
Kilogram, kg

ANALYSIS

1 State the meanings, measuring units and symbol for the mass and weight of an object. Meaning (a) Mass of an object
quantity of matter The in the object

Measuring unit and symbol

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

(a) Jisim objek (b) Berat objek

yang terkandung di dalam suatu objek yang bertindak ke atas suatu objek
Daya tarikan graviti

Kuantiti jirim

Kilogram, kg

Newton, N

(b) Weight of an object


BAB

The force of the gravitational pull that acts on the object

Newton, N
CHAPTER

2 Sukatan neraca yang manakah tidak dipengaruhi oleh daya tarikan graviti? Jisim 3 Adakah jisim suatu objek tetap sama jika ditimbang di tempat lain seperti di kutub Bumi? Terangkan jawapan anda. Ya tetap . Jisim objek adalah sentiasa .
KBSB
Membuat inferens

2 Which balance measurement is not influenced by the gravitational force? Mass


3 Is the mass of an object remains the same if the object is weighed in places like the Earths poles? Explain your answer. Yes constant . The mass of an object is .
TSTS
Making inferences

4 Namakan dua penimbang lain yang digunakan untuk menimbang jisim objek di makmal.

4 Name two other balances used to weigh the mass of an object in the laboratory.

Neraca tiga alur

Neraca elektronik Triple beam balance Electronic balance


TSTS
Generating ideas

5 Namakan sejenis neraca yang dapat memberi nilai bacaan jisim objek dengan sangat tepat. Neraca elektronik

KBSB
Menjanakan idea

6 Namakan satu penimbang lain yang boleh digunakan untuk mengukur berat objek.

5 Name a type of balance which gives very accurate reading of the mass of an object. Electronic balance

MINDRobics

6 Name one other type of balance which can be used to measure weight of objects.

MINDRobics

Bumi menarik semua jasad dengan suatu daya. Daya ini disebut berat jasad.

The Earth attracts all bodies with a force. This force is called the weight of a body.

Neraca mampatan CONCLUSION

Compression balance manakala neraca spring menyukat The lever balance measures weight . mass while the spring balance measures

KESIMPULAN

Neraca tuas menyukat berat .

jisim

9
10 What is the quantity of matter that is present in an object called? (Mass) 11 State the SI unit for mass and its symbol. (Kilogram, kg) 12 What is the force of the gravitational pull that acts on an object, the mass or the weight? (The weight) 13 What is the symbol of newton? (N)

9
14 What is the use of the spring balance? (To measure the weight of an object) 15 What is the use of the lever balance? (To measure the mass of an object)

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1.9 PERBINCANGAN

Aktiviti

Jisim dan berat objek

Konstruktivisme

1.9

DISCUSSION
Activity

Mass and weight of an object

Constructivism

Fill in the blanks with suitable words about mass and weight. Isi tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang sesuai tentang jisim dan berat objek. fixed tetap N
BAB
F1MR-ch1(1-22).indd 10

kg change gravitational force

gram kilogram matter

milligram mass changes

kg berubah daya tarikan graviti

gram kilogram jirim

miligram jisim berubah-ubah


CHAPTER

N newton

newton

jirim sesuatu objek ialah jumlah yang terkandung di dalam objek kilogram kg tersebut. Unit SI bagi jisim ialah dan simbol bagi unitnya ialah . Unit gram miligram . Jisim suatu objek adalah malar atau jisim yang lebih kecil ialah atau tetap , walaupun di mana objek itu berada. berubah mengikut tempat. Oleh itu, berat objek mungkin newton N lain. Unit sukatan bagi berat ialah dengan simbol . Berat suatu berubah-ubah objek dipengaruhi oleh daya tarikan graviti , yang

Jisim

matter of an object is the amount of contained in the object. kilogram kg The SI unit for mass is and the symbol for this unit is . The units of gram milligram mass that are smaller are or . The mass of an object is fixed constant or , regardless where that object is. The The weight of an object is influenced by the gravitational force , which changes change according to place. Therefore, the weight of an object may newton N measuring unit of weight is and its symbol is

mass

1
di suatu tempat

in a different place. The .

1.10 PERBINCANGAN

Aktiviti

Perbandingan antara konsep jisim dengan berat


KBSB

Masteri

1.10

DISCUSSION
Activity

Comparison between the concepts of mass and weight


TSTS

Mastery

Banding dan bezakan konsep jisim dengan berat dalam ruang yang disediakan.
Jisim Ciri-ciri

Membandingkan dan membezakan

Compare and contrast the concepts of mass and weight in the spaces provided.
Mass Characteristics by Influence of gravitational force

Compare & contrast

Berat Dipengaruhi daya tarikan graviti oleh

Weight Influenced gravitational force by

Tidak dipengaruhi oleh daya tarikan graviti

Pengaruh daya tarikan graviti

Not influenced gravitational force

Tetap

Nilai sukatan di tempattempat yang berlainan

Berubah-ubah mengikut tempat

Constant

Measurement taken in different places

Changes according to place

kilogram

Unit sukatan

newton

kilogram

Measuring unit

newton

Neraca tuas/Neraca palang

Alat sukatan digunakan di dalam makmal

Neraca spring/Neraca mampatan

Lever balance/Beam balance

Weighing instruments used in laboratory

Spring balance/Compression balance

1.9 HP Menerangkan konsep berat Menerangkan konsep jisim

1.10 HP Menerangkan perbezaan di antara jisim dengan berat

10

1.9 LO Explain concept of weight Explain concept of mass

1.10 LO Explain the differences between mass and weight

10

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Objektif Pembelajaran

Learning Objective

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

1.11
TUJUAN

Eksperimen

1.6 Memahami penggunaan alat-alat pengukur

1.6 Understanding the use of measuring tools

INKUIRI

Panjang garis lurus dan garis lengkung

Inkuiri-penemuan

1.11
AIM

Experiment

INQUIRY

Length of straight and curved lines

Inquiry-discovery

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Mengukur panjang (a) garis lurus dengan menggunakan pembaris meter dan pita pengukur (b) garis lengkung dengan menggunakan benang dan pembaris Benang, pensel, pen, bola Pembaris meter, pita pengukur
bola pita pengukur
10

To measure (a) straight lines using metre rule and measuring tape (b) curved lines using thread and ruler Thread, pencil, pen, ball Metre rule, measuring tape
ball measuring tape
10

BAHAN RADAS

MATERIALS APPARATUS

CHAPTER

Rajah (a)

Rajah (b)

Rajah (c)

Diagram (a)

Diagram (b)

PROSEDUR

1 Ukur panjang pensel dan pen seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah (a) dengan pembaris meter. Ukur sebanyak tiga kali dan tentukan nilai purata panjangnya dalam jadual yang disediakan. 2 Ukur panjang ukur lilit sebiji bola seperti pada Rajah (b) dengan menggunakan pita pengukur sebanyak tiga kali. 3 Ukur sepanjang garis lengkung dalam Rajah (c) dengan bantuan seutas benang dan pembaris. 4 Ulangi pengukuran sebanyak tiga kali untuk menentukan nilai purata panjangnya. Catatkan keputusan dalam jadual yang sama.
Pengukuran/cm Objek 1 Pensel Pen Bola Garis lengkung 8.4 14.0 45.1 7.5 2 8.3 14.1 45.2 7.3 3 8.5 14.2 45.0 7.4 Purata 8.4 14.1 45.1 7.4

PROCEDURE

1 Measure the length of a pencil and a pen as shown in Diagram (a) with the use of a metre rule. Measure each object thrice and determine the average value of the length of the object in the table provided. 2 Measure the circumference of a ball as shown in Diagram (b) with a measuring tape three times. 3 Measure along the curved line in Diagram (c) with the help of a strand of thread and a ruler. 4 Repeat the measuring task thrice to determine the average value of its length. Record the results in the same table.
Measurement/cm Object 1 Pencil Pen Ball Curved line 8.4 14.0 45.1 7.5 2 8.3 14.1 45.2 7.3 3 8.5 14.2 45.0 7.4 Average 8.4 14.1 45.1 7.4

KEPUTUSAN

RESULTS

MINDRobics

(Jawapan pelajar) ANALISIS


KBSB

(Students answers)
Mendefinisi secara operasi

1 Apakah itu panjang? Jarak

ANALYSIS

di antara dua titik.

1 What is length? distance The

between two points.

2 Mengapakah nilai purata daripada beberapa bacaan perlu diambil? jitu Untuk mendapat keputusan yang lebih .
1.11 HP Memilih alat yang betul dan mengukur panjang Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Pengukuran panjang, hlm. 16; Essential Science PMR, Measurement of length, hlm. 11

2 Why should the average value of a few readings be required? accurate To get a result that is more .
1.11 LO Choose the right tool and measure length Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Measurement of length, p. 16; Essential Science PMR, Measurement of length, p.11

11

11

1.6
1.11
Experiment

Understanding the use of measuring tools


1.13
Experiment

6 Name the devices that can be used to measure the internal diameter of a beaker. (Internal calipers and ruler) 7 Name the devices that can be used to measure the external diameter of a measuring cylinder. (External calipers and ruler)
INQUIRY

INQUIRY

1 What is the distance between two points? (Length) 2 What can be used to measure the width of a book? (Ruler) 3 What can be used to measure the length of a classroom? (Measuring tape) 4 What can be used to measure the length of a curved line? (Thread and ruler)

8 What is the total surface covered by an object? (Area) 9 What can be used to estimate the area of an irregular-shaped object? (Graph paper) 10 What is the estimated area of the leaf on the right?
1 cm 1 cm

1.12

Experiment

INQUIRY

5 Name the device. (a)

(Internal calipers) (b)

(External calipers) (3 cm2)

11

F1MR-ch1(1-22).indd 11

2 3

33

32

2 3

33

32

31

30

31

30

BAB

1
24 25

9 8 7
26
27

24 25

26
27

37

30 38 38

37

30 38 38

Diagram (c)

MINDRobics

TSTS
Defining operationally

11

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3 Tandakan () dalam petak bagi bahan yang sesuai diukur dengan menggunakan benang dan pembaris.

3 Mark () in the box for the item that is suitable to be measured using a thread and a ruler.

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

Panjang gambar
BAB

Ketebalan buku

Panjang sungai di atas peta


CHAPTER

4 Pembaris meter tidak sesuai digunakan untuk mengukur: lebih daripada 1 m (a) panjang bilik darjah yang (b) ketebalan rambut yang kurang daripada 1 mm .

The thickness of The length of the book river on the map 4 Metre rule is not suitable to measure: more than 1 m (a) the length of a classroom which is . (b) the thickness of a strand of hair which is less than 1 mm . 5 Suggest how you would measure the length of a river on a map. thread ruler By using and . 6 Mark () the correct eye position to take the reading of the length of the chalk in the diagram below. Then, determine the length of the chalk.

The length of picture

1
KESIMPULAN 1

5 Cadangkan bagaimana anda dapat mengukur panjang suatu sungai pada peta. benang pembaris Dengan menggunakan dan . 6 Tandakan () bagi kedudukan mata yang betul untuk mengambil bacaan panjang kapur dalam rajah di bawah. Kemudian, tentukan panjang kapur.

cm 0

Pembaris meter tidak sesuai digunakan untuk mengukur panjang bilik darjah yang lebih daripada 1 m dan tebal sehelai kertas yang kurang daripada 1 m.

Metre rule is not suitable to measure the length of a classroom which is more than 1 m and the thickness of a piece of paper which is less than 1 m.

cm 0

Panjang kapur =

2.5 cm

. pembaris meter benang CONCLUSION 1

Length of chalk =

2.5 cm

. metre rule thread or and

Panjang objek dapat diukur dengan menggunakan pita pengukur atau .

2 Panjang garis lengkung dapat diukur dengan menggunakan pembaris dan .

The length of an object can be measured by using a measuring tape . 2 The length of a curved line can be measured with the use of ruler .

MINDRobics

MINDRobics

1.12
TUJUAN RADAS PROSEDUR

Eksperimen

INKUIRI

Diameter objek

1.12
Inkuiri-penemuan

Experiment

INQUIRY

Diameter of objects

Inquiry-discovery

AIM APPARATUS PROCEDURE

To measure the external and internal diameters of objects using calipers Internal calipers, external calipers, metre rule, 100 cm3 beaker 1 Measure the external diameter of a 100 cm3 beaker using a pair of external calipers and a metre rule as shown in Diagram (a).
external calipers

Menyukat diameter luar dan diameter dalam objek menggunakan angkup Angkup dalam, angkup luar, pembaris meter, bikar 100 cm3 1 Ukur diameter luar sebuah bikar 100 cm3 dengan menggunakan angkup luar dan pembaris meter seperti pada Rajah (a).
angkup luar

Rajah (a)

Diagram (a)

2 Ulangi penyukatan sebanyak tiga kali pada bahagian bikar yang berlainan. Catat keputusan dalam jadual yang disediakan. Hitung nilai puratanya.
1.12 HP Memilih alat yang betul dan mengukur panjang

2 Repeat the measurements thrice at different parts of the beaker. Record your readings in a table. Calculate the average.
1.12 LO Choose the right tool and measure length

12
1.14

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Pengukuran diameter suatu objek, hlm. 17; Essential Science PMR, Measuring the diameter of an object, hlm. 13

12

Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Measurement of the diameter of an object, p. 17; Essential Science PMR, Measuring the diameter of an object, p.13

Experiment

INQUIRY

11 What is the total space occupied by an object? (Volume) 12 State three apparatus that can be used to measure volume of liquids. (Measuring cylinder, pipette and burette) 13 State two apparatus that can be used to measure accurately the volume of liquids. (Pipette and burette) 14 State one precautionary step when using measuring cylinder to take the reading of the volume of a liquid. (Take the reading at eye level)

15 Which is the correct eye level in taking the volume of the following liquids? (a)
P Q () R

(b)

X Y () Z

Water

Mercury

12

12

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3 Ulangi langkah 1 dan 2 untuk mendapatkan diameter dalam bikar menggunakan angkup dalam dan pembaris meter seperti pada Rajah (b).

3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to find the internal diameter of the beaker using a pair of internal calipers and a metre rule as shown in Diagram (b).

Chapter 1

Introduction to Science

angkup dalam

Introduction to Science

Chapter 1

internal calipers

Rajah (b)
BAB

Diagram (b)

CHAPTER

KEPUTUSAN
Ukuran Diameter luar Diameter dalam 1 5.0 4.9 2 4.9 4.7

Panjang/cm 3 5.1 4.8 Purata 5.0 4.8

RESULTS
Measurement 1 5.0 4.9 2 4.9 4.7

Length/cm 3 5.1 4.8 Average 5.0 4.8

1
External diameter Internal diameter

(Jawapan pelajar) ANALISIS 1 Mengapakah ketiga-tiga bacaan bagi diameter dalam dan diameter luar adalah tidak sama? tidak sekata Ketebalan dinding bikar adalah . 2 Namakan jenis angkup yang digunakan dan tentukan diameter dalam dan diameter luar bagi suatu objek. (a) (b) Angkup Angkup luar dalam ANALYSIS

(Students answers)
1 Why are the three readings for the internal diameter and the external diameter different? not uniform The thickness of the beaker is .

2 Name the type of calipers used and determine the internal diameter and external diameter of objects. (a) (b) External Internal calipers calipers

MINDRobics

MINDRobics

0 cm

0 cm

0 cm

0 cm

Diameter dalam =

3.0

cm

Diameter luar =

2.8

cm

Internal diameter =

3.0

cm

External diameter =

2.8

3 Nyatakan bagaimana anda dapat menggunakan angkup luar untuk mengukur ketebalan sehelai kertas. angkup luar Ukur ketebalan seratus helai kertas dengan dan bahagikan nilai yang diperoleh dengan nilai 100 . CONCLUSION

3 State how you would use a pair of external calipers to measure the thickness of a sheet of paper. Measure the thickness of a hundred sheets of the external calipers and divide the value you obtained by paper with 100 the .

KESIMPULAN

Diameter luar dan diameter dalam bikar dapat diukur dengan menggunakan angkup pembaris dan .

The external diameter and the internal diameter of a beaker can be measured by using calipers a ruler and .

13
INQUIRY
Activity

13
1.17

1.15 1.16

Experiment

DISCUSSION

&

16 What method can be used to measure the volume of regular and irregular-shaped solids? (Water displacement method) 60 40 = 20 cm3 65 60 = 5 cm3

DISCUSSION
Activity

18 Suggest two devices that can be used to measure the length of a river on the map. (A thread and a ruler) 19 What is the volume of the water? (23 ml) 20 What is the volume of the mercury? (25 ml)

17 Determine the volume of the solids.


measuring cylinder 40 cm3 thread 60 cm3 65 cm3 cork stone

Volume of stone = Volume of cork =

20 ml

20 ml

water

13

13

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1.13
TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS PROSEDUR
BAB

Eksperimen

INKUIRI

Luas bentuk sekata dan tidak sekata

Inkuiri-penemuan

1.13
AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS
CHAPTER

Experiment

INQUIRY

Area of regular and irregular shapes

Inquiry-discovery

Menganggarkan luas objek berbentuk sekata dan tidak sekata Pemadam pensel, daun, objek berbentuk segi tiga, kertas graf Pembaris meter 1 Tentukan bilangan petak segi empat sama yang diliputi oleh pemadam pensel. Bilangan segi empat sama yang separuh atau lebih daripada separuh dihitung sebagai satu segi empat sama. Tandakan () pada setiap segi empat sama yang dikira. (Setiap segi empat sama berukuran 1 cm2) 2 Ulangi langkah 1 dengan menggunakan sehelai daun dan objek berbentuk segi tiga.
1 cm 1 cm

To find the area of a regular and irregular-shaped objects Pencil eraser, leaf, triangle-shaped object, graph paper Metre rule 1 Determine the number of squares covered by the outline of the pencil eraser. Count all 1 squares and all squares that are more than 1 as full squares. Mark () for every 2
2

PROCEDURE

square counted. (Each square counted = 1 cm2 ) 2 Repeat step 1 using a leaf and a triangle-shaped object. RESULTS
1 cm 1 cm

F1MR-ch1(1-22).indd 14

1
KEPUTUSAN ANALISIS KESIMPULAN

1 Luas pemadam 8 = cm2 2 Luas daun 23 = cm2

1 Area of pencil eraser 8 = cm2 2 Area of leaf 23 = cm2

3 Luas objek berbentuk segi tiga 4 = cm2 2 2

3 Area of triangleshaped object 4 = cm2

1 Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan luas? Jumlah permukaan yang diliputi oleh suatu objek. 2 Nyatakan unit sukatan bagi luas yang dianggarkan dalam aktiviti ini. Sentimeter persegi/cm2 3 Adakah luas objek yang ditentukan dalam aktiviti ini jitu? Tidak

ANALYSIS

1 What is meant by area? total surface The

covered by an object.

2 State the measuring unit for area estimated in this activity. Square centimetre/cm2 3 Is the area of the object determined in this activity accurate? CONCLUSION No

Luas objek yang sekata dan tidak sekata dapat dianggarkan dengan menggunakan kertas graf .

The area of an object that is regular and irregular can be estimated by using a graph paper .

1.13 HP Menganggarkan luas bentuk sekata dan tidak sekata dengan menggunakan kertas graf

14

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Pengukuran luas, hlm. 20; Essential Science PMR, Measurement of area, hlm. 14

1.13 LO Estimate area of regular and irregular shapes using graph paper

14

Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Measurement of area, p. 20; Essential Science PMR, Measurement of area, p.14

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1.14
TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS PROSEDUR

Eksperimen

INKUIRI

Isi padu cecair

Inkuiri-penemuan

1.14
AIM MATERIALS APPARATUS PROCEDURE
BAB

Experiment

INQUIRY

Volume of liquids

Inquiry-discovery

KBSB

TSTS

Mengukur isi padu cecair dengan menggunakan silinder penyukat

Menggunakan peralatan sains dengan betul

To measure the volume of liquids using a measuring cylinder Water, white piece of paper

Using scientific apparatus correctly

Air, kertas putih Silinder penyukat 100 cm3, tabung didih, tabung uji, 25 ml pipet, pam sedutan, buret, kaki retort dan pengapit Isi satu tabung didih penuh dengan air. Tuangkan air ke dalam silinder penyukat dan rekodkan isi padu air. Ulangi langkah 1 dan 2 dengan menggunakan satu tabung uji. Isi sebuah bikar dengan air. Dengan bantuan satu pam sedutan, guna satu pipet untuk menyedut air sehingga ke tanda senggatan 25 ml. 6 Lepaskan air ke dalam sebuah silinder penyukat kosong dan rekodkan isi padu air. 7 Isi sebuah buret dengan air. 8 Lepaskan 25 ml air ke dalam sebuah silinder penyukat kosong dan rekodkan isi padu air. 1 2 3 4 5
100 ml 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
25 ml

CHAPTER

100 cm3 measuring cylinder, boiling tube, test tube, 25 ml pipette, suction pump, burette, retort stand and clamp Fill a boiling tube completely with water. Pour the water into a measuring cylinder and record the volume of water. Repeat steps 1 and 2 with a test tube. Fill a beaker with water. With the help of a suction pump, use a pipette to draw up the water until it reaches the 25 ml graduated mark. 6 Release the water into an empty measuring cylinder and record the volume of water in it. 7 Fill a burette with water. 8 Release 25 ml of water into an empty measuring cylinder and record the volume of water in it. 1 2 3 4 5
100 ml 90 80 70 60 suction pump retort stand retort clamp

pam penyedut

kaki retort penyepit retort

buret pipet

50 40 30 20 10
25 ml

burette pipette

Rajah (a)

Rajah (b) Isi padu air/ml (cm3) 57 18 25 25

Rajah (c)

Diagram (a)

Diagram (b) Volume of water/ml (cm3) 57 18 25 25

Diagram (c)

KEPUTUSAN

Jenis bekas Tabung didih Tabung uji Pipet Buret

RESULTS

Type of container Boiling tube Test tube Pipette Burette

ANALISIS

1 Apakah itu isi padu? Jumlah ruang

ANALYSIS yang diisi oleh suatu objek. ml/cm3

1 What is volume? total space The

occupied by an object.

2 Apakah unit sukatan bagi silinder penyukat, pipet, dan buret?

3 2 What is the measuring unit for a measuring cylinder, a pipette and a burette? ml/cm

3 Nyatakan dua langkah berjaga-jaga semasa menggunakan silinder penyukat. permukaan rata (a) Letakkan silinder penyukat di atas (b) Mata mesti berada pada
1.14 HP Memilih pengukur yang betul dan ukur isi padu cecair dalam konteks eksperimen

paras yang sama

3 State two precautionary steps taken when using a measuring cylinder. flat surface (a) Place the measuring cylinder on a (b) The eye must be on the
1.14 LO Choose the right tool and measure the volume of a liquid

dengan meniskus cecair.

same level

as the meniscus of the liquid.


Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Measurement of volume of liquids, p. 20; Essential Science PMR, Measuring the volume of liquids, p. 15

15

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Pengukuran isi padu cecair, hlm. 20; Essential Science PMR, Measuring the volume of liquids, hlm. 15

15

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4 Tandakan () pada aras mata yang betul pada rajah di bawah untuk menunjukkan cara pengambilan bacaan isi padu yang betul bagi larutan gula dan merkuri.

4 Mark () the correct eye level in the diagrams below to show the correct way to take the volume readings of a sugar solution and mercury.

larutan gula

merkuri

sugar solution

mercury

5 Bulatkan alat penyukatan cecair di bawah yang lebih tepat. Silinder penyukat KESIMPULAN Buret Pipet silinder penyukat ,

5 Circle the measuring instruments for liquid below which are more accurate. Measuring cylinder CONCLUSION Pipette Burette measuring cylinder ,

CHAPTER

F1MR-ch1(1-22).indd 16

BAB

Isi padu cecair boleh disukat dengan menggunakan pipet buret dan .

The volume of liquids can be measured by using pipette burette and .

1.15
TUJUAN BAHAN RADAS PROSEDUR

Eksperimen

INKUIRI

Isi padu pepejal berbentuk sekata dan tidak sekata

Inkuiri-penemuan

1.15
AIM MATERIALS

Experiment

INQUIRY

Volume of regular and irregular-shaped solids

Inquiry-discovery

Mengukur isi padu pepejal sekata dan tidak sekata Guli, batu, air, benang Silinder penyukat 100 ml 1 Isikan air sehingga separuh penuh dalam sebuah silinder penyukat. 2 Catat bacaan awal paras air. 3 Masukkan lima biji guli yang sama saiz (objek sekata) perlahan-lahan ke dalam silinder penyukat itu seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah (a). 4 Catat bacaan akhir (isi padu) paras air pada silinder penyukat. 5 Ulangi aktiviti di atas dengan menggunakan sebiji batu (objek tidak sekata) seperti dalam Rajah (b). Ikat batu dengan benang dan masukkan batu ke dalam silinder penyukat dengan perlahan-lahan.
Pepejal Lima biji guli Batu
(Jawapan pelajar)
air guli

To measure the volume of regular and irregularshaped solids Marbles, stone, water, thread
water

APPARATUS PROCEDURE

100 ml measuring cylinder 1 Half fill a measuring cylinder with water. 2 Record the initial reading of the water level. 3 Slowly drop five marbles of equal size (regular object) into the measuring cylinder as shown in Diagram (a). 4 Record the final reading (volume) of the water level in the measuring cylinder. 5 Repeat the above steps using a stone (irregular object) as in Diagram (b). Tie the stone with a string and slowly let it down into the water.

marble

Rajah (a)

Diagram (a)

thread

benang

water stone

air batu

Rajah (b) Isi padu pepejal/ml 15 13

Diagram (b)

KEPUTUSAN

Bacaan awal/ml 50 50

Bacaan akhir/ml 65 63

RESULTS

Solid Five marbles Stone


(Students answers)

Initial reading/ml 50 50

Final reading/ml 65 63

Volume of solid/ml 15 13

ANALISIS

1 Apakah kaedah yang digunakan dalam aktiviti ini? Kaedah sesaran air 2 Hitung isi padu bagi satu biji guli. 15 = 3 cm3 5

ANALYSIS

1 What method is used in this activity? Water displacement method 2 Calculate the volume of one marble. 15 = 3 cm3 5

1.15 HP Menentukan isi padu pepejal dengan menggunakan kaedah sesaran air

16

Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Pengukuran isi padu pepejal, hlm. 23; Essential Science PMR, Measuring the volume of solids, hlm. 17

1.15 LO Estimate the volume of solids using the water displacement method

16

Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Measurement of the volume of solids, p. 23; Essential Science PMR, Measuring the volume of solids, p. 17

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3 Bolehkah kaedah ini digunakan untuk mengukur isi padu seketul hablur gula? Berikan alasan kepada jawapan anda. Tidak larut , hablur gula akan dalam air. 4 Rajah di bawah menunjukkan kaedah lain yang boleh digunakan untuk menentukan isi padu pepejal berbentuk sekata dan tidak sekata. Labelkan radas dan nyatakan isi padu batu dalam rajah tersebut. Tin eureka ur
BAB

3 Can this method be used to measure the volume of a lump of sugar crystal? Give a reason for your answer. No dissolve , the sugar crystal will in water. 4 The diagram below shows another method that can be used to dertermine the volume of a regular or an irregular-shaped solid. Label the apparatus and give the volume of the stone. Eureka can/ Displacement can

CHAPTER

20 ml

20 ml

Silinder penyukat
10 ml

Measuring cylinder

10 ml

Isi padu batu = KESIMPULAN

13.0 ml

Volume of stone = CONCLUSION

13.0 ml

Isi padu objek yang sekata dan tidak sekata dapat ditentukan dengan menggunakan kaedah sesaran air .

The volume of a regular or irregular-shaped object can be determined by using the water displacement method .

1.16 PERBINCANGAN

Aktiviti

Pengukuran isi padu

Masteri

1.16

DISCUSSION
Activity

Measurement of volume

Mastery

1 Jawab soalan yang berikut berdasarkan rajah yang diberi.


Bacaan awal X 60 ml blok plumbum 60 ml Bacaan akhir

1 Answer the following questions based on the diagram given.


Initial reading X 60 ml lead block 60 ml Final reading

air

50 ml

50 ml water

50 ml

50 ml

Satu eksperimen dijalankan untuk mengukur isi padu satu blok plumbum seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah di atas. (a) Namakan radas X. Silinder penyukat (b) Apakah kaedah yang digunakan untuk menyukat isi padu blok plumbum? Kaedah sesaran air (c) Apakah bacaan awal dan bacaan akhir bagi air dalam radas X? 49 cm3/ml (i) Bacaan awal: (ii) Bacaan akhir:
3 (d) Hitungkan isi padu blok plumbum. 56 49 = 7 cm

An experiment is carried out to measure the volume of a lead block as shown in the diagram above. (a) Name apparatus X. Measuring cylinder (b) What is the method used to measure the volume of the lead block? Water displacement method (c) What are the initial and final readings of the volume of water in apparatus X? 56 cm3/ml 49 cm3/ml (i) Initial reading: (ii) Final reading:
3 (d) Calculate the volume of the lead block. 56 49 = 7 cm

56

cm3/ml

(e) Nyatakan dua langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu diambil dalam eksperimen ini. dijatuhkan perlahan-lahan (i) Blok plumbum harus (ii) Bacaan perlu diambil pada
1.16 HP Menentukan isi padu pepejal dengan menggunakan kaedah sesaran air

ke dalam air. .

(e) State two precautionary steps need to be taken in this experiment. dropped slowly (i) The lead block should be (ii) The reading has to be taken at
1.16 LO Estimate the volume of solids using the water displacement method

into the water. .

aras mata

eye level

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2 Tentukan isi padu objek pepejal yang ditunjukkan di bawah. Kemudian, jawab soalan yang diberi.
silinder penyukat benang

2 Determine the volume of the solid object shown below. Then, answer the questions.
measuring cylinder thread

50 cm3 45 cm3

56 cm3 45 gabus cm3

50 cm3

56 cm3 cork

air

ketulan kuprum

water

copper lump

CHAPTER

F1MR-ch1(1-22).indd 18

BAB

50 45 = 5 (a) (i) Isi padu ketulan kuprum = 56 50 = 6 (ii) Isi padu gabus = cm3

cm3

50 45 = 5 (a) (i) Volume of copper lump = 56 50 = 6 (ii) Volume of cork = cm3

cm3

(b) Mengapakah gabus ditenggelamkan dengan bantuan pepejal yang boleh tenggelam? Gabus tidak tenggelam dalam air/Gabus kurang tumpat daripada air.

(b) Why is the cork made to sink with the help of solids that can sink? Cork does not sink in water/Cork is less dense than water.

1.17 PERBINCANGAN

Aktiviti

Alat pengukuran

Masteri

1.17

DISCUSSION
Activity

Measuring instruments

Mastery

Pilih alat pengukur yang diberi dan isi ruang kosong yang bersesuaian dengan pengukurannya. Angkup luar Pembaris Benang Neraca tuas Angkup dalam Neraca spring Pita pengukur

Choose the measuring instrument given and fill in the blanks which relate to their measurement. External calipers Ruler Thread Lever balance Internal calipers Spring balance Measuring tape

Measurement Pengukuran

Panjang garis lengkung

Diameter dalam tabung didih

Diameter luar bikar

Panjang garis lurus

Jisim

Berat

Length of a curved line

Internal diameter of a boiling tube

External diameter of a beaker

Length of a straight line

Mass

Weight

Benang B dan

Angkup dalam dan

Angkup luar dan

Pita pengukur atau Neraca Neraca spring

Thread Thread and

Internal calipers and

External calipers and

Measuring tape or Lever Spring balance

pembaris

pembaris

pembaris

pembaris

tuas

ruler

ruler

ruler

ruler

balance

1.17 HP Memilih alat yang betul untuk mengukur panjang, jisim dan berat

18

1.17 LO Choose the right tool to measure length, mass, and weight

18

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PMR
gm
2 4 6 8 10

Kunci Kejayaan

Soalan-soalan berikut melibatkan konsep atau fakta yang kerap ditanya dalam peperiksaan PMR. Pastikan anda boleh menjawap semua soalan berikut.

PMR
gm
2 4 6 8 10

Key To Success

Questions in this section contain concepts and facts that are frequently tested in the PMR exam. Make sure you can answer all the questions correctly.

1 Namakan neraca. Kemudian, nyatakan sama ada ia digunakan untuk menyukat jisim atau berat objek. (a) (b) (c)
10 9 8 0 1 2

1 Name the balances. Then, state whether it is used to measure the mass or weight of an object. (a) (b) (c)
10 9 8 0 1 2 3 4

7 6 5

3 7 6 4 5

Neraca spring Berat

Neraca tuas Jisim

Neraca mampatan Berat Spring balance Weight Lever balance Mass Compression balance Weight Area

2 Isi tempat kosong. Panjang (a) (b) (c) Luas Isi padu

ialah jarak antara dua titik. ialah jumlah kawasan yang diliputi oleh suatu objek.

2 Fill in the blanks. Length (a) (c) Volume

is the distance between two points.

(b)

is the total surface covered by an object.

is the total space occupied by an object.

ialah jumlah ruang yang diisi oleh suatu objek. 3 Mark () at the correct eye positions. (a) (c)
air

3 Tandakan () pada kedudukan mata yang betul. (a) (b)


(b)
water

(c)

mercury

merkuri

4 Namakan alat atau bahan yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur panjang yang berikut. Pembaris meter Angkup dalam dan pembaris (a) Garis lurus (c) Diameter dalam bikar (b) Garis lengkung 5 Anggarkan luas daun. Anggaran luas daun = 8
1 cm

4 State the apparatus or material that can be used to measure the following length. Metre rule (a) Straight line (c) Internal diameter of a beaker (b) Curved line Thread and ruler (d) External diameter of a boiling tube
1 cm 1 cm

Internal calipers and ruler External calipers and ruler

Benang dan pembaris


1 cm

(d) Diameter luar tabung didih

Angkup luar dan pembaris

5 Estimate the area of the leaf. Estimated area of the leaf =


kertas graf

cm2

cm2

graph paper

6 Namakan radas-radas di bawah. Tandakan () dalam kotak bagi radas yang dapat digunakan untuk menyukat dengan tepat isi padu suatu cecair. (a) (b) (c)

6 Name the apparatus below. Tick () in the boxes the apparatus that can be used to measure accurately the volume of a liquid. (a) (b) (c)

Measuring cylinder Silinder penyukat Pipet Buret

Pipette

Burette

7 Hitung isi padu objek dengan menggunakan kaedah sesaran air. (a) (b)
48 cm 40 cm air
3 3

7 Calculate the volume of objects by using water displacement method. (a) (b) Isi padu batu
45 cm 40 cm
3 3

48 cm 40 cm water
3

45 cm 40 cm 30 cm
3 3

Volume of stone = 40 30 = 10 cm3 Volume of cork = 45 40 = 5 cm3

= 40 30 = 10 cm3 Isi padu gabus = 45 40 = 5 cm3

cork stone

30 cm guli air

gabus batu

marble

water

stone

batu

Volume of a marble =

Isi padu satu guli =

48 40 4

48 40 4

cm3

cm3

19

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PMR
KERTAS

Sudut Pengukuhan

1
8 Rajah 3 menunjukkan sehelai daun.
1 cm 1 cm

PMR
PAPER

Enhancement Corner

1
8 Diagram 3 shows a leaf.
1 cm 1 cm

1
5 Seorang pelajar ingin mengukur dengan tepat 25 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida. Apakah alat yang boleh digunakan untuk tujuan ini? I Pipet II Buret III Tabung uji A I dan II sahaja KLON B I dan III sahaja 2003 C II dan III sahaja D I, II dan III A 6 Jadual 1 menunjukkan isi padu bagi guli yang bilangannya berbeza, yang ditentukan dengan menggunakan kaedah sesaran air. Bilangan guli 3 6 Jadual 1 Ramalkan isi padu bagi 8 biji guli. A 14 cm3 KLON B 15 cm3 2007 C 16 cm3 D 18 cm3 C 7 Rajah 2 menunjukkan sebuah bandul berayun dari kedudukan P ke R dan balik semula ke P. Isi padu/cm3 6 12

1
5 A student wants to measure accurately 25 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution. What instruments can be used for this purpose? I Pipette II Burette III Test tube A I and II only CLONE 2003 B I and III only C II and III only D I, II and III A 6 Table 1 shows the volumes of different quantities of marbles, determined by using the water displacement method. Quantity of marbles 3 6 Table 1 Predict the volume of 8 marbles. A 14 cm3 CLONE B 15 cm3 2007 C 16 cm3 D 18 cm3 C 7 Diagram 2 shows a pendulum which swings from P to R and then back to P. Volume/cm3 6 12

Tiap-tiap soalan yang berikut diikuti oleh empat pilihan jawapan, A, B, C dan D. Pilih jawapan yang terbaik.
1 Antara yang berikut, yang manakah fenomena semula jadi? KLON A Perhutanan 2007 B Bunga berkembang C Penciptaan kapal angkasa D Penghasilan garam biasa daripada air laut B 2 Antara yang berikut, yang manakah nilai imbuhan bagi senti? A 0.001 KLON 2006 B 0.01 C 0.1 D 10 B 3 Antara yang berikut, yang manakah betul? A B C D Kuantiti Unit SI Alat Jisim garam kg Neraca biasa tuas Suhu air Panjang kertas Masa untuk air mendidih A m K Termometer Angkup dalam Silinder penyukat
KLON 2009

Each question is followed by four options, A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer.
1 Which of the following is a natural phenomenon? CLONE 2007 A Forestry B Flowers blossoming C Invention of space shuttle D Production of table salt from sea water B 2 Which of the following is the prefix value of centi? A 0.001 CLONE B 0.01 2006 C 0.1 D 10 B 3 Which of the following is correct? Quantity SI unit Instrument kg A m K Lever balance Thermometer Internal calipers Measuring cylinder
CLONE 2009

Rajah 3 Anggarkan luas daun ini. A 4 cm2 C 7 cm2 B 5 cm2 D 9 cm2


KLON 2008

Diagram 3 Estimate the area of this leaf. A 4 cm2 C 7 cm2 B 5 cm2 D 9 cm2
CLONE 2008

9 Rajah 4 menunjukkan 4 kedudukan mata berlabel A, B, C dan D.


A B C silinder penyukat D merkuri

9 Diagram 4 shows four eye positions labelled A, B, C and D.


A measuring cylinder D

A B C D

Mass of table salt Temperature of water Length of paper Time taken for water to boil

B mercury C

Rajah 4 Kedudukan yang manakah betul semasa mengambil bacaan merkuri dalam silinder penyukat? D 10 Rajah 5 menunjukkan beberapa langkah menyukat isi padu gabus.
K L M

Diagram 4 Which position is correct when taking a reading of the mercury in the measuring cylinder? D 10 Diagram 5 shows several steps to measure the volume of a cork.
K L M

4 Rajah 1 menunjukkan silinder penyukat yang mengandungi suatu cecair.


30 air 20 silinder penyukat

4 Diagram 1 shows a measuring cylinder containing a liquid.


30 water 20 measuring cylinder

benang
air

gabus air

thread
water

cork water

silinder penyukat

R
measuring cylinder

Rajah 2 Rajah 1 Apakah isi padu air dalam Rajah 1? A 24.0 ml KLON B 24.5 ml 2004 C 25.0 ml D 25.5 ml B Tempoh ayunan bandul dipengaruhi oleh KLON A jisim bandul 2001 B bilangan ayunan C keadaan udara sekeliling D panjang benang D

Rajah 5 Susunan langkah yang betul bagi menyukat isi padu gabus ialah A K, L, M KLON B K, M, L 2002 C M, K, L D M, L, K C

Diagram 1 What is the volume of water in Diagram 1? CLONE 2004 A 24.0 ml B 24.5 ml C 25.0 ml D 25.5 ml B

Diagram 2 The period for a pendulum swing is affected by A the mass of the pendulum B the number of swings CLONE C the condition of the 2001 surrounding air D the length of the thread D

Diagram 5 The correct sequence to measure the volume of the cork is A K, L, M B K, M, L CLONE 2002 C M, K, L D M, L, K C

20

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KERTAS

2
1

PAPER

Bahagian A Jawab semua soalan.


1 Rajah 1 menunjukkan alat pengukuran K, L, dan M.

Section A Answer all the questions.


Diagram 1 shows measuring instruments K, L and M.

100 ml 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

100 ml 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

K:

Neraca tuas

L:

Neraca spring Rajah 1

M:

Silinder penyukat K: Lever balance L: Spring balance Diagram 1 (a) Label the measuring instruments P, Q and R in Diagram 1 using the following words: M: Measuring cylinder

(a)

Label alat pengukuran P, Q, dan R dalam Rajah 1 menggunakan perkataan-perkataan yang berikut:

Silinder penyukat

Neraca tuas

Neraca spring Measuring cylinder Lever balance Spring balance

(b) Lukiskan garisan untuk menunjukkan padanan yang betul antara alat pengukuran dan fungsinya. (b) Draw lines to show the correct match betwen the measuring instruments and their functions. K Untuk menyukat isi padu cecair K L Untuk mengukur jisim objek L M Untuk mengukur berat objek M (c) Bulatkan alat pengukuran di bawah yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur jisim objek. (c) Circle the measuring instruments below which can be used to measure the mass of objects. To measure the weight of objects To measure the mass of objects To measure the volume of liquids

10 9 8

0 1 2 10 9 8 0 1 2

3 7 6 4 5

3 7 6 4 5

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Bahagian B Jawab soalan di bawah.


2 Rajah 2 menunjukkan empat jenis alat pengukuran yang digunakan di dalam makmal.
KLON 2006
Bhg. B, S7

Section B Answer the below question.


2 Diagram 2 shows four types of measuring instruments which are used in the laboratory.
CLONE 2006
Sec. B, Q7

J J K

L L Rajah 2 (a) Perhatikan alat pengukuran dalam Rajah 2. Berdasarkan pemerhatian anda, nyatakan satu kegunaan bagi setiap alat. J: Digunakan untuk menyukat isi padu cecair K: Digunakan untuk mengukur panjang objek L: Digunakan untuk menyukat isi padu cecair M: Digunakan untuk menyukat isi padu cecair (b) Kelaskan alat J, K, L, dan M kepada dua kumpulan berdasarkan kegunaannya. Tulis huruf-huruf yang mewakili alat itu bagi setiap kumpulan. J, K, L, M M Diagram 2

(a) Observe the measuring instruments in Diagram 2. Based on your observations, state one usage of each instrument. J: Use to measure the volume of liquid K: Use to measure the length of object L: Use to measure the volume of liquid M: Use to measure the volume of liquid (b) Classify instruments J, K, L and M into two groups based on their usage. Write the letters of the instruments belonging to each group. J, K, L, M

Group 1 Kumpulan 1 Kegunaan Digunakan untuk menyukat isi padu cecair Kumpulan 2 Digunakan untuk menyukat panjang objek Usage To measure the volume of liquid of object

Group 2 To measure the length

Huruf alat

J, L, M

Letters of the instruments

J, L, M

22

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