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1. Quality The totality of features / characteristics that satisfies the customer stated or implied needs. 2. Quality Assurance All those planned arrangements and systematic actions, aimed to prevent quality problems by developing plans providing confidence that the product / service WILL satisfy the customers requirements. In other words, the managed activities, the processes and procedures necessary, their implementation, assessment and quality improvement to ensure that a process, item, or service that its quality is assured as expected by

the client.
3. Quality Plan A plan to define how specified quality requirements will be achieved, controlled, assured and managed by whom for a particular process or product/service realization

Why QA

In developing products and services, quality assurance is a systematic process of checking to see whether a product or service being developed is meeting specified requirements. Many companies have a separate department devoted to quality assurance. A quality assurance system is said to increase customer confidence and a company's credibility, to improve work processes and efficiency, and to enable a company to better compete with others. Quality assurance was initially introduced in World War II when munitions were inspected and tested for defects after they were made. Today's quality assurance systems emphasize catching defects before they get into the final product. Quality assurance is the beliefs of total integration of various but different elements of a business to achieve the required result. It requires the control of the applicable elements within a particular area of operation so that no element is deferential to the other. These elements cover such aspects as administration, finance, sales, marketing, design, procurement, manufacture, installation and outsourcing (sub-contracting). It is important, in the first place, to understand: what quality assurance is not It is not quality control or inspection. It is not super-checking activity. It is not responsible for engineering evaluations. It is not a massive paper generator. It is not a costly process. It is not a solution for all nonconformities. what is quality assurance It is cost-effective. It is an aid to productivity. It is means of getting it right first time every time. It is excellent management logic, It is the responsibility of everyone.

The ultimate purpose of any quality system is to ensure complete satisfaction by the customer with the goods or services provided by an organization. Sometimes -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------nonconforming products are not discovered until product realization is at an advanced stage, often leading to costly repair work and sometimes involving scrapping, with the inevitable schedule days. In todays highly demanding environment of quality, together with the concern by customers and the costs restraints within a company and its shareholders, the emphasis must now be proactive rather than reactive. The question Have we got it right? (quality control/inspection) must give way to Are we doing it right?(Quality Assurance). The QA planned arrangement/activities to provide objective evidence that a product or service will meet customer requirements are better known as either procedures and/or work instruction. Most companies employ QA department personnel to carry out; 1. Verifying, by audit, that the quality system requirements are being followed throughout the organization and that effective procedures and job instructions are being implemented by all departments or disciplines. 2. Verifying that those responsible for controlling and checking an activity have done so in a systematic manner and that there is objective evidence available to confirm such; 3. Ensuring that all procedural non-conformances are resolved. 4. Ensuring that fundamental working methods are established and that fully approved procedures are developed to cover them and that all departments and personnel are aware of, and have access to, current versions of these procedures. 5. Verifying that all procedures are regularly reviewed and updated as necessary. 6. Determining and reporting the principal causes of quality losses and nonconformances; 7. Determining, with senior management, where improvements are required and, where necessary, recommending the corrective action.

Bringing QA confidence QA confidence is brought by testing product or service against its prescribed standards until capability is established to meet them. However this process must be verified, like having final inspection before delivery to provide independent assessment that the QA activities are followed for QA consistency, and have enough confident to deliver product or service according to requirements and remove the final inspections, which are non-value added and increase costs. Further audits will also keep QA process on foot for continuity.

Benefits of QA By having a QA structure installed, the organization will benefit by; -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Gaining knowledge of what is to be supplied to client (customer literature, catalogues) Gaining knowledge of how the service or product must be delivered (contract review, product specifications & other agreements) Client may decide to make offer to an organization upon information that same organization has a QA unit