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Modern Management Q1.A Ans: These factors make management functions important: 1.

It helps in Achieving Group Goals It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve goals. It directs group efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts disorganized resources of men, machines, money etc. into useful enterprise. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a manner that enterprise work towards attainment of goals. 2. Optimum Utilization of Resources Management utilizes all the physical & human resources productively. This leads to efficacy in management. Management provides maximum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternate use in industry from out of various uses. It makes use of experts, professional and these services leads to use of their skills, knowledge, and proper utilization and avoids wastage. If employees and machines are producing its maximum there is no under employment of any resources. 3. Reduces Costs It gets maximum results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum input & getting maximum output. Management uses physical, human and financial resources in such a manner which results in best combination. This helps in cost reduction. 4. Establishes Sound Organization No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated functions). To establish sound organizational structure is one of the objective of management which is in tune with objective of organization and for fulfillment of this, it establishes effective authority & responsibility relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates. Management fills up various positions with right persons, having right skills, training and qualification. All jobs should be cleared to everyone. 5. Establishes Equilibrium It enables the organization to survive in changing environment. It keeps in touch with the changing environment. With the change is external environment, the initial coordination of organization must be changed. So it adapts organization to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies. It is responsible for growth and survival of organization.

6. Essentials for Prosperity of Society Efficient management leads to better economical production which helps in turn to increase the welfare of people. Good management makes a difficult task easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It improves standard of living. It increases the profit which is beneficial to business and society will get maximum output at minimum cost by creating employment opportunities which generate income in hands. Organization comes with new products and researches beneficial for society.

Q1.B Ans: In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research". However, in modern times the term management science may also be used to refer to the separate fields of organizational studies or corporate strategy. Like operational research itself, management science (MS), is an interdisciplinary branch of applied mathematics devoted to optimal decision planning, with strong links with economics, business, engineering, and other sciences. It uses various scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods including mathematical modeling, statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. In short, management sciences help businesses to achieve their goals using the scientific methods of operational research. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, sciencebased techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. Of course, the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups. Management science is concerned with developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems, as well as designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence.

The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as Management science.

Q2. A Ans: The term social responsibility means different things to different people. Generally, corporate social responsibility is the obligation to take action that protects and improves the welfare of society as whole as well as organizational interests. According to the concept of corporate social responsibility, a manager must strive to achieve both organizational and societal goals. Current perspectives regarding the fundamentals of social responsibility of businesses are listed and discussed through (1) the Davis model of corporate social responsibility, (2) areas of corporate social responsibility, and (3) varying opinions on social responsibility. A model of corporate social responsibility that was developed by Keith Davis provides five propositions that describe why and how businesses should adhere to the obligation to take action that protects and improves the welfare of society and the organization:

Proposition 1: Social responsibility arises from social power. Proposition 2: Business shall operate as an open system, with open receipt of inputs from society and open disclosure of its operation to the public.

Proposition 3: The social costs and benefits of an activity, product, or service shall be thoroughly calculated and considered in deciding whether to proceed with it.

Proposition 4: Social costs related to each activity, product, or service shall be passed on to the consumer.

Proposition 5: Business institutions, as citizens, have the responsibility to become involved in certain social problems that are outside their normal areas of operation.

Q2. B Ans: It's important to keep up with changes in today's society. To do so, diversity training has become vital. Businesses that train their managers to embrace a diverse workforce can experience many benefits. In basic terms, diversity means a difference or variety. When it comes to the workplace, this term can have a polarizing effect. Some may interpret the word to simply mean the hiring of more racial minorities, but this is far from the truth. A diverse group has a multitude of individuals who vary in age, race, creed, nationality, religion and even sexual orientation. You may be a part of a team that has individuals of the same race, but looking further into their backgrounds can display diverse origins or beliefs. Diversity in the workplace has become an important initiative in many companies. As these groups continue to grow and look outside their local areas for new customers, they must bring in a wider talent pool to understand those new communities. To stay competitive in today's market, a company must work to include people who can reach out to untapped marketplaces and are willing to learn about those populations. Having managers at the forefront, embracing diversity can help improve the morale of everyone on staff. Incorporate a variety of activities into diversity training. Human resources employees or outside vendors can conduct these sessions. Use team-building activities to open the gathering. Give those involved opportunities to interact with those of different backgrounds. Conduct conversations about situations in the workplace that can display a lack of cultural understanding. Q3.A Ans: As the sphere of international business expands beyond traditional Asian, Western and European markets, companies will increasingly come into contact with cultures that are much different than the organization's culture of origin. This can create conflict in business strategy; what seems to be an excellent business decision in one culture can have disastrous effects on business operations in another society. Recognizing the local culture in which you will be operating is an important step when considering implementation

of the process of strategic choice when the decision will affect culturally diverse stakeholders. The local culture will affect the behavior of both consumers and employees from that area. The values and norms of a society will dictate demand for specific goods and services. Management styles should also vary based on the local culture, as employees from a different culture will respond to management that reflects values of authority in that culture. These differences increase the need to establish interactivity among stakeholders when making a strategic choice. Q3.B Ans: Sub optimization is a condition wherein sub objectives are conflicting or not directly aimed at accomplishing the overall organizational objective. Sub optimization is possible within the company whose hierarchy of objectives is depicted in Figure 6.6 if the first sub-objective for the finance and accounting department clashes with the second sub objective for the supervisors. This conflict would occur if supervisors needed new equipment to maintain production and the finance and accounting department couldn't approve the loan without the company's borrowing surpassing 50 percent of company assets. In such a situation, in which established sub objectives are aimed in different directions, a manager would have to choose which sub objective would better contribute to obtaining overall objectives and should therefore take precedence.

Q4.A Ans: The receptive orientation. These are people who expect to get what they need. If they don't get it immediately, they wait for it. They believe that all goods and satisfactions come from outside themselves. This type is most common among peasant populations. It is also found in cultures that have particularly abundant natural resources, so that one need not work hard for one's sustenance (although nature may also suddenly withdraw its bounty!). It is also found at the very bottom of any society: Slaves, serfs, welfare families, migrant workers... all are at the mercy of others. This orientation is associated with symbiotic families, especially where children are "swallowed" by parents, and with the masochistic (passive) form of authoritarianism. It is similar to Freud's oral passive, Adler's leaninggetting, and Horney's compliant personality. In its extreme form, it can be characterized by adjectives such as submissive and wishful. In a more

moderate form, adjectives such as accepting and optimistic are more descriptive. If we are confronted with two or more choices that will not decrease longevity or quality of life for anyone potentially affected by the decision, the choice that offers the greatest increase in these parameters is the proper one. As Ive already indicated, any choice that decreases longevity or quality should be automatically discarded. If all choices result in a decrease, and the decision is unavoidable, then some means must be found to offset the decrease. Although it may be all but impossible to precisely determine the impact of an action, we should use our existing knowledge and understanding, aided by societys enforcement of accurate and full disclosure of information, to compare the impacts of different actions.

Q4. B Ans: Matrix organizational structures include not only general functional units like production, sales, and finance, but also product or geographic units. Company executives frequently oversee the product units directly. The product units, in turn, collaborate with and coordinate the functional units. By adopting the matrix arrangement, companies attempt to reap the benefits of the functional and the product or geographic structures, while bypassing the inefficient and redundant aspects of the product structure. A company with a matrix organizational structure has functional units such as development, production, and sales matched in a matrix by product or geographic location. Company executives and managers must strive to select the organizational structure that best suits their fields of business, that offers the optimal amount of control, specialization, and cooperation, and that facilitates key business activities while also taking into consideration concerns for efficiency and effectiveness.


Ans: A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e., precedence network) relationships between activities. Although now regarded as a common charting technique, Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when they were introduced. This chart is used also in Information Technology to represent data that have been collected. Gantt charts have become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a project work breakdown structure (WBS), so they can be understood by a wide audience all over the world. A common error made by those who equate Gantt chart design with project design is that they attempt to define the project work breakdown structure at the same time that they define schedule activities. This practice makes it very difficult to follow the 100% Rule. Instead the WBS should be fully defined to follow the 100% Rule, and then the project schedule can be designed. Although a Gantt chart is useful and valuable for small projects that fit on a single sheet or screen, they can become quite unwieldy for projects with more than about 30 activities. Larger Gantt charts may not be suitable for most computer displays. A related criticism is that Gantt charts communicate relatively little information per unit area of display. That is, projects are often considerably more complex than can be communicated effectively with a Gantt chart. Gantt charts only represent part of the triple constraints (cost, time and scope) of projects, because they focus primarily on schedule management. Moreover, Gantt charts do not represent the size of a project or the relative size of work elements, therefore the magnitude of a behind-schedule condition is easily miscommunicated. If two projects are the same number of days behind schedule, the larger project has a larger impact on resource utilization, yet the Gantt does not represent this difference.

Q5.B Ans: Span of management is a very important concept of organizing function of management. It refers to the number of subordinates that can be handled effectively by a superior in an organization. It signifies how the relations are planned between superior and subordinates in an organization. Span of management is generally categorized under two heads- Narrow span and Wide span. Narrow Span of management means a single manager or supervisor oversees few subordinates. This gives rise to a tall organizational structure. While, a wide span of management means a single manager or supervisor oversees a large number of subordinates. This gives rise to a flat organizational structure. There is an inverse relation between the span of management and the number of hierarchical levels in an organization, i.e., narrow the span of management, greater the number of levels in an organization. Narrow span of management is more costly compared to wide span of management as there are larger number of superiors/ managers and thus there is greater communication issues too between various management levels. The less geographically scattered the subordinates are, the better it is to have a wide span of management as it would be feasible for managers to be in touch with the subordinates and to explain them how to efficiently perform the tasks. In case of narrow span of management, there are comparatively more growth opportunities for a subordinate as the number of levels are more.

Q6. A Ans: Perhaps the most widely accepted organizational management theory is the process approach. It also serves as a descriptive overview of the various tasks and responsibilities management faces, and it draws on many of the theories contained in the five schools of management as well as the systems approach and contingency approach described above. For example, the process approach derives from Fayol's ideas, particularly his five management functions. And, like the systems approach and the later schools of management thought, the process approach emphasizes the point that management is an ongoing series of interrelated activities rather than a onetime act. The process approach also recognizes other management theories that have gained acceptance in the late 1900s. Of import is the generally accepted management pyramid model, which is comprised of three hierarchies based on experience and education. At the top of the pyramid is top management, or the executive level that handles long-term strategy. At the center is middle management, which translates top management objectives into more specific goals for individual work units. Finally, line managers and supervisors fill the bottom of the pyramid. They handle the day-to-day management of employees and operations. Adherents to the process approach have altered and elaborated on Fayol's original functions, usually in an attempt to incorporate behaviorist philosophies. Management theorists commonly recognize five management functions: planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. The five process management functions are linked together by communication and decision-making activities common to all of them.

Q6. B Ans: A central premise underlying affirmative action is that, absent discrimination, over times an employers workforce, generally, will reflect the gender, racial, and ethnic profile of the labor pools from which the employer recruits and selects. An affirmative action program is a management tool designed to ensure equal employment opportunity, and includes those policies, practices, and procedures that the Laboratory implements to ensure that all qualified applicants and employees are receiving an equal opportunity for recruitment, selection, advancement, training, development, and every other term, condition, and privilege of employment.

Q6.C Ans: In today's world, we are more and more defined, not by who we are, but by what work we do. Work plays a powerful and increasing role in people's lives. As it makes more and more demands on our time and energy, our chosen work or career path impacts every facet of our lives. A strong relationship develops between our work and our mental and physical health. Stress in any of these areas, especially work, will affect all other areas of our lives and this is when career counseling can be helpful. Stress is an interaction between individuals and any source of demand (stressor) within their environment. A stressor is the object or event that the individual perceives to be disruptive. Stress results from the perception that the demands exceed one's capacity to cope. Different people react differently to the same stressors because of their backgrounds, experiences and values. Elevated stress levels in employees are associated with increased turnover, absenteeism; sickness, reduced productivity, and low morale. The latest trend catching up in the corporate HR across the world is 'Employee Counseling at Workplace'. In the world of ever increasing

complexity and the stress in the lives, especially the workplaces of the employees, employee counseling has emerged as the latest HR tool to attract and retain its best employees And also to increase the quality of the workforce. In today's fast-paced corporate world, there is virtually no organization free of stress or stressfree employees. The employees can be stressed, depressed, suffering from too much anxiety arising out of various workplace related issues like managing deadlines, meeting targets, lack of time to fulfill personal and family commitments, or bereaved and disturbed due to some personal problem etc. Organizations have realized the importance of having a stress-free yet motivated and capable workforce. Therefore, many companies have integrated the counseling services in their organizations and making it a part of their culture. Organizations are offering the service of employee counseling to its employees.